Science.gov

Sample records for external individual occupational

  1. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  2. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  3. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  4. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  5. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  6. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  7. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine. PMID:27012882

  8. OFFICE OCCUPATIONS, INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION MATERIALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    THE 79 ITEMS LISTED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY WERE SELECTED FOR THE BENEFIT OF TEACHER-COORDINATORS OF OFFICE OCCUPATIONS PROGRAMS. EXAMPLES OF MATERIAL INCLUDED ARE A COMBINATION TEXTBOOK-WORKBOOK WHICH PROVIDES TRAINING IN ALPHABETIC INDEXING, A COMBINATION TEXTBOOK-WORKBOOK WHICH CONTAINS PENMANSHIP DRILLS AND DIAGNOSTIC DRILLS, A PAPERBOUND BOOK…

  9. The Dynamics and Consequences of Occupational Deprivation on Displaced Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharma, Maher M.

    2010-01-01

    Following wars and natural disasters, individuals and their families face displacement from their native land and relocate to a new location where they become refugees. As occupational beings, people find meaning in their environment and build their identity through engaging in meaningful occupations. The environment plays a role in shaping the…

  10. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  11. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends <0.01). Injuries taking place out of the usual occupational setting (aOR=2.85, 95%CI 2.27-3.59), or carrying out atypical tasks (aOR=2.08; 95%CI 1.27-3.39) showed increased risks of a fatal result too, as occupational accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries. PMID:21094305

  12. Evaluation of Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    A study was conducted to determine whether or not the Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training (PIVOT) materials developed by the School District of Philadelphia were capable of developing entry-level competency in secondary school students in a variety of educational settings (comprehensive high schools, an occupational…

  13. Individualism-Collectivism: Links to Occupational Plans and Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of…

  14. External occupational exposures in some NORM industries located at the South-West of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    Detailed mappings of the external exposures which can be received by the workers in two NORM industrial factories located at the South-West of Spain have been performed: one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments. In most places of the analyzed factories, the external exposures are moderated, although in some specific points, and associated to the presence of scales, their values are clearly higher. Nevertheless, under normal running conditions, the contribution of the external exposures to the effective doses received by the workers is lower than 1 mSv/y because the worker occupancy factors values are very low in the places with the highest external exposures.

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  19. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, “Records Management,” the National Archives and Records... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to...

  20. Brief Report: A Growth Mixture Model of Occupational Aspirations of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N =…

  1. Collectivism, Individualism, and Cohesion in a Team-based Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Ethnographic interviews with 3 teams of 26 computer programmers revealed how levels of collectivism or individualism differed as groups solved problems. Cultural cohesion was identified as a separate construct from collectivism. (Contains 53 references.) (SK)

  2. [Individual autonomy and the principles of occupational health care].

    PubMed

    Makowska-Matuszkiewicz, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of work-related diseases on the health condition of the population at large has increased the interest in etiology and epidemiology of these diseases and intensified activities aimed at providing effective treatment of occupational diseases, but first of all at preventing their occurrence. That is why workers are now recognised as the largest population group subjected to active counselling. In order to meet the recommendations of the International Labour Organization, Polish labour law has been modified so that every worker is guaranteed an opportunity to benefit from medical prevention within the range required by his/her working conditions. This concern for workers' health contributed to the fact that health has now become a supreme value to which all other values and human needs are submitted. The author discusses the issues of compulsory prophylactic examinations and protection against employment at a workplace that is inadmissible because of health reasons, in the perspective of the human right to keep his/her own ailments in secret and the right to freedom of choice concerning his/her own health and living and conditions.

  3. A Brazilian government external individual monitoring service: experience since 1972.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudia L P; Martins, Marcelo M; Ramos, Elisabete Vargas; Souza-Santos, Denison

    2011-03-01

    Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, a Brazilian government research institute, provides individual monitoring services since 1972. Its dosemeters are: film-based thorax for whole body photons, thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) albedo for whole body neutrons and TLD ring for extremity photons. About 6000 radiation workers are currently being monitored with film dosemeters in 256 different facilities in Brazil, most of them working in health-related activities. Around 400 Brazilian radiation workers are monitored with TLD albedo neutron monitor and about 500 workers use TLD rings. This paper describes the monitoring systems used, presents the results obtained in internal quality programs and in intercomparison exercises and analyses the measured dose values from 1985 to 2009. PMID:21148166

  4. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Klußmann, André; Gebhardt, Hansjuergen; Liebers, Falk; von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Dávid, Andreas; Bouillon, Bertil; Rieger, Monika A

    2008-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports), which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA). The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the correlation of occupational

  5. Force Generation and Dynamics of Individual Cilia under External Loading

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David B.; Swaminathan, Vinay; Estes, Ashley; Cribb, Jeremy; O'Brien, E. Timothy; Davis, C. William; Superfine, R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Motile cilia are unique multimotor systems that display coordination and periodicity while imparting forces to biological fluids. They play important roles in normal physiology, and ciliopathies are implicated in a growing number of human diseases. In this work we measure the response of individual human airway cilia to calibrated forces transmitted via spot-labeled magnetic microbeads. Cilia respond to applied forces by 1), a reduction in beat amplitude (up to an 85% reduction by 160–170 pN of force); 2), a decreased tip velocity proportionate to applied force; and 3), no significant change in beat frequency. Tip velocity reduction occurred in each beat direction, independently of the direction of applied force, indicating that the cilium is “driven” in both directions at all times. By applying a quasistatic force model, we deduce that axoneme stiffness is dominated by the rigidity of the microtubules, and that cilia can exert 62 ± 18 pN of force at the tip via the generation of 5.6 ± 1.6 pN/dynein head. PMID:20085719

  6. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals.

  7. Multiple risk factors in the development of externalizing behavior problems: Group and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    DEATER–DECKARD, KIRBY; DODGE, KENNETH A.; BATES, JOHN E.; PETTIT, GREGORY S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether individual risk factors as well as the number of risk factors (cumulative risk) predicted children’s externalizing behaviors over middle childhood. A sample of 466 European American and 100 African American boys and girls from a broad range of socioeconomic levels was followed from age 5 to 10 years. Twenty risk variables from four domains (child, sociocultural, parenting, and peer-related) were measured using in-home interviews at the beginning of the study, and annual assessments of externalizing behaviors were conducted. Consistent with past research, individual differences in externalizing behavior problems were stable over time and were related to individual risk factors as well as the number of risk factors present. Particular risks accounted for 36% to 45% of the variance, and the number of risks present (cumulative risk status) accounted for 19% to 32% of the variance, in externalizing outcomes. Cumulative risk was related to subsequent externalizing even after initial levels of externalizing had been statistically controlled. All four domains of risk variables made significant unique contributions to this statistical prediction, and there were multiple clusters of risks that led to similar outcomes. There was also evidence that this prediction was moderated by ethnic group status, most of the prediction of externalizing being found for European American children. However, this moderation effect varied depending on the predictor and outcome variables included in the model. PMID:9741678

  8. Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed 136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02-.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model.

  9. Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  10. [Individual in-patient and out-patient prevention in occupational skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Skudlik, C; Weisshaar, E

    2015-03-01

    Concerning all occupation-related diseases, one-third of those reported in Germany are skin diseases. Among them, contact dermatitis is the most frequent skin disease. It usually presents as hand eczema leading to a loss of function and ability to work as well as reduced quality of life. Due to the high demand a number of prevention programmes were introduced. They comprise measures of secondary (out-patient) and tertiary (in-patient) prevention. Out-patient prevention measures include dermatologist's report and occupation-tailored teaching and prevention programmes. If the occupational skin disease is severe, therapy is not successful or the diagnosis is not clear measures of tertiary prevention can be offered as an in-patient treatment and prevention programme. All this aims to prevent the job loss of the patient. Preventive measures in occupational dermatology have proven to be very effective in recent years, especially measures of individual in-patient and out-patient prevention as components of a complex hierarchical prevention concept. This integrated concept of an in-patient/out-patient disease management reveals remarkable pertinent effectivity for patients with severe occupational dermatoses in risk professions.

  11. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Hederstierna, Christina; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women). Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women) and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women). This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL). The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.

  12. Influence of occupational therapy on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Falk-Kessler, Janet; Kalina, J Tamar; Miller, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pilot study examined the impact of multidisciplinary care, with a particular focus on occupational therapy (OT), on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Individuals with a diagnosis of MS who were receiving multidisciplinary care including outpatient OT at an MS center were invited to participate. A total of 36 individuals agreed to enroll and were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and the Resilience Scale (RS). After an 8-week period of multidisciplinary treatment, the 35 individuals who completed treatment were again asked to complete the RS. As a group they demonstrated statistically significant improvement in resilience. A cohort of participants unexpectedly did not follow through with OT but did follow through with their other referrals. These individuals completed the RS before and after the 8-week time period and became an ad hoc control group. The group receiving OT showed significant improvement in resilience, while the control group did not. This study shows that a multidisciplinary approach to care, especially when it includes OT, is effective in treating individuals with MS. Occupational therapy focuses on treating symptoms that specifically limit daily functioning and participation, and may be uniquely positioned to affect resilience. Because resilience plays an important role in functional recovery and maintenance, this study suggests that OT may be a critical component of MS care in developing characteristics that enhance resilience.

  13. Influence of occupational therapy on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Falk-Kessler, Janet; Kalina, J Tamar; Miller, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pilot study examined the impact of multidisciplinary care, with a particular focus on occupational therapy (OT), on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Individuals with a diagnosis of MS who were receiving multidisciplinary care including outpatient OT at an MS center were invited to participate. A total of 36 individuals agreed to enroll and were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and the Resilience Scale (RS). After an 8-week period of multidisciplinary treatment, the 35 individuals who completed treatment were again asked to complete the RS. As a group they demonstrated statistically significant improvement in resilience. A cohort of participants unexpectedly did not follow through with OT but did follow through with their other referrals. These individuals completed the RS before and after the 8-week time period and became an ad hoc control group. The group receiving OT showed significant improvement in resilience, while the control group did not. This study shows that a multidisciplinary approach to care, especially when it includes OT, is effective in treating individuals with MS. Occupational therapy focuses on treating symptoms that specifically limit daily functioning and participation, and may be uniquely positioned to affect resilience. Because resilience plays an important role in functional recovery and maintenance, this study suggests that OT may be a critical component of MS care in developing characteristics that enhance resilience. PMID:24453747

  14. [Obligation to report occupational diseases. Importance of external post-mortem examinations before cremation].

    PubMed

    Verhoff, M A; Risse, M; Alles, J-U; Müller, K-M; Stachetzki, U

    2004-05-01

    The practical use of the legally required documentation of occupational diseases is demonstrated by a case of asbestos-related pleural mesothelioma. During the mandatory inquest before cremation, information of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been relayed to the widow of the patient, and an investigation for a possible occupational disease was performed. Reconstruction of the case showed that in the course of 3 months at least 13 physicians had been involved in in-hospital as well as ambulatory therapeutic measures. Until death, none of them informed the trade association about a suspected occupational disease in accordance with BK 4105 of the codex of occupational diseases, although the diagnosis of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been histologically confirmed already 10 weeks prior to the death of the patient. This case demonstrates obvious and evident deficiencies in applying the Code of Social Law VII, which requires physicians to report occupational diseases. In addition, it shows the importance of the post-mortem examination as a control function before cremation.

  15. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  16. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit.

  17. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit. PMID:12090618

  18. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  1. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  2. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  3. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure.

  4. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure. PMID:26426910

  5. Application of Premack's generalization of reinforcement to modify occupational behavior in two severely retarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Bateman, S

    1975-03-01

    Premack's generalization that a more probable response will reinforce a less probable one was applied to modify occupational behavior of two severly retarded individuals. When opportunity to work on a more preferred activity was made contingent upon spending some time on a less preferred activity, an increase in the amount of time spent on less preferred work occurred. As the reinforcement schedule was gradually reduced in terms of time allowed on more preferred work, time spent on the less preferred activity tended to increase. Behavior did not return to baseline levels on extinction, however. Possible reasons for these findings are outlined, together with the practical advantages of utilizing Premack's generalization as a reinforcement technique for motivating retarded individuals in rehabilitation settings.

  6. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  7. Improving the Success Rate of Delivering Annual Occupational Dosimetry Reports to Persons Issued Temporary External Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2014-09-09

    Workers who are not routinely monitored for occupational radiation exposure at LANL may be issued temporary dosimeters in the field. Per 10CFR835 and DOE O 231.1A, the Laboratory's radiation protection program is responsible for reporting these results to the worker at the end of the year. To do so, the identity of the worker and their mailing address must be recorded by the delegated person at the time the dosimeter is issued. Historically, this data has not been consistently captured. A new online application was developed to record the issue of temporary dosimeters. The process flow of the application was structured such that: 1) the worker must be uniquely identified in the Lab's HR database, and 2) the mailing address of record is verified live time via a commercial web service, for the transaction to be completed. A COPQ savings (Type B1) of $96K/year is demonstrated for the new application.

  8. An update of preliminary perspectives gained from Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) submittal reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.M.; Chen, J.T.; Chokshi, N.; Nowlen, S.P.; Bohn, M.P.; Sewell, R.; Kazarians, M.; Lambright, J.

    1998-03-01

    As a result of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, virtually every operating commercial nuclear power reactor in the US has performed an assessment of severe accident risk due to external events. To date, the USNRC staff has received 63 IPEEE submittals and will receive an additional 11 by mid 1998. Currently, 49 IPEEE submittals are under various stages ore view. This paper is based on the information available for those 41 plants for which at least preliminary Technical Evaluation Reports have been prepared by the review teams. The goal of the review is to ascertain whether the licensee`s IPEEE process is capable of identifying external events-induced severe accident vulnerabilities and cost-effective safety improvements to either eliminate or reduce the impact of these vulnerabilities. The review does not, however, attempt to validate or verify the results of the licensee`s IPEEE. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an update on the preliminary perspectives and insights gained from the IPEEE process.

  9. Individualized Internal and External Training Load Relationships in Elite Wheelchair Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Mason, Barry; Rhodes, James; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    between sRPE and all measures of high intensity activity. A large variation of individual correlation co-efficient was observed between sRPE and all external TL measures. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that sRPE and HR-based internal TL measures provide a valid tool for quantifying volume of external TL during WR training but may underestimate HIA. It is recommended that both internal and external TL measures are employed for the monitoring of overall TL during court-based training in elite WR athletes. PMID:26733881

  10. Implantation of an individually computer-designed and manufactured external support for the Marfan aortic root.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John; Petrou, Mario; Rega, Filip; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Golesworthy, Tal; Treasure, Tom

    2013-01-01

    For the operation of 'personalized external aortic support' (PEARS), the dimensions of the individual patient's aorta are taken from the preoperative MRI or CT digital images. They are used in computer-aided design to make a three-dimensional computer image of the individual patient's aorta. A physical model of the patient's aorta is made of thermoplastic, using a standard engineering process of rapid prototyping. On this physical model is manufactured an external support made of a medical grade polymer fabric mesh with 0.7 mm pore size. This fabric is placed around the ascending aorta from the aortoventricular junction to beyond the brachiocephalic artery. Follow-up is complete for the first 34 patients (June 2004 to November 2012) to a total of 127 patient-years. Since we submitted this paper, we have had an early death (the 34th patient) as a result of intraoperative injury to the left main coronary artery. The remaining 33 patients are alive and well from 3 to 103 months free from aortic, aortic valve or device-related events. PMID:24413003

  11. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Harms, N Jane; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bortolotti, Gary; Bêty, Joël; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions) on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring) body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects. PMID:24391720

  12. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  13. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  14. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  15. Occupational conditions of ward staff and quality of residential care for individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Duker, P C; Seys, D; van Leeuwe, J; Prins, L W

    1991-01-01

    Effects of occupational conditions of ward staff on the quality of residential care for individuals with mental retardation was assessed. Three questions were asked: (a) Does type of contract under which staff members are employed differentially affect their distribution of activities? (b) Does length of duty have an effect on their distribution of activities? (c) Does the number of staff members present on the living group influence quality of care? Over a 40-week period, data were collected on 30 ward staff members who were responsible for 39 residents with severe and profound mental retardation. Results show that staff differentially distributed their activities, especially with respect to organizational activities and the amount of custodial care, depending on the type of contract they were employed under and the number of consecutive days they worked. Number of staff present on the living group appeared to be a major factor in terms of distribution of activities. Implications for staff managers and administrators of residential facilities were discussed. PMID:2003908

  16. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size Neq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R0, λ or Neq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 μGy h(-1) in

  17. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size Neq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R0, λ or Neq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 μGy h(-1) in

  18. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  19. UV-induced occupational skin cancer: possibilities of secondary individual prevention in the "Dermatologist's Procedure".

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Blome, Otto; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig

    2013-07-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a "quasi occupational disease" according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII typically develops on chronically UV-damaged skin from actinic keratoses. After the Medical Scientific Committee of the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has confirmed the legal criteria for acknowledging UV-induced SCC as an occupational disease, it is expected that the condition will be added to the official list of occupational diseases issued by the Federal Government in the near future. The Social Accident Insurance is required by law (§3 Occupational Disease Regulation) to prevent these tumors by "all appropriate means". There are excellent therapeutic and preventive measures for the management of actinic keratoses to avoid the development of SCC. The "Dermatologist's Procedure" according to §§ 41-43 of the agreement between the Social Accident Insurance and the Federal Medical Association was established in Germany in 1972 to take preventive measures in insured persons with skin lesions possibly developing into an occupational disease, or worsening it, or leading to a recurrence of it This procedure proved to be very successful in the prevention of severe and/or recurring skin diseases forcing a worker to leave his job. On the basis of this agreement, the Social Accident Insurance has the instruments to independently provide preventive measures for the new occupational skin disease SCC induced by natural UV light according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII.

  20. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  1. ACCOMMODATING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES DURING EXTERNALLY PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 3--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERALD C., JR.

    THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATE APPROACHES TOWARD INDIVIDUALIZATION OF FIXED-PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WAS ASSESSED. THIS REPRESENTED THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 199, ED 003 200, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS…

  2. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  3. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  4. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  5. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  6. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.

  7. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  8. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  9. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions.

  10. International Environmental and Occupational Health: From Individual Scientists to Networked Science Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. PMID:23109132

  11. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. PMID:23109132

  12. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities.

    PubMed

    Reina, L C; Silva, A X; Suita, J C; Souza, M I S; Facure, A; Silva, J C P; Furlanetto, J A D; Rebello, W

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003, radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnostic purposes have been produced at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, in Brazil, using two cyclotron accelerators - CV-28 and RDS111. As a result of the ever increasing production, a diagnostic assessment to reduce neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals during irradiation processes has been developed. The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators.

