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Sample records for external individual occupational

  1. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 mSv), a lens dose equivalent in excess of 0.15 rem (1.5 mSv), or a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 0.5 rem (5 mSv); (3) Declared pregnant women likely to receive during...

  3. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 mSv), a lens dose equivalent in excess of 0.15 rem (1.5 mSv), or a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 0.5 rem (5 mSv); (3) Declared pregnant women likely to receive during...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 mSv), a lens dose equivalent in excess of 0.15 rem (1.5 mSv), or a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 0.5 rem (5 mSv); (3) Declared pregnant women likely to receive during...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 mSv), a lens dose equivalent in excess of 0.15 rem (1.5 mSv), or a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 0.5 rem (5 mSv); (3) Declared pregnant women likely to receive during...

  6. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  7. [Evaluating individual occupational risk in teachers].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Ishmukhametov, I B

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions of comprehensive school teachers according to workplace assessment. Additional studies covered opportunistic pathogens content of air in classrooms. Auxiliary medical examination evaluated health state of the teachers. Individual occupational risk was calculated with consideration of actual work conditions and health state. Comprehensive school teacher's work is characterized by constant or transitory influence by complex of occupational and work hazards that are mostly (according to to workplace assessment) increased work intensity, noise and inadequate illumination parameters. Ambient air of classrooms constantly contains high number of opportunistic pathogens, that could decrease immune system parameters and cause more droplet infections. Individual occupational risk of teachers, calculated with consideration of work conditions and health state parameters, appears to be high and proves high possibility of teachers' health damage at work. Recommendations cover evaluation of biologic factors within the workplace assessment, obligatory preliminary (before employment) and periodic medical examinations for comprehensive school teachers as for workers exposed to occupational hazards.

  8. The Dynamics and Consequences of Occupational Deprivation on Displaced Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharma, Maher M.

    2010-01-01

    Following wars and natural disasters, individuals and their families face displacement from their native land and relocate to a new location where they become refugees. As occupational beings, people find meaning in their environment and build their identity through engaging in meaningful occupations. The environment plays a role in shaping the…

  9. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  10. [Life quality in individuals having occupational diseases caused by various occupational factors].

    PubMed

    D'iakovich, M P; Semenikhin, V A; Kazakova, P V; Odintseva, O V; D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents main results of studies concerning life quality in individuals having chronic occupational diseases of important social value. Life quality in patients with chronic mercurial intoxication and dust bronchitis appeared to result from personal, social and psychologic features.

  11. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends <0.01). Injuries taking place out of the usual occupational setting (aOR=2.85, 95%CI 2.27-3.59), or carrying out atypical tasks (aOR=2.08; 95%CI 1.27-3.39) showed increased risks of a fatal result too, as occupational accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries.

  12. Evaluation of Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    A study was conducted to determine whether or not the Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training (PIVOT) materials developed by the School District of Philadelphia were capable of developing entry-level competency in secondary school students in a variety of educational settings (comprehensive high schools, an occupational…

  13. Individualism-Collectivism: Links to Occupational Plans and Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of…

  14. Individualism-Collectivism: Links to Occupational Plans and Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of…

  15. [Comparison on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations between coke oven workers and non-occupational exposed individuals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Hu, Yun-ping; Zheng, Li-xing; Wang, Qiang-yi; Zhou, Yuan-fen; Jin, Tai-yi

    2005-11-01

    To compare the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations between coke oven workers and non-occupational exposed individuals and to investigate the possible impact factors. Spot end-of-shift urine samples were collected in 265 coke oven workers and spot morning urine samples in 226 non-occupational exposed individuals. External exposure levels and possible confounding factors were assessed by environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) monitoring and uniform questionnaire, and the urinary 1-OHP concentrations determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used to compare the different urinary 1-OHP levels between different research populations and to explore the effects of several factors such as external exposure levels, smoking habits, alcohol consumptions, age and body mass index (BMI). The urinary 1-OHP concentrations in coke oven workers were significantly higher than those in non-occupational exposed individuals (13.49, 6.56, 1.38 and 0.35 micromol/mol creatinine for topside workers, side-oven workers, bottom side workers and references, respectively, P < 0.001; the same trends for the percentage of the level over 2.3 micromol/mol creatinine: 94.81%, 84.73%, 35.09% and 0.88%, P < 0.001). The control individuals who smoked over 20 cigarettes per day possessed higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than the non-smokers (adjusted geometric mean: 0.47 and 0.31 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, P < 0.05). Alcohol drinking references possessed lower urinary 1-OHP levels than the non-drinkers (adjusted geometric mean: 0.33 and 0.47 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, P < 0.05). Coke oven workers should be exposed to a high level of urinary 1-OHP, especially for topside workers and side-oven workers. Background urinary 1-OHP levels in non-occupational exposed individuals should be related to smoking habits and alcohol consumptions.

  16. Asbestos content in lungs of occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, R.F.; Greenberg, S.D.; Williams, M.G. Jr.; Corn, C.J.; O'Sullivan, M.F.; Hurst, G.A.

    1984-07-06

    Previous reports have indicated that a majority of the population has asbestos bodies within their lungs. These studies generally have been carried out using cohorts from urban environments. The present study compares the asbestos body levels from three unique cohorts: (1) a nonoccupationally exposed group from a large urban environment having a relatively low asbestos content, (2) patients with lung cancer from a nonurban setting, and (3) amosite asbestos workers, who worked and lived in a rural setting. The number of asbestos bodies in both the urban nonoccupationally exposed group and the patients with lung cancer was generally found to be low or below limits of detectability, with the exceptions being those persons in whom an occupational exposure was eventually found. The ferruginous body content of the occupationally exposed group varied considerably between individuals as well as between sites within the same individual.

  17. [The occupational therapist's role in an interdisciplinary team within the Rehabilitation and External Aids Program].

    PubMed

    Pelatelli, Agustina; Romero, Celeste; Uño Carreño, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The role of an occupational therapist in the Mental Health team, particularly in the Rehabilitation and Assisted Discharge Program (PREA), is to provide a focus on the person and on a meaningful occupation for him. The interdisciplinary team of each device, involving an occupational therapist, performs planning goals and implementing the means to achieve through strategies of psychosocial rehabilitation. Meanwhile, intervention strategies are developed and individual support for each person is given to carry out a project of life in the community, building a social, occupational and significant work in order to enhance users' recovery.

  18. Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies in individuals with occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, I; Sanchez-Roman, J; Morales, J; Castillo, M J; Ocaña, C; Nuñez-Roldan, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) in a series of patients exposed to silica. METHODS: The study included 52 patients with occupational exposure to silica (mean exposure time seven years) and a control group comprising seven patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 15 healthy individuals. Antibodies to MPO were detected using commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates coated with MPO. Indirect immunoflurescence studies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were performed using ethanol and formol fixed neutrophils. Clinical and biological data of individuals exposed to silica were recorded (published previously). RESULTS: Antibodies to MPO were detected in 14 individuals exposed to silica (27%). There was a statistically significant difference in anti-MPO ELISA units between the healthy subjects and patients (SLE, PSS, silica exposed individuals) (p < 0.01), but no difference between the different disease groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals chronically exposed to silica, whether or not they have a connective tissue disease, have levels of antibodies to MPO (as detected by ELISA) that are greater than those found in the normal population, but similar to those in patients with systemic diseases not induced by silica (SLE/PSS). PMID:8712888

  19. Uranium in the tissues of an occupationally exposed individual

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.; Moore, R.H.; Dietert, S.E.

    1989-07-01

    Uranium concentrations were radiochemically determined in samples of lung, kidney, liver and bone collected at autopsy from an occupationally exposed individual. Levels of U in these tissues were clearly in excess of those expected from environmental exposure. Deposition followed the pattern: skeleton greater than liver greater than kidney, with ratios of 63:2.8:1. The data suggest there is an important long-term storage depot in the skeleton, but the fraction transferred to this compartment, as proposed by ICRP 30, may be too small. In vivo chest counts obtained over about a 10-y period prior to death indicated about a factor of 2 greater in total U content and /sup 235/U enrichment than deposition estimates made at autopsy for the lungs and associated lymph nodes.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  2. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an... execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear criticality: Preservation of Individual...

  3. Comparison of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance and conventional occupational therapy on occupational performance in individuals with stroke: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Si-Nae; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae-Yean; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach based on cognitive strategy in occupational therapy. To investigate the effects of CO-OP approach on occupational performance in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study was designed as a 5-week, randomized, single-blind. Forty-three participants who had a diagnosis of first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 20) or the control group (n = 23). The experimental group conducted CO-OP approach while the control group conducted conventional occupational therapy based on occupational performance components. This study measured Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and post-intervention. After training, the scores of COPM and PQRS in trained task were significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group. In addition, the non-trained task was significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group in COPM and the PQRS. This study suggests that the CO-OP approach is beneficial effects on the occupational performance to improvement in individuals with hemiparetic stroke, and have positive effects on generalization and transfer of acquired skills.

  4. Erosive External Otitis: A Novel Distinct Clinical Entity of the External Auditory Canal in Nonimmunosuppressed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linda T.; Harris, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We introduce erosive external otitis (EEO) as a novel erosive process of the external auditory canal in the absence of diabetes or immune suppression. Study Design Case series and literature review. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Primary eligibility criteria included patients who had an erosive process of their external auditory canal in the absence of diabetes or immune suppression. Intervention Surgical debridement and split-thickness skin grafting. Main Outcome Measures Uneventful wound healing and disease-free long-term follow-up after surgical debridement and skin grafting. Results Three cases of EEO in the absence of immune suppression or diabetes were diagnosed and treated. All patients required surgical debridement and skin grafting as part of their management. All recovered uneventfully from surgery and had no evidence of recurrence on long-term follow-up. Conclusion We propose that EEO, which occurs in the absence of immune suppression or diabetes, is a clinical entity that is distinct from the more commonly diagnosed malignant external otitis and that the management of EEO is primarily surgical debridement with skin grafting. PMID:21113981

  5. Erosive external otitis: a novel distinct clinical entity of the external auditory canal in nonimmunosuppressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda T; Harris, Jeffrey P; Nguyen, Quyen T

    2010-12-01

    We introduce erosive external otitis (EEO) as a novel erosive process of the external auditory canal in the absence of diabetes or immune suppression. Case series and literature review. Tertiary referral center. Primary eligibility criteria included patients who had an erosive process of their external auditory canal in the absence of diabetes or immune suppression. Surgical debridement and split-thickness skin grafting. Uneventful wound healing and disease-free long-term follow-up after surgical debridement and skin grafting. Three cases of EEO in the absence of immune suppression or diabetes were diagnosed and treated. All patients required surgical debridement and skin grafting as part of their management. All recovered uneventfully from surgery and had no evidence of recurrence on long-term follow-up. We propose that EEO, which occurs in the absence of immune suppression or diabetes, is a clinical entity that is distinct from the more commonly diagnosed malignant external otitis and that the management of EEO is primarily surgical debridement with skin grafting.

  6. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  7. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  8. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  9. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  10. Individualizing goals for users of externally powered partial hand prostheses.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Lynsay; Flinn, Sharon; Wagner, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent advances in prosthetic technology available for individuals with partial hand loss or deficiency, research is needed to best ensure the acceptance of these devices. Additionally, this population is subjected to higher risks of overuse syndromes. With improved technological advances in prosthetic devices, clients can engage in more complex activities with less compensation. The purpose of this study was to describe the tasks identified as both difficult and important to individuals with partial hand loss. Recommendations will be provided regarding matching users' individualized goals with considerations in prosthetic design, functional training, programming, and adaptive equipment.

  11. Associations among occupational roles, independence, assistive technology, and purchasing power of individuals with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Emmel, Maria Luisa Guillaumon

    2013-01-01

    to verify whether there are associations among occupational roles, independence to perform Activities of Daily Living, purchasing power, and assistive technology for individuals with physical disabilities. 91 individuals with physical disabilities participated in the study. The instruments used were: Role Checklist, Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion, Barthel Index, and a Questionnaire to characterize the subjects. an association with a greater number of roles was found among more independent individuals using a lower number of technological devices. Higher purchasing power was associated with a lower functional status of dependence. even though technology was not directly associated with independence, the latter was associated with a greater number of occupational roles, which requires reflection upon independence issues when considering the participation in occupational roles. These findings support interdisciplinary actions designed to promote occupational roles in individuals with physical disabilities.

  12. Individual monitoring for external radiation at accelerator facilities.

    PubMed

    Tanner, R J; Hager, L G

    2011-07-01

    Individual monitoring at accelerator facilities is discussed, within the framework set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and with reference to the implementation of the recommendations of that body within the European Basic Safety Standards. Legislation in other parts of the world may differ, but a worldwide perspective on this subject would be too exhaustive. The fields at accelerator facilities are contrasted in terms of particle type and energy with those encountered at more conventional sites within the nuclear fuel cycle, medical applications and general industry. The implications for individual monitoring are discussed in relation to the dose quantities for these accelerator fields and also with respect to the personal dosemeters options.

  13. Brief Report: A Growth Mixture Model of Occupational Aspirations of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N =…

  14. Brief Report: A Growth Mixture Model of Occupational Aspirations of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N =…

  15. External exposure estimates for individuals near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.W.; Smale, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Individuals living near the Nevada Test Site were exposed to both beta and gamma radiations from fission products and activation products resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. These exposures were functions of the amount of material deposited, the time of arrival of the debris, and the amount of shielding afforded by structures. Results are presented for each of nine generic life styles. These are representative of the living patterns of the people residing in the area. For each event at each location for which data exist, a representative of each life style was closely followed for a period of thirty days. The results of these detailed calculations are then extrapolated to the present. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals.