  13. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. PMID:27331344

  14. The Relationship between Individual Personality Traits (Internality-Externality) and Psychological Distress in Employees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E) scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6) scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees.

  15. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  16. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual monitoring. 835.402 Section 835.402 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external...

  17. Individual Contributory Factors in Teacher Stress: The Role of Achievement Striving and Occupational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to…

  18. [Programs for better health of individuals exposed to increased occupational risk].

    PubMed

    Poteriaeva, E L; Nesina, I A; Liutkevich, A A; Tepliakov, G V; Egorova, L S

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with problems of optimizing sanatorium-and-spa programs to better health in workers exposed to vibration, through using panto-magnesium pearl baths. Examinations covered 49 individuals exposed to local vibration at work, who underwent health programs including magnetotherapy, manual massage and exercise therapy. The authors conclude that maximal effect of improved life quality was seen after panto-magnesium gas baths course auxiliary to the programs. PMID:20873252

  19. Sputum Inflammatory Profile Before and After Specific Inhalation Challenge in Individuals with Suspected Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Cruz, María-Jesús; Gómez-Ollés, Susana; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to establish the sputum inflammatory profile and changes in levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and a panel of Th1/Th2 cytokines in subjects with suspected occupational asthma (OA) following specific inhalation challenge (SIC) to high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. Material and Methods Fifty-one consecutive subjects undergoing SIC for suspected OA were enrolled. Sputum induction was performed the day before and 24 h after exposure to the offending agent. Total and differential cell counts were assessed. LTB4 and a 10 Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured in sputum supernatant. Results Thirty-four patients tested positive to SIC and were diagnosed with OA (in 10 due to HMW agents and in 24 to LMW agents). SIC was negative in 17 subjects. As compared to baseline an increase was found in the percentage of sputum eosinophils and neutrophils, and in IL-10 concentration after SIC (p = 0.0078, p = 0.0195, and p = 0.046, respectively), and a decrease was seen in LTB4 level (p = 0.0078) in patients with OA due to HMW agents. An increase in the percentage of sputum neutrophils after SIC (p = 0.0040) was observed in subjects without OA exposed to LMW agents. IL-8 levels after SIC were higher in patients without OA compared with patients with OA (p = 0.0146). Conclusion When conducting airway inflammation studies in OA, patients should be divided according to the causal agent (HMW or LMW). In OA patients exposed to HMW agents, an increase in the number of neutrophils can be found in parallel to the increase of eosinophils, although this does not contradict an IgE-mediated mechanism. Exposure to LMW agents can result in increased neutrophilic inflammation in patients with airway diseases unrelated to OA. There is variability in the responses observed in patients with OA exposed to LMW agents. PMID:24236015

  20. Dioxins in adipose tissue of non-occupationally exposed persons in France: correlation with individual food exposure.

    PubMed

    Arfi, C; Seta, N; Fraisse, D; Revel, A; Escande, J P; Momas, I

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated individual adipose tissue (subcutaneous lipomas) dioxin contamination in non-occupationally exposed persons living in France (adult patients undergoing a surgical ablation of benign lipomas), in relation to the corresponding individually evaluated mean daily dietary dioxin intake (DDDI). The diet survey (questionnaire) included information on consumption of meat, fish, milk and dairy products, from which the individual DDDI was calculated. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. DDDI ranged between 1.06 and 3.31 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight, bw (mean value: 2.05+/-0.72). Adipose tissue polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels ranged between 18.5 and 76.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipids (mean value: 35.6+/-14.8). No relation was found between the DDDI and adipose tissue PCDD/PCDF concentrations. The mean DDDI in France does not fundamentally differ from those found in other industrialised countries, is within the range of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day recently suggested by WHO-ECEH/ICPS for the tolerable daily intake of dioxins. Adipose tissue PCDD/PCDFs levels are similar to levels in other European countries and USA without relation to sex or age, and can be considered representative European background concentrations. Globalisation of alimentary production leads to a similar food exposure in Western European countries, in spite of dioxins accidental selective contaminations that are epiphenomenon and thus do not have any impact in human dioxin background levels. PMID:11513111

  1. Dioxins in adipose tissue of non-occupationally exposed persons in France: correlation with individual food exposure.

    PubMed

    Arfi, C; Seta, N; Fraisse, D; Revel, A; Escande, J P; Momas, I

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated individual adipose tissue (subcutaneous lipomas) dioxin contamination in non-occupationally exposed persons living in France (adult patients undergoing a surgical ablation of benign lipomas), in relation to the corresponding individually evaluated mean daily dietary dioxin intake (DDDI). The diet survey (questionnaire) included information on consumption of meat, fish, milk and dairy products, from which the individual DDDI was calculated. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. DDDI ranged between 1.06 and 3.31 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight, bw (mean value: 2.05+/-0.72). Adipose tissue polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels ranged between 18.5 and 76.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipids (mean value: 35.6+/-14.8). No relation was found between the DDDI and adipose tissue PCDD/PCDF concentrations. The mean DDDI in France does not fundamentally differ from those found in other industrialised countries, is within the range of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day recently suggested by WHO-ECEH/ICPS for the tolerable daily intake of dioxins. Adipose tissue PCDD/PCDFs levels are similar to levels in other European countries and USA without relation to sex or age, and can be considered representative European background concentrations. Globalisation of alimentary production leads to a similar food exposure in Western European countries, in spite of dioxins accidental selective contaminations that are epiphenomenon and thus do not have any impact in human dioxin background levels.

  2. Dynamics of Individual cilia to external loading- A simple one dimensional picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Vinay; Hill, David; Superfine, R.

    2008-10-01

    From being called the cellular janitors to swinging debauchers, cilia have captured the fascinations of researchers for over 200 years. In cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where the cilia loses it's function, the protective mucus layer in the lung thickens and mucociliary clearance breaks down, leading to inflammation along the airways and an increased rate of infection. The mechanistic understanding of mucus clearance depends on a quantitative assessment of the axoneme dynamics and the maximum force the cilia are capable of generating and imparting to the mucus layer. Similar to the situation in molecular motors, detailed quantitative measurements of dynamics under applied load conditions are expected to be essential in developing predictive models. Based on our measurements of the dynamics of individual ciliary motion in the human bronchial epithelial cell under the application of an applied load, we present a simple one dimensional model for the axoneme dynamics and quantify the axoneme stiffness, the internal force generated by the axoneme, the stall force and show how the dynamics sheds insight on the time dependence of the internal force generation. The internal force generated by the axoneme is related to the ability of cilia to propel fluids and to their potential role in force sensing.

  3. A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

  4. Patch occupancy, number of individuals and population density of the Marbled White in a changing agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Metapopulation theory predicts the occurrence of animals in habitat patches. In this paper, we tested predictions based on this theory, including effects of spatial autocorrelation, to describe factors affecting the presence, local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea in habitat patches spread across the agricultural landscape of southern Poland. This agricultural landscape has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the country's political transformation and is currently characterized by a large proportion of fallow (abandoned) land. We compared 48 occupied habitat patches with 60 unoccupied ones. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in the number and density of individuals in habitat patches. The probability of patch occupancy was higher for patches that were larger, had a higher proportion of edges, were located closer to the nearest neighbouring local population and to the nearest piece of fallow, contained a smaller area of cut grass, and also had more nectar resources. The number of Marbled Whites in habitat patches was positively related to the patch area, the distance to the nearest fallow and the abundance of nectar resources, but was negatively related to the density of shrubs. The density of individuals was positively related to abundance of flowers, proportion of edge in a patch and distance to the nearest fallow, but it was negatively related to patch area, vegetation height and grass cover. These results indicate that recent land-use changes in agricultural landscapes have had both positive and negative effects on the presence and local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White. These changes affect the metapopulation of the species through changes in habitat quality and landscape connectivity in the area surrounding habitat patches.

  5. Individual-level and plant-level predictors of acute, traumatic occupational injuries in a manufacturing cohort

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Kerry; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Workplace and contextual factors that may affect risk for worker injury are not well described. This study used results from an employee job satisfaction survey to construct aggregate indicators of the work environment and estimate the relative contribution of those factors to injury rates in a manufacturing cohort. Methods Principal components analysis was used to construct four plant-level factors from responses to a 32 question survey of the entire workforce, administered in 2006. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between injury rate, individual-level and plant-level risk factors, unionisation and plant type. Results Plant-level ‘work stress’ (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90) was significant in the multilevel model, indicating the rate of injury for an average individual in that plant was halved (conditional on plant) when job stress decreased by a tertile. ‘Overall satisfaction’, ‘work environment’ and ‘perception of supervisor’ showed the same trend but were not significant. Unionisation was protective (IRR=0.40, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.95) as was any plant type compared with smelter. Conclusions We demonstrated utility of data from a human resources survey to construct indicators of the work environment. Our research suggests that aspects of the work environment, particularly work stress and unionisation, may have a significant effect on risk for occupational injury, emphasising the need for further multilevel studies. Our work would suggest monitoring of employee perceptions of job stress and the possible inclusion of stress management as a component of risk reduction programmes. PMID:24727737

  6. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  7. [Occupational choice and biography - biographical diagnostics as an approach to accessing the individual's perceptual horizons and resources in the context of vocational rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Dern, W; Hanses, A

    2001-10-01

    This contribution is focused on the core tenet that the process of choice of occupation must encompass in its everyday routines the disabled person's biography, his or her life experiences, biographical self-appraisals as well as action orientations. Unless this is achieved, its professional strategies and interventions will remain prone to missing, or even counteracting, the biographical resources as well as thinking and perceptions of its clients. Biographical Diagnostics is presented here as a method seeking to access the individual in the process of choice of occupation in an understanding manner. It constitutes a new concept in terms of a biography-based, hermeneutic case approach conceived for implementation in the everyday routines of vocational rehabilitation. Two case examples serve to explicate the method of Biographical Diagnostics and set out the relevancy of a biographical orientation in the process of occupational choice. PMID:11579376

  8. [Occupational choice and biography - biographical diagnostics as an approach to accessing the individual's perceptual horizons and resources in the context of vocational rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Dern, W; Hanses, A

    2001-10-01

    This contribution is focused on the core tenet that the process of choice of occupation must encompass in its everyday routines the disabled person's biography, his or her life experiences, biographical self-appraisals as well as action orientations. Unless this is achieved, its professional strategies and interventions will remain prone to missing, or even counteracting, the biographical resources as well as thinking and perceptions of its clients. Biographical Diagnostics is presented here as a method seeking to access the individual in the process of choice of occupation in an understanding manner. It constitutes a new concept in terms of a biography-based, hermeneutic case approach conceived for implementation in the everyday routines of vocational rehabilitation. Two case examples serve to explicate the method of Biographical Diagnostics and set out the relevancy of a biographical orientation in the process of occupational choice.

  9. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    PubMed

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. PMID:26613195

  10. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    PubMed

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  11. Career Guidance Techniques for Classroom Teachers. Occupational Information. Individualized Learning Systems for: Career/Vocational Education Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Career guidance techniques in this package focus on the competency area of occupational information. The package is one of eight, each covering one of the following career guidance competencies that were identified and validated as needed by teachers to assist in the career development of their students: Valuing, decisionmaking, lifestyle,…

  12. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  13. A longitudinal application of three health behaviour models in the context of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2011-09-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is common, associated with poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the individual and society. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the prototype-willingness model (PWM) and the health action process approach (HAPA) to the prediction and explanation of occupationally relevant skin protection behaviour in individuals with OSD. We used a longitudinal design. In this study, 150 individuals participating in a 3-week inpatient tertiary prevention programme completed measures assessing the constructs of the TPB, PWM and HAPA at admission (T 0), discharge (T 1) and once the individual had returned to work and worked for 4 consecutive weeks (T 2) (n = 117). Intention was measured at T 0 and skin protection behaviour at T 2. Path analysis was used to assess the longitudinal associations of the models' constructs with intention and skin protection behaviour. TPB as well as PWM variables accounted for 30% of variance in behaviour, HAPA variables for 33%. While not all predictions were confirmed by the data, all three models are able to inform us about the formation of skin protection intention and behaviour in individuals with OSD. The findings are discussed in light of future interventions and research. PMID:21678190

  14. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  15. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL PACING ON LEARNING FROM PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 2--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERARD C., JR.

    THE EFFECTS OF VARIATIONS IN EXTERNALLY DIRECTED TEMPO (OPPOSITE OF SELF-PACING) ON PROGRAMED LEARNING PERFORMANCE WERE INVESTIGATED. THIS REPRESENTED THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 199, ED 003 201, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON…

  17. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  18. Occupancies of individual orbits, and the nuclear matrix element of the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2009-10-15

    We discuss the variation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge when the wave functions are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies of the two nuclei involved in the transition. In the interacting shell model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%. This diminishes the discrepancies between both approaches. In addition, we discuss the effect of the short-range correlations on the NME in light of the recently proposed parametrizations based on a consistent renormalization of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} transition operator.

  19. Vocational Knowledge in Rural Children: A Study of Individual Differences and Predictors of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Wilson, Sarah; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have identified individual differences in vocational knowledge or its association with career aspirations or expectations of children. We investigated whether individual differences in grade, gender, academic achievement, and SES predict levels of vocational knowledge, and further examined the relationship between vocational knowledge…

  20. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  1. Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland: the relationship between tick infection rates and the serological response of individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites.

    PubMed

    Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    To explore the potential role of Ixodes ricinus as the presumed vector of Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland, ticks collected in various geographic locations were examined for the presence of B. henselae, and the results were matched against the prevalence of anti-B. henselae antibodies in individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites. The presence of Bartonella DNA was investigated by PCR in a total of 1,603 unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks. The presence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae was investigated in serum samples from 332 people occupationally exposed to tick bites (94 farmers and 238 forestry workers). The total prevalence of B. henselae in ticks was 1.7%; the infection rates in males (3.1%) and females (2.7%) were nearly ten times greater than in nymphs (0.3%). The prevalence of seropositive results in the risk group (30.4%), farmers (27.7%) and forestry workers (31.5%), was significantly greater compared to the control group (8.9%). The results showed a weak positive correlation between the degree of infection of ticks and humans living in the same geographic region. The lack of a direct relationship indicates that exposure to tick bites is only one of the factors contributing to the significant preponderance of a seropositive response to B. henselae in the forestry workers and farmers over the control group. Other factors must be considered, such as contact with cats, which are popular domestic animals in Polish villages, and exposure to cat fleas.

  2. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1–6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability. PMID:26696952

  3. The Heath Occupational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  4. Real-time measurement of individual occupational radon exposures in tombs of the Valley of the Kings, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E; Salama, E; Rühm, W

    2011-03-01

    The active radon exposure meter developed recently at the German Research Center for Environmental Health (Helmholtz Zentrum München) was used to measure radon concentrations in 12 tombs located in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. Radon concentrations in air between 50 ± 7 and 12 100 ± 600 Bq m(-3) were obtained. The device was also used to measure individual radon exposures of those persons working as safeguards inside the tombs. For a measurement time of 2-3 d, typical individual radon exposures ranged from 1800 ± 400 to 240 000 ± 13 000 Bq h m(-3), depending on the duration of measurement and radon concentration in the different tombs. Based on current ICRP dose conversion conventions for workers and on equilibrium factors published in the literature for these tombs, individual effective dose rates that range from 1.5 ± 0.3 to 860 ± 50 µSv d(-1) were estimated. If it is assumed that the climatic conditions present at the measurement campaign persist for about half a year, in this area, then effective doses up to ∼ 66 mSv could be estimated for half a year, for some of the safeguards of tombs where F-values were known. To reduce the exposure of the safeguards, some recommendations are proposed. PMID:21183552

  5. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  6. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  7. Cadmium exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and case-control studies among individuals without occupational exposure history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Sekikawa, Akira; He, Ka

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed-effect model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.58-2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.04-3.05) but not in women (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.63-1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference.

  8. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  9. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  10. External Validation of Prediction Models for Pneumonia in Primary Care Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schierenberg, Alwin; Minnaard, Margaretha C.; Hopstaken, Rogier M.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Broekhuizen, Berna D. L.; de Wit, Niek J.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van Vugt, Saskia F.; Graffelman, Aleida W.; Melbye, Hasse; Rainer, Timothy H.; Steurer, Johann; Holm, Anette; Gonzales, Ralph; Dinant, Geert-Jan; de Groot, Joris A. H.; Verheij, Theo J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia remains difficult to diagnose in primary care. Prediction models based on signs and symptoms (S&S) serve to minimize the diagnostic uncertainty. External validation of these models is essential before implementation into routine practice. In this study all published S&S models for prediction of pneumonia in primary care were externally validated in the individual patient data (IPD) of previously performed diagnostic studies. Methods and Findings S&S models for diagnosing pneumonia in adults presenting to primary care with lower respiratory tract infection and IPD for validation were identified through a systematical search. Six prediction models and IPD of eight diagnostic studies (N total = 5308, prevalence pneumonia 12%) were included. Models were assessed on discrimination and calibration. Discrimination was measured using the pooled Area Under the Curve (AUC) and delta AUC, representing the performance of an individual model relative to the average dataset performance. Prediction models by van Vugt et al. and Heckerling et al. demonstrated the highest pooled AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74–0.85) and 0.72 (0.68–0.76), respectively. Other models by Diehr et al., Singal et al., Melbye et al., and Hopstaken et al. demonstrated pooled AUCs of 0.65 (0.61–0.68), 0.64 (0.61–0.67), 0.56 (0.49–0.63) and 0.53 (0.5–0.56), respectively. A similar ranking was present based on the delta AUCs of the models. Calibration demonstrated close agreement of observed and predicted probabilities in the models by van Vugt et al. and Singal et al., other models lacked such correspondence. The absence of predictors in the IPD on dataset level hampered a systematical comparison of model performance and could be a limitation to the study. Conclusions The model by van Vugt et al. demonstrated the highest discriminative accuracy coupled with reasonable to good calibration across the IPD of different study populations. This model is therefore the main candidate for

  11. Public Utilities Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on public utilities occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the electric power…

  12. Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

  13. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The…

  14. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  15. 10 CFR 835.207 - Occupational dose limits for minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for minors. 835.207 Section 835.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.207 Occupational dose limits for minors. The dose limits for minors occupationally...

  16. 10 CFR 835.207 - Occupational dose limits for minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for minors. 835.207 Section 835.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.207 Occupational dose limits for minors. The dose limits for minors occupationally...

  17. 10 CFR 835.207 - Occupational dose limits for minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for minors. 835.207 Section 835.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.207 Occupational dose limits for minors. The dose limits for minors occupationally...