  17. Force Generation and Dynamics of Individual Cilia under External Loading

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David B.; Swaminathan, Vinay; Estes, Ashley; Cribb, Jeremy; O'Brien, E. Timothy; Davis, C. William; Superfine, R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Motile cilia are unique multimotor systems that display coordination and periodicity while imparting forces to biological fluids. They play important roles in normal physiology, and ciliopathies are implicated in a growing number of human diseases. In this work we measure the response of individual human airway cilia to calibrated forces transmitted via spot-labeled magnetic microbeads. Cilia respond to applied forces by 1), a reduction in beat amplitude (up to an 85% reduction by 160–170 pN of force); 2), a decreased tip velocity proportionate to applied force; and 3), no significant change in beat frequency. Tip velocity reduction occurred in each beat direction, independently of the direction of applied force, indicating that the cilium is “driven” in both directions at all times. By applying a quasistatic force model, we deduce that axoneme stiffness is dominated by the rigidity of the microtubules, and that cilia can exert 62 ± 18 pN of force at the tip via the generation of 5.6 ± 1.6 pN/dynein head. PMID:20085719

  18. Occupational stress as it relates to higher education, individuals and organizations.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Maria; Asimenos, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    This study examined through survey research methodology the degree to which, faculty, administrators and program coordinators, working in higher education, experience stress at work. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used, composed of four compound factors: sources of occupational stress, individual characteristics, coping strategies and the effects of stress. Preliminary findings showed that occupational stress has a negative impact on the degree of satisfaction with their achievement, value and growth, being strongest with faculty and coordinators, (dissatisfaction with career opportunities, personal growth, skill utilization). Another significant outcome was the dissatisfaction of faculty with the organizational design, structure and processes (communication, change implementation, motivation, supervision style, participation in decision-making). All possess individual characteristics of the Type A Scale; they all considered major sources of pressure in their jobs to be their relationships with others, home/work interface, their need to achieve personal and corporate success. Occupational stress has affected their state of health.

  19. External Quality Assessment Scheme for Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we summarized the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toxic chemicals which started in 1995 and continued until a 31st round robin in the spring of 2010. The program was performed twice per year until 2009, and this was changed to once a year since 2010. The objective of the program is to ensure the reliability of the data related to biological monitoring from analytical laboratories. Methods One hundred and eighteen laboratories participated in the 31st round robin. The program offers 5 items for inorganic analysis: lead in blood, cadmium in blood, manganese in blood, cadmium in urine, and mercury in urine. It also offers 10 items for organic analysis, including hippuric acid, methylhippuric acid, mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, N-methylformamide, N-methylacetamide, trichloroacetic acid, total trichloro-compounds, trans,trans-muconic acid, and 2,5-hexanedione in urine. Target values were determined by statistical analysis using consensus values. All the data, such as chromatograms and calibration curves, were reviewed by the committee. Results The proficiency rate was below 70% prior to the first round robin and improved to over 90% for common items, such as PbB and HA, while those for other items still remained in the range of 60-90% and need to be improved up to 90%. Conclusion The EQAS has taken a primary role in improving the reliability of analytical data. A total quality assurance scheme is suggested, including the validation of technical documentation for the whole analytical procedure. PMID:22953206

  20. Occupational dermatitis in hairdressers - influence of individual and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Carøe, Tanja K; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove

    2017-03-01

    Hairdressers are at risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis because of their intense contact with wet work in combination with chemicals. To perform an analysis of a cohort study of hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis recognized in the period 2006-2011, focusing on individual and environmental factors associated with the disease. The study was a descriptive, register-based survey including all hairdressers with recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in the period January 2006 to September 2011. Data were obtained from the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The study comprised 381 patients (373 women and 8 men). The median age was 25 years, 64.8% were apprentices, and 35.2% were fully trained hairdressers. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 36.0%, and was significantly higher among apprentices than among fully trained hairdressers (44.9% and 19.4%, respectively) (p < 0.001). Of the patients, 48.3% had their dermatitis recognized as occupational irritant contact dermatitis, 46.7% had their dermatitis recognized as as occupational allergic contact dermatitis or combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, and 5.0% were recognized as having occupational contact urticaria. The low median age, the high percentages of atopic dermatitis in apprentices and the fact that more apprentices than fully trained hairdressers had recognized occupational contact dermatitis underlines the importance of early prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effectiveness of Individually Delivered Indicated School-Based Interventions on Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Sabine; van Londen, Monique; Dekovic, Maja; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the results of two meta-analyses on the effectiveness of "individually" delivered indicated school-based interventions for externalizing behavior problems at elementary schools are presented. A distinction was made between studies that evaluated effects of interventions with only an individual component (k = 11 studies, n =…

  2. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  3. Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  4. Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed 136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02-.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model.

  5. [Lichen ruber exanthematicus et pigmentosus in mercury poisoning. A contribution to individual pathology in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Marsch, W C; Groebe, G

    1990-11-01

    We report on a 21-year-old man professionally exposed to mercury, who developed lichen planus. This case must be regarded as a dispositional reaction and is in Germany entitled to indemnification in terms of a "quasi-occupational disease". The clinical signs and the probably non-allergic pathomechanism are comparable with those of lichen planus induced by gold. In diseases due to occupational intoxication, we face an individual disposition regarding the degree of clinical symptoms, which has to underly any expert opinion on indemnity.

  6. [Obligation to report occupational diseases. Importance of external post-mortem examinations before cremation].

    PubMed

    Verhoff, M A; Risse, M; Alles, J-U; Müller, K-M; Stachetzki, U

    2004-05-01

    The practical use of the legally required documentation of occupational diseases is demonstrated by a case of asbestos-related pleural mesothelioma. During the mandatory inquest before cremation, information of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been relayed to the widow of the patient, and an investigation for a possible occupational disease was performed. Reconstruction of the case showed that in the course of 3 months at least 13 physicians had been involved in in-hospital as well as ambulatory therapeutic measures. Until death, none of them informed the trade association about a suspected occupational disease in accordance with BK 4105 of the codex of occupational diseases, although the diagnosis of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been histologically confirmed already 10 weeks prior to the death of the patient. This case demonstrates obvious and evident deficiencies in applying the Code of Social Law VII, which requires physicians to report occupational diseases. In addition, it shows the importance of the post-mortem examination as a control function before cremation.

  7. [Main criteria for the occupational licensure of individualized hand protection against local vibration].

    PubMed

    Butkovskaia, Z M; Smirnov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Hygienic certification of individual means protecting hands against local vibration requires special laboratory and industrial studies considering specific preset criteria. The criteria choice should consider functional state of major body systems involved and capacity to work in specific industrial process. For manually operated machines, the criteria are set within the limits of mutual influence in the system: manually operated machine (its vibration strength characteristics)--operator (state and changes of his major physiologic functions)--occupational environment (peculiarities).

  8. Estimation of annual occupational effective doses from external ionizing radiation at medical institutions in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korir, Geoffrey; Wambani, Jeska; Korir, Ian

    2011-04-01

    This study details the distribution and trends of doses due to occupational radiation exposure among radiation workers from participating medical institutions in Kenya, where monthly dose measurements were collected for a period of one year ranging from January to December in 2007. A total of 367 medical radiation workers were monitored using thermoluminescent dosemeters. They included radiologists (27%), oncologists (2%), dentists (4%), Physicists (5%), technologists (45%), nurses (4%), film processor technicians (3%), auxiliary staff (4%), and radiology office staff (5%). The average annual effective dose of all categories of staff was found to range from 1.19 to 2.52 mSv. This study formed the initiation stage of wider, comprehensive and more frequent monitoring of occupational radiation exposures and long-term investigations into its accumulation patterns in our country.

  9. Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..

  10. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  11. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kanchika, Masaru; Nakao, Takehisa; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Inoue, Koki

    2016-10-08

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  12. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders—(1) Services for individuals with...

  13. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders—(1) Services for individuals...

  14. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (1) Services for individuals...

  15. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...

  16. [Current status of employment and labor of occupational nurses in external agencies for industrial health].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Junko; Shiraishi, Akiko; Shibako, Mina; Snoji, Takuro; Hara, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Itsuko

    2008-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to survey the actual conditions of the employment status and activities of occupational health nurses who are employed in Japanese Industrial Health Organizations (IHOs), and to investigate whether the OHNs provide quality health services to employees. We mailed 1,780 questionnaires to nurses who belong to 92 IHOs (members of the National Federation of Industrial Health Organizations). A total of 976 questionnaires were returned (54.8% valid response rate) and 968 questionnaires were considered eligible for analysis. The results showed the following issues: 1) most public health nurses belonged to the department of occupational health service, but they did not have enough experience with industrial hazards or workers safety or health; 2) public health nurses want to participate more directly in care for workers; 3) Public Health Nurses provided health counseling in the charge of their enterprises, but they did not take managerial roles, including place-of-work patrol, attendance to safety, and health committees in their workplaces; 4) they were not satisfied with the present roles demanded by the other staff and their managers; 5) they did not have enough opportunities to attend the job training. Together, the results of this study suggest that the OHNs in IHOs need to have more opportunities to perform their expertise in industrial health & safety and job training in order to provide autonomous health services to the workers.

  17. Simultaneous ion luminescence imaging and spectroscopy of individual aerosol particles with external proton or helium microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-08-01

    Simultaneous microscopic imaging and spectroscopy of individual aerosol particles were performed with an external microbeam. Visible luminescence induced by the external microbeam was successfully used as a probe to detect organic contaminants in the targets. Combined ion luminescence (IL)/particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of the aerosol targets revealed microscopic chemical and elemental composition distributions under ambient atmospheric conditions. The simple confocal micro-optics for the IL spectroscopy and microscopic imaging were sufficiently sensitive for detecting these molecules at sub-parts per million concentrations and at a wavelength resolution of less than 5 nm. The IL spectra were monitored to prevent severe damage to the samples. Furthermore, our IL system has the advantage that it is simple to add to a conventional micro-PIXE system.

  18. Improving the Success Rate of Delivering Annual Occupational Dosimetry Reports to Persons Issued Temporary External Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2014-09-09

    Workers who are not routinely monitored for occupational radiation exposure at LANL may be issued temporary dosimeters in the field. Per 10CFR835 and DOE O 231.1A, the Laboratory's radiation protection program is responsible for reporting these results to the worker at the end of the year. To do so, the identity of the worker and their mailing address must be recorded by the delegated person at the time the dosimeter is issued. Historically, this data has not been consistently captured. A new online application was developed to record the issue of temporary dosimeters. The process flow of the application was structured such that: 1) the worker must be uniquely identified in the Lab's HR database, and 2) the mailing address of record is verified live time via a commercial web service, for the transaction to be completed. A COPQ savings (Type B1) of $96K/year is demonstrated for the new application.

  19. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure.

  20. Individual contributory factors in teacher stress: the role of achievement striving and occupational commitment.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to understanding this problem (Cox, 1978; Parkes, 1994). Identifying individual contributory factors is essential in understanding why, under the same environmental conditions, some people suffer much greater levels of stress than others. This study examined the influence of Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, occupational commitment, gender and nature/experience of teaching on perceived workplace stress within the teaching profession (N = 95). It was predicted that perceived stress would be strongest amongst those reporting higher levels of these factors. A multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship between Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, and perceived stress. The relationship between perceived stress and occupational commitment, however, was found to be negative. The possible explanations for these findings, and potential implications, are discussed. Future research plans are outlined for exploring the relationships between these individual contributory factors and environmental stressors.

  1. An update of preliminary perspectives gained from Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) submittal reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.M.; Chen, J.T.; Chokshi, N.; Nowlen, S.P.; Bohn, M.P.; Sewell, R.; Kazarians, M.; Lambright, J.

    1998-03-01

    As a result of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, virtually every operating commercial nuclear power reactor in the US has performed an assessment of severe accident risk due to external events. To date, the USNRC staff has received 63 IPEEE submittals and will receive an additional 11 by mid 1998. Currently, 49 IPEEE submittals are under various stages ore view. This paper is based on the information available for those 41 plants for which at least preliminary Technical Evaluation Reports have been prepared by the review teams. The goal of the review is to ascertain whether the licensee`s IPEEE process is capable of identifying external events-induced severe accident vulnerabilities and cost-effective safety improvements to either eliminate or reduce the impact of these vulnerabilities. The review does not, however, attempt to validate or verify the results of the licensee`s IPEEE. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an update on the preliminary perspectives and insights gained from the IPEEE process.

  2. Individualized Internal and External Training Load Relationships in Elite Wheelchair Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Mason, Barry; Rhodes, James; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    between sRPE and all measures of high intensity activity. A large variation of individual correlation co-efficient was observed between sRPE and all external TL measures. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that sRPE and HR-based internal TL measures provide a valid tool for quantifying volume of external TL during WR training but may underestimate HIA. It is recommended that both internal and external TL measures are employed for the monitoring of overall TL during court-based training in elite WR athletes. PMID:26733881

  3. Effects of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning and health care utilization in individuals with anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Guidos, Brittany M; Mete, Mihriye; Bui, Eric; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effect of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning in individuals with Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Fifty-seven individuals with GAD (mean (SD) age=39 (13); 56% women) participated in an 8-week clinical trial in which they were randomized to mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class. In this secondary analysis, absenteeism, entire workdays missed, partial workdays missed, and healthcare utilization patterns were assessed before and after treatment. Compared to the attention control class, participation in MBSR was associated with a significantly greater decrease in partial work days missed for adults with GAD (t=2.734, df=51, p=0.009). Interestingly, a dose effect was observed during the 24-week post-treatment follow-up period: among MBSR participants, greater home mindfulness meditation practice was associated with less work loss and with fewer mental health professional visits. Mindfulness meditation training may improve occupational functioning and decrease healthcare utilization in adults with GAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors contributing to occupational stress experienced by individuals employed in the fast food industry.

    PubMed

    Michailids, Maria P; Elwkai, Mouafak E-ali

    2003-01-01

    The present study, examined through survey research methodology, the factors or combination of factors which appear to contribute to the experience of occupational stress of individuals working in the fast-food industry. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used. Preliminary findings showed that there exists, several compound factors, which appear to be the most frequently encountered factors by the sample tested, such as the way they feel about their job; the way they behave generally; the way they interpret events around them; the sources of pressure in their job; and the way they cope with stress they experience. It appears that there are statistically significant differences between males and females as regards to the way they respond to stress, the sources of pressure in their job and the way they cope with stress they experience. Also, statistically significant differences exist between individuals in managerial and non-managerial positions, as regards to their personality type, the degree of ambition, and work dedication they possess.

  5. The Role of Individual and Collective Mindfulness in Promoting Occupational Safety in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Dierynck, Bart; Leroy, Hannes; Savage, Grant T; Choi, Ellen

    2016-01-29

    Although the importance of safety regulations is highly emphasized in hospitals, nurses frequently work around, or intentionally bypass, safety regulations. We argue that work-arounds occur because adhering to safety regulations usually requires more time and work process design often lacks complementarity with safety regulations. Our main proposition is that mindfulness is associated with a decrease in occupational safety failures through a decrease in work-arounds. First, we propose that individual mindfulness may prevent the depletion of motivational resources caused by worrying about the consequences of time lost when adhering to safety regulations. Second, we argue that collective mindfulness may provide nursing teams with a cognitive infrastructure that facilitates the detection and adaptation of work processes. The results of a multilevel analysis of 580 survey responses from nurses are consistent with our propositions. Our multilevel analytic approach enables us to account for the unique variance in work-arounds that individual and collective mindfulness explain.

  6. Application of Premack's generalization of reinforcement to modify occupational behavior in two severely retarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Bateman, S

    1975-03-01

    Premack's generalization that a more probable response will reinforce a less probable one was applied to modify occupational behavior of two severly retarded individuals. When opportunity to work on a more preferred activity was made contingent upon spending some time on a less preferred activity, an increase in the amount of time spent on less preferred work occurred. As the reinforcement schedule was gradually reduced in terms of time allowed on more preferred work, time spent on the less preferred activity tended to increase. Behavior did not return to baseline levels on extinction, however. Possible reasons for these findings are outlined, together with the practical advantages of utilizing Premack's generalization as a reinforcement technique for motivating retarded individuals in rehabilitation settings.

  7. An occupational therapy work skills assessment for individuals with head injury.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M

    2003-06-01

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation is a critical step in the return-to-work process for individuals with head injury. Research findings have been reported on the barriers for a successful return to work. Assessment frameworks have been published, but they do not include a protocol that contains each component for the assessment. This paper describes an occupational therapy assessment protocol developed and used in the evaluation of the work skills of individuals with head injury. This protocol focuses on assessment of physical, cognitive and behavioural abilities in relation to the demands of the workplace and measures these within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills and safety. The functional approach inherent in this protocol provides information to complement the findings of other interdisciplinary team members. This paper also explores the strengths and limitations of this protocol.

  8. Assessing individual employee risk factors for occupational asthma in primary aluminium smelting

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, C; McBride, D; Firth, H; Herbison, G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the significance of individual risk factors in the development of occupational asthma of aluminium smelting (OAAS). Methods: A matched case-control study nested in a cohort of 545 workers employed in areas with moderate to high levels of smelting dust and fume. The cohort comprised those who had their first pre-employment medical examination between 1 July 1982 and 1 July 1995; follow up was until 31 December 2000. Forty five cases diagnosed with OAAS and four controls per case were matched for the same year of pre-employment and age within ±5 years. The pre-employment medical questionnaires were examined, blinded as to case-control status, and information obtained on demographics and details of allergic symptoms, respiratory risk factors, respiratory symptoms, and spirometry. Data from the subsequent medical notes yielded subsequent history of hay fever, family history of asthma, full work history, date of termination or diagnosis, and tobacco smoking history at the end-point. Results: There was a significant positive association between hay fever diagnosed either at or during employment and OAAS (adjusted OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.57 to 8.21). A higher forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) at employment reduced the risk of developing OAAS (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99). The risk of OAAS was more than three times higher in individuals with an FER of 70.0–74.9% than in individuals with an FER ⩾80.0% (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.89). Conclusions: Individuals with hay fever may be more susceptible to occupational asthma when exposed to airborne irritants in aluminium smelting. The pathological basis may be reduced nasal filtration and increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness. PMID:15208376

  9. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  10. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2016-07-01

    The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: "Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?" The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  11. Selection bias in follow-up interviews with individuals attending the emergency department for occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether supplementary interview participation was comparable for occupationally injured patients attending two hospital emergency departments and to investigate the magnitude of selection bias in relation to sex, age, severity, job tasks and industry risk level. Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments were compared for study recruitment by age and sex. Respondents and non-respondents to the interview were compared for age, sex, injury severity, job tasks and industry risk level. Of 4002 patients attending the two hospitals, 1693 (42%) participated in the interview. One hospital had a markedly higher response rate to the questionnaire, but the proportions of participation in the interview were similar in the two hospitals. Patients aged <30 years were over-represented among non-respondents whereas sex, injury severity, job task and industry risk level were not significantly different between respondents and non-respondents. Despite a relatively low interview participation rate among injured individuals attending the emergency department, selection bias was limited. This indicates that results regarding injury risk patterns may be more widely generalisable when examining the causality of occupational injuries. However, the study also showed that young injured workers were less likely to participate in follow-up interviews, which is an important factor when interpreting age-related risk of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise.

    PubMed

    Kumar, U Ajith; Ameenudin, Syed; Sangamanatha, A V

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13), 41 50 ( = 13), 41-50 (n = 9), and 51-60 (n = 6) years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group). Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  13. Comparison of in vivo translocation frequencies with in vitro G2 radiosensitivity in radiation workers occupationally exposed to external radiation.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Kevin K; Whitehouse, Caroline A; Tarone, Robert E; Janet Tawn, E

    2008-03-01

    A group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield who had been studied for in vivo translocation frequencies in blood lymphocytes were resampled and analysed for in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity. Significant variation in response to a dose of 0.5 Gy given at the G(2) stage of the cell cycle was observed between individuals (P < 0.001). In a regression analysis that included age, cumulative occupational radiation dose and in vitro G(2) radiation-induced aberration frequencies as independent variables, only cumulative occupational radiation dose had a significant influence on chromosomal translocation frequency (P = 0.0036). G(2) in vitro radiosensitivity is assumed to be a marker for genetic polymorphic variation in DNA damage recognition and repair genes. Therefore, since in vivo translocation frequencies can be considered a surrogate for cancer risk, this lack of association with G(2) in vitro radiosensitivity suggests that such genetic variation has no impact on the response to low dose chronic exposure.

  14. Does Feather Corticosterone Reflect Individual Quality or External Stress in Arctic-Nesting Migratory Birds?

    PubMed Central

    Legagneux, Pierre; Harms, N. Jane; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Bêty, Joël; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions) on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring) body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects. PMID:24391720

  15. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Harms, N Jane; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bortolotti, Gary; Bêty, Joël; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions) on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring) body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  16. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ajay D.; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Naik, Rajesh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods In this study, serum samples (n=282) from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (n=243), and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39) were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusion Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame. PMID:24762925

  17. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  18. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E. )

    1990-11-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS.

  19. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Gren, D C; Simon, S L; Wrenn, M E; Hawthorne, H A; Lotz, T M; Stevens, W; Till, J E

    1990-11-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS.

  20. [Occupational toxic exposure in the pregnant woman. 1: principles fo individual risk assessment ].

    PubMed

    Testud, F; Lambert-Chhum, R; Bellemin, B; Descotes, J

    2001-12-01

    Many women of childbearing age are occupationally exposed to chemicals and concerned with the ensuing risk when pregnant. To describe the principles of individual risk assessment to be applied in pregnant women or women wishing to become pregnant that are exposed to chemicals at the workplace. Each request for risk assessment is based on a comprehensive review of the hazards of the handled products together with a thorough evaluation of the actual exposure at the workplace. A toxicological advice is then written to the gynecologist or the general practitioner in charge of the patient. When the exposure is estimated to be hazardous for the pregnancy, either total withdrawal, avoidance of certain activities or improvements of individual protective devices are recommended. The outcome of the pregnancy is systematically followed-up. An objective assessment of toxic risks in pregnant women exposed to chemicals at the workplace can be done. Thus, patients who must be withdrawn or benefit from improvements of their workstation can be selected.

  1. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: a nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Oivind; Lau, Bjørn

    2008-12-02

    High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance work is inherently stressful. We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel (n = 1180) in operational duty. The questionnaire included the Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey, the Basic Character Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and questions addressing organizational conditions. Serious operational tasks and physical demands were identified as the two most severe stressors. Lack of support from co-workers was the most severe and frequent organizational stressor. Higher frequency of stressors was most strongly associated with size of service districts (beta ranging between .18 and .30, p < .01) and working overtime (beta ranging from .13 to .27, p < .05). Stressor severity was related to lack of support after exposure to critical event (beta ranging from .11 to .24, p < .01) and working overtime. Neuroticism (beta ranging from .09 to .17, p < .01) and low general self-efficacy (beta ranging from -.12 to -.16, p < .001) were equally strongly related to severity of stressors, as were organizational conditions. Ambulance-specific stressors were reported as both more severe and more frequently occurring stressors than were organizational stressors. Organizational working conditions were more strongly related to frequency of job stressors than were individual differences. In general, the relationship between occupational stressors and individual differences was weak.

  2. Characterization of the profession/occupation of individuals affected by leprosy and the relationship with limitations in professional activities.

    PubMed

    Nardi, S M T; Ikehara, E; Pedro, H S P; Paschoal, V D A

    2012-01-01

    People who had leprosy stay away from work and have difficulty of employability and to perform their functions or retire early. This study aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between profession/occupation and limitations in activities. This was a cross-sectional study that used the SALSA scale (Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness) to assess limitations and to classify professions/occupations as low, medium or high risk. Of the 277 people surveyed, 50.2% were men, the mean age was 53.8 years (SD = 16.3), 62.7% had multibacillary, 59.7% had family incomes of 3 minimum wages or less, 58.5% had up to 6 years schooling and 57% did not have paid jobs. As for occupations, 45.8% were considered low, 39.7% medium and 12.3% high risk. Of thetotal, 49.1% had mild/moderate, 8.7% severe/very severe and 42.2% did not have any limitations. The relationship between limitations in activities and occupational risk indicated that people with severe limitations tend to have low risk occupations (p value < 0.05). The limitations associated with employability showed that most active individuals have no limitations (p value < 0.05). Hence, most people who had leprosy have low risk professions/occupations; the limitations favor a shift from high-risk activities and interfere with employability.

  3. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  4. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  5. Tracing research methodology in occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Custard, C

    1998-09-01

    As a profession, occupational therapy has been repeatedly confronted with the challenge to prove the value of occupation as a therapeutic medium. The types of research pursued by occupational therapists have evolved in response to societal trends, external pressures, and the priorities of individual practitioners. Although many therapists have reconciled the pursuit of research with the roots of occupational therapy through an adherence to naturalistic methods, others continue to value experimental research designs. This article explores the rise of qualitative research methods in occupational therapy and addresses the current dilemma between naturalistic and positivistic designs.

  6. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  7. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  8. Three case studies of community occupational therapy for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Misko, Alexis N; Nelson, David L; Duggan, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate the complexities and opportunities in providing community-based occupational therapy services to persons with HIV. An infectious disease physician recommended three clients for therapy sessions in both the home and community. The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) in conjunction with the Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Occupation (CFTO) was used to guide the therapeutic process. Assessments measured challenges to clients and client progress in the following areas: leisure, mobility, organization, problem solving, community involvement, transitioning to independent living, fatigue, childcare/play, and home management. This paper describes the three cases with findings suggesting that community-based occupational therapy has potential to address important issues such as habits, roles, and volition in the HIV/AIDS population.

  9. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  10. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. Methods In a case-control study, patients with and without symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire complemented by a semi-standardised interview. Controls were matched and assigned to the cases by gender and age. Conditional logistic regression was used in analysing data. Results In total, 739 cases and 571 controls were included in the study. In women and men, several individual and occupational predictors for knee OA could be described: obesity (odds ratio (OR) up to 17.65 in women and up to 12.56 in men); kneeling/squatting (women, OR 2.52 (>8,934 hours/life); men, 2.16 (574 to 12,244 hours/life), 2.47 (>12,244 hours/life)); genetic predisposition (women, OR 2.17; men, OR 2.37); and sports with a risk of unapparent trauma (women, OR 2.47 (≥1,440 hours/life); men, 2.58 (≥3,232 hours/life)). In women, malalignment of the knee (OR 11.54), pain in the knee already in childhood (OR 2.08), and the daily lifting and carrying of loads (≥1,088 tons/life, OR 2.13) were related to an increased OR; sitting and smoking led to a reduced OR. Conclusions The results support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee OA in men and, for the first time, in women. The results concerning general and occupational predictors for knee OA reflect the findings from the literature quite well. Yet occupational risks such as jumping or climbing stairs/ladders, as discussed in the literature, did not correlate with symptomatic knee OA in the

  11. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klussmann, André; Gebhardt, Hansjürgen; Nübling, Matthias; Liebers, Falk; Quirós Perea, Emilio; Cordier, Wolfgang; von Engelhardt, Lars V; Schubert, Markus; Dávid, Andreas; Bouillon, Bertil; Rieger, Monika A

    2010-01-01

    A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In a case-control study, patients with and without symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire complemented by a semi-standardised interview. Controls were matched and assigned to the cases by gender and age. Conditional logistic regression was used in analysing data. In total, 739 cases and 571 controls were included in the study. In women and men, several individual and occupational predictors for knee OA could be described: obesity (odds ratio (OR) up to 17.65 in women and up to 12.56 in men); kneeling/squatting (women, OR 2.52 (>8,934 hours/life); men, 2.16 (574 to 12,244 hours/life), 2.47 (>12,244 hours/life)); genetic predisposition (women, OR 2.17; men, OR 2.37); and sports with a risk of unapparent trauma (women, OR 2.47 (>or=1,440 hours/life); men, 2.58 (>or=3,232 hours/life)). In women, malalignment of the knee (OR 11.54), pain in the knee already in childhood (OR 2.08), and the daily lifting and carrying of loads (>or=1,088 tons/life, OR 2.13) were related to an increased OR; sitting and smoking led to a reduced OR. The results support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee OA in men and, for the first time, in women. The results concerning general and occupational predictors for knee OA reflect the findings from the literature quite well. Yet occupational risks such as jumping or climbing stairs/ladders, as discussed in the literature, did not correlate with symptomatic knee OA in the present study. With regards to occupational

  12. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  13. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  14. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  15. A screen for RAS mutations in individuals at risk of secondary leukaemia due to occupational exposure to petrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C; Hughes, D C; Zappone, E; Cazzola, M; Carter, G; Jacobs, A; Padua, R A

    1995-05-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemicals, in particular benzene, has been identified as a risk factor in the development of acute leukaemia. A cohort of exposed (n = 44) and non-exposed individuals (n = 19) from the same petrochemical installation were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by oligonucleotide hybridization (ONH) for the presence of mutations in the H, K, and NRAS cellular proto-oncogenes. A KRAS mutation was detected in one individual from the exposed group who was haematologically normal at the time of sampling. The presence of this mutation was confirmed by nude mouse tumorigenicity assay and positively identified as a K13 Gly-Asp substitution by cloning and sequencing.