  18. 10 CFR 835.207 - Occupational dose limits for minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for minors. 835.207 Section 835.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.207 Occupational dose limits for minors. The dose limits for minors occupationally...

  19. 10 CFR 835.207 - Occupational dose limits for minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for minors. 835.207 Section 835.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.207 Occupational dose limits for minors. The dose limits for minors occupationally...

  20. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  1. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it. PMID:26696286

  2. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it.

  3. Change in Parent- and Child-Reported Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors among Substance Abusing Runaways: The Effects of Family and Individual Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study…

  4. Sales Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on sales occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile sales workers, buyers, insurance…

  5. Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providng current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include building custodians, pest controllers, private…

  6. Factory Production Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on factory production occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include assemblers, blue collar worker…

  7. Social Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on social service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dietitians, home economist, homemaker-home…

  8. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  9. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  10. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  11. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): I. Timing of development and anomalies of external structure].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of development have been analyzed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. The results show that the range of developmental options for the species is much wider than it follows from the standard tables of development. "Background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003) in the external structure of developing larvae are described and their probable frequencies under nearly optimal conditions are indicated.

  12. Change in parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors among substance abusing runaways: the effects of family and individual treatments.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study compared three empirically supported psychotherapy interventions, Motivational Interviewing (MI), the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), and Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT) with 179 substance abusing runaway adolescents (47 % female, 74 % minority) and their primary caretaker recruited through a Midwestern runaway crisis shelter. Examining both child and primary caretaker reports, each treatment was associated with significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing behaviors to 24 months post-baseline. However, the trajectory of change differed among the treatments. Adolescents receiving MI showed a quicker reduction in internalizing and externalizing behaviors but also a quicker increase in these behaviors compared to adolescents receiving EBFT, who continued to evidence improvements to 24 months. The findings provide support for continued evaluation of these treatments for use with this vulnerable population of adolescents.

  13. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  14. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  15. Protocol for a randomised trial on the effect of group education on skin-protective behaviour versus treatment as usual among individuals with newly notified occupational hand eczema – the Prevention of Hand Eczema (PREVEX) Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of occupational hand eczema is approximately 0.32 per 1,000 person years. The burden of the disease is high, as almost 60% has eczema-related sick leave during the first year after notification, and 15% are excluded from the workforce 12 years after disease onset. New treatments and prevention strategies are needed. Methods/Design Trial design: The PREVEX trial is a randomised, parallel-group, superiority trial. Participants: All individuals from the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand with a suspected occupational skin disorder notified to the National Board of Industrial Injuries between June 2012 and December 2013 are invited to participate in the trial. Inclusion criteria are: self-reported hand eczema and informed consent. Exclusion criteria are: age <18 years or >65 years; permanent exclusion from the workforce; inability to understand the Danish language; any serious medical condition; and lack of written informed consent. We plan to randomise 742 participants. Interventions: The experimental intervention is an educational course in skin-protective behaviour and written information about skin care related to the participants' specific occupation. Also, a telephone hotline is available and a subgroup will be offered a work-place visit. The experimental and the control group have access to usual care and treatment. All participants are contacted every eighth week with questions regarding number of days with sick leave or other absence from work. 12 months after randomisation follow-up is completed. Objective: To assesses the effect of an educational course versus treatment as usual in participants with newly notified occupational hand eczema. Randomisation: Participants are centrally randomised according to a computer-generated allocation sequence with a varying block size concealed to investigators. Blinding: It is not possible to blind the participants and investigators, however, data obtained from registers, data entry

  16. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  17. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  18. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  19. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  20. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  1. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  2. Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-term morbidity. Present evidence that prolonged exposure to some work-encountered agents can cause asthma that persists for years after the end of exposure suggests that avoidance is the only acceptable countermeasure against this disease. PMID:7164429

  3. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. PMID:27083106

  4. Increased occupational radiation doses: nuclear fuel cycle.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Kryuchkov, Victor

    2014-02-01

    The increased occupational doses resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986, the reactor accident of Fukushima that took place in Japan in March 2011, and the early operations of the Mayak Production Association in Russia in the 1940s and 1950s are presented and discussed. For comparison purposes, the occupational doses due to the other two major reactor accidents (Windscale in the United Kingdom in 1957 and Three Mile Island in the United States in 1979) and to the main plutonium-producing facility in the United States (Hanford Works) are also covered but in less detail. Both for the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the routine operations at Mayak, the considerable efforts made to reconstruct individual doses from external irradiation to a large number of workers revealed that the recorded doses had been overestimated by a factor of about two.Introduction of Increased Occupational Exposures: Nuclear Industry Workers. (Video 1:32, http://links.lww.com/HP/A21). PMID:24378501

  5. Increased occupational radiation doses: nuclear fuel cycle.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Kryuchkov, Victor

    2014-02-01

    The increased occupational doses resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986, the reactor accident of Fukushima that took place in Japan in March 2011, and the early operations of the Mayak Production Association in Russia in the 1940s and 1950s are presented and discussed. For comparison purposes, the occupational doses due to the other two major reactor accidents (Windscale in the United Kingdom in 1957 and Three Mile Island in the United States in 1979) and to the main plutonium-producing facility in the United States (Hanford Works) are also covered but in less detail. Both for the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the routine operations at Mayak, the considerable efforts made to reconstruct individual doses from external irradiation to a large number of workers revealed that the recorded doses had been overestimated by a factor of about two.Introduction of Increased Occupational Exposures: Nuclear Industry Workers. (Video 1:32, http://links.lww.com/HP/A21).

  6. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  7. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  8. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  11. Occupational neurology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R G

    1987-01-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders.

  12. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  13. [Occupational eczema].

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, J M

    1998-05-01

    Cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis are less frequent nowadays than in the past: for instance the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to cement chromates is decreasing steadily among building workers. On the other hand, new haptens do occur in our environment, due to the diversification of industrial techniques; e.g. methylchloro- and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) present as a preservative in paints or varnishes, acrylates and methacrylates, or, at the hospital, glutaraldehyde, propacetamol or various antibiotics. A new entity has been clinically characterized: protein contact dermatitis. The prevention of occupational allergic contact dermatitis is multidisciplinary. It includes all aspects of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. PMID:11767354

  14. Tectonic constraints on the development and individualization of the intermontane Ronda basin (external Betics, southern Spain): a structural and geomorphologic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia

    2014-05-01

    As a result of progressive shortening and orogenic wedge thickening, marine foreland basins tend to emerge and divide. We have analyzed possible recent tectonic activity within the late evolution stage of the Ronda basin, an intermontane basin located in the external wedge of the Gibraltar Arc, formerly connected with the Betic foreland basin and infilled by marine Upper-Miocene sediments. We analyze (1) the structures responsible for the basinward relief drop along the arc strike and the different topography of their boundaries; (2) qualitative and quantitative geomorphologic indices to asses which structures could present recent activity; and 3) the structures causing the division of the former Betic foreland basin and the isolation of the Ronda basin. Within the deformational history of the Ronda basin, late structures that control high topographic gradients and generate remarkable fault scarps group into three main types: (a) Extensional structures represented by NW-SE striking normal faults, clustered close to the current SW and NE boundaries of the basin. They usually dip towards the basin and their vertical displacement is maximum up to 1,5 km. These structures partially affect the basal unconformity of the Upper Miocene basin infill and are scarcely developed inside the basin infill. (b) Shortening structures developed both in the basin infill and in the outcropping basement near the Northeastern and Southwestern basin boundaries. They are represented by NE-SW directed plurikilometric box-folds and reverse faults, responsible for the alternation of sierras (altitudes 1000-1500 m) and valleys. (c) Strike-slip dominated structural associations where WSW-ENE lateral faults combined with folds and normal and reverse faults defined a NE-SW directed deformation band constituting the NW basin boundary. This band includes some sierras up to 1.100 m. Regarding the relief of the Ronda basin area, the abrupt slopes of the outcropping basement (heights between 500

  15. A Career Story Approach to Management, Business, and Financial Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brott, Pamelia E.

    2012-01-01

    Business, management, and financial occupations are found in organizations in which individuals direct activities and perform tasks related to business and finance. The career cluster includes 144 occupational titles across 57% of the 23 major Standard Occupational Classification groups, with almost half of the occupations considered "bright…

  16. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Pauli, G; Bessot, J C; Gourdon, C

    1992-12-01

    The diagnosis of occupational asthma requires the integration of a multiplicity of data; the history, cutaneous skin tests, biological tests, respiratory function tests and non-specific tests of bronchial hyperreactivity and specific bronchial provocation test. The history search for the presence of an atopic state, the occurrence of similar disorders in members of the same firm and also the timing of symptoms in relation to the occupational activities. Cutaneous tests are particularly helpful in IgE-mediated asthma in relation to the inhalation of animal or vegetable materials of glycoprotein origin. For haptens, the need for their prior coupling to a protein carrier causes problems which have not been entirely resolved. Laboratory tests run into the same snags. Respiratory function and non-specific bronchial provocation tests, confirm the diagnosis of asthma and enable the medium and long term prognostic to be assessed. Specific bronchial provocation tests are the most appropriate tests to establish an aetiological diagnosis in occupational asthma. Different technical methods are possible: quantitative administration of allergen aerosols, realistic tests, and tests using exposure chambers to achieve true test doses. The products responsible for occupational asthma are multiple. The different substances are characterised in a simplified manner: first animal matter (mammalian and arthropod allergens), secondly substances of vegetable origin (roots, leaves, flowers, grain and flour, wood and its derivates) and finally chemical products. The chemical products are primarily from the pharmaceutical and metal industries and above all from the plastics industry. PMID:1296320

  17. Lawyers, City Managers, and Social Science Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on lawyers, city managers, and social science occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include city managers,…

  18. New developments in occupational dermatology.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2016-09-01

    Occupational skin diseases according to BK No. 5101 - "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease" - is the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases in Germany. Following the optimization of measures of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, today most individuals affected are able to continue their profession. With the revision of the German ordinance on occupational diseases (BKV) in January 2015, skin cancer caused by UV irradiation was added to the list of occupational diseases. The new occupational disease (BK) 5103 is defined as "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratoses of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". In this context, "multiple" signifies the occurrence of either more than five individual actinic keratosis lesions over the course of 12 months or the presence of field cancerization of > 4 cm(2) . In the following review, important aspects of this new occupational disease will be highlighted and discussed. PMID:27607027

  19. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  20. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  1. Effects of divorce on Dutch boys' and girls' externalizing behavior in Gene × Environment perspective: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility in the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study?

    PubMed

    Nederhof, Esther; Belsky, Jay; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-08-01

    The effects of divorce on children's behavioral development have proven to be quite varied across studies, and most developmental and family scholars today appreciate the great heterogeneity in divorce effects. Thus, this inquiry sought to determine whether select dopaminergic genes previously associated with externalizing behavior and/or found to moderate diverse environmental effects (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) might moderate divorce effects on adolescent self-reported externalizing problems; and, if so, whether evidence of gene-environment (G × E) interaction would prove consistent with diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of environmental action. Data from the first and third wave of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1,134) revealed some evidence of G × E interaction reflecting diathesis-stress but not differential susceptibility. It is intriguing that some evidence pointed to "vantage sensitivity," which are benefits accruing to those with a specific genotype when their parents remained together, the exact opposite of diathesis-stress. The limits of this work are considered, especially with regard to the conditions for testing differential susceptibility, and future directions are outlined.

  2. Enabling occupational performance: optimal experiences in therapy.

    PubMed

    Rebeiro, K L; Polgar, J M

    1999-02-01

    Occupational therapists believe that engagement in occupation contributes to health through an individually balanced use of time, a positive focus for one's physical and mental energy, and the provision of a sense of purpose. Flow is a construct which describes optimal experiences or enjoyment in everyday activities. A review of the literature suggests that the theory of optimal experience is complementary to occupational therapy beliefs and that an understanding of the flow experience may contribute to our understanding of human occupation. Specifically, flow may be useful in understanding those aspects of the occupation, environment and person that contribute to a "just right" challenge, and to enabling occupational performance through enjoyable, structured and purposeful activity. Occupational therapists are encouraged to explore whether optimal experiences facilitate occupational performance for individuals with a disability. Future research could explore whether the occupational opportunities available to persons with a disability provide the degree of challenge required to elicit the optimal experience. Finally, research could explore whether the client-driven selection of meaningful occupation, and therapist enablement of the "just right" challenge, influences optimal experience, occupational performance, and life satisfaction for those with a disability. PMID:10462878

  3. Occupational Sex Roles and Occupational Prestige.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simerly, D. Emily; Ruback, R. Barry

    Past studies on the sex-typing of occupations have used a single bipolar scale, ranging from masculinity to femininity. An empirical examination of both occupational sex roles and occupational prestige was conducted using two unipolar scales to assess masculinity and femininity. College students (N=183) rated 94 occupations, which were then…

  4. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  5. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises. PMID:17447573

  6. Fragrance as an occupational allergen.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D A; Rycroft, R J G; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    2002-02-01

    Sensitization to fragrance is believed to occur mainly outside the workplace. This study addresses the frequency of fragrance allergy in patch test patients of differing occupations during a 15 year period. The occupation most strongly associated with fragrance allergy in both sexes was health care work (positive tests in 11.7% of males and 10.4% of females). Retired individuals also had high rates of fragrance allergy (11.6% of males and 14.5% of females), and the prevalence of sensitization increased with advancing age. Health care workers and metal workers had statistically significantly higher rates of allergy to eugenol than did workers in other occupations. Food handlers had significantly higher rates of allergy to cinnamal and cinnamic alcohol. These findings suggest that sensitization to fragrance occurs more frequently in an occupational setting than is generally understood and could have implications for preventive measures.

  7. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  8. Statement--fundamental concepts of occupational therapy: occupation, purposeful activity, and function.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J; Kramer, P

    1997-01-01

    Deriving from the philosophical basis of the profession, occupation is the core concept of the profession of occupational therapy. However, in the occupational therapy literature, the term occupation is used in a variety of ways. Occupation, a collection of activities that people use to fill their time and give life meaning, is organized around roles or in terms of activities of daily living, work and productive activities, or pleasure, for survival, for necessity, and for their personal meaning. It is the individualized, unique combination of activities that comprises an individual's occupations. Purposeful activities have been described in many different ways: as something all people engage in; as tools or media that therapists use to enhance or facilitate performance; and vehicles for bringing about change. Purposeful activities are seen as part of the process of occupational therapy. Purposeful activities are subset of occupations in that they are goal directed and serve as a major tool in the process of occupational therapy. The term function, viewed as the ability to perform activities required in one's occupations has become increasingly important to society in describing the performance or change in individuals. This societal shift in ideas has prompted the concept of function, viewed as a product, to become more important than the process of bringing about change. Occupational therapy practitioners typically have viewed the process as being just as important as the product. When working to improve function, occupational therapy practitioners use purposeful activities that are meaningful to the person in relation to his or her occupational history, preferences, personal goals, and needs. Occupational therapy practitioners need to keep the individual's occupations in the forefront of their thoughts when using any purposeful activity and to plan interventions toward improving the individual's ability to function within his or her occupations. In the interest

  9. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  10. [Allergens responsible for occupational eczemas in hairdressers].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, E

    1982-01-01

    Allergens responsible for occupational contact dermatitis occurring in hairdressers are reviewed. The subject is of topical interest as far as the number of reports on occupational skin diseases shows a considerable increase in the last years. Only a--not yet available--careful analysis of the expertises in the possession of the competent Employers Liability Insurance Association can disclose the relevance of individual sensitizers contained in hair care products to occupational contact eczemas of hairdressers. PMID:6217966

  11. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  12. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  13. [Traumatic and occupational deafness].

    PubMed

    Poncet, J L; Kossowski, M; Verdaille, P

    2000-01-15

    The frequency of accidental, traumatic hearing loss is increasing due to a sometimes violently noisy environment and to the development of sports as leisure activities. The diagnosis is based on knowledge of the circumstances of the trauma and on otoscopic examination. Total audiometry localises the damage. Occupational hearing loss forms a special subset of traumatic deafness. This trauma is usually due to intense noise occurring at the work-place. It is of insidious onset, irreversibly progressive and without treatment once under way; Prevention is based on knowledge of the deleterious effects of noise and on the individual factors of the subject at risk.

  14. Emergy of the Occupations. Chapter 43

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we calculated the emergy contributed to the economy of the United States in the work done by the workers of 558 occupations in 2008. We determined the empower (semj/yr) delivered by an individual engaged in each occupation, the transformity of the occupation’s work ...

  15. An Analysis of the Landscaping Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemple, Lynn L.; Dilley, John E.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the landscape services occupation. Depending on the preparation and abilities of the individual student, he may enter the landscape area as (1) nursery worker, (2) landscape planter, (3) landscape…

  16. Occupational Therapy Assistants Program. Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Health, Madison.

    Between November 1964 and June 1967, 85 women and five men completed a 4-month course held in several Wisconsin locations to prepare them as Certified Occupational Therapy Assistants to (1) plan and direct a general activity or supportive program of occupational therapy, (2) train individual patients in independent performance of activities of…

  17. Developing a Model of Occupational Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egner, Joan Roos

    1974-01-01

    Rational and non-rational decision-making models of occupational choice are described. The Blau model provides an alternative to these. This model contains an occupational set of factors and a set related to the individual. Research supporting its conceptual utility and activities illustrating its pragmatic utility are discussed. (EAK)

  18. Architecture & Design Arts Occupations, 1940-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Harry Hillman

    Using data from federal government records and professional membership organizations, this study examines trends in demographics, education, employment, and earnings of architects and individuals in design arts occupations between 1940-1990. Findings indicate that: (1) participation in architecture and design occupations has increased slightly as…

  19. A Skills Map: The General and Specific Competencies Required in Different Occupations. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    To aid in assessing the employability of individuals and of various groups of individuals in different types of occupations, the general abilities and specific skills required of workers in different occupations were studied. Data on a comprehensive set of occupations were obtained from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) job ratings and…

  20. Image processing occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  1. Administrative Support Occupations Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    This document establishes a set of performance expectations based on current practices in administrative support occupations. It is designed to assist individuals, training providers, employers, management personnel, and professional organizations in matching knowledge, abilities, and interests to knowledge and skills required for success in…

  2. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: “Occupational injuries” and “workplace” between 1984 and 2014. Results: Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Conclusions: Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:27051619

  3. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Corporate Members Current Chapters Individual & Business Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week 2017 Elections - AAOHN Members ... election is essential for members to make your voice heard and set the future direction of the ...