  16. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  17. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  18. Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Barbara; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey (1966-81) to determine how job experience, education, marital status, occupational characteristics, and industrial sector interact with race and gender to create gender and race gaps in earnings. Results reveal a number of complex race/gender interactions affecting income inequality.…

  19. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.

  20. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  1. Auditory Brainstem Responses for Click and CE-chirp Stimuli in Individuals with and without Occupational Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pushpalatha, Zeena Venkatacheluvaiah; Konadath, Sreeraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Encoding of CE-chirp and click stimuli in auditory system was studied using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) among individuals with and without noise exposure. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of two groups. Group 1 (experimental group) consisted of 20 (40 ears) individuals exposed to occupational noise with hearing thresholds within 25 dB HL. They were further divided into three subgroups based on duration of noise exposure (0–5 years of exposure-T1, 5–10 years of exposure-T2, and >10 years of exposure-T3). Group 2 (control group) consisted of 20 individuals (40 ears). Absolute latency and amplitude of waves I, III, and V were compared between the two groups for both click and CE-chirp stimuli. T1, T2, and T3 groups were compared for the same parameters to see the effect of noise exposure duration on CE-chirp and click ABR. Result: In Click ABR, while both the parameters for wave III were significantly poorer for the experimental group, wave V showed a significant decline in terms of amplitude only. There was no significant difference obtained for any of the parameters for wave I. In CE-Chirp ABR, the latencies for all three waves were significantly prolonged in the experimental group. However, there was a significant decrease in terms of amplitude in only wave V for the same group. Discussion: Compared to click evoked ABR, CE-Chirp ABR was found to be more sensitive in comparison of latency parameters in individuals with occupational noise exposure. Monitoring of early pathological changes at the brainstem level can be studied effectively by using CE-Chirp stimulus in comparison to click stimulus. Conclusion: This study indicates that ABR's obtained with CE-chirp stimuli serves as an effective tool to identify the early pathological changes due to occupational noise exposure when compared to click evoked ABR. PMID:27762255

  2. Auditory brainstem responses for click and CE-chirp stimuli in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, Zeena Venkatacheluvaiah; Konadath, Sreeraj

    2016-01-01

    Encoding of CE-chirp and click stimuli in auditory system was studied using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) among individuals with and without noise exposure. The study consisted of two groups. Group 1 (experimental group) consisted of 20 (40 ears) individuals exposed to occupational noise with hearing thresholds within 25 dB HL. They were further divided into three subgroups based on duration of noise exposure (0-5 years of exposure-T1, 5-10 years of exposure-T2, and >10 years of exposure-T3). Group 2 (control group) consisted of 20 individuals (40 ears). Absolute latency and amplitude of waves I, III, and V were compared between the two groups for both click and CE-chirp stimuli. T1, T2, and T3 groups were compared for the same parameters to see the effect of noise exposure duration on CE-chirp and click ABR. In Click ABR, while both the parameters for wave III were significantly poorer for the experimental group, wave V showed a significant decline in terms of amplitude only. There was no significant difference obtained for any of the parameters for wave I. In CE-Chirp ABR, the latencies for all three waves were significantly prolonged in the experimental group. However, there was a significant decrease in terms of amplitude in only wave V for the same group. Compared to click evoked ABR, CE-Chirp ABR was found to be more sensitive in comparison of latency parameters in individuals with occupational noise exposure. Monitoring of early pathological changes at the brainstem level can be studied effectively by using CE-Chirp stimulus in comparison to click stimulus. This study indicates that ABR's obtained with CE-chirp stimuli serves as an effective tool to identify the early pathological changes due to occupational noise exposure when compared to click evoked ABR.

  3. [Survey on individual occupational health protection behaviors of welding workers using theory of reasoned action].

    PubMed

    Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying

    2012-03-01

    To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P < 0.01). the subjective norm of company was correlated with all protection behaviors (χ(2) = 20.60, 10.98 and 19.86, P < 0.01), the subjective norm of colleague was correlated with mask and earplug use, (χ(2) = 27.43, 36.39, P < 0.01), and the subjective norm of family was correlated with mask use (χ(2) = 5.73, P < 0.05). Theory of reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.

  4. Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit

    SciTech Connect

    Clusen, Ruth C.

    1981-02-01

    A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force; important programs would have to be abandoned at a planned exposure limit of 0.5 rem/yr; some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit; even a factor of 2 reduction (2.5 rem/yr) would significantly increase costs and would result in an increase in total exposure to the work force; in addition to a significant one-time initial capital cost resulting from a 0.5 rem/yr limit, there would be a significant increase in annual costs; the major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on further reduction of total man-rem; and current standards are used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr.

  5. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism parameters.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Fazli, Zohreh; Mazinani, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Over the years, neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction have separately been associated with endogenous formaldehyde and reduction of acetylcholine signals. However, a limited number of studies have shown a relationship between cholinergic neurotransmitter and formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the neurological effect on workers from melamine-dish preparation workshop, who were exposed to formaldehyde. A total of 35 formaldehyde-exposed workers were compared with 32 control employees from the food industry. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was conducted using the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 3500 methods. Using the Ellman method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker for neurotoxicity was analyzed in blood erythrocyte. The effects of alcohol dehydrogenase III (ADH3) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) polymorphism were used to survey the level of AChE activity. In this study, it was found that exposure to airborne formaldehyde increased from 0.024 to 0.74 ppm and the median personnel exposure was 0.057. Induction of AChE activity was observed in formaldehyde-exposed workers as compared with the control group (p < 0.01), while AChE activity increased in 64 % of the exposed subjects. Spearman's correlation (p < 0.02) was used to evaluate the association between AChE activity and occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Exposed subjects containing ADH32-2 genotype had higher AChE than others. The findings of this study suggest that the neurotoxic effect of formaldehyde depends on the AChE activity, which is affected by metabolism. It can be concluded that cholinergic signal reduction in cases of cognitive dysfunction could be associated with endogenous formaldehyde.

  6. International Environmental and Occupational Health: From Individual Scientists to Networked Science Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. PMID:23109132

  7. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Published in 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Relationships of working conditions and individual characteristics to occupational injuries: a case-control study in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed the relationship of age, poor perception of working condition, poor safety environment, poor management and supervision, risk-taking behavior, emotional instability, negative job involvement, job dissatisfaction, job stress, and poor safety performance of workers to occupational injuries. This case-control study was conducted on 202 male coal miners with at least one occupational injury during a five-year period and 202 male controls with no occupational injury, matched on the job. A standardized questionnaire administered by individual interviewers was used. Data were analysed by the logistic regression method. For all workers combined, the factors with significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found were: 30-45 and >45 yr age groups (OR vs. <30 yr age group: 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.17 and 2.59, 1.38-4.85 respectively), poor perception of working conditions (1.61, CI 1.00-3.18), emotional instability (2.33, 1.04-5.22), job stress (1.83, 1.00-3.46) and poor safety performance of workers (3.10, 1.45-6.63). No significant interaction was found between these risk factors and the job. It was concluded that older age, poor perception of work conditions, poor work environment, and human behavioral factors played significant roles in occupational injuries. This information would help in implementing preventive programs to improve working conditions and management quality and to help the workers to develop positive psychological traits, but workers with negative traits such as emotional instability and older workers should be employed in less demanding jobs.

  9. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  10. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  11. External Practicum-Year Residency Training in Occupational and Environmental Medicine: the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center Program.

    PubMed

    Emmett, E A; Green-McKenzie, J

    2001-05-01

    We describe a competency-based training program that allows physicians employed full-time in occupational and environmental medicine to satisfy the supervised practicum year of training required by the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM). The program is designed for trainees with greater clinical experience than the 1 clinical year required by the ABPM. To date, 25 physicians from clinic-based, academic, corporate, and government employment across most geographic regions of the United States have been admitted into the program. Most completed a master's in public health (MPH) in a distance-learning, on-job, on-campus, or executive program. The practicum-year training has been highly successful, as evidenced by improvements in resident self-assessment of competency, resident satisfaction with the training, faculty evaluation of resident performance, and success rate in the ABPM examination. The program has opened a new pathway for physicians making a mid-career shift to occupational and environmental medicine to obtain high-quality, in-depth education and board certification.

  12. Descriptions of Home and Community Occupations Related to Home Economics; Descriptions of Specific Occupations Classified Into Six Clusters, Index to Areas of Work and Worker Trait Groups for Individual Occupations. Professional Education Series No. HE-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Beatrice

    This bulletin is a reference tool for the identification of home economics-related occupations and requirements and methods of entry into these occupations. A full description of 200 home economics-related occupations as found in the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" Volume I, and page references which will facilitate the location of…

  13. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.

  14. External exercise information provides no immediate additional performance benefit to untrained individuals in time trial cycling.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Bailey, S D; Mauger, A R

    2012-01-01

    To determine the importance of the provision of external exercise information to the setting of the pacing strategy, in subjects unfamiliar with a cycling task. Twenty-two healthy, untrained cyclists (VO(2max), 50 ± 9 mL-(1)·kg-(1)·min-(1)) were randomly assigned to a control (CON) group or an experimental (EXP) group and two successive 4 km time trials (TT) were performed, separated by a 17 min recovery. The CON group received distance knowledge and distance feedback; the EXP group received neither, but knew that each TT was to be of the same distance. No significant difference in completion time (p>0.05) was observed between the groups for either time to complete TT one (TT1) (CON=443 ± 33 s versus EXP=471 ± 63 s) or time to complete TT two (time trial 2) (CON=461 ± 37 s versus EXP=501 ± 94 s). No significant difference in the final RPE was observed between groups. However, a significant interaction for RPE (rating of perceived exertion)×TT in the CON was observed (F7,70=5.32, p<0.05), with significantly higher RPE values in the final kilometre of TT2 (p<0.05). The lack of any performance improvement in either group, despite the differences in exercise information received, indicates both a reliance on the afferent feedback for setting a pacing strategy and slow learning effect from practice in subjects unfamiliar with the task. The modification in RPE profile observed in the CON, despite no performance improvement, suggests exercise perception based changes may pre-empt work rate based changes and thus not immediately translate to improved performance.

  15. External Combustion Engine Technology (Vapor and Liquid Cycles) for Individual Soldier Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    0704-0 IM P Ou l t11g ul~ tl It" C0•10 of mbfisal `ft W t o` rode I hows M" 1q v Vie W IM 1or #&"a" OW" l e"Aru&A 4W8 OW Wŕ. WW end AW unvIaNn datai...thermal engine ....... 29 13. Heat balance and calculations for regenerative liquid thermal engne from Cleveland Pneum atic T ool C o. report...Appendix A is a complete listing and discussion of the individual requiremenlts, or eval t ion faCtol’S. for such power systems. Accesion For NTIS

  16. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  17. Dynamics of Individual cilia to external loading- A simple one dimensional picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Vinay; Hill, David; Superfine, R.

    2008-10-01

    From being called the cellular janitors to swinging debauchers, cilia have captured the fascinations of researchers for over 200 years. In cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where the cilia loses it's function, the protective mucus layer in the lung thickens and mucociliary clearance breaks down, leading to inflammation along the airways and an increased rate of infection. The mechanistic understanding of mucus clearance depends on a quantitative assessment of the axoneme dynamics and the maximum force the cilia are capable of generating and imparting to the mucus layer. Similar to the situation in molecular motors, detailed quantitative measurements of dynamics under applied load conditions are expected to be essential in developing predictive models. Based on our measurements of the dynamics of individual ciliary motion in the human bronchial epithelial cell under the application of an applied load, we present a simple one dimensional model for the axoneme dynamics and quantify the axoneme stiffness, the internal force generated by the axoneme, the stall force and show how the dynamics sheds insight on the time dependence of the internal force generation. The internal force generated by the axoneme is related to the ability of cilia to propel fluids and to their potential role in force sensing.

  18. Individual Contributory Factors in Teacher Stress: The Role of Achievement Striving and Occupational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to…

  19. Individual Contributory Factors in Teacher Stress: The Role of Achievement Striving and Occupational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to…

  20. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model.

    PubMed

    Snell, Kym I E; Hua, Harry; Debray, Thomas P A; Ensor, Joie; Look, Maxime P; Moons, Karel G M; Riley, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing calibration and discrimination performance, while accounting for their correlation. The approach estimates a prediction model's average performance, the heterogeneity in performance across populations, and the probability of "good" performance in new populations. This allows different implementation strategies (e.g., recalibration) to be compared. Application is made to a diagnostic model for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a prognostic model for breast cancer mortality. In both examples, multivariate meta-analysis reveals that calibration performance is excellent on average but highly heterogeneous across populations unless the model's intercept (baseline hazard) is recalibrated. For the cancer model, the probability of "good" performance (defined by C statistic ≥0.7 and calibration slope between 0.9 and 1.1) in a new population was 0.67 with recalibration but 0.22 without recalibration. For the DVT model, even with recalibration, there was only a 0.03 probability of "good" performance. Multivariate meta-analysis can be used to externally validate a prediction model's calibration and discrimination performance across multiple populations and to evaluate different implementation strategies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multivariate meta-analysis of individual participant data helped externally validate the performance and implementation of a prediction model

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Kym I.E.; Hua, Harry; Debray, Thomas P.A.; Ensor, Joie; Look, Maxime P.; Moons, Karel G.M.; Riley, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to improve meta-analysis methods for summarizing a prediction model's performance when individual participant data are available from multiple studies for external validation. Study Design and Setting We suggest multivariate meta-analysis for jointly synthesizing calibration and discrimination performance, while accounting for their correlation. The approach estimates a prediction model's average performance, the heterogeneity in performance across populations, and the probability of “good” performance in new populations. This allows different implementation strategies (e.g., recalibration) to be compared. Application is made to a diagnostic model for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a prognostic model for breast cancer mortality. Results In both examples, multivariate meta-analysis reveals that calibration performance is excellent on average but highly heterogeneous across populations unless the model's intercept (baseline hazard) is recalibrated. For the cancer model, the probability of “good” performance (defined by C statistic ≥0.7 and calibration slope between 0.9 and 1.1) in a new population was 0.67 with recalibration but 0.22 without recalibration. For the DVT model, even with recalibration, there was only a 0.03 probability of “good” performance. Conclusion Multivariate meta-analysis can be used to externally validate a prediction model's calibration and discrimination performance across multiple populations and to evaluate different implementation strategies. PMID:26142114

  2. Sputum Inflammatory Profile Before and After Specific Inhalation Challenge in Individuals with Suspected Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Cruz, María-Jesús; Gómez-Ollés, Susana; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to establish the sputum inflammatory profile and changes in levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and a panel of Th1/Th2 cytokines in subjects with suspected occupational asthma (OA) following specific inhalation challenge (SIC) to high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. Material and Methods Fifty-one consecutive subjects undergoing SIC for suspected OA were enrolled. Sputum induction was performed the day before and 24 h after exposure to the offending agent. Total and differential cell counts were assessed. LTB4 and a 10 Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured in sputum supernatant. Results Thirty-four patients tested positive to SIC and were diagnosed with OA (in 10 due to HMW agents and in 24 to LMW agents). SIC was negative in 17 subjects. As compared to baseline an increase was found in the percentage of sputum eosinophils and neutrophils, and in IL-10 concentration after SIC (p = 0.0078, p = 0.0195, and p = 0.046, respectively), and a decrease was seen in LTB4 level (p = 0.0078) in patients with OA due to HMW agents. An increase in the percentage of sputum neutrophils after SIC (p = 0.0040) was observed in subjects without OA exposed to LMW agents. IL-8 levels after SIC were higher in patients without OA compared with patients with OA (p = 0.0146). Conclusion When conducting airway inflammation studies in OA, patients should be divided according to the causal agent (HMW or LMW). In OA patients exposed to HMW agents, an increase in the number of neutrophils can be found in parallel to the increase of eosinophils, although this does not contradict an IgE-mediated mechanism. Exposure to LMW agents can result in increased neutrophilic inflammation in patients with airway diseases unrelated to OA. There is variability in the responses observed in patients with OA exposed to LMW agents. PMID:24236015

  3. A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of In-home Automated External Defibrillators for Individuals at Increased Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Peter; Vijan, Sandeep; Katz, David; Fendrick, A Mark

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE In-home automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are increasingly recommended as a means for improving survival of cardiac arrests that occur at home. The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between individuals' risk of cardiac arrest and cost-effectiveness of in-home AED deployment. DESIGN Markov decision model employing a societal perspective. PATIENTS Four hypothetical cohorts of American adults 60 years of age at progressively greater risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD): 1) all adults (annual probability of SCD 0.4%); 2) adults with multiple SCD risk factors (probability 2%); 3) adults with previous myocardial infarction (probability 4%); and 4) adults with ischemic cardiomyopathy unable to receive an implantable defibrillator (probability 6%). INTERVENTION Strategy 1: individuals suffering an in-home cardiac arrest were treated with emergency medical services equipped with AEDs (EMS-D). Strategy 2: individuals suffering an in-home cardiac arrest received initial treatment with an in-home AED, followed by EMS. RESULTS Assuming cardiac arrest survival rates of 15% with EMS-D and 30% with AEDs, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained (QALY) of providing in-home AEDs to all adults 60 years of age is $216,000. Costs of providing in-home AEDs to adults with multiple risk factors (2% probability of SCD), previous myocardial infarction (4% probability), and ischemic cardiomyopathy (6% probability) are $132,000, $104,000, and $88,000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The cost-effectiveness of in-home AEDs is intimately linked to individuals' risk of SCD. However, providing in-home AEDs to all adults over age 60 appears relatively expensive. PMID:15836529

  5. Arterial Indices and Serum Cystatin C Level in Individuals With Occupational Wide Band Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Ali R.; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups. Conclusion: We could

  6. Arterial indices and serum cystatin C level in individuals with occupational wide band noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Ali R; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.

    PubMed

    Bhalli, Javed A; Khan, Q M; Haq, M A; Khalid, A M; Nasim, A

    2006-03-01

    Although several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pesticides on workers involved in the pesticide manufacturing industry. Subjects in the exposed group (29) were drawn from workers at a pesticide production plant in district Multan (Pakistan). The control group (unexposed) composed of 35 individuals from the same area but was not involved in pesticide production. Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parameters were used as biomarkers in this study. A statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was detected in exposed workers with respect to the control group. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the level of SChE in the exposed group. Exposed individuals exhibited cytogenetic damage with increased frequencies (P < 0.001) of binucleated cells with micronuclei and total number of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes in comparison with subjects of the control group. A decrease (P < 0.001) in cytokinesis block proliferation index similarly demonstrates a genotoxic effect due to pesticide exposure. The results indicate that the pesticide industry workers have experienced significant genotoxic exposure. This study highlights the risk to workers in the pesticide manufacturing industries of developing countries such as Pakistan and the need for implementation of suitable safety measures to prevent/limit exposure to harmful toxins.

  8. Adaptation of external counterpulsation based on individual shear rate therapy improves endothelial function and claudication distance in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Eva-Elina; Brix, Michele; Li, Lulu; Doreen, Janke; Zietzer, Andreas; Li, Meijing; Buschmann, Ivo; Hillmeister, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    External counterpulsation therapy enhances blood flow and was shown to improve endothelial function and quality of life in coronary artery disease patients. However, high pressures of up to 300 mmHg may lead to malperfusion of the ischaemic limb. To improve the clinical outcome of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), we adjusted external counterpulsation and developed a novel non-invasive approach termed individual shear rate therapy (ISRT). In the present study, 14 patients with a Fontaine stage IIb and femoral-popliteal PAD underwent 30 hours of ISRT over 5 weeks. For ISRT, individual treatment pressures that do not exceed 160 mmHg were assessed by Doppler flow parameters during counterpulsation (individual shear rate diagnosis) in order to enhance and maximise peripheral perfusion. The study aimed to enhance peripheral perfusion and evaluate the primary clinical endpoint endothelial function, as well as to perform preliminary analysis of the ankle brachial index (ABI) and walking distance. Doppler flow measurements in the lower limb (ankle) validated that maximum blood flow velocity during systole and acceleration doubled during ISRT. Study results demonstrated that long-term ISRT significantly increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (0.13+/- 0.09 mm to 0.38+/- 0.05 mm; p < 0.05), while nitromediated dilation (0.36+/- 0.10 mm to 0.45+/- 0.08 mm) remained and common femoral artery FMD did not reach statistical significance (0.38+/- 0.08 mm to 0.67+/- 0.19 mm; p<0.05). Initial claudication distance considerably improved for all patients after 30 hours of ISRT (92.6 +/- 8.2 metres to 280+/- 101.3 metres, p<0.05), just like the absolute claudication distance, which showed a more than 2.5-fold increase (167.8+/- 18.1 metres to 446.7+/- 133.3 metres; p<0.05). The ABI did not improve (0.58+/- 0.03 to 0.65+/- 0.04). Our data demonstrate that long-term ISRT is a potential novel non-invasive treatment to improve endothelial function and

  9. Patch occupancy, number of individuals and population density of the Marbled White in a changing agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Metapopulation theory predicts the occurrence of animals in habitat patches. In this paper, we tested predictions based on this theory, including effects of spatial autocorrelation, to describe factors affecting the presence, local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea in habitat patches spread across the agricultural landscape of southern Poland. This agricultural landscape has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the country's political transformation and is currently characterized by a large proportion of fallow (abandoned) land. We compared 48 occupied habitat patches with 60 unoccupied ones. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in the number and density of individuals in habitat patches. The probability of patch occupancy was higher for patches that were larger, had a higher proportion of edges, were located closer to the nearest neighbouring local population and to the nearest piece of fallow, contained a smaller area of cut grass, and also had more nectar resources. The number of Marbled Whites in habitat patches was positively related to the patch area, the distance to the nearest fallow and the abundance of nectar resources, but was negatively related to the density of shrubs. The density of individuals was positively related to abundance of flowers, proportion of edge in a patch and distance to the nearest fallow, but it was negatively related to patch area, vegetation height and grass cover. These results indicate that recent land-use changes in agricultural landscapes have had both positive and negative effects on the presence and local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White. These changes affect the metapopulation of the species through changes in habitat quality and landscape connectivity in the area surrounding habitat patches.

  10. Measuring and assessing individual external doses during the rehabilitation phase in Iitate village after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Kuroda, Yujiro

    2017-09-25

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, Iitate village was placed under an evacuation order because the level of radioactive materials drifting from the nuclear plant to the village was above a government-set level for allowing residents to live in the area. The evacuation advisory for most of the village was lifted on 31 March 2017. For displaced residents deciding whether or not to return to their homes, it is important to correctly understand and estimate the realistic individual external doses they will receive after returning to the village. In this study, with the support of residents of the village, we used a personal dosimeter (D-Shuttle) coupled with a global positioning system device to measure and thus understand realistic individual external doses while the residents were in Iitate village and to project the individual external doses for different administrative districts as of 1 April 2017. The measured individual external doses measured by D-Shuttle for 38 study participants showed that the doses measured during time spent inside the village were higher and more widely distributed than the doses measured during time spent outside the village. The exposure ratio (ER) was defined as the ratio of additional individual external dose measured by D-Shuttle to the additional ambient dose based on an airborne monitoring survey. The medians of the average ERs were 0.13 (min-max 0.06-0.27) for time spent at home and 0.18 (min-max 0.08-0.36) for time spent outdoors. Projected additional annual individual external doses as of 1 April 2017 for different administrative districts in the village were calculated using ERs obtained in this study. Assuming that individuals spent 8 h per day on outdoor activities and 16 h on indoor activities, additional annual individual external doses were estimated to be below 3 mSv using the mean of the average ERs for most districts in the village, and these values were well below the individual external

  11. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  12. Individual-level and plant-level predictors of acute, traumatic occupational injuries in a manufacturing cohort.

    PubMed

    Souza, Kerry; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Workplace and contextual factors that may affect risk for worker injury are not well described. This study used results from an employee job satisfaction survey to construct aggregate indicators of the work environment and estimate the relative contribution of those factors to injury rates in a manufacturing cohort. Principal components analysis was used to construct four plant-level factors from responses to a 32 question survey of the entire workforce, administered in 2006. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between injury rate, individual-level and plant-level risk factors, unionisation and plant type. Plant-level 'work stress' (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90) was significant in the multilevel model, indicating the rate of injury for an average individual in that plant was halved (conditional on plant) when job stress decreased by a tertile. 'Overall satisfaction', 'work environment' and 'perception of supervisor' showed the same trend but were not significant. Unionisation was protective (IRR=0.40, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.95) as was any plant type compared with smelter. We demonstrated utility of data from a human resources survey to construct indicators of the work environment. Our research suggests that aspects of the work environment, particularly work stress and unionisation, may have a significant effect on risk for occupational injury, emphasising the need for further multilevel studies. Our work would suggest monitoring of employee perceptions of job stress and the possible inclusion of stress management as a component of risk reduction programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    PubMed

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  14. Estimation of occupational cosmic radiation exposure among airline personnel: Agreement between a job-exposure matrix, aggregate, and individual dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Talibov, Madar; Salmelin, Raili; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-04-01

    Job-exposure matrices (JEM) are used for exposure assessment in occupational studies, but they can involve errors. We assessed agreement between the Nordic Occupational Cancer Studies JEM (NOCCA-JEM) and aggregate and individual dose estimates for cosmic radiation exposure among Finnish airline personnel. Cumulative cosmic radiation exposure for 5,022 airline crew members was compared between a JEM and aggregate and individual dose estimates. The NOCCA-JEM underestimated individual doses. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.37, proportion of agreement 64%, kappa 0.46 compared with individual doses. Higher agreement was achieved with aggregate dose estimates, that is annual medians of individual doses and estimates adjusted for heliocentric potentials. The substantial disagreement between NOCCA-JEM and individual dose estimates of cosmic radiation may lead to exposure misclassification and biased risk estimates in epidemiological studies. Using aggregate data may provide improved estimates. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:386-393, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  16. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  17. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  18. The use of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy in improving the cognitive functioning of individuals with brain injury: A pre- and post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Soeker, Shaheed

    2017-09-14

    Individuals diagnosed with a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often experience major limitations in returning to work despite participating in rehabilitation programmes. The aim of the study was to determine whether individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury experienced improved cognitive functioning after participating in an intervention programme that utilizes the Model of Occupational Self-Efficacy (MOOSE). Ten (10) individuals who were diagnosed with a mild to moderate brain injury participated in the study. The research study was positioned within the quantitative paradigm specifically utilizing a pre and post intervention research design. In order to gather data from the participants, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) was used to determine whether the individual with brain injury's cognitive functioning improved after participating in a vocational rehabilitation model called the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy (MOOSE). All the participants in this study presented with an improvement in MOCA test scores. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant effect of the intervention (i.e. MOOSE) on cognitive functioning measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, F(4, 6) = 15.95, p = 0.002. The findings of this study indicated that MOOSE is a useful model to facilitate the return of individuals living with a TBI back to work. It is also suggested that cognitive rehabilitative activities be included as part of the vocational rehabilitation programme.