  4. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  5. [Prevention of occupational dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Géraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique

    2002-09-01

    The prevention of the occupational skin disease is essential to avoid some clinical complications and to preserve job. The suppression of the responsible factor is rarely possible at work, but when it is possible, it is efficient. The practice of real orders of prevention is the best way to proceed, writing individual and collective prevention prescriptions, which have to be very precise and adapted to every case during one sufficient time to get a good adherence of the patients. The implementation of the prevention consists of a set of advices on the prevention measures carrying on the environment, the processes or the work tools, the bad habits, and advices about the professional gestures to avoid and about the convenient information on the manner to use the means of individual prevention (gloves, protective creams and moisturizers) recommended and adapted to each work sequence. PMID:12385155

  6. Service Area Market Analysis: Focus on Industry and Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This report presents occupation and industry data (statewide and service area specific) for the purpose of assessing external forces in order to provide information to help guide policymaking at Front Range Community College. The report contains tables that display statewide occupational trends as published by the Colorado Department of Labor and…

  7. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  9. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  11. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient occupational therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.59 Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions. (a) Basic rule... occupational therapy services only if they are furnished by an individual meeting the qualifications in...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1201 - Occupational dose limits for adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for adults. 20.1201 Section 20... Limits § 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults. (a) The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under § 20.1206, to the following...

  14. Sex, Occupational Membership, and the Measurement of Psychological Androgyny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    This study examines the relationship of androgyny to occupational membership. It was hypothesized that: (1) persons in stereotypically masculine occupations would be characterized by high levels of masculininity; (2) workers in a typically feminine occupation would rate themselves as highly feminine; and (3) androgynous individuals would be…

  15. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  16. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  17. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  18. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  20. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  1. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing †

    PubMed Central

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  2. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... year; (2) Declared pregnant workers who are likely to receive from external sources an equivalent dose... all occupational radionuclide intakes in a year; (2) Declared pregnant workers likely to receive...

  3. Health Occupations. Dental Auxiliaries, Nursing, Therapy and Rehabilitation, Health Services Administration. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental…

  4. Health Occupations. Medical Technologists, Technicians, and Assistants; Dispensing Opticians; Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians; Medical Record Personnel. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dispensing opticians, electrocardiograph…

  5. Occupational Stress and Burnout in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torelli, Joseph A.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys 1,000 Washington principals and superintendents to ascertain the nature and extent of their occupational stress and burnout and the association with sex role orientation. Superintendents perceive less task-based and conflict-mediating stress than do principals, but report more externally caused stress. Task-based stress is the best…

  6. Occupational therapy practice: focusing on occupational performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, C M; Law, M

    1997-04-01

    Changes in the health system require occupational therapy practitioners to focus their concerns on the long-term health needs of people and to help them develop healthy behaviors not only to improve their health, but also to minimize the health care costs associated with dysfunction. Occupational therapy practitioners must initiate efforts in the community to integrate a range of services that promote, protect, and improve the health of the public. This article shares the experiences of Canadian occupational therapy practitioners, who were challenged by their government nearly 15 years ago to establish a system that demonstrates effectiveness by improving the health of occupational therapy clients. By focusing on occupational performance, occupational therapy practitioners assist clients in becoming actively engaged in their life activities. This requires client-centered and family-centered practice and services that span from the agency or institution to the community. Occupational therapy practitioners must work collaboratively with persons in the client's environment (e.g., family members, teachers, independent living specialists, employers, neighbors, friends) to assist the client in obtaining skills and to make modifications to remove barriers that create a social disadvantage. A focus on occupational performance requires occupational therapy personnel to reframe how we think about occupational therapy to a sociomedical context and to take an active role in building healthy communities. PMID:9085726

  7. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing...

  12. Understanding privacy in occupational health services.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anne; Wickström, Gustav; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of privacy in occupational health services. Data were collected through in-depth theme interviews with occupational health professionals (n = 15), employees (n = 15) and employers (n = 14). Our findings indicate that privacy, in this context, is a complex and multilayered concept, and that companies as well as individual employees have their own core secrets. Co-operation between the three groups proved challenging: occupational health professionals have to consider carefully in which situations and how much they are entitled to release private information on individual employees for the benefit of the whole company. Privacy is thus not an absolute right of an individual, but involves the idea of sharing responsibility. The findings open up useful new perspectives on ethical questions of privacy and on the development of occupational health practices.

  13. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches. PMID:26150284

  14. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches.

  15. Predicting Occupational Persistence: A Comparison of Teachers and Five Other Occupational Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Cynthia J.

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the Class of 1972, a study examined individual and environmental characteristics which predicted occupational turnover in the three-year period after college graduation. Discriminant analysis was used to distinguish determinants of persistence in six occupations. Three were considered to be in the…

  16. An Exploration of the Use of Occupational Language in School-Based Occupational Therapy Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of occupation-based terminology in the documentation of school-based occupational therapists. A retrospective qualitative analysis of school-based documents using a priori codes was completed. Analysis included 33 Individual Educational Program (IEP) documents and 118 OT goals. Analyses showed that…

  17. 10 CFR 835.202 - Occupational dose limits for general employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for general employees. 835.202 Section 835.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.202 Occupational dose limits for general employees. (a) Except for planned...

  18. 10 CFR 835.202 - Occupational dose limits for general employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for general employees. 835.202 Section 835.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.202 Occupational dose limits for general employees. (a) Except for planned...

  19. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  20. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  1. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  2. Occupational Deprivation or Occupational Adaptation of Mexican Americans on Renal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Shirley A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the occupational changes and perceptions experienced by Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their families living with dialysis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 Mexican Americans with ESRD and 17 family members. The participants with ESRD described altered or lost activity patterns, capacities and freedoms. With a heightened awareness of death, the family members made altered occupational choices, which were consistent with their cultural values. Changes in the physical body, adhering to the dialysis regimen and environmental restrictions created barriers to occupational participation. These findings suggest that living with dialysis facilitate occupational deprivation among individuals with ESRD and adaption among the family members within cultural alignments. This phenomenon could affect the design of occupational therapy intervention and call for research on the role of occupation therapy services with this population.

  3. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  4. Socio-Personal Premises for Selecting and Securing an Occupation as Vocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Newton, Jennifer; Ockerby, Cherene M.

    2010-01-01

    When individuals select a particular occupation, they, their families and the community invest significant resources in their preparing for, learning about, and effective participation in that occupation. Yet, given the high attrition rates during that preparation and high levels of early separation from occupations, selection of occupations is…

  5. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk.

  6. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  7. Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions of Spirituality in Training.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha

    2015-12-01

    Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.

  8. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  9. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  10. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  11. Occupational justice--bridging theory and practice. Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2010; 17: 57-63.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  12. Occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy personnel assume central roles in adult day-care regardless of specific program emphasis. Occupational therapy focuses on health rather than illness, on what the individual can do in spite of disabilities. Several of the profession's objectives directly parallel those of adult day-care--to enable individuals to function as independently as possible despite their physical and mental limitations. To achieve this, a variety of intervention strategies are used, including remedial therapeutic activities, environmental modifications, adapted living techniques, and, when necessary, adaptation of the home environment. In this way, occupational therapy contributes significantly to the quality of life of adult day-care participants.

  13. Occupational Choice: A Conditional Logit Model with Special Reference to Wage Subsidies and Occupational Choice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    A model of occupational choice based on the theory of human capital is developed and estimated by conditional logit analysis. The empirical results estimated the probability of individuals with certain characteristics (such as race, sex, age, and education) entering each of 11 occupational groups. The results indicate that individuals tend to…

  14. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  15. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  16. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  17. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  18. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  19. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  1. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. PMID:11586752

  2. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  3. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  4. Untangling occupation and activity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D

    2001-01-01

    Activity and occupation are two core concepts of occupational therapy that are in need of differentiation. Occupation is defined here as a person's personally constructed, one-time experience within a unique context. Activity is defined as a more general, culturally shared idea about a category of action. The ways in which subjectivity and context are handled within the concepts of occupation and activity are keys to disentangling them. The proposed untangling of the two concepts into distinct definitions is congruent with their historical origins as well as with current definitional trends. Once occupation and activity are recognized as two separate and equally valuable concepts, they offer a rich set of theoretical relations for exploration. The clarity that will result from differentiating occupation and activity will enhance disciplinary discourse and research as well as enhance the intervention efficacy, moral surety, and political strength of the profession.

  5. Industrialization and occupational health in underdeveloped countries.

    PubMed

    Elling, R H

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines world political economic relationships, especially the growing disparities between "developed" and underdeveloped countries and the role of multinational corporations in exploiting the people and resources of underdeveloped lands. Workers in these lands are identified as high risk for both new and old forms of occupational health hazards. To protect themselves, workers must establish governments on their own behalf rather than client governments serving external capitalist interests.

  6. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  7. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  8. Ethics in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ted

    1989-11-01

    We know little about perceptions, practices, or constraints of ethics in occupational health because little research has been done. Opinions about the field, however, are abundant. Existing codes of ethical practice in occupational health have not consciously been derived from the fundamental principles of "freedom" and "well-being" or from philosophical premises and methods; rather, they are based on consensus among practitioners. The author outlines useful concepts and methods for making decisions about ethical questions in occupational health.

  9. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  10. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  11. Is occupational stress associated with work engagement ?

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.

  12. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  13. Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft; Office Machine and Computer; Electronics; and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Manufacturing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in various manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in…

  14. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  15. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  16. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  17. International occupational health.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2003-08-01

    Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health. The UN's international agencies have had limited success in bringing occupational health to the industrializing countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions are intended to guide all countries in the promotion of workplace safety and in managing occupational health and safety programs. ILO conventions and recommendations on occupational safety and health are international agreements that have legal force only if they are ratified by ILO member states. The most important ILO Convention on Occupational Safety and Health has been ratified by only 37 of the 175 ILO member states. Only 23 countries have ratified the ILO Employment Injury Benefits Convention that lists occupational diseases for which compensation should be paid. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for the technical aspects of occupational health and safety, the promotion of medical services and hygienic standards. Limited WHO and ILO funding severely impedes the development of international occupational health. The U.S. reliance on international agencies to promote health and safety in the industrializing countries is not nearly adequate. This is particularly true if occupational health continues to be regarded primarily as an academic exercise by the developed countries, and a budgetary triviality by the international agencies. Occupational health is not a goal achievable in isolation. It should be part of a major institutional development that touches and reforms every level of government in an industrializing country. Occupational health and safety

  18. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  19. Occupational exposures and parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Caudle, W Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the contribution of exposure to environmental toxicants has been recognized as a significant contributor to the etiopathogenesis of parkinsonism. Of these toxicants, exposure to pesticides, metals, solvents used in manufacturing processes, as well as flame-retardant chemicals used in consumer and commercial products, has received the greatest attention as possible risk factors. Related to this, individuals who are exposed to these compounds at high concentrations or for prolonged periods of time in an occupational setting appear to be one of the more vulnerable populations to these effects. Our understanding of which compounds are involved and the potential molecular pathways that are susceptible to these chemicals and may underlie the pathogenesis has greatly improved. However, there are still hundreds of chemicals that we are exposed to in the environment for which we do not have any information on their potential neurotoxicity on the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Thus, using our past accomplishments as a blueprint, future endeavors should focus on elaborating upon these initial findings in order to identify specific and relevant chemical toxicants in our environment that can impact the risk of parkinsonism and work towards a means to attenuate or abolish their effects on the human population. PMID:26563792

  20. Characteristics of Occupational Entrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Max L.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is mobile society, and mobility is evident in the jobs people hold. From one year to the next, almost 1 worker in 5 enters or returns to an occupation that he/she did not work in 12 months earlier. A worker's age, sex, race, and ethnicity influence likelihood of changing occupations. (Contains detailed data tables.) (JOW)

  1. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  2. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  3. Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the cabinetmaker…

  4. Bricklayer. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cap, Orest; Cap, Ihor; Semenovych, Viktor

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a bricklayer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as bricklayer-mason, brick and stone mason, and mason. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the…

  5. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of…

  6. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  7. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  8. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards…

  9. Marketing occupational health care.

    PubMed

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  10. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  11. [Market oriented occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

    2012-09-01

    The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities. PMID:22951411

  12. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  13. OCCUPATIONAL ASPECTS OF COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Levan, Norman E.

    1954-01-01

    Infections with coccidioides immitis have been frequently associated with circumstances suggesting the likelihood of occupational origin. Some cases have been accepted as compensable by insurance carriers, the Industrial Accident Commission, and the courts. The factors considered in determining whether or not infection is of occupational origin are reviewed under the following headings. 1. Laboratory infections. 2. Other infections due to exposure to contaminated articles, arising outside endemic areas. 3. Infections in employees entering endemic areas pursuant to their occupations. 4. Primary cutaneous inoculation. 5. Localization and/or aggravation of pre-existing coccidioidomycosis by occupational injury. 6. Infections in agricultural workers imported into endemic areas. 7. Infections in residents of endemic areas alleged to result from occupational exposures. PMID:13150196

  14. Successful business process design. Business plan development for the occupational health services unit.

    PubMed

    Kalina, C M; Fitko, J

    1997-02-01

    1. The occupational health nurse is often mandated by management to validate health services offered and programs developed for employees as valuable to the business and company mission. 2. The business plan of the occupational health service is a working document, changing as needs of the client/customer and internal and external business and socio-economic environment evolve. 3. Alignment with and support of the company mission, goals, and objectives is another method of proving good occupational health is good business. 4. Business planning is a basic business tool the wise and prudent occupational health nurse can use in proving good occupational health is vital to the success of a company.

  15. Agriculture and Logging and Lumber Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in agriculture and logging and lumber mill products industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document…

  16. Stepping Up Occupational Safety and Health Through Employee Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is examined, and it is suggested that employee participation could help improve occupational safety and health in the future, through safety committees, safety circles, safety teams, and individual participation. (MSE)

  17. Occupational Constraints and Opportunities Faced by School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between building human capital of former dropouts and their occupational standing and the interaction effects with individual characteristics. By applying the growth curve model, this study highlighted the factors that lead high school dropouts to enhance their occupational standing. An increment in the work…

  18. Time for a Change: A Woman's Guide to Nontraditional Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauley, Constance Drake

    This guide for women interested in nontraditional occupations (NTOs) describes nontraditional occupations and offers suggestions for deciding whether an NTO is appropriate for the individual. The need for women in NTOs is first addressed. Rewards are considered, and a checklist is provided to test for readiness to choose an NTO. These myths…

  19. Evidence in Support of Gottfredson's Common Cognitive Map of Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Gottfredson proposed that most people share an understanding of the world of work based upon the sex type, social status and type of occupations. Individuals use these three dimensions to organise their view of the world of work. There is as a consequence, she argued, a common cognitive map of occupations. She depicted this map graphically. This…

  20. Providing Educationally Relevant Occupational and Physical Therapy Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverdure, Patricia A.; Rose, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    As defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, occupational and physical therapists provide services to support students to access, participate, and progress in their educational program within the least restrictive educational environment. Educationally relevant occupational and physical therapy services in school…

  1. The Universe of Need for Occupational Education in New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Resource Center for Occupational Education, Newton, MA.

    This first part of a comprehensive study designed to provide decision makers with an understanding of the needs and capabilities of occupational education in New England focuses on the number of individuals, especially dropouts, in need of occupational education and training as compared to the capabilities of the various institutions to meet such…

  2. New Limits to Growth. Economic Transformation and Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.

    The roles played by occupational education in the U.S. economy are changing. Because of the growing demand for and shrinking supply of skilled workers, economic success--of the nation and of individual members of the work force--is increasingly tied to educational and occupational attainments. Unless the nation increases its investment in…

  3. Educational and Occupational Status of Young Deaf Adults in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Stephen P.; And Others

    A questionnaire was used to obtain information from 464 hearing impaired individuals concerning occupational status and to determine any relationship between types of educational programs attended and later occupational achievement. Subjects had attended exclusively one of four types of programs: residential, day school programs in Chicago, day…

  4. Social Support and Occupational Stress among University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosio, Saharay E.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…

  5. Teaching Occupational Social Skills. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elksnin, Nick; Elksnin, Linda K.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this guide focuses on teaching occupational social skills. Chapter 1, "Why Teach Occupational Social Skills?," explains the importance of these skills for successful employment and…

  6. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  7. Occupations: Military--Civilian Occupational Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armed Forces Vocational Testing Group, Universal City, TX.

    Information on enlisted military occupations is offered in the source book to arrive at a comprehensive statement of job tasks in the military service and their similarities to jobs in civilian life. Basic information about five areas of the U.S. military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) focuses on their military…

  8. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: external aids that signal when to act.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-03-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence, and in this study, we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids were used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  9. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    feedback signals, we propose a distributed solution, which ensures that a consensus is attained among all occupants upon convergence, irrespective of their temperature preferences being in coherence or conflicting. Occupants are only assumed to be rational, in that they choose their own temperature set-points so as to minimize their individual energy cost plus discomfort. We use Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers ( ADMM) to solve our consensus problem. We further establish the convergence of the proposed algorithm to the optimal thermal set point values that minimize the sum of the energy cost and the aggregate discomfort of all occupants in a multi-zone building. For simulating our consensus algorithm we use realistic building parameters based on the Watervliet test facility. The simulation study based on real world building parameters establish the validity of our theoretical model and provide insights on the dynamics of the system with a mobile user population. In the third part we present a game-theoretic (auction) mechanism, that requires occupants to "purchase" their individualized comfort levels beyond what is provided by default by the building operator. The comfort pricing policy, derived as an extension of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) pricing, ensures incentive-compatibility of the mechanism, i.e., an occupant acting in self-interest cannot benefit from declaring their comfort function untruthfully, irrespective of the choices made by other occupants. The declared (or estimated) occupant comfort ranges (functions) are then utilized by the building operator---along with the energy cost information---to set the environment controls to optimally balance the aggregate discomfort of the occupants and the energy cost of the building operator. We use realistic building model and parameters based on our test facility to demonstrate the convergence of the actual temperatures in different zones to the desired temperatures, and provide insight to the pricing

  10. Occupational Technology: An Experiment in Curricular Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepino, Lyle F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an Occupational Technology Curriculum, designed to meet the widely divergent needs of individuals already employed in industry or business who desire to upgrade a present skill or acquire a new one. The curriculum is structured so that half of the credits required for the associate degree are free electives and half are required core…

  11. Diversified Satellite Occupations Program. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, John Reed

    This interim report, covering the period of September 1970 to June 1971, describes a program conducted for elementary, junior high, and senior high grades. The elementary program was designed to help students develop an understanding of occupational competence. The prevention of dropouts and individualizing instruction were concerns of the junior…

  12. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  13. Health Occupations Education--A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Kaye Reames

    Developed to provide curriculum materials that secondary Health Occupations Education (HOE) teachers/coordinators can use in organizing their individual programs, this curriculum guide contains performance-based units covering the majority of a four-semester program of study in HOE. The following topics are covered: medical ethics, law, and…

  14. Health Occupations Module. The Integumentary System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the integumentary system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, objectives (e.g., list and describe the types of glands formed in the skin, and explain the…

  15. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  16. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  17. Individual room temperature control: A peaceful solution to thermostat wars

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, C.A. )

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining thermal comfort in individual rooms using an individual room temperature control concept to provide greater occupant comfort and potentially reduce energy consumption. The topics of the article include occupant temperature control methods, multi-room zone control, HVAC system operation, computer simulation, and the results of using individual room temperature control.