  19. A longitudinal application of three health behaviour models in the context of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2011-09-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is common, associated with poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the individual and society. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the prototype-willingness model (PWM) and the health action process approach (HAPA) to the prediction and explanation of occupationally relevant skin protection behaviour in individuals with OSD. We used a longitudinal design. In this study, 150 individuals participating in a 3-week inpatient tertiary prevention programme completed measures assessing the constructs of the TPB, PWM and HAPA at admission (T 0), discharge (T 1) and once the individual had returned to work and worked for 4 consecutive weeks (T 2) (n = 117). Intention was measured at T 0 and skin protection behaviour at T 2. Path analysis was used to assess the longitudinal associations of the models' constructs with intention and skin protection behaviour. TPB as well as PWM variables accounted for 30% of variance in behaviour, HAPA variables for 33%. While not all predictions were confirmed by the data, all three models are able to inform us about the formation of skin protection intention and behaviour in individuals with OSD. The findings are discussed in light of future interventions and research.

  20. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  1. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A Comparison of Glenohumeral Internal and External Range of Motion and Rotation Strength in healthy and Individuals with Recurrent Anterior Instability.

    PubMed

    Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Ilka, Shahab; Dashtbani, Hasan; Sahebozamani, Mansour

    2014-09-01

    The glenohumeral joint becomes dislocated more than any other major joint because it maintains a wide range of motion and its stability is inherently weak. The most common complication following acute initial shoulder dislocation is recurrent dislocation or chronic instability. Imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior dislocation can be a contributing factor in recurrent dislocation as well. This case-control study consisted of 24 individuals with a mean age of 24.29±4.33 years, and a mean dislocation rate of 5.37±3.62 times. Isometric cuff strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer and for range of motion, the Leighton flexometer was used in internal and external rotational motions of both upper extremities. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. The internal and external range of motion of the injured glenohumeral joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). Similarly, the internal and external rotation strength of the injured joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). According to previous data, imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior shoulder dislocation can be a contributing factor in long-term disability and increased recurrent dislocation and our finding confirm decreased range of motion and strength in our patients. Hence, proper exercise and rehabilitation plans need to be developed for those suffering from this complication.

  3. A Production Task Evaluation of Individual Differences in Mental Addition Skill Development: Internal and External Validation of Chronometric Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Widaman, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    Validated models of mental addition processing by testing children and adults in a production task paradigm. Examined individual-difference relations between strategy choice parameters and criterion-related measures of ability. Found that individual differences in the apparently calculative processes that underlie numerical facility are highly…

  4. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  5. Individual external dose monitoring of all citizens of Date City by passive dosimeter 5 to 51 months after the Fukushima NPP accident (series): 1. Comparison of individual dose with ambient dose rate monitored by aircraft surveys.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo

    2016-12-06

    Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys. The results show that the individual doses were about 0.15 times the ambient doses, the coefficient of 0.15 being a factor of 4 smaller than the value employed by the Japanese government, throughout the period of the airborne surveys used. The method obtained in this study could aid in the prediction of individual doses in the early phase of future radiological accidents involving large-scale contamination.

  6. Occupational airborne exposure in relation to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and lung function in individuals without childhood wheezing illness: A 50-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tagiyeva, Nara; Sadhra, Steven; Mohammed, Nuredin; Fielding, Shona; Devereux, Graham; Teo, Ed; Ayres, Jon; Graham Douglas, J

    2017-02-01

    Evidence from longitudinal population-based studies relating occupational exposure to the full range of different forms of airborne pollutants and lung function and airway obstruction is limited. To relate self-reported COPD and lung function impairment to occupational exposure to different forms of airborne chemical pollutants in individuals who did not have childhood wheeze. A prospective cohort study was randomly selected in 1964 at age 10-15 years and followed up in 1989, 1995, 2001 and 2014 (aged 58-64) by spirometry and respiratory questionnaire. Occupational histories were recorded in 2014 and occupational exposures assigned using an airborne chemical job exposure matrix. The risk of COPD and lung function impairment was analyzed in subjects, who did not have childhood wheeze, using logistic and linear regression and linear mixed effects models. 237 subjects without childhood wheeze (mean age 60.6 years, 47% male) were analyzed. There was no association between any respiratory outcomes and exposure to gases, fibers, mists or mineral dusts and no consistent associations with exposure to fumes. Reduced FEV1 was associated with longer duration (years) of exposure to any of the six main pollutant forms - vapors, gases, dusts, fumes, fibers and mists (VGDFFiM) with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-trend=0.004). Exposure to biological dusts was associated with self-reported COPD and FEV1occupationally exposed to biological dusts or vapors or had

  7. The additive impact of group and individual publicly displayed feedback: examining individual response patterns and response generalization in a safe-driving occupational intervention.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Timothy D; Geller, E Scott; Clarke, Steven W

    2010-09-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on their turn-signal use (i.e., group feedback phase). Then, for the next 4 weeks, individual turn-signal use means were publicly posted along with the group feedback (i.e., individual feedback phase). Deliverers at Store A (n = 24) increased their use of turn signals from a mean of 5% during baseline to 16.9% during the group feedback phase and then to 30% during the individual feedback phase. Turn-signal use at Store B (n = 20) increased from 28.9% during baseline to 43.6% during group feedback phase and to 56% during the subsequent individual feedback phase. Individual analyses suggested that deliverers who improved the target behavior during group feedback phase did not increase their turn-signal use further when individual feedback was added. Conversely, most deliverers who did not improve during the group feedback phase increased their turn-signal use when individual feedback was added. Complete intersection stopping increased concurrently with the turn-signal intervention phases from baseline means of 12% and 30% at Store A and B, respectively, to means of 21% and 48% during the interventions.

  8. Relationships Between Internal and External Training Load in Team-Sport Athletes: Evidence for an Individualized Approach.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; O'Connor, Fergus; Pitchford, Nathan; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Robertson, Samuel J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and predict relationships between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and GPS training-load (TL) variables in professional Australian football (AF) players using group and individualized modeling approaches. TL data (GPS and RPE) for 41 professional AF players were obtained over a period of 27 wk. A total of 2711 training observations were analyzed with a total of 66 ± 13 sessions/player (range 39-89). Separate generalized estimating equations (GEEs) and artificial-neural-network analyses (ANNs) were conducted to determine the ability to predict RPE from TL variables (ie, session distance, high-speed running [HSR], HSR %, m/min) on a group and individual basis. Prediction error for the individualized ANN (root-mean-square error [RMSE] 1.24 ± 0.41) was lower than the group ANN (RMSE 1.42 ± 0.44), individualized GEE (RMSE 1.58 ± 0.41), and group GEE (RMSE 1.85 ± 0.49). Both the GEE and ANN models determined session distance as the most important predictor of RPE. Furthermore, importance plots generated from the ANN revealed session distance as most predictive of RPE in 36 of the 41 players, whereas HSR was predictive of RPE in just 3 players and m/min was predictive of RPE in just 2 players. This study demonstrates that machine learning approaches may outperform more traditional methodologies with respect to predicting athlete responses to TL. These approaches enable further individualization of load monitoring, leading to more accurate training prescription and evaluation.

  9. Occupancies of individual orbits, and the nuclear matrix element of the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2009-10-15

    We discuss the variation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge when the wave functions are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies of the two nuclei involved in the transition. In the interacting shell model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%. This diminishes the discrepancies between both approaches. In addition, we discuss the effect of the short-range correlations on the NME in light of the recently proposed parametrizations based on a consistent renormalization of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} transition operator.

  10. Vocational Knowledge in Rural Children: A Study of Individual Differences and Predictors of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Wilson, Sarah; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have identified individual differences in vocational knowledge or its association with career aspirations or expectations of children. We investigated whether individual differences in grade, gender, academic achievement, and SES predict levels of vocational knowledge, and further examined the relationship between vocational knowledge…

  11. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients' quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1-6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability.

  12. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1–6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability. PMID:26696952

  13. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  14. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  15. The Heath Occupational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  16. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical...

  17. A General Theoretical Integrative Model of Individual Differences in Interests, Abilities, Personality Traits, and Academic and Occupational Achievement: A Commentary on Four Recent Articles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2014-03-01

    This commentary integrates the contents of four recent articles on individual differences (Nye, Su, Rounds, & Drasgow, 2012; Schmidt, 2011; Valla & Ceci, 2011; von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011) in a causal theoretical model. In this model, introversion and fluid intelligence cause interest in general learning (intellectual curiosity), which in turn is a major cause of crystallized intelligence. Certain specific interests and fluid intelligence also contribute to crystallized intelligence. Prenatal testosterone hormone conditioning is postulated to cause sex differences in certain specific interests but not in others. Crystallized intelligence, specific interests, and the personality trait of conscientiousness cause adult academic and occupational performance, whereas crystallized intelligence is the main cause of good mental functioning at older ages. Research is presented supporting each link in the model.

  18. Re-examining concepts of occupation and occupation-based models: occupational therapy and community development.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Leanne L

    2010-02-01

    A growing body of literature supports the role of occupational therapists in community development. Using a community development approach, occupational therapists respond to community-identified occupational needs. They work to build local resources and capacities and self-sustaining programs that foster change within the community and potentially beyond. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some key issues related to occupational therapy practice in community development. The definitions and classifications of occupation focus primarily on the individual and fail to elaborate on the shared occupations of a community. As well, occupation-based models of practice are not easily applied to occupational therapy practice in community development. In order for occupational therapy to articulate its role in community development, greater heed needs to be given to the definition and categorization of occupation, occupation-based models of practice, and their application to communities.

  19. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  20. Graphic Communications. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering graphic communications occupations. The…

  1. Occupational therapists' perception of the concept of occupational balance.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Harb, Alia; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Nobakht, Laya; Yazdani, Nastaran

    2017-05-10

    Occupational balance is one of the concepts used by occupational therapists with no consensus on its definition. Literature demonstrates different perspectives when this concept is applied in practice and in its link to other concepts such as health and well-being. This study aims to explore how the concept of occupational balance is perceived and practised by occupational therapy practitioners. A qualitative methodology was employed. Fourteen occupational therapists volunteered for the study. Nine occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed individually and five attended a focus group. Thematic analysis was applied to analyze the data. Six themes were identified as follows: (1) occupational balance: what it is; (2) how occupational balance is formed; (3) occupational balance and well-being (4); subjective and objective representations of occupational balance (5); what disrupts/affects occupational balance; and (6) occupational balance/imbalance and occupational therapy practice. Both objective and subjective experiences of occupational balance need to be considered in order to make an informed decision in practice. The right occupational balance for each individual should be based on his/her values but with consideration of the principal of no harm to others.

  2. [The toxicology and prevention of the risks of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. III. The effects: epidemiological evidence, early effects. Individual hypersusceptibility. Health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Porru, S; Assennato, G; Bergamaschi, E; Carta, P; Foà, V; Forni, A; Gabbani, G; Mastrangelo, G; Sartorelli, P

    1997-01-01

    Adverse effects following occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mainly carcinogenic. The available epidemiological data suggest that some substances and industrial processes, in which PAH exposure is frequent, are classified as carcinogenic to humans: primary aluminium industry, cola gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundry, coal tar, pitch, creosote, untreated mineral oils, asphalt, soot. The target organs are mainly lung, bladder, skin. Other relevant effects are skin lesions such as folliculitis. The studies on early biological effects (chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei) have shown contradictory results, mainly because of differences in exposure intensity. The metabolic polymorphism may account for a higher susceptibility to lung and bladder cancer following exposure to risk factors; the role of PAH occupational exposure is however to be examined, and the use of indicators of genetic susceptibility is currently limited to research programs. Health surveillance for PAH exposed workers is funded on the Italian laws (DPR 303/56 and D.Lgs. 626/94) and it is mainly dedicated to prevention of carcinogenic effects. Preventive examinations should consider PAH target organs (skin, lung, bladder, larynx) and look for early signs and symptoms. Particular attention will be paid to life habits such as tobacco smoking or diseases which could represent condition of susceptibility. Periodical examinations (every six months) will similarly evaluate PAH target organs. Health surveillance is also programmed for formerly exposed workers and the institution of exposure and cancer registries is mandatory. On the basis of the current scientific data, it is not advisable the use of tumor markers or cytogenetic tests at the individual level as well as the screening of asymptomatic PAH exposed workers for early diagnosis of lung or bladder cancer. Information and formation activities will be part of medical

  3. Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland: the relationship between tick infection rates and the serological response of individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites.

    PubMed

    Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    To explore the potential role of Ixodes ricinus as the presumed vector of Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland, ticks collected in various geographic locations were examined for the presence of B. henselae, and the results were matched against the prevalence of anti-B. henselae antibodies in individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites. The presence of Bartonella DNA was investigated by PCR in a total of 1,603 unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks. The presence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae was investigated in serum samples from 332 people occupationally exposed to tick bites (94 farmers and 238 forestry workers). The total prevalence of B. henselae in ticks was 1.7%; the infection rates in males (3.1%) and females (2.7%) were nearly ten times greater than in nymphs (0.3%). The prevalence of seropositive results in the risk group (30.4%), farmers (27.7%) and forestry workers (31.5%), was significantly greater compared to the control group (8.9%). The results showed a weak positive correlation between the degree of infection of ticks and humans living in the same geographic region. The lack of a direct relationship indicates that exposure to tick bites is only one of the factors contributing to the significant preponderance of a seropositive response to B. henselae in the forestry workers and farmers over the control group. Other factors must be considered, such as contact with cats, which are popular domestic animals in Polish villages, and exposure to cat fleas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Asthma Library ▸ Occupational asthma TTR Share | Occupational Asthma This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Occupational asthma has become the most common work-related lung ...

  5. Individual external dose monitoring of all citizens of Date City by passive dosimeter 5 to 51 months after the Fukushima NPP accident (series): II. Prediction of lifetime additional effective dose and evaluating the effect of decontamination on individual dose.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo

    2017-09-25

    In the first paper of this series, we showed that the ratio c of individual dose to ambient dose did not change with time in Date City, Fukushima Prefecture, after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The purpose of the present paper, the second in a series, is to estimate the lifetime doses of the Date City residents, based on continuous glass badge monitoring data, extrapolated by means of the ambient-dose-rate reduction function obtained from the airborne monitoring data. As a result, we found that the external exposure contribution to the mean additional lifetime dose of residents living in Date City is not expected to exceed 18 mSv. In addition, effects of decontamination on the reduction of individual doses were not evident. This method of combining individual doses and the ambient doses, as developed in this study, has made it possible to predict with reasonable certainty the lifetime doses of residents who continue to live in this radiologically contaminated area.

  6. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  7. Worker Requirements and Methods of Entry into Home and Community Occupations Related to Home Economics; Brief Descriptions of Specific Occupations Classified Into Six Clusters, Highlights of Areas of Work and Worker Trait Groups for Individual Occupations. Professional Education Series No. HE-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Beatrice

    Descriptions of 200 occupations from the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" Volume I designate the area of work and worker trait group and the reference page in Volume II of the Dictionary. Each occupational description briefly outlines highlights of work performed, worker requirements, and training and methods of entry. Occupations are…

  8. A Research Proposal to Develop and Mediate 72 Modules of Individualized Instructional Materials in Four Occupational Areas, and to Develop the Capacity to Reproduce and Distribute Mediated Instructional Materials to Other Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Fair Community Coll., Sedalia, MO.

    The vocational-technical staff at State Fair Community College conducted a curriculum research project in which twenty-one previously developed modules were revised and updated and seventy-two new modules of individualized mediated instructional materials were developed in the occupational areas of (1) agribusiness, (2) business and office…

  9. A Research Proposal to Develop and Mediate 72 Modules of Individualized Instructional Materials in Four Occupational Areas, and to Develop the Capacity to Reproduce and Distribute Mediated Instructional Materials to Other Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Fair Community Coll., Sedalia, MO.

    The vocational-technical staff at State Fair Community College conducted a curriculum research project in which twenty-one previously developed modules were revised and updated and seventy-two new modules of individualized mediated instructional materials were developed in the occupational areas of (1) agribusiness, (2) business and office…

  10. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  11. Development of an Individualized Occupational Therapy Programme and its Effects on the Neurocognition, Symptoms and Social Functioning of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takeshi; Nishi, Ai; Yoshida, Tomotaka; Tanaka, Sachie; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-12-01

    We described an individualized occupational therapy (IOT) programme and examined the effects of adding IOT to group OT (GOT) on improving neurocognition, symptoms and social functioning among recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version (BACS-J), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale were used for outcome evaluations. Fifty-one patients were voluntarily assigned to either the GOT + IOT (n = 30) or GOT alone (n = 21) groups based on their preferences. Retention in the GOT + IOT group was 100%. Three-month baseline to discharge assessments in the GOT + IOT group showed significant improvements in BACS-J verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention, executive function and composite score, and in PANSS positive subscale, general psychopathology subscale, and total score compared to the GOT alone group. Study limitations notwithstanding, the present findings provide preliminary support for the feasibility of implementing IOT and its effectiveness for improving cognitive impairment and symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The results of this study indicate that IOT in psychiatric facilities may improve psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia. Additional study is warranted to replicate the effects of IOT as demonstrated in this Japanese study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cadmium exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and case-control studies among individuals without occupational exposure history

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Sekikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed–effects model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95% CI=1.58 – 2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR=1.78; 95% CI=1.04 – 3.05), but not in women (RR=1.02; 95% CI=0.63 – 1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference. PMID:26423282

  13. Cadmium exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and case-control studies among individuals without occupational exposure history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Sekikawa, Akira; He, Ka

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed-effect model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.58-2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.04-3.05) but not in women (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.63-1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference.

  14. Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

  15. Public Utilities Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on public utilities occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the electric power…

  16. Representativeness of individual external doses estimated for one quarter of residents in the Fukushima Prefecture after the nuclear disaster: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Kurihara, Osamu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-09-25

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) was launched. The Basic Survey, a component of FHMS, is a questionnaire used to survey residents across the Fukushima Prefecture about their behaviour in the first 4 months after the accident. The questionnaire findings are used to determine individual external doses by linking behaviour data to a computer programme with daily gamma ray dose rate maps, drawn after the accident. Through 30 June 2015, the response rate was only 27.2% (558 550 population), indicating that the findings might not be generalisable because of poor representativeness of the population. The objective of this study was to clarify if the data from the FHMS Basic Survey were representative of the entire population, by conducting a new survey to compare the external doses between non-respondents and respondents in the previous survey. A total of 5350 subjects were randomly selected from 7 local regions of Fukushima Prefecture. An interview survey was conducted with the non-respondents to the FHMS Basic Survey. A total of 990 responses were obtained from the previous non-responders by interview survey. For the regions Kempoku, Kenchu, Kennan, Aizu, Minami-Aizu, Soso, and Iwaki, differences in mean effective dose (95% confidence interval) in mSv between the non-responders and previous responders were 0.12 (0.01-0.23), -0.09 (-0.21-0.03), -0.06 (-0.18-0.07), 0.05 (-0.04-0.14), 0.01 (-0.01-0.02), 0.09 (0.01-0.17), 0.09 (0.00-0.17), respectively. The differences fall neither within the interval (-∞, -0.25) nor within the interval (0.25, ∞). These findings imply that mean effective doses between the previous and new respondents were not different, with a significantly indifferent region of 0.25 mSv according to equivalence tests. The present study indicates that the dose distribution obtained from about one-quarter of Fukushima residents represents the dose distribution for the entire

  17. Occupational Socialization Processes of Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukbayram, Canan; Ottekin Demirbolat, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Occupational socialization is a process by which individuals internalize occupational culture. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the views and perceptions of classroom teachers regarding the efficiency of occupational socialization periods and the level of their occupational socialization, and to describe the same by sex and…

  18. Electrical Trades. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the electrical trades. The introduction explains…

  19. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  20. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  1. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  2. Individual external doses below the lowest reference level of 1 mSv per year five years after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident among all children in Soma City, Fukushima: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Murakami, Michio; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Leppold, Claire; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, little information has been available on individual doses from external exposure among residents living in radioactively contaminated areas near the nuclear plant; in the present study we evaluated yearly changes in the doses from external exposure after the accident and the effects of decontamination on external exposure. This study considered all children less than 16 years of age in Soma City, Fukushima who participated in annual voluntary external exposure screening programs during the five years after the accident (n = 5,363). In total, 14,405 screening results were collected. The median participant age was eight years. The geometric mean levels of annual additional doses from external exposure attributable to the Fukushima accident, decreased each year: 0.60 mSv (range: not detectable (ND)-4.29 mSv), 0.37 mSv (range: ND-3.61 mSv), 0.22 mSv (range: ND-1.44 mSv), 0.20 mSv (range: ND-1.87 mSv), and 0.17 mSv (range: ND-0.85 mSv) in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The proportion of residents with annual additional doses from external exposure of more than 1 mSv dropped from 15.6% in 2011 to zero in 2015. Doses from external exposure decreased more rapidly than those estimated from only physical decay, even in areas without decontamination (which were halved in 395 days from November 15, 2011), presumably due to the weathering effects. While the ratios of geometric mean doses immediately after decontamination to before were slightly lower than those during the same time in areas without decontamination, annual additional doses reduced by decontamination were small (0.04-0.24 mSv in the year of immediately after decontamination was completed). The results of this study showed that the levels of external exposure among Soma residents less than 16 years of age decreased during the five years after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination had only limited and

  3. Individual external doses below the lowest reference level of 1 mSv per year five years after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident among all children in Soma City, Fukushima: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Leppold, Claire; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, little information has been available on individual doses from external exposure among residents living in radioactively contaminated areas near the nuclear plant; in the present study we evaluated yearly changes in the doses from external exposure after the accident and the effects of decontamination on external exposure. This study considered all children less than 16 years of age in Soma City, Fukushima who participated in annual voluntary external exposure screening programs during the five years after the accident (n = 5,363). In total, 14,405 screening results were collected. The median participant age was eight years. The geometric mean levels of annual additional doses from external exposure attributable to the Fukushima accident, decreased each year: 0.60 mSv (range: not detectable (ND)–4.29 mSv), 0.37 mSv (range: ND–3.61 mSv), 0.22 mSv (range: ND–1.44 mSv), 0.20 mSv (range: ND–1.87 mSv), and 0.17 mSv (range: ND–0.85 mSv) in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The proportion of residents with annual additional doses from external exposure of more than 1 mSv dropped from 15.6% in 2011 to zero in 2015. Doses from external exposure decreased more rapidly than those estimated from only physical decay, even in areas without decontamination (which were halved in 395 days from November 15, 2011), presumably due to the weathering effects. While the ratios of geometric mean doses immediately after decontamination to before were slightly lower than those during the same time in areas without decontamination, annual additional doses reduced by decontamination were small (0.04–0.24 mSv in the year of immediately after decontamination was completed). The results of this study showed that the levels of external exposure among Soma residents less than 16 years of age decreased during the five years after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination had only

  4. Change in Parent- and Child-Reported Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors among Substance Abusing Runaways: The Effects of Family and Individual Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study…

  5. Change in Parent- and Child-Reported Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors among Substance Abusing Runaways: The Effects of Family and Individual Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study…

  6. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  7. Mathematics and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on mathematics and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, actuaries,…

  8. Sales Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on sales occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile sales workers, buyers, insurance…

  9. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  10. Banking and Insurance Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on banking and insurance occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include bank clerks, bank officers/managers,…

  11. Design Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on design occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include architects, commercial artists, display workers…

  12. Printing and Publishing Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on printing and publishing occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include newspaper reporters, photographers,…

  13. Railroad Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on railroad occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include brake operators, conductors, locomotive engineers,…

  14. Banking and Insurance Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on banking and insurance occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include bank clerks, bank officers/managers,…

  15. Office Machine and Computer Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on office machine and computer occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include business machine repairers,…

  16. Factory Production Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on factory production occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include assemblers, blue collar worker…

  17. Construction Occupations--Finishing. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on finishing construction occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include air…

  18. Driving Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on driving occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include intercity busdrivers, local transit busdrivers,…

  19. Social Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on social service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dietitians, home economist, homemaker-home…

  20. Environmental Scientists and Conservation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on environmental scientists and conservation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include foresters,…

  1. Small Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on small business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include barbers, cosmetologists, funeral…

  2. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  3. Printing and Publishing Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on printing and publishing occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include newspaper reporters, photographers,…

  4. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): I. Timing of development and anomalies of external structure].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of development have been analyzed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. The results show that the range of developmental options for the species is much wider than it follows from the standard tables of development. "Background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003) in the external structure of developing larvae are described and their probable frequencies under nearly optimal conditions are indicated.

  5. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it.

  6. Change in parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors among substance abusing runaways: the effects of family and individual treatments.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study compared three empirically supported psychotherapy interventions, Motivational Interviewing (MI), the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), and Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT) with 179 substance abusing runaway adolescents (47 % female, 74 % minority) and their primary caretaker recruited through a Midwestern runaway crisis shelter. Examining both child and primary caretaker reports, each treatment was associated with significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing behaviors to 24 months post-baseline. However, the trajectory of change differed among the treatments. Adolescents receiving MI showed a quicker reduction in internalizing and externalizing behaviors but also a quicker increase in these behaviors compared to adolescents receiving EBFT, who continued to evidence improvements to 24 months. The findings provide support for continued evaluation of these treatments for use with this vulnerable population of adolescents.

  7. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  8. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  9. Occupational Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurses , and other types of therapists. They may work with patients who have chronic conditions, such as diabetes, or help rehabilitate a patient recovering from hip replacement surgery. Occupational therapists also oversee the work of occupational therapy assistants and aides . <- Summary Work ...

  10. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  11. New Roles for Occupational Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.

    Changes in the future role of occupational instructors which will be brought about by advances in educational technology are illustrated by the description of the Advanced Instructional System (AIS), a complex approach to occupational training which permits large-scale application of individualized instruction through the use of computer-assisted…

  12. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  13. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  14. Protocol for a randomised trial on the effect of group education on skin-protective behaviour versus treatment as usual among individuals with newly notified occupational hand eczema - the Prevention of Hand Eczema (PREVEX) Trial.

    PubMed

    Fisker, Maja Hvid; Agner, Tove; Lindschou, Jane; Bonde, Jens Peter; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Ebbehøj, Niels E

    2013-11-19

    The incidence of occupational hand eczema is approximately 0.32 per 1,000 person years. The burden of the disease is high, as almost 60% has eczema-related sick leave during the first year after notification, and 15% are excluded from the workforce 12 years after disease onset. New treatments and prevention strategies are needed. The PREVEX trial is a randomised, parallel-group, superiority trial. All individuals from the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand with a suspected occupational skin disorder notified to the National Board of Industrial Injuries between June 2012 and December 2013 are invited to participate in the trial. Inclusion criteria are: self-reported hand eczema and informed consent. Exclusion criteria are: age <18 years or >65 years; permanent exclusion from the workforce; inability to understand the Danish language; any serious medical condition; and lack of written informed consent. We plan to randomise 742 participants. The experimental intervention is an educational course in skin-protective behaviour and written information about skin care related to the participants' specific occupation. Also, a telephone hotline is available and a subgroup will be offered a work-place visit. The experimental and the control group have access to usual care and treatment. All participants are contacted every eighth week with questions regarding number of days with sick leave or other absence from work. 12 months after randomisation follow-up is completed. To assesses the effect of an educational course versus treatment as usual in participants with newly notified occupational hand eczema. Randomisation: PARTICIPANTS are centrally randomised according to a computer-generated allocation sequence with a varying block size concealed to investigators. Blinding: It is not possible to blind the participants and investigators, however, data obtained from registers, data entry, statistical analyses, and drawing of conclusions will be blinded. The three co

  15. Increased occupational radiation doses: nuclear fuel cycle.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Kryuchkov, Victor

    2014-02-01

    The increased occupational doses resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986, the reactor accident of Fukushima that took place in Japan in March 2011, and the early operations of the Mayak Production Association in Russia in the 1940s and 1950s are presented and discussed. For comparison purposes, the occupational doses due to the other two major reactor accidents (Windscale in the United Kingdom in 1957 and Three Mile Island in the United States in 1979) and to the main plutonium-producing facility in the United States (Hanford Works) are also covered but in less detail. Both for the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the routine operations at Mayak, the considerable efforts made to reconstruct individual doses from external irradiation to a large number of workers revealed that the recorded doses had been overestimated by a factor of about two.Introduction of Increased Occupational Exposures: Nuclear Industry Workers. (Video 1:32, http://links.lww.com/HP/A21).