  18. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  19. Client perspectives on occupational therapy practice: are we truly client-centred?

    PubMed

    Rebeiro, K L

    2000-02-01

    In Canada, the guidelines for the practice of occupational therapy are named and framed as client-centred. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with clients of mental health services about their experiences with a hospital-based occupational therapy service. These occupational therapy clients described their experiences as prescriptive, and as less than client-centred. With the publication of Enabling occupation: A Canadian occupational therapy perspective (Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists [CAOT], 1997) and an increasingly refined focus on being client-centred, these interviews highlight the challenges of a client-centred practice within the current health care environment. These occupational therapy clients raise issues of importance for occupational therapy. The participants stated that the prescription of 'activity', a lack of choice, and a focus upon the illness as opposed to the individual, served to diminish any collaborative partnership with the client and eliminate the client from any decision-making process. This distancing from the client, in their opinion, served to greatly diminish any therapeutic value of occupation. The participants recommended a greater focus upon occupational choice, consideration of the individual within the client, providing accepting, supportive environments, and using professional expertise on occupation to guide the client towards participation in meaningful occupation. These recommendations are strikingly similar to the most recent guidelines for the client-centred practice of occupational therapy in Canada. A discussion of the implications of these findings for the client-centred practice of occupational therapy is offered. PMID:10695164

  20. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    feedback signals, we propose a distributed solution, which ensures that a consensus is attained among all occupants upon convergence, irrespective of their temperature preferences being in coherence or conflicting. Occupants are only assumed to be rational, in that they choose their own temperature set-points so as to minimize their individual energy cost plus discomfort. We use Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers ( ADMM) to solve our consensus problem. We further establish the convergence of the proposed algorithm to the optimal thermal set point values that minimize the sum of the energy cost and the aggregate discomfort of all occupants in a multi-zone building. For simulating our consensus algorithm we use realistic building parameters based on the Watervliet test facility. The simulation study based on real world building parameters establish the validity of our theoretical model and provide insights on the dynamics of the system with a mobile user population. In the third part we present a game-theoretic (auction) mechanism, that requires occupants to "purchase" their individualized comfort levels beyond what is provided by default by the building operator. The comfort pricing policy, derived as an extension of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) pricing, ensures incentive-compatibility of the mechanism, i.e., an occupant acting in self-interest cannot benefit from declaring their comfort function untruthfully, irrespective of the choices made by other occupants. The declared (or estimated) occupant comfort ranges (functions) are then utilized by the building operator---along with the energy cost information---to set the environment controls to optimally balance the aggregate discomfort of the occupants and the energy cost of the building operator. We use realistic building model and parameters based on our test facility to demonstrate the convergence of the actual temperatures in different zones to the desired temperatures, and provide insight to the pricing

  1. Using Consultants in the Design, Construction, and Occupancy of New Healthcare Facilities.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2015-11-01

    Nurse leaders are critical players in the design, construction, and occupancy of new healthcare facilities or renovation projects. While most hospitals and healthcare systems have internal resources needed to manage large projects, there is often a recognized need for expertise of external consultants during various phases of design and construction. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of types of external consultants that can be contracted to ensure the success of the project from concept through initial occupancy. PMID:26492145

  2. Occupational Noise Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800-321-6742 (OSHA) TTY www.OSHA.gov FEDERAL GOVERNMENT White House Affordable Care Act Disaster Recovery ...

  3. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... traumatic amputations cancer severe hand injuries multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy , and other chronic illnesses Occupational therapists might: help ...

  4. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. )

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  5. Occupational health in China.

    PubMed

    Christiani, David C; Tan, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaorong

    2002-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid industrialization and economic growth, resulting in a transformed industrial structure and expansion of the labor force. Occupational health and safety services, nonexistent before 1949, have made remarkable advances over the past decades. However, these services face greater challenges, consisting of both traditional and new occupational health problems. Poorly regulated work environments often lacking health services in recently developed and thriving small-scale industries and joint venture enterprises have created increasing risks for occupational diseases and work-related injuries. A special strategy based on cooperation among and contributions from the legal, administrative, social, economic, and scientific communities is critical to achieving the ultimate goal of control and prevention of these occupational health problems.

  6. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  7. Developing Skills for Occupational Transferability. Insight Gained from Current Practice. Information Series No. 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Richard J.

    Occupational transferability is an aspect of human performance that enables individuals to move successfully from one occupation to another. Insights about occupational transferability were gained from site visits to programs currently operating in fourteen organizations in business, industry, and education. These programs were selected because of…

  8. Physical and Life Scientists. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on physical and life scientists, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include biochemists, life scientists, soil…

  9. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  10. Occupational health in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Aw, Tar-Ching; Jefferelli, Shamsul Bahrin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a detailed examination of Malaysian occupational health agencies and their roles in formulating and enforcing standards, promoting occupational health and safety (OSH), and providing advisory services. Available OSH training is described, and the need for policies and personnel in various industries is outlined. Further, the authors discuss how international models and collaboration have influenced Malaysian OSH, and how some successes can be repeated and failures remedied.

  11. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  12. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  13. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  14. Occupant thermal comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiardi, Gena L.

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

  15. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  16. External Cargo Integration Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gueera, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the system integration efforts for external cargo for the International Space Station (ISS). The role and responsibility of the External Carriers Ofice is reviewed. The presentation also reviews the application of the office to the Commercial Cargo Services contract.

  17. An overview of occupational benzene exposures and occupational exposure limits in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Alexander C; Levy, Leonard S

    2005-05-30

    Benzene has become one of the most intensely regulated substances in the world. Its ubiquitous use as a solvent has led to many working populations being exposed; in the early days often in uncontrolled conditions, leading to high exposures. Current occupational exposures are tightly controlled and are largely confined to workers in the petrochemical industry, vehicle mechanics, firefighters, workers exposed to automobile emissions, and some other occupational groups. Typically, occupational exposure levels are currently at or below 3.25 mg/m3 (1 ppm), and environmental exposures are typically below 50 microg/m3 (15 ppb). Smoking remains a significant source of exposure in both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The early experiences of high occupational exposures led to the identification of haematopoietic effects of benzene and the need for improved control and regulation. As with most occupational standards, there has been a reduction in exposure limits as effects have been identified at ever-lower levels, accompanied by a societal concern for improved standards of occupational health. In 1946, the United States occupational exposure limit for benzene, promulgated by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, was 325 mg/m3 (100 ppm), but nowadays most European and North American countries have harmonised at 1.63-3.25mg/m3 (0.5-1 ppm). This latter figure was agreed within the European Union in 1997 and was adopted within national legislation by all Member States. The data on which this limit is set are essentially the same as those used by other standard-setting committees; this is an excellent example of how standards are set using science, pragmatism and societal values in the absence of complete information. PMID:15935799

  18. [Hodgkin's disease and occupation].

    PubMed

    Franco, G; Fonte, R

    1984-01-01

    In order to discuss the hypothesized existence of occupational risk factors in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease (HD), the available literature data are reviewed. The occupations most often considered to be at increased risk of the disease are woodworking, school teaching, hospital occupations and occupations entailing exposure to chemicals. The association between HD and employment in wood industry suggest that exposure to unknown occupational factors may play a role as etiologic agent in this disease. A number of chemical substances that are regularly used may be suspected as causative factors. There are many discrepancies among the results of the studies on the association between school teaching and HD. To date no certain conclusion may be drawn from the presented data. However it has been suggested that the reported excess risk for HD among teachers may be explicable by social class gradient for the disease. The existence of risk factors other than viral may explain the excess risk among physicians and nurses. Because of the characteristics of some highly reactive chemicals their etiologic role may not be underestimated. An association between HD and occupations entailing exposure to various chemicals (organic solvents, benzene, phenoxy acids, chlorophenols) was shown; however no definitive conclusion may be drawn. There are increasing findings that point out the importance of the association between some occupations and development of HD. In spite of the evidence of a link between exposure to various chemicals and HD, there is a clear need to evaluate dose-response relationship between specific type and amount of chemicals and the disease, in order to provide some of the answer we need about the etiology of HD.

  19. [Occupational asthma: current state of the problem].

    PubMed

    Bousová, Karin

    2004-01-01

    possibilities for the application of particular diagnostic methods are given with emphasis on their advantages and limitations and the necessity to determine a proper diagnostic method for the individual patient. In searching for a particular cause of the occupational disease a significant benefit is the determination of a wide range of specific Ig E class serum antigens, in case IgG and standardization of the method provoke tests for its practical application.

  20. Occupational issues of adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general. Results The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem. Conclusions Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems. PMID:23414364

  1. Occupational health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, D; Jeyaratnam, J

    1998-07-01

    Singapore, a newly industrializing country in Southeast Asia, has a resident population of 3 million and a work force of 1.75 million. Most workers are employed in the manufacturing, services, and commerce sectors. Agricultural and mining activities are negligible. In 1996 the infant mortality rate was 3.8 per 1,000 live births and the life expectancy at birth was 77 years. In 1996 the total industrial accident rate was 2.7 per million man-hours worked and the severity rate was 353 industrial man-days lost per million man-hours worked. The shipbuilding and construction industries had the most frequent and most severe accidents. In the same year, 1,521 cases of occupational disease were notified to, and confirmed by, the Ministry of Labor. The majority of cases involved noise-induced hearing loss. There is substantial underreporting of cases. New cases that are expected to appear will be work-related illnesses such as musculoskeletal or psychosocial disorders. The principal occupational health legislation in Singapore is the Factories Act. Although it selectively targets workers at highest risk of developing occupational illness, its main limitation is the exclusion of nonfactory workers, who comprise 63% of the working population. Labor regulations are enforced by the Ministry of Labor. Workmen's compensation paid in 1995 amounted to S $46.6 million (U.S. $1=S $1.75). Education and training in occupational health is provided by employer federations, employee unions, and various government agencies. Occupational health is taught to medical students during their undergraduate training. Postgraduate-diploma and Masters programs in occupational medicine are also available. About 600 doctors in Singapore have some form of postgraduate training in occupational health. Health care for workers is offered either through the private sector or through government clinics and hospitals. Although Singapore has made great strides in protecting and promoting the health of its

  2. Occupational health in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Werner, A F

    2000-07-01

    Argentina is within the denominated "new industrialised countries", with the characteristic of having high contrasts in the urban population, based on service and industry, and in the rural population, based on agriculture and cattle, still the main sources of wealth in the country. The process of globalisation and the need to compete hard in international markets have provoked high unemployment and the transfer of workers from a formal market to an informal one. Legislation on occupational health is old and it is in the process of being updated. The system of prevention, assistance and compensation for accidents at work and for occupational illnesses has changed from being optative for employers, to the compulsory hiring of private insurance companies. The Government keeps the role of supervisor of the system. There are enough professionals in occupational health, hygiene and safety but not occupational nurses. The teaching is given by many universities and professional associations, some of which have an active profile in the occupational health of the country.

  3. Occupational health in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Smith, Kirk R

    2002-01-01

    The population of India has crossed the billion mark; only one other country (China) shares this distinction. A declining female population and low literacy are negatives in an otherwise vibrant country. The empowerment of females and their role in society has become a point of debate, and radical economic changes are likely, to allow India to join the global economy. Problems in occupational health and safety (OHS) include: OHS legislation that covers only a minority of the working population; child labour; a physician-driven OHS model; little attention to industrial hygiene; poor surveillance of occupational diseases (making it impossible to gauge the burden of illness due to occupational exposures); and a fragile OHS academic base. A silver lining comprises the inclusion of OHS in national health policy and the decision by the Indian Medical Association to educate its members in occupational health. India urgently requires modern OHS legislation with adequate enforcement machinery, and establishment of centres of excellence in occupational medicine, to catch up with the rest of the world.

  4. World Federation of occupational therapists' position statement on telehealth.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to state the World Federation of Occupational Therapists' (WFOT) position on the use of telehealth for the delivery of occupational therapy services. Telehealth is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to deliver health-related services when the provider and client are in different physical locations. Additional terms used to describe this service delivery model include: tele-occupational therapy, telerehabilitation, teletherapy, telecare, telemedicine, and telepractice, among other terms. Telehealth may be used by occupational therapy practitioners for evaluation, intervention, monitoring, supervision, and consultation (between remote therapist, client, and/or local health-care provider) as permitted by jurisdictional, institutional, and professional regulations and policies governing the practice of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy services via telehealth should be appropriate to the individuals, groups and cultures served, and contextualized to the occupations and interests of clients. Important considerations related to licensure/registration, collaboration with local occupational therapists, client selection, consent to treat, professional liability insurance, confidentiality, personal and cultural attributes, provider competence/standards of care, reimbursement/payer guidelines, and authentic occupational therapy practice are discussed. PMID:25945221

  5. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  10. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  11. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  12. Marketing occupational therapy services.

    PubMed

    Kautzmann, L N

    1985-01-01

    The ability to understand and appropriately apply business skills is a key component in the development of a successful private practice. Marketing is one of the business skills occupational therapists need to have in order to take full advantage of the opportunities available to entrepeneurs in the health care industry. The purpose of this article is to present a structured approach to marketing occupational therapy services through the use of a marketing plan. The four components of a marketing plan, a situation analysis, the identification of problems, opportunities, and target markets, the development of a marketing strategy for each targeted market, and a method to monitor the plan, are discussed. Applications to occupational therapy practice are suggested. The use of a marketing plan as a method for organizing and focusing marketing efforts is an effective means of supporting and enhancing the development of a private practice.

  13. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  14. Occupational medicine for one and all.

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, R S

    1991-01-01

    In the 1930s in Britain, industrial medicine was a clinical discipline, the main purposes of which were to diagnose disability in applicants for work, to identify industrial disease in the dangerous trades, and to provide first aid treatment for those injured or taken sick in the workplace. Following rapid developments in epidemiology and occupational hygiene and with more emphasis on "group health" and less on "individual care", occupational medicine has tended to become less of a clinical discipline; yet clinical skills are needed to assess fitness for work, to identify adverse effects of work, and to undertake consultations on a variety of health problems. Although care of the individual worker is a major task, an occupational health service has a responsibility for the health of the workforce as a whole, using epidemiology to plan and administer health care, to identify and control work related disorders, and to promote health by identifying positive factors in the organisation that induce a sense of well being; and by health screening and education programmes. Academic occupational health should not lose its identity as a clinical discipline in any merger with environmental health. Medical skills are needed to assess fitness for work and to identify human responses to adverse factors in the environment and to evaluate control measures. PMID:1854647

  15. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  16. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  17. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  18. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  19. Cause of occupational disease.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D C

    1995-01-01

    The concept of causality is reviewed with special emphasis on occupational diseases. Separate approaches from the philosophical, scientific, and legal points of view are identified. There is controversy over the methodology of logical causality; inductive and deductive methods are described and reference is made to the verification or refutation approach. Application of the methods to epidemiology are reviewed. It is likely that many diseases have multiple causes and that only a component of occupational causality can be identified in each patient. Methods of assigning such a component are discussed. The difficulties of developing an equitable compensation policy in such circumstances are reviewed. The possible benefits of proportional compensation are noted. PMID:7795749

  20. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  1. Occupational risks for pleural mesothelioma in Sweden, 1961-79.

    PubMed

    Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Erickson, J L; Blot, W J

    1985-01-01

    From national population-based registries linking cancer incidence from 1961 to 1979 with 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, a systematic assessment was made of pleural mesothelioma occurrence according to occupational and industrial classifications. There were 318 cases of pleural mesothelioma recorded during the 19-year follow-up period among males employed in 1960, with significant variation by industrial and occupational categorizations. The observed number of pleural mesotheliomas for men employed in the sugar refining, cellulose, wood and pulp, shipbuilding, and railroad equipment manufacturing industries was more than three times the number expected. Occupations with at least twofold excess of mesotheliomas included the craftsman categories of plumbers, mechanics and repairmen, electricians, painters, tire makers, and stationary equipment operators. Our findings are consistent with available data relating mesothelioma to occupational asbestos exposure in other countries, although unexpected associations were found that deserve further epidemiologic study.

  2. The evolution of occupational health and the role of government.

    PubMed

    Wade, R

    1982-12-01

    Concern for the protection of workers' health is not new to medicine. Physicians in the 1400's raised awareness among colleagues as to the need to prevent the diseases of employment in mines. Society has responded to increasing levels of evidence as to the relationships between disease and certain worksites by making employers accountable for the individual and social costs incurred by poor workplace hygiene. This has occurred by the development of workers' compensation and occupational health and safety regulatory programs. The impact of these efforts has been to significantly reduce occupational disease and safety problems in industry. Increasing resources have also been given to the training of physicians in occupational medicine and research into links between occupations and disease. Increasing pressure to reduce public spending and to deregulate are challenging government's ability to continue research, training, technical information distribution, consultation and regulatory cleanup efforts to improve work conditions and thus reduce the incidence of occupational safety and health problems.

  3. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  4. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  5. Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical, Drug, and Paper and Allied Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in refining and industrial chemical, drug, and paper manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in…

  6. Health Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Catherine; And Others

    These instructional materials consist of a series of curriculum worksheets that cover tasks to be mastered by students in health occupations cluster programs. Covered in the curriculum worksheets are diagnostic procedures; observing/recording/reporting/planning; safety; nutrition/elimination; hygiene/personal care/comfort;…

  7. Evaluating Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses the importance of evaluating occupational programs on a regular basis. Offers a brief explanation of the approaches to program evaluation taken at the Dallas County Community College District (TX), South Puget Sound Community College (WA), and Triton College (IL). Offers a list of references on program evaluation. (CBC)

  8. Coping With Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dianne Boswell

    1981-01-01

    Ways of reducing occupational stress include: (1) avoiding the stressful situation; (2) changing the response to the stress; and (3) changing the environment. Administrators can help teachers manage stress by developing communication techniques, steering committees, and support groups. A second part of this article will be published in the January…

  9. Occupational Burnout among Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  10. Building Industries Occupations: Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The Building Industries Occupations course is a two-year program of approximately 160 three-period teaching days per year. The required course content is designed to be effectively taught in 80 percent of the total course time, thus allowing 20 percent of the time for instruction adapted to such local conditions as employment prospects, student…

  11. Diversified Occupations I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Jody

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting the first year of a two-year course in diversified occupations that is designed to teach job search and job-holding skills to disadvantaged and English as a second language (ESL) students. Addressed in the 25 units included in the guide are the following topics: the purposes of…

  12. Pharmacist. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsley, Nancy

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the pharmacist's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of two real…

  13. British Communicator Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy

    Occupations and organizations within the British press and broadcasting systems are examined in this paper. Its sections summarize recent British research on media communicators and discuss characteristics of craft unions and other media organizations; the historical development of the British press; the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and…

  14. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  15. Occupational Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, R. Timothy; And Others

    Intended for teachers of adult basic education as well as teachers in job retraining programs, this book focuses on the development of written and oral language competencies required in occupational and training settings. The first four chapters offer a concise synthesis of recent research on adult learning and on workplace literacy for ten…

  16. Computers and occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    English, C B

    1975-01-01

    The benefits and applications of computer science for occupational therapy are explored and a basic, functional description of the computer and computer programming is presented. Potential problems and advantages of computer utilization are compared and examples of existing computer systems in health fields are cited. Methods for successfully introducing computers are discussed.

  17. Marketing Occupations. Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This cluster guide, which is designed to show teachers what specific knowledge and skills qualify high school students for entry-level employment (or postsecondary training) in marketing occupations, is organized into three sections: (1) cluster organization and implementation, (2) instructional emphasis areas, and (3) assessment. The first…

  18. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  19. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  20. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  1. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  2. Occupational Therapist Assistants and Aides

    MedlinePlus

    ... 700 [ XLSX ] <- Pay State & Area Data -> State & Area Data About this section Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The ... the major industries employing the occupation. State & Area Data The State and Area Data tab provides links ...

  3. Data security in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Damrongsak, Mantana; Brown, Kathleen C

    2008-10-01

    Occupational health nurses are increasingly using computer systems in the delivery of efficient, high-quality occupational health services. However, potential breaches in data security are posing more risks to these data systems. The purpose of this article is to address concerns related to data security in occupational health nursing. Occupational health nurses must protect the personal health information of employees by proactively developing methods to ensure data security.

  4. ISSOE Student Guidance and Development of Personalized Occupational Education Programs. Findings and Recommendations, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuke, Vernon; Frank, Robert

    The Instructional Support System for Occupational Education (ISSOE) project focused on (1) review of individualized education systems, (2) selection of appropriate occupational clusters, and (3) development and field testing of a system and materials. Exemplary and innovative approaches to individualized education were reviewed by site visits and…

  5. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  6. Masonry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for masonry occupations contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

  7. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  8. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  9. [Vaccination against hepatitis A among occupational risk groups].

    PubMed

    Mukomolov, S L; Levakova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate vaccine prevention of hepatitis A in occupational risk groups in Russian Federation over 2011-2013. Epidemiologic analysis method was used. Data array for the analysis included information about 1,162,619 individuals vaccinated against hepatitis A throughout the country. Findings are that during the studied period a total of 470,278 adults over 18 years were vaccinated (i.e., 0,4% of all population of this age). Among occupational risk groups subjected to anti-hepatitis A vaccination within immunization calendar on epidemic indications, major (29%) share was presented by catering enterprises workers and individuals engaged into food trade and supply. Other occupational risk groups (workers maintaining water supply systems and sewerage system, medical staff, preschool institution teachers, etc) demonstrated significantly lower levels of being vaccinated. Vaccination against hepatitis Ain occupational risk groups should be in a focus of prophylactic measures, as will help to control over hepatitis A spread.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  11. The occupational roles of women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Cestari, Leila Maria; Ribeiro, Rosane Pilot Pessa

    2012-01-01

    This study's objective was to understand how occupational roles of individuals with anorexia nervosa are configured. The sample was composed of a control group and 11 adult women with anorexia nervosa being cared for by the Eating Disorders Care Group in a hospital in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected and the Role Checklist was applied. The results revealed a significant loss of roles for women with anorexia nervosa in relation to the performance of the roles worker, friend, and amateur/hobbyist, supporting the idea that psychosocial harm may arise from this eating disorder. The evaluation of occupational roles in the treatment of eating disorders is an important strategy for planning Occupational Therapy activities and supporting the creation of healthier spaces to enable individuals to resume occupational roles, and acquire independence and autonomy. PMID:22699719

  12. [Vaccination against hepatitis A among occupational risk groups].

    PubMed

    Mukomolov, S L; Levakova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate vaccine prevention of hepatitis A in occupational risk groups in Russian Federation over 2011-2013. Epidemiologic analysis method was used. Data array for the analysis included information about 1,162,619 individuals vaccinated against hepatitis A throughout the country. Findings are that during the studied period a total of 470,278 adults over 18 years were vaccinated (i.e., 0,4% of all population of this age). Among occupational risk groups subjected to anti-hepatitis A vaccination within immunization calendar on epidemic indications, major (29%) share was presented by catering enterprises workers and individuals engaged into food trade and supply. Other occupational risk groups (workers maintaining water supply systems and sewerage system, medical staff, preschool institution teachers, etc) demonstrated significantly lower levels of being vaccinated. Vaccination against hepatitis Ain occupational risk groups should be in a focus of prophylactic measures, as will help to control over hepatitis A spread. PMID:25881392

  13. Occupational contact urticaria caused by food - a systematic clinical review.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Judit; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Food industry workers are at increased risk for occupational contact urticaria (CU). There are many foodstuffs that have been reported to cause occupational CU, including seafood, meat, vegetables, and fruits. The aim of this review is to summarize all reported occupational cases of CU in the food industry. This is a systematic review based on a MEDLINE search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1990 and 2014, to summarize the case reports and case series of occupational CU in the food industry. Many different foodstuffs have been implicated in CU. Occupational CU has been reported in many different occupations, mostly in individuals dealing with seafood, meat, vegetables, and fruits, such as chefs, cooks, bakers, butchers, slaughterhouse workers, and fish-factory workers. Foodstuffs that commonly induce occupational protein contact dermatitis include fish, seafood, meats, vegetables, and fruits. Food handlers may acquire CU resulting from occupational exposures. The prognosis varies widely. The diagnosis of immunological CU is based on the clinical history and on a positive prick test with the suspected substance and/or measurement of specific IgE.

  14. Occupational contact urticaria caused by food - a systematic clinical review.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Judit; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Food industry workers are at increased risk for occupational contact urticaria (CU). There are many foodstuffs that have been reported to cause occupational CU, including seafood, meat, vegetables, and fruits. The aim of this review is to summarize all reported occupational cases of CU in the food industry. This is a systematic review based on a MEDLINE search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1990 and 2014, to summarize the case reports and case series of occupational CU in the food industry. Many different foodstuffs have been implicated in CU. Occupational CU has been reported in many different occupations, mostly in individuals dealing with seafood, meat, vegetables, and fruits, such as chefs, cooks, bakers, butchers, slaughterhouse workers, and fish-factory workers. Foodstuffs that commonly induce occupational protein contact dermatitis include fish, seafood, meats, vegetables, and fruits. Food handlers may acquire CU resulting from occupational exposures. The prognosis varies widely. The diagnosis of immunological CU is based on the clinical history and on a positive prick test with the suspected substance and/or measurement of specific IgE. PMID:27425004

  15. The accuracy of occupation and industry data on death certificates.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Beaumont, J

    1984-04-01

    To assess the accuracy of occupation and industry data on death certificates, we compared the known occupation and industry of 3,789 individuals with information on their death certificates. All individuals were members of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health cohort studies and their occupation and industry were known from personnel or union records. We focused our analysis on 2,198 long-term workers who had 10 or more years of work experience (average, 18 years). Our principal finding was that for the long-term workers in our sample, the probability of the known occupation being listed on their death certificates was 64.7% (SE = 1.1) (for white workers this figure was 73.5% (SE = 1.2). Furthermore, for the long-term workers the probability of the plant or industry being named on their death certificates was 70.1% (SE = 1.2). Women and non-whites had lower matching rates. For women the probability of a matched listing was 45.1% for occupation and 60.4% for industry. For nonwhites, it was only 30.1% for occupation and 49.2% for industry. Our results for white long-term workers generally agree with the results of previous investigators who have used different methods.

  16. Statistical characterization of radiation doses from external exposures and relevant contributors in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Shogo; Abe, Tatsuya; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Shiratori, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    In areas contaminated by radioactive materials, well designed dose assessment is necessary in order to protect people from radiation exposure and manage the exposure situation appropriately. Probabilistic dose assessment is a useful method for providing a more complete characterization of information on dose distributions in the population and requires statistically characterized data on pathway-relevant contributors. The objective of this paper is to determine statistical features of contributors to external exposures, as well as to identify causes of variabilities of individual doses to the populations living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To achieve these objectives, measurements of individual doses and ambient dose rates, as well as surveys of behavioral patterns, were performed between February and April 2012. These were made with the cooperation of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners living in Fukushima prefecture. On the basis of these results, statistical analyses were performed in order to identify variabilities of contributors. In addition, a multi-regression analysis was done to explore a significant relationship between individual doses and relevant contributors. Results showed that the ambient dose equivalent rate also distributed with lognormal form, and it had variabilities attributable to the spatial distribution of deposited radionuclides. The distribution form of time spent outdoors depends on the characteristics of occupation, and the distributions for indoor workers and outdoor workers were lognormal and normal, respectively. Results of a multiple-regression analysis suggested that such variabilities of contributors give rise to significant differences in individual doses among the populations.

  17. Statistical characterization of radiation doses from external exposures and relevant contributors in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Shogo; Abe, Tatsuya; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Shiratori, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    In areas contaminated by radioactive materials, well designed dose assessment is necessary in order to protect people from radiation exposure and manage the exposure situation appropriately. Probabilistic dose assessment is a useful method for providing a more complete characterization of information on dose distributions in the population and requires statistically characterized data on pathway-relevant contributors. The objective of this paper is to determine statistical features of contributors to external exposures, as well as to identify causes of variabilities of individual doses to the populations living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To achieve these objectives, measurements of individual doses and ambient dose rates, as well as surveys of behavioral patterns, were performed between February and April 2012. These were made with the cooperation of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners living in Fukushima prefecture. On the basis of these results, statistical analyses were performed in order to identify variabilities of contributors. In addition, a multi-regression analysis was done to explore a significant relationship between individual doses and relevant contributors. Results showed that the ambient dose equivalent rate also distributed with lognormal form, and it had variabilities attributable to the spatial distribution of deposited radionuclides. The distribution form of time spent outdoors depends on the characteristics of occupation, and the distributions for indoor workers and outdoor workers were lognormal and normal, respectively. Results of a multiple-regression analysis suggested that such variabilities of contributors give rise to significant differences in individual doses among the populations. PMID:25162423

  18. Development of occupational therapy in a homeless shelter.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, G; Finlayson, M

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a program which provides occupational therapy services to a population of homeless individuals residing in an emergency shelter in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Principles of community-built practice were combined with the use of the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance to provide the theoretical approach for the program. A needs assessment was done and the programming developed and implemented based on identified needs is described. Outcomes and recommendations for the future are discussed. PMID:23944266

  19. Shift work and employee fatigue: implications for occupational health nursing.

    PubMed

    Yumang-Ross, Doreen J; Burns, Candace

    2014-06-01

    Long work hours and irregular shifts are part of the nation's 24-hour society and contribute to employee fatigue. Factors affecting employee fatigue are circadian rhythm, sleep quality and quantity, individual health, the environment, and work tasks. Employee fatigue contributes to accidents and injuries, and affects occupational performance, safety, and health. These findings should be used by occupational health nurses to address fatigue management and develop comprehensive fatigue management programs.

  20. Biographical factors of occupational independence.

    PubMed

    Müller, G F

    2001-10-01

    The present study examined biographical factors of occupational independence including any kind of nonemployed profession. Participants were 59 occupationally independent and 58 employed persons of different age (M = 36.3 yr.), sex, and profession. They were interviewed on variables like family influence, educational background, occupational role models, and critical events for choosing a particular type of occupational career. The obtained results show that occupationally independent people reported stronger family ties, experienced fewer restrictions of formal education, and remembered fewer negative role models than the employed people. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11783553

  1. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  2. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  3. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  4. Ethics in biomonitoring for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Manno, M; Sito, F; Licciardi, L

    2014-12-01

    Biological monitoring, i.e., the use of biomarkers for the measurement of systemic human exposure, effects and susceptibility to chemicals has increased considerably in recent years. Biomonitoring techniques, originally limited to a few metals and other chemicals in the workplace, are currently applied to a large number of exposure situations and have become a useful tool for occupational and environmental health risk assessment. Almost any biomonitoring program, however, entails a number of relevant ethical issues, which concern all the phases of the entire process, from the selection of the biomarker to the study design, from the collection, storage and analysis of the biological sample to the interpretation, communication and management of the results, from the (truly?) informed consent of the worker to the independence and autonomy of the occupational health professional. These issues require a balanced assessment of the interests and responsibilities of all the parties, the worker primarily, but also the employer, the occupational health professional, the health authorities and, for research studies on new biomarkers, also the scientists involved. Ideally, decisions of ethical relevance concerning biomarkers should be based on, and respectful of the best scientific, legal and ethical evidence available. When, however, a conflict should arise, before any decision is taken a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be done, at the beginning of the process and after listening to the workers and the management involved, by the occupational physician or scientist, based on his/her professional experience, independent judgement and individual responsibility.

  5. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  6. Ethics in biomonitoring for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Manno, M; Sito, F; Licciardi, L

    2014-12-01

    Biological monitoring, i.e., the use of biomarkers for the measurement of systemic human exposure, effects and susceptibility to chemicals has increased considerably in recent years. Biomonitoring techniques, originally limited to a few metals and other chemicals in the workplace, are currently applied to a large number of exposure situations and have become a useful tool for occupational and environmental health risk assessment. Almost any biomonitoring program, however, entails a number of relevant ethical issues, which concern all the phases of the entire process, from the selection of the biomarker to the study design, from the collection, storage and analysis of the biological sample to the interpretation, communication and management of the results, from the (truly?) informed consent of the worker to the independence and autonomy of the occupational health professional. These issues require a balanced assessment of the interests and responsibilities of all the parties, the worker primarily, but also the employer, the occupational health professional, the health authorities and, for research studies on new biomarkers, also the scientists involved. Ideally, decisions of ethical relevance concerning biomarkers should be based on, and respectful of the best scientific, legal and ethical evidence available. When, however, a conflict should arise, before any decision is taken a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be done, at the beginning of the process and after listening to the workers and the management involved, by the occupational physician or scientist, based on his/her professional experience, independent judgement and individual responsibility. PMID:25447455

  7. U.K. standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Adisesh, A; Robinson, E; Nicholson, PJ; Sen, D; Wilkinson, M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is a process that involves fastidious clinical and occupational history taking, clinical examination, patch testing and skin-prick testing. A temporal relationship of work and/or the presence of a rash on the hands only raises suspicion of an occupational cause, and does not necessarily confirm an occupational causation. The identification of allergy by patch or prick tests is a major objective, as exclusion of an offending allergen from the environment can contribute to clinical recovery in the individual worker and avoidance of new cases of disease. This can be a complex process where allergens and irritants, and therefore allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, may coexist. This article provides guidance to healthcare professionals dealing with workers exposed to agents that potentially cause OCD and OCU. Specifically it aims to summarize the 2010 British Occupational Health Research Foundation (BOHRF) systematic review, and also to help practitioners translate the BOHRF guideline into clinical practice. As such, it aims to be of value to physicians and nurses based in primary and secondary care, as well as occupational health and public health clinicians. It is hoped that it will also be of value to employers, interested workers and those with responsibility for workplace standards, such as health and safety representatives. Note that it is not intended, nor should it be taken to imply, that these standards of care override existing statutory and legal obligations. Duties under the U.K. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, the Equality Act 2010 and other relevant legislation and guidance must be given due consideration, as should laws relevant to other countries. PMID:23374107

  8. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  9. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  10. Occupational health in Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, M R

    1981-01-01

    Health and safety regulation, training, and research were practically non-existent in Cuba before the Revolution in 1959. Since that time important advances have been made. Specialized inspectors, occupational physicians, and other such personnel are now trained in Cuba. An Occupational Health Institute, founded in 1976, provides training and specialized technical services, and conducts research. In 1978, a far reaching "Work Safety and Health Law" was enacted which defines the rights and responsibility of government agencies, workplace administrators, unions, and workers. Comprehensive control of toxic substances in workplaces, still at an early stage, is likely to increase in light of the new law, the growing availability of qualified personnel, and the mounting concern of public health authorities with the increasingly "developed" health profile of the population. PMID:7212141

  11. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  12. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  13. Advances in Inhalation Dosimetry Models and Methods for Occupational Risk Assessment and Exposure Limit Derivation

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Eileen D.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Morris, John B.; Jarabek, Annie M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and practical guide to occupational health professionals concerning the derivation and use of dose estimates in risk assessment for development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for inhaled substances. Dosimetry is the study and practice of measuring or estimating the internal dose of a substance in individuals or a population. Dosimetry thus provides an essential link to understanding the relationship between an external exposure and a biological response. Use of dosimetry principles and tools can improve the accuracy of risk assessment, and reduce the uncertainty, by providing reliable estimates of the internal dose at the target tissue. This is accomplished through specific measurement data or predictive models, when available, or the use of basic dosimetry principles for broad classes of materials. Accurate dose estimation is essential not only for dose-response assessment, but also for interspecies extrapolation and for risk characterization at given exposures. Inhalation dosimetry is the focus of this paper since it is a major route of exposure in the workplace. Practical examples of dose estimation and OEL derivation are provided for inhaled gases and particulates. PMID:26551218

  14. Ethical issues in occupational health research.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth M; Hurrell, Joseph J; Colligan, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    This is an overview of ethical issues in occupational health research involving human subjects. Research that requires human subjects review must be distinguished from surveillance or public health practice. Confidentiality and privacy concerns are particularly important in an occupational setting because individual participants may be identifiable through job title or other characteristics, and because there may be concerns about employment discrimination associated with participation status or results. Additional issues include notification of individual test results to the study participants, including whether the results have clinical significance and/or provide other potentially relevant information to the study subjects; consent for banking of biological specimens for future research (e.g., uses of the specimens, plans for anonymization, notification of future results); and the higher level of sensitivity of workplace studies involving genetic modifiers of risk. Many occupational studies involve no more than minimal risk. Studies that involve greater than minimal risk require the investigator to document the potential risks and attempt to minimize them.

  15. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  16. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  17. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  18. Occupational asthma in a hairdressing salon.

    PubMed Central

    Blainey, A D; Ollier, S; Cundell, D; Smith, R E; Davies, R J

    1986-01-01

    Occupational asthma among hairdressers has been recognised for some years and cases of work related asthma due to hair bleaches containing persulphates and hair dyes have been reported. The extent of the disease among hairdressers remains unknown. An investigation was carried out on an entire hairdressing salon, which specialised in hair bleaching and colouring and which employed 23 staff. On the basis of history and specific and non-specific bronchial provocation testing, four out of 23 staff were found to have occupational asthma due to the persulphate salts contained in hair bleaches. Only one of these had a positive skinprick test response to persulphate salts. Tests for non-specific bronchial reactivity to histamine in this work force were more sensitive for the diagnosis of asthma than simple lung function tests or recordings of peak flow rates performed four times daily for three weeks. The response to these agents was studied in greater detail by specific bronchial provocation tests in 14 members of the salon as well as one hairdresser from elsewhere with occupational asthma, three individuals with non-occupational asthma, and four normal subjects. Only those with a history of work related asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity responded positively, confirming that the response to bleach powders was specific. Studies of pulmonary mechanics after challenge showed that the response arose from changes in airway calibre not lung volumes. Measurement of neutrophil chemotactic activity after challenge showed significant rises in those affected, suggesting that mast cells may play a part in the pathogenesis of occupational asthma due to persulphates. Images PMID:3704965

  19. Occupational asthma in a hairdressing salon.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Ollier, S; Cundell, D; Smith, R E; Davies, R J

    1986-01-01

    Occupational asthma among hairdressers has been recognised for some years and cases of work related asthma due to hair bleaches containing persulphates and hair dyes have been reported. The extent of the disease among hairdressers remains unknown. An investigation was carried out on an entire hairdressing salon, which specialised in hair bleaching and colouring and which employed 23 staff. On the basis of history and specific and non-specific bronchial provocation testing, four out of 23 staff were found to have occupational asthma due to the persulphate salts contained in hair bleaches. Only one of these had a positive skinprick test response to persulphate salts. Tests for non-specific bronchial reactivity to histamine in this work force were more sensitive for the diagnosis of asthma than simple lung function tests or recordings of peak flow rates performed four times daily for three weeks. The response to these agents was studied in greater detail by specific bronchial provocation tests in 14 members of the salon as well as one hairdresser from elsewhere with occupational asthma, three individuals with non-occupational asthma, and four normal subjects. Only those with a history of work related asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity responded positively, confirming that the response to bleach powders was specific. Studies of pulmonary mechanics after challenge showed that the response arose from changes in airway calibre not lung volumes. Measurement of neutrophil chemotactic activity after challenge showed significant rises in those affected, suggesting that mast cells may play a part in the pathogenesis of occupational asthma due to persulphates.

  20. Occupational asthma in a hairdressing salon.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Ollier, S; Cundell, D; Smith, R E; Davies, R J

    1986-01-01

    Occupational asthma among hairdressers has been recognised for some years and cases of work related asthma due to hair bleaches containing persulphates and hair dyes have been reported. The extent of the disease among hairdressers remains unknown. An investigation was carried out on an entire hairdressing salon, which specialised in hair bleaching and colouring and which employed 23 staff. On the basis of history and specific and non-specific bronchial provocation testing, four out of 23 staff were found to have occupational asthma due to the persulphate salts contained in hair bleaches. Only one of these had a positive skinprick test response to persulphate salts. Tests for non-specific bronchial reactivity to histamine in this work force were more sensitive for the diagnosis of asthma than simple lung function tests or recordings of peak flow rates performed four times daily for three weeks. The response to these agents was studied in greater detail by specific bronchial provocation tests in 14 members of the salon as well as one hairdresser from elsewhere with occupational asthma, three individuals with non-occupational asthma, and four normal subjects. Only those with a history of work related asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity responded positively, confirming that the response to bleach powders was specific. Studies of pulmonary mechanics after challenge showed that the response arose from changes in airway calibre not lung volumes. Measurement of neutrophil chemotactic activity after challenge showed significant rises in those affected, suggesting that mast cells may play a part in the pathogenesis of occupational asthma due to persulphates. PMID:3704965

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. Shortfalls in imputing sarcoidosis to occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jerome M

    2013-04-01

    The cause of sarcoidosis remains elusive. Reports of elevated sarcoidosis incidence in New York City firefighters and World Trade Center disaster responders have been advanced to support a causal relationship. This inference is open to question due to methodological differences in assessing and computing sarcoidosis incidence in populations versus putative occupational exposures. The magnitude of the odds ratio (OR; ca. 1.5) of causal candidates in the ACCESS case-control study of occupational and environmental exposures is sufficiently small that it might easily be attributable to confounders. Additionally, multiplicity of comparisons, difficulty in assembling a valid control population and the potential for recall bias critically limit causal inferences. A possible explanation for etiological elusiveness and multiplicity of elevated OR is that individuals with sarcoidosis, lacking components of efficient cellular immunity, respond with systemic granulomas to a variety of ubiquitous, frequently unidentifiable environmental antigens. Epidemiological methods for the identification of sarcoidosis causal candidates are potentially misleading and are unlikely to prove useful.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations.

  11. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations. PMID:23004010

  12. Living with Parkinson's and the Emerging Role of Occupational Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jansa, Jelka; Aragon, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic and increasingly complex condition, demanding multidisciplinary management. Over the last twenty years or so, alongside the growth of specialist services and healthcare teams specifically developed for people with Parkinson's, occupational therapy has grown in recognition as a treatment option, especially since evidence of its efficacy is now slowly emerging. The purpose of this work is to outline the role of occupational therapy clinical practice in the management of people living with Parkinson's disease and its emergent evidence base, combined with details of current occupational therapy philosophy and process, as applicable to occupational therapy practice for people with Parkinson's. The Canadian Practice Process Framework is used to structure this overview and was selected because it is a well-recognized, evidence-based tool used by occupational therapists and encompasses the core concepts of human occupation and person-centred practice. The framework employed allows the flexibility to reflect the pragmatic occupational therapy intervention process and so enables the illustration of the individually tailored approach required to accommodate to the complex pathology and personal, domestic, and social impacts, affecting the functioning of Parkinson's disease patients on a daily basis. PMID:26495151

  13. Physically Disabled Adults' Perceptions of Personal Autonomy: Impact on Occupational Engagement.

    PubMed

    Collins, Bethan; O'Mahony, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Despite the prominence of the concept of autonomy in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities and within disability theory, the relevance of autonomy to occupational engagement is unclear. Using a qualitative, narrative approach, eight adults with significant physical disabilities engaged in iterative interviews exploring their life history and perception of autonomy in daily life. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and themed. Key themes that emerged were that participants valued autonomy differently; their perception of their own personal autonomy influenced both occupational choices and the meaning derived from occupational engagement. While some participants actively sought occupations in which they could make decisions, others preferred more supportive environments, yet all participants avoided situations in which their autonomy was undermined. Awareness of an individual's values regarding autonomy could assist occupational therapists to both select appropriate occupations for intervention and discuss the meaning derived from occupations, thereby enhancing client-centered practice. PMID:26594738

  14. Occupational health needs of universities: a review with an emphasis on the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Venables, K M; Allender, S

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the needs of universities in relation to planning the provision of occupational health services, by detailing their occupational hazards and risks and other relevant factors. The paper presents the results of (1) an enquiry into publicly available data relevant to occupational health in the university sector in the United Kingdom, (2) a literature review on occupational health provision in universities, and (3) selected results from a survey of university occupational health services in the UK. Although the enquiry and survey, but not the literature review, were restricted to the UK, the authors consider that the results are relevant to other countries because of the broad similarities of the university sector between countries. These three approaches showed that the university sector is large, with a notably wide range of occupational hazards, and other significant factors which must be considered in planning occupational health provision for individual universities or for the sector as a whole. PMID:16497856

  15. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E

    2006-12-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms.

  16. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms. Images Figure 2 PMID:17225850

  17. The Relationship Between Burnout and Occupational Stress in Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Brittney; Kaiser, Amy; Injeyan, Marie C; Sappleton, Karen; Chitayat, David; Stephens, Derek; Shuman, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    Burnout represents a critical disruption in an individual's relationship with work, resulting in a state of exhaustion in which one's occupational value and capacity to perform are questioned. Burnout can negatively affect an individual's personal life, as well as employers in terms of decreased work quality, patient/client satisfaction, and employee retention. Occupational stress is a known contributor to burnout and occurs as a result of employment requirements and factors intrinsic to the work environment. Empirical research examining genetic counselor-specific burnout is limited; however, existing data suggests that genetic counselors are at increased risk for burnout. To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and burnout in genetic counselors, we administered an online survey to members of three genetic counselor professional organizations. Validated measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (an instrument measuring burnout on three subscales: exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (an instrument measuring occupational stress on 14 subscales). Of the 353 respondents, more than 40 % had either considered leaving or left their job role due to burnout. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant predictors for burnout risk. The identified sets of predictors account for approximately 59 % of the variance in exhaustion, 58 % of the variance in cynicism, and 43 % of the variance in professional efficacy. Our data confirm that a significant number of genetic counselors experience burnout and that burnout is correlated with specific aspects of occupational stress. Based on these findings, practice and research recommendations are presented. PMID:27228983

  18. The Relationship Between Burnout and Occupational Stress in Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Brittney; Kaiser, Amy; Injeyan, Marie C; Sappleton, Karen; Chitayat, David; Stephens, Derek; Shuman, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    Burnout represents a critical disruption in an individual's relationship with work, resulting in a state of exhaustion in which one's occupational value and capacity to perform are questioned. Burnout can negatively affect an individual's personal life, as well as employers in terms of decreased work quality, patient/client satisfaction, and employee retention. Occupational stress is a known contributor to burnout and occurs as a result of employment requirements and factors intrinsic to the work environment. Empirical research examining genetic counselor-specific burnout is limited; however, existing data suggests that genetic counselors are at increased risk for burnout. To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and burnout in genetic counselors, we administered an online survey to members of three genetic counselor professional organizations. Validated measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (an instrument measuring burnout on three subscales: exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (an instrument measuring occupational stress on 14 subscales). Of the 353 respondents, more than 40 % had either considered leaving or left their job role due to burnout. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant predictors for burnout risk. The identified sets of predictors account for approximately 59 % of the variance in exhaustion, 58 % of the variance in cynicism, and 43 % of the variance in professional efficacy. Our data confirm that a significant number of genetic counselors experience burnout and that burnout is correlated with specific aspects of occupational stress. Based on these findings, practice and research recommendations are presented.

  19. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references.

  20. The role of occupational attributes in gender earnings inequality, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in the research on the important role of social structures in forming gender inequalities, this study examines the effect of occupational attributes on the gender earnings gap over four decades. Using the IPUMS-USA from 1970 to 2010, the paper shows that occupational attributes cannot be reduced to the aggregate attributes of their individual incumbents. Rather, the effect of occupations on the gender earnings gap goes far beyond both the distributive role of occupational segregation and the effect of individual wage-related characteristics. Furthermore, occupations not only explain a significant portion of net gender pay gaps, but have also contributed to the narrowing of the gaps over the past several decades, as occupational attributes that favor women's pay have become more dominant over time. PMID:26680293

  1. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  2. Roles of Occupational Therapists in Theater, Past and Present.

    PubMed

    Smith-Forbes, Enrique V; Quick, Charles D; Brown, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    The impetus to deploy occupational therapy (OT) assets into theaters of operation lies in the occupational therapist's ability to evaluate the effect of physical and/or behavioral symptoms on functional performance and effectively develop individualized interventions. Occupational therapy utilization has been robust during 14 years of continuous deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy's indoctrinated role in combat is solely with the combat and operational stress control missions, however, the skills and capabilities of this profession have demonstrated efficacy in other specializations, including concussion care. The effectiveness of OT interventions is demonstrated with improved return to duty (RTD) rates for casualties suffering with combat and operational stress reactions where OT was a major component of a restoration and reconditioning program. As well, postconcussion RTD rates have been linked to the broad skill sets inherent in OT that allow casualties to remain in theater from the point of injury to complete recovery and RTD. PMID:27215870

  3. Development of an occupational health data base system.

    PubMed

    Dye, B J; Lombard, R A; Worthy, C D

    1983-06-01

    Operational concerns, coupled with rising workers' compensation costs and the proliferation of regulatory requirements, call for a new approach to occupational health data base management. To meet this challenge, an automated system to store and manage worker and workplace exposure data is being developed. The system will include individual minicomputers at local Air Force bases and a central host computer for long-term storage and retrieval. The first step in establishing this data base is the standardization of data entry and storage at base level. This manual system, known as the Standardized Occupational Health Program (SOHP), serves as the basic building block for the Computerized Occupational Health Program (COHP). Standardization and automation of all relevant industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, and environmental data will significantly enhance the flow of information needed by those charged with providing a healthful work environment for Air Force personnel.

  4. [Chronic migraine and work: occupational risks and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, Á A; Terradillos García, M J

    2013-09-01

    Chronic migraine is a clinically difficult to manage primary headache which affects the quality of life of the patients. This impact is important in the occupational world, where along with the clinical aspects of the disease, the therapies used for the control of the symptoms or preventive aspects, must be assessed. The side effects of the drugs and the limitations associated with their symptoms are aspects to highlight in occupational health, especially in individual workplaces, where there is a high risk of work-related injuries. The medical officer must assess the occupational risks of particular importance in the progression of this disease, as well as preventive actions, within the ambit of the current Spanish legislation, that may be favorable for both the company and the worker. The coordinated medical intervention and knowledge of these occupational aspects can provide clinically relevant tools, andoccupational and social optimization in the use of available resources.

  5. [Chronic migraine and work: occupational risks and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, Á A; Terradillos García, M J

    2013-09-01

    Chronic migraine is a clinically difficult to manage primary headache which affects the quality of life of the patients. This impact is important in the occupational world, where along with the clinical aspects of the disease, the therapies used for the control of the symptoms or preventive aspects, must be assessed. The side effects of the drugs and the limitations associated with their symptoms are aspects to highlight in occupational health, especially in individual workplaces, where there is a high risk of work-related injuries. The medical officer must assess the occupational risks of particular importance in the progression of this disease, as well as preventive actions, within the ambit of the current Spanish legislation, that may be favorable for both the company and the worker. The coordinated medical intervention and knowledge of these occupational aspects can provide clinically relevant tools, andoccupational and social optimization in the use of available resources. PMID:24034760

  6. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  7. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  8. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  9. [Occupational ophthalmology and ergoophthalmology: a developing field].

    PubMed

    Piccoli, B; Zambelli, P L; Grosso, D; Assini, R

    2003-01-01

    In 1979 it was decided to activate, within the Institute of Occupational Health of the Milan "Università degli Studi", a new Unit of Ergophthalmology. This decision was taken owing to the progressive diffusion of "optical instruments", particularly computer-based equipment, in the world of work and to the relevance that this topic assumed among Italian occupational physicians. Since its beginning, one of the main characteristics of the Ergophthalmology Unit was an interdisciplinary approach, where occupational physicians, ophthalmologists, occupational hygienists and lighting engineers were collaborating on a daily basis. Research activities, which developed over many years and in several phases, were concerned with four main topics: 1. analysis and quantification of "near work load"; initially the investigations were mainly aimed at the evaluation of the observation distance in different tasks, followed by the development of a method which, by means of specifically designed electronic equipment, allows quantification of the accommodation and convergence required by the task; 2. development of a new method aimed at evaluating, by a photometric procedure, the luminance ratios in the "occupational visual field"; this research was carried out, both in the laboratory and during on-site investigations, in collaboration with the Dept. of Electrotechnics of Milan Polytechnic; 3. studies on the relationships between indoor microbial pollution and Computer Assisted Design work, considering that ocular conjunctiva and cornea, due to their external position, can be easily inoculated by micro-organisms present on periocular tissue and hands; this research showed that bacteria and fungi pathogenic for the eye (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida sp., Aspergillus sp.) are present on desk, keyboard and mouse, as well as in the conjunctival sac of the exposed operators; 4. studies on "blue light" and its effects on the Pigmented Retinal Epithelium (PRE) in workers exposed to halide

  10. Supervisor Perceptions of Occupational Environments and Roe's Classification of Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Fred H.; Weiss, David J.

    This study provides empirical validation for Roe's system of classification of occupations by comparing descriptions within that system with descriptions given by immediate supervisors through the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ). The MJDQ yields Occupational Reinforcer Pattern (ORP) depicting relative magnitudes of 21 reinforcers…

  11. Instructional Support System--Occupational Education. Building Industries Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore; And Others

    The modules which make up the bulk of this report are the result of a two-week workshop at which thirteen building industries occupations teachers worked toward the development of a student outcome oriented curriculum. These modules are divided into the following occupational units: (1) carpentry (containing hand tools; portable power tools;…

  12. [Occupational risk according to occupational traumatism parameters in Russia].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Churanova, A N; Gorchakova, T Iu

    2012-01-01

    The article covers analysis of occupational traumatism in Russia over 2009 in concern with economic activity types, with small enterprises accent. Based on method adapted to national information sources and assessing statistics reliability in countries with imperfect accounting, the authors demonstrated that with various hypotheses occupational accidents risk in Russian Federation is considerably higher than the registered one.

  13. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  14. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were identified from technical reports, by searching the MEDLINE bibliographic data base, and by reviewing each paper on cancer that was published in 20 major journals during the period from about 1971-94. RESULTS: A total of 115 studies were identified; 19 studies relied exclusively on data collected for administrative purposes, and there were four incident case-control studies and 92 cohort studies. Although data for individual industries, occupations, and exposures were sparse, there was limited evidence of an association with employment in the pharmaceutical industry and among cosmetologists and beauticians. Associations were also found for chemists and occupations with possible exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, but potential methodological weaknesses preclude drawing any definite conclusions. There was little support for increased risks among textiles workers, dry cleaning workers, and nuclear industry workers. CONCLUSIONS: Few high quality occupational studies directed specifically toward women have been carried out to allow the unambiguous identification of occupational risk factors for breast cancer. It is suggested that investigations that account for non-occupational risk factors and that assess exposure in a more detailed way be carried out. One strategy already suggested is to conduct population based, case-control studies in which subjects are interviewed about their occupational histories and exposure to chemical and physical agents which are

  15. Membranebioreactor with external membranes.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, C; Carrette, R; De Lathouwer, J; Thoeye, C

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of less expensive and more performant ultrafiltration membranes has generated a new concept in biological treatment known as membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the field of wastewater treatment, the MBR process is used as a modification of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, where the clarifier is replaced by a membrane module for the separation of the solid and the liquid phase. Membrane technology can, amongst others, be applied for the fast retrofit of relatively high loaded activated sludge systems to nutrient removal. In the last year Aquafin has built up extensive experience with submerged membrane systems. The research presented here was aimed at evaluating a particular external tubular membrane unit for MBR. More specifically it was evaluated whether higher stable flux levels could compensate the higher energy consumption, typical for external membrane systems. Both (1) treatment performance and (2) possible operational drawbacks were tested on a 5 m3/h activated sludge pilot-scale. The membrane bioreactor was tested in parallel with a conventional activated sludge system.

  16. [Scabies as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). It is mainly transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact. The spread of scabies can cause major difficulties in healthcare institutions, particularly in residential homes for the elderly. The disease is characterized by intense nocturnal itching, erythematous papules arranged in a linear order, and scratching resulting in excoriations. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the mite or by finding one or more mite tunnels in the skin. An individually occurring case does not need to be reported. If two or more cases occur in the same institution, the company physician and the appropriate public health department are to be informed in Germany. In case of a suspected scabies infection in medical personnel due to exposure in their work setting, medical notification to the statutory occupational accidents' insurance (Nr. 3101) is to be issued in accordance with § 202, Volume VII of the German Social Code. First line treatment is topical therapy with 5 % permethrin. If scabies control is required in an institution, systemic treatment with ivermectin may be considered. In the case of a scabies outbreak, all patients, contact persons, and staff must be treated simultaneously. PMID:25676574

  17. [Scabies as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). It is mainly transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact. The spread of scabies can cause major difficulties in healthcare institutions, particularly in residential homes for the elderly. The disease is characterized by intense nocturnal itching, erythematous papules arranged in a linear order, and scratching resulting in excoriations. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the mite or by finding one or more mite tunnels in the skin. An individually occurring case does not need to be reported. If two or more cases occur in the same institution, the company physician and the appropriate public health department are to be informed in Germany. In case of a suspected scabies infection in medical personnel due to exposure in their work setting, medical notification to the statutory occupational accidents' insurance (Nr. 3101) is to be issued in accordance with § 202, Volume VII of the German Social Code. First line treatment is topical therapy with 5 % permethrin. If scabies control is required in an institution, systemic treatment with ivermectin may be considered. In the case of a scabies outbreak, all patients, contact persons, and staff must be treated simultaneously.

  18. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... dose to the embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant worker. (d) Documentation of all occupational doses... obtained to demonstrate compliance with § 835.202(a). If complete records documenting previous...

  19. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... dose to the embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant worker. (d) Documentation of all occupational doses... obtained to demonstrate compliance with § 835.202(a). If complete records documenting previous...

  20. Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings with Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women,…

  1. Occupational Resource Manual for Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    Developed cooperatively between the Occupational Informations and Guidance Services Center under the Community College System and the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Hawaii, this occupational resource manual for Hawaii, bound in a 3-ring notebook, contains pertinent information for students, parents, counselors, and…

  2. Telehealth application in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Janet G

    2015-01-01

    While occupational health is a significant driver of population health, productivity, and well-being in Canadian society, most workers do not currently have adequate access to qualified occupational health services. A case study is used to demonstrate the utility of a telehealth approach to service delivery.

  3. Suicide and Occupation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedeian, Arthur G.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the literature dealing with the relation of occupation to suicide for three occupational categories: health care providers, managerial and professional persons, and military and paramilitary personnel. Presents evidence relating to group differences in suicidal behavior. Considers theories explaining variations in incidence of suicide.…

  4. Electronics. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  5. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  6. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  7. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  8. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  9. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  10. [The relevance of occupational physician for physicians].

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The Japan Medical Association launched a project team to examine health conditions of physicians working at hospitals in 2008. First, cross-sectional study was conducted among total number of 10,000 physicians, who were randomly selected from the Japan Medical Association (JMA). They were asked to fill in a basic questionnaire that was used to collect demographic data and to complete the Japanese version of Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR-16). As a result, an adjusted response rate was 40.5%. Fifty-three % of the respondents did not consult with the colleagues about their unhealthy conditions, 46% had less than 4 holidays in a month, and 41% slept for less than 6 hours. More importantly, from a psychiatric point of view, 6% thought of committing suicide several times a week, 9% showed lack of interest, and 6% felt lack of energy. The QIDS-SR-16 also indicated 8.7% were in a moderately depressed state and 1.9% suffered from severe depression. Secondly, the project team provided a consulation service through E-mail and telephone to listen and advice to JMA members who had the needs. However, there were only few consultations that took place. Thirdly, the project team held several workshops in 12 different locations targeting occupational physicians working in hospitals. The workshops included case conferences and lectures on mental health. From 2010 to 2011, there were total of 450 participants. Finally, in addition to these attempts, the author has been working as an occupational physician for a major department of a University hospital. The author thinks from these experiences that the location of an external occupational physician would be most effective for prevention and early detection of mental problems among physicians working in hospitals. PMID:22712204

  11. Occupational ergonomics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  12. Occupational Medical Program

    1993-12-08

    The Occupational Medical Program (OMP) oversees all Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) health care, and provides services to all managing and operating (M&O) contractors at the INEL and for the Department of Energy Idaho Office (DOE-ID). The evolution of the automated OMP at the INEL is guided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directives and regulations. The OMP is developing a multiyear plan for the computerization of patient and demographics, epidemiology, medical records, andmore » surveillance. This plan will require the following six development phases: Employee Demographic Phase, Patient Surveillance Certification and Restrictions Phase, Electronic Notification Phase, Epidemiology-Industrial Hygiene/Radiation Exposure/OMP Integration Phase, Medical Scheduling Phase, and Medical Records Phase.« less

  13. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  14. Prevention of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M

    2010-07-01

    Prevention of occupational asthma related to a work-sensitizing agent ideally would be achieved by avoidance of exposures that cause immunologic sensitization and subsequent asthma. There are a few examples in which a sensitizing agent has been removed from a work process and others in which exposure has been significantly changed or reduced with associated reduced rates of sensitization and disease. Additional measures include containment, use of robots, ventilation measures, exposure monitoring, and use of respiratory protective devices. Secondary prevention includes medical surveillance, which may involve periodic respiratory questionnaires, spirometry, and immunologic tests aiming to detect sensitization or disease early to allow intervention and improve outcomes. Education measures for workers to understand the meaning of work-related respiratory symptoms and appropriate workplace safety measures have not been formally evaluated but may also be expected to enhance protective measures and lead to earlier diagnosis. Tertiary prevention includes medical management and workers' compensation.

  15. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-11-21

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

  16. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  17. [Ergonomics and occupational therapy].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M

    2010-01-01

    Occupational ergonomics mostly deals with risk assessment and design/redesign of the work layout, oriented to enhance the worker's safety and wellbeing and the system's efficiency. Risk assessment is the fundamental phase, conducted through international standards and guidelines, according to the different areas. Then the risk level is connected with preventive or corrective measures. This second phase is direct to organizational, ergonomic, engeneering interventions but it behaves in essential way the employer participation. At this scope, educational, training and technological tools are available. Ergonomics configure itself as a valid complement in the return-to-work phase, providing for workstation adjustment or job modification, contributing to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce the risk of injury and disability in the worker.

  18. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  19. Image-based occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry

    2015-05-19

    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  20. Hazardous occupations in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen E

    2002-08-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the most hazardous of all occupations in Great Britain. The causes of all deaths in British merchant seafaring and trawler fishing, traditionally the two most dangerous occupations, were established for the period between 1976 and 1995 and compared with official mortality statistics for other occupations. Fishermen were 52.4 times more likely to have a fatal accident at work (95% CI 42.9-63.8), and seafarers were 26.2 times more likely (19.8-34.7), compared with other British workers. Although the number of work-related deaths has decreased in recent decades, in relative terms the occupations of fishing and seafaring remain as hazardous as before. If mortality rates in these occupations are to decrease, unsafe working practices, especially unnecessary operations in treacherous conditions, should be reduced. PMID:12241660

  1. Occupational injury fatalities--1994.

    PubMed

    Toscano, G; Jack, T

    1996-01-01

    Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone.

  2. Hispanic College Students' Perceptions of Members of Business Occupations: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Suzanne N.; Mullen, Ellen Wall; Reeves, Thomas Edward

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored freshmen Hispanic and non-Hispanic White student perceptions of the members of three different business occupations: bankers, accountants, and marketing managers. Using "t" tests, some differences were found between the two ethnic groups regarding perceived individual characteristics of members of the occupations, but the…

  3. Tomorrow's Jobs. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Presenting employment projections for the total labor market through 1985, this document accompanies a series of forty-one reprints (CE 017 757-797) from the Occupational Outlook Handbook which provide current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The employment projections and related…

  4. Career Effects of Occupation-Related Vocational Education: Evidence from the Military's Internal Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Elda; Mehay, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the labor market success of secondary vocational education has produced mixed results, with several studies finding wage gains only for individuals who work in training-related occupations. We contribute to this debate by focusing on a single occupation and organization and by comparing the careers of employees with and without…

  5. Gendered Educational and Occupational Choices: Applying the Eccles et al. Model of Achievement-Related Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccles, Jacquelynne

    2011-01-01

    I summarize a theoretical model of the social, cultural, and psychological influences on achievement-related choices and outline how this model can help us understand gendered educational and occupational choices. I argue that both gender differences and individual differences within each gender in educational and occupational choices are linked…

  6. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  7. Allied Health Occupations I (Health Assistant). Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a first-year course in allied health occupations education that is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in such allied health occupations as nurse's aide and health assistant. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: health worker…

  8. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  9. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  11. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  12. Occupation and multiple myeloma: an occupation and industry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Laura S; Milliken, Kevin; Stewart, Patricia; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a poorly understood etiology. The purpose of our research was to examine relationships between lifetime occupations and MM in a relatively large case-control study. Methods MM cases (n=180) were identified through cancer registries in the Seattle-Puget Sound area and Detroit. Population-based controls (n=481) were identified using random digit dialing and Medicare and Medicaid Services files. In-person interviews were conducted to ascertain occupational histories. Standard occupational classification (SOC) and standard industrial classification (SIC) codes were assigned to each job held by each participant. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever worked in each occupation/industry and according to duration of employment in an occupation/industry. Results The risk of MM was associated with several manufacturing occupations and industries, including machine operators and tenders, not elsewhere classified (SOC 76) (OR=1.8, CI=1.0–3.3); textile, apparel, and furnishing machine operators and tenders (SOC 765) (OR=6.0, CI=1.7–21); and machinery manufacturing, except electrical (SIC 35) (OR=3.3, CI=1.7–6.7). Several service occupations and industries, such as food and beverage preparation (SOC 521) (OR=2.0, CI=1.1–3.8), were also associated with MM. One occupation that has been associated with MM in several previous studies, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers (SOC 644), was associated with a non–significantly elevated risk (OR=3.6, CI=0.7–19). Conclusions We found associations between the risk of MM and employment in several manufacturing and service-related occupations and industries. PMID:20623662

  13. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  14. Health insurance and the obesity externality.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in bodyweight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and bodyweight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate.

  15. Predicting Adult Occupational Environments from Gender and Childhood Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen A.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    To test aspects of a theory of the role of personality and gender on the development of vocational interests, and their subsequent effects on adult occupational choices, this study examined associations between childhood personality traits, gender, and occupational environments over 40 years later. Participants (N = 587) were assessed on the Big Five by their teachers when aged 6–12 years. In middle-age (late 40’s) they reported their occupation. Holland’s RIASEC vocational types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) were used to characterize the job environments of reported occupations. Childhood Openness/Intellect and Conscientiousness, but no other Big Five traits, were associated with occupational environments. For the most strongly sex-typed work environments, associations with Openness/Intellect were moderated by gender. Discussion of these findings suggested that the roots of the strongest gender stereotyping effects in occupations may be found not only in the social factors associated with gender, but also in the individual differences of children related to Openness/Intellect. PMID:20822206

  16. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  17. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  18. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, two objectives (e.g., list the types of joints and movements, and give examples), and two learning…

  19. Theories of Occupational Segregation by Sex: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anker, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Reviews theoretical explanations for gender segregation in occupations: neoclassical, human capital, institutional and labor market segmentation, and gender discrimination. Determines that gender discrimination theories are most compelling, given the enormous overlap in abilities and preferences of individual men and women. (SK)

  20. Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gloria

    A partnership was formed to address the crisis that rural health care facilities in rural Nebraska face in attracting and hiring trained health care workers. The Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO) project trained economically disadvantaged individuals in high technology medical fields. Five objectives were outlined in the project:…

  1. Allied Health Occupations II (Health Careers--Core Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with background informational material and practical skills used in various health fields. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: safety; ethical and legal…

  2. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  3. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  4. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  5. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  6. Stereotypes of Males and Females in Two Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchner, Robert W.; More, Douglas M.

    1975-01-01

    Male and female raters evaluated a male or a female civil engineer or custodian on six characteristics. Likability ratings exposed an interaction between sex of rater and sex of ratee. It was concluded that the sex of an occupational incumbent may have important effects on stereotypical image associated with that individual. (Author/PC)

  7. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Occupational Hearing Conservation, or who has satisfactorily demonstrated competence in administering... informational materials pertaining to the standard that are supplied to the employer by the Assistant Secretary... designated by the individual employee, and the Assistant Secretary. The provisions of 29 CFR 1910.1020...

  8. Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Profiles of Reentry Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Carol K.; Denker, Elenor R.

    1977-01-01

    The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey was administered to 202 women considering reentry into education. It was found that the KOIS does differentiate between women and individual interests are reflected for this sample of women. It was concluded that examination of male-normed scales is very useful in counseling. (Author)

  9. Safety & Health. Resource Guide for Occupational/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Albert S., Ed.

    This guide is intended to alert occupational/technology teachers, teacher educators, school administrators, and industrial education supervisors to the need and importance of a strong and active safety program. Responsibilities are detailed for all individuals involved. Teacher liability is addressed. A section on emergency procedures covers…

  10. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, three objectives (e.g., define the skeletal system and list its functions), and three learning…

  11. The Microscope: I--Structure. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the structure of the microscope is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and two learning experiences. Each learning experience contains…

  12. Occupational Dissonance and Anomie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thain, Richard J.

    1970-01-01

    Too many people, young and old, are prisoners and misfits in their careers. More adequate placement counseling, and greater understanding of the individual are needed to eliminate this waste in these changing times. (Author)

  13. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  14. Occupational health nurses' work and expertise in Finland: occupational health nurses' perspective.

    PubMed

    Naumanen-Tuomela, P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish occupational health nurses' (OHNs) work in terms of its contents, characteristics, necessities, meanings, development areas, changes, and expertise. The data were gathered via essays handwritten by OHNs (n = 20). Qualitative content analysis revealed that occupational health nursing practice included work with individuals, work communities, and various collaborative partners, office tasks, and other duties. Responses about OHNs' work were classified as characteristics of OHNs and of their work with advantages as well as disadvantages. The work of OHNs requires a multidisciplinary knowledge basis, professional skills, certain personal characteristics, and other features. These should be maintained and developed through continual education. The outcomes of OHNs' work were better health and healthier habits for employers, higher productivity for employers and occupational health care units, and health care savings for society. The most significant change that has occurred over the last 20 years was the move from an individual and medicine orientation toward a focus on the work community and on nursing. Expert OHNs were expected to be competent and multiskilled professionals who apply multidisciplinary knowledge in practice. This study brought out the need for further study with a focus on the client's perspective. PMID:11285105

  15. A Causal Relationship of Occupational Stress among University Employees

    PubMed Central

    KAEWANUCHIT, Chonticha; MUNTANER, Carles; ISHA, Nizam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of government education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical and mental health problems from occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate a causal relationship of occupational stress among the academic university employees. Methods: This cross sectional research was conducted in 2014 among 2,000 academic university employees at Thai government universities using stratified random sampling. Independent variables were wage, family support, periods of duty, and job & environmental condition. Dependent variable was stress. Results: Job & environmental condition, as social and environmental factor, and periods of duty as individual factor had direct effect to stress (P< 0.05). Family support, as family factor, and wage, as individual factor had direct effect to stress (P < 0.05). Both family support and wage were the causal endogenous variables. Conclusion: Job & environmental condition and periods of duty were increased so that it associated with occupational stress among academic university employees at moderate level. PMID:26576371

  16. Comparison of death certificate occupation and industry data with lifetime occupational histories obtained by interview: variations in the accuracy of death certificate entries.

    PubMed

    Schade, W J; Swanson, G M

    1988-01-01

    This study compares usual and recent occupation and industry data from lifetime work histories obtained by interview with death certificate entries for occupation and industry for 2,435 persons diagnosed with cancer. Match rates are calculated as the percent of death certificate occupation and industry entries that were confirmed by interview data and are compared for exact 3-digit 1980 U.S. Census Bureau occupation and industry codes and for groups of these codes. The overall match rate for individual usual occupation codes was 47.9% and for exact usual industry codes it was 61.8%. Significant differences between the interview data for usual occupation or industry and the death certificate entry were observed by race and gender, marital status, number of years worked, and occupation and industry groups and by age for industry. Misclassification or overreporting of occupation and industry data on the death certificate ranged from 30 to 50% in this study. Our results suggest that the utility of death certificate data for investigations into the occupational risk factors for cancer may be quite limited.

  17. [Individualizing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    The individually guided education (IGE) program developed by the Kettering Foundation was implemented in September of 1973 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School in Woburn, Massachusetts. The components of the program described in this speech include pupil and teacher scheduling, physical layout, pupil selection and adjustment,…

  18. Occupancy Models to Study Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

    2005-01-01

    Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

  19. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  20. The Mechanics of External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2006-01-01

    External fixation has evolved from being used primarily as a last resort fixation method to becoming a main stream technique used to treat a myriad of bone and soft tissue pathologies. Techniques in limb reconstruction continue to advance largely as a result of the use of these external devices. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles of external fixation is useful for all orthopedic surgeons as most will have to occasionally mount a fixator throughout their career. In this review, various types of external fixators and their common clinical applications are described with a focus on unilateral and circular frames. The biomechanical principles that govern bony and fixator stability are reviewed as well as the recommended techniques for applying external fixators to maximize stability. Additionally, we have illustrated methods for managing patients while they are in the external frames to facilitate function and shorten treatment duration. PMID:18751766