  16. Occupational Clothing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Annette J.

    Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

  17. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  18. Occupational Clothing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Annette J.

    Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

  19. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  20. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications.

  1. Effectiveness of sensor monitoring in an occupational therapy rehabilitation program for older individuals after hip fracture, the SO-HIP trial: study protocol of a three-arm stepped wedge cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pol, Margriet C; Ter Riet, Gerben; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; Kröse, Ben; de Rooij, Sophia E; Buurman, Bianca M

    2017-01-03

    The performance of activities of daily living (ADL) at home is important for the recovery of older individuals after hip fracture. However, 20-90% of these individuals lose ADL function and never fully recover. It is currently unknown to what extent occupational therapy (OT) with coaching based on cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) improves recovery. The same holds for sensor monitoring-based coaching in addition to OT. Here, we describe the design of a study investigating the effect of sensor monitoring embedded in an OT rehabilitation program on the recovery of ADL among older individuals after hip fracture. Six nursing homes will be randomized in a three-arm stepped wedge cluster randomized trial. All nursing homes will initially provide standard care. At designated time points, nursing homes, successively and in random order, will cross over to the provision of OT and at the next time point, to sensor monitoring-enhanced OT. A total of 288 older individuals, previously living alone in the community, who after a hip fracture were admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward for a short-term rehabilitation, will be enrolled. Individuals in the first intervention group (OTc) will participate in an OT rehabilitation program with coaching based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles. In the sensor monitoring group, sensor monitoring is added to the OT intervention (OTcsm). Participants will receive a sensor monitoring system consisting of (i) an activity monitor during nursing home stay, (ii) a sensor monitoring system at home and a (iii) a web-based feedback application. These components will be embedded in the OT. The OT consists of a weekly session with an occupational therapist during the nursing home stay followed by four home visits and four telephone consultations. The primary outcome is patient-perceived daily functioning at 6 months, assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). As far as we know, this study is the first

  2. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  3. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  4. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  5. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  6. [Occupational diseases in Poland in 1978].

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Z; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    1980-01-01

    The authors analyse all occupational disease cases found in Poland in 1978. Individual occupational diseases certificates sent to the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź by provincial sanitary-epidemiological stations are information sources. The collected material makes us draw the following concusions: 1. Occupational diseases incidence in Poland in 1978 got increased by 8.7%, compared to 1977. This increase is mainly related to occupational hearing impairment, infectious diseases, diseases of skin and mucous membranes. 2. Occupational intoxications prevalence was decreased. In 1978 the case rate in this group of diseases was lowered by 24%. 3. Among occupational diseases the following were most frequent: hearing impairments, infectious and invasive diseases, conioses, diseases of skin and mucous membranes, vibration disease and poisonings. 4. Most occupational diseases cases in 1978 resulted from many-years occupational exposure to hazardous agents.

  7. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Homann, Steven G.

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  8. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-08-11

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  9. Occupational Health—Or Occupational Sickness?

    PubMed Central

    Dukszta, Jan

    1978-01-01

    The current emphasis on occupational health and safety has been on curative practice as opposed to preventive measures. Business accumulates profit; if required by law, it treats those diseases or handicapped workers who have suffered due to unsafe, unhealthy working conditions. The illness of the worker often becomes a side effect of production, patched up after the fact. Such a problem oriented approach is insufficient. Ontario's occupational health legislation is ambiguous. Workers' rights are insecure. Experience in Saskatchewan has proven that well defined legislation against hazardous working conditions does not disrupt production. This article offers a progressive alternative to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical and social wellbeing of individual workers and groups in the workplace.

  10. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, that measured physiological responses and characterized the thermal environment. Despite workers across all industries being regularly exposed to high ambient temperatures (32–42°C) often coupled with high absolute humidity (max: 33 hPa), physiological strain is generally low in terms of core temperature (<38°C) and dehydration (<1 % reduction in mass) by virtue of the low energy demands of many tasks, and self-regulated pacing of work possible in most jobs. Heat stress risk is higher in specific jobs in agriculture (e.g. sheep shearing), deep underground mining, and emergency services (e.g., search/rescue and bushfire fighting). Heat strain was greatest in military-related activities, particularly externally-paced marching with carried loads which resulted in core temperatures often exceeding 39.5°C despite being carried out in cooler environments. The principal driver of core temperature elevations in most jobs is the rate of metabolic heat production. A standardized approach to evaluating the risk of occupational heat strain in Australian workplaces is recommended defining the individual parameters that alter human heat balance. Future research should also more closely examine female workers and occupational activities within the forestry and agriculture/horticulture sector. PMID:28349081

  11. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces.

    PubMed

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, that measured physiological responses and characterized the thermal environment. Despite workers across all industries being regularly exposed to high ambient temperatures (32-42°C) often coupled with high absolute humidity (max: 33 hPa), physiological strain is generally low in terms of core temperature (<38°C) and dehydration (<1 % reduction in mass) by virtue of the low energy demands of many tasks, and self-regulated pacing of work possible in most jobs. Heat stress risk is higher in specific jobs in agriculture (e.g. sheep shearing), deep underground mining, and emergency services (e.g., search/rescue and bushfire fighting). Heat strain was greatest in military-related activities, particularly externally-paced marching with carried loads which resulted in core temperatures often exceeding 39.5°C despite being carried out in cooler environments. The principal driver of core temperature elevations in most jobs is the rate of metabolic heat production. A standardized approach to evaluating the risk of occupational heat strain in Australian workplaces is recommended defining the individual parameters that alter human heat balance. Future research should also more closely examine female workers and occupational activities within the forestry and agriculture/horticulture sector.

  12. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  15. Occupational neurology.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:3577214

  16. Occupations of SSI recipients who work.

    PubMed

    Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate the occupational distribution of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability recipients aged 18-61 who work, and it compares their occupational distribution with that of working nonrecipients with and without disabilities. Based on models of occupational choice for working SSI recipients and nonrecipients, predicted occupational distributions are also estimated to understand what occupations are available to SSI recipients. Unlike the nonrecipient populations that are largely composed of sales- and office-based occupations (25 percent), the most common occupations of SSI recipients who work are in services (34 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving (30 percent), although sales- and office-based occupations are also common for SSI recipients (22 percent). The occupational distribution of working SSI recipients is also more concentrated than that of nonrecipient populations. Dissimilarity indices are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of the SSI recipient population and nonrecipient populations. More than one-half of the difference between the occupations of working SSI recipients and nonrecipients can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type. Additionally, nonemployed SSI recipients have similar predicted occupational distributions as currently employed SSI recipients. Given the estimated occupational distributions and the average earnings of individuals in the most common occupations of SSI recipients, the results suggest that more targeted vocational training may provide expanded opportunities for employment.

  17. Defining the content of individual physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions for stroke patients in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Development, validation and inter-rater reliability of a scoring list.

    PubMed

    De Wit, L; Kamsteegt, H; Yadav, B; Verheyden, G; Feys, H; De Weerdt, W

    2007-05-01

    To develop a valid and reliable scoring list to define the content of individual physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions for stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation. A list was developed based on previous lists, neurological textbooks and recorded therapy sessions. Content validity was verified and inter-rater reliability evaluated on videos of treatment sessions. In each of four rehabilitation centres, a researcher recorded and scored five physiotherapy and five occupational therapy sessions. These 40 treatment sessions were also scored by the first author. The scores of the researchers and first author were statistically compared. Settings and subjects : Forty stroke patients in four European rehabilitation centres. The scoring list consists of 49 subcategories, divided into 12 categories: mobilization; selective movements; lying (balance); sitting (balance); standing (balance); sensory and visual perceptual training and cognition; transfers; ambulatory activities; personal activities of daily living; domestic activities of daily living; leisure- and work-related activities; and miscellaneous. Comparing the frequency of occurrence of the categories resulted in intraclass correlation coefficients, indicating high reliability for eight categories, good for one, and fair for two. One category was not observed. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were high to very high for 24 subcategories and moderate for four. Twenty-one subcategories contained too few observations to enable calculation of Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Average point-to-point percentage of agreement in time of the treatment sessions equalled 76.6 +/- 16.2%. The list is a valid and reliable tool for describing the content of physiotherapy and occupational therapy for stroke patients.

  18. Occupational rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sublett, J Wesley; Bernstein, David I

    2011-11-01

    Work-related rhinitis, which includes work-exacerbated rhinitis and occupational rhinoconjunctivitis (OR), is two to three times more common than occupational asthma. High molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight chemicals have been implicated as causes of OR. The diagnosis of work-related rhinitis is established based on occupational history and documentation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated sensitization to the causative agent if possible. Management of work-related rhinitis is similar to that of other causes of rhinitis and includes elimination or reduction of exposure to causative agents combined with pharmacotherapy. If allergens are commercially available, allergen immunotherapy can be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and/or gasoline vapor emissions.

    PubMed

    Jo, W K; Song, K B

    2001-03-26

    Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six aromatic VOCs in workplace air, or personal air and breath samples. For nearly all target VOCs, the post-work breath concentrations of the workers were slightly or significantly higher than the pre-work breath concentrations, depending on the compound and occupation. Furthermore, both the pre- and post-work breath concentrations of the workers showed elevated levels compared with a control group of college students. The post-work breath concentrations were significantly correlated with the personal air concentrations, while the pre-work breath concentrations were not. Smoking workers were not always exposed to higher aromatic VOC levels than non-smoking workers. The breath and personal air concentrations for all the target compounds were both higher for underground parking garage attendants than for ground-level parking attendants. For all the target compounds except toluene, storekeepers exhibited similar levels of exposure for all store types. Print shopkeepers recorded the highest toluene exposure.

  20. Comparison of lung asbestos fiber content in cancer subjects with healthy individuals with no known history of occupational asbestos exposure in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Hee; Park, Jung Duck; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Hisanaga, Naomi; Chang, Hee Kyung; Lee, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Il Hoon; Choi, Byung Sun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Yeong; Yang, Jung Sun; Cho, Myung Haing; Yu, Il Je

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of environmental asbestos exposure on the inducement of lung cancer, pulmonary asbestos and non-asbestos fiber content was determined in 36 normal Korean subjects and 38 lung cancer subjects with no known occupational history of asbestos exposure. Pulmonary asbestos fiber content was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis after applying a low-temperature ashing procedure. Chrysotile fibers were the major fiber type found in the lungs of the Korean subjects. The asbestos fiber concentrations found in the lungs of normal males (25) and females (11) were 0.26 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue and 0.16 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue, respectively. The asbestos concentrations found in the lungs of cancer subjects were 0.16 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue for 32 males and 0.44 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue for 6 females. No statistical difference was found in pulmonary asbestos content between the normal and lung cancer subjects, whereas a statistical difference was noted between normal and lung cancer subjects with respect to lung non-asbestos content, indicating a potential role for non-asbestos fibers being associated with lung cancer.

  1. A STUDY OF PREDICTED BONE MARROW DISTRIBUTION ON CALCULATED MARROW DOSE FROM EXTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURES USING TWO SETS OF IMAGE DATA FOR THE SAME INDIVIDUAL

    PubMed Central

    Caracappa, Peter F.; Chao, T. C. Ephraim; Xu, X. George

    2010-01-01

    Red bone marrow is among the tissues of the human body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation, but red bone marrow cannot be distinguished from yellow bone marrow by normal radiographic means. When using a computational model of the body constructed from computed tomography (CT) images for radiation dose, assumptions must be applied to calculate the dose to the red bone marrow. This paper presents an analysis of two methods of calculating red bone marrow distribution: 1) a homogeneous mixture of red and yellow bone marrow throughout the skeleton, and 2) International Commission on Radiological Protection cellularity factors applied to each bone segment. A computational dose model was constructed from the CT image set of the Visible Human Project and compared to the VIP-Man model, which was derived from color photographs of the same individual. These two data sets for the same individual provide the unique opportunity to compare the methods applied to the CT-based model against the observed distribution of red bone marrow for that individual. The mass of red bone marrow in each bone segment was calculated using both methods. The effect of the different red bone marrow distributions was analyzed by calculating the red bone marrow dose using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code for parallel beams of monoenergetic photons over an energy range of 30 keV to 6 MeV, cylindrical (simplified CT) sources centered about the head and abdomen over an energy range of 30 keV to 1 MeV, and a whole-body electron irradiation treatment protocol for 3.9 MeV electrons. Applying the method with cellularity factors improves the average difference in the estimation of mass in each bone segment as compared to the mass in VIP-Man by 45% over the homogenous mixture method. Red bone marrow doses calculated by the two methods are similar for parallel photon beams at high energy (above about 200 keV), but differ by as much as 40% at lower energies. The calculated red bone marrow doses differ

  2. A study of predicted bone marrow distribution on calculated marrow dose from external radiation exposures using two sets of image data for the same individual.

    PubMed

    Caracappa, Peter F; Chao, T C Ephraim; Xu, X George

    2009-06-01

    Red bone marrow is among the tissues of the human body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation, but red bone marrow cannot be distinguished from yellow bone marrow by normal radiographic means. When using a computational model of the body constructed from computed tomography (CT) images for radiation dose, assumptions must be applied to calculate the dose to the red bone marrow. This paper presents an analysis of two methods of calculating red bone marrow distribution: 1) a homogeneous mixture of red and yellow bone marrow throughout the skeleton, and 2) International Commission on Radiological Protection cellularity factors applied to each bone segment. A computational dose model was constructed from the CT image set of the Visible Human Project and compared to the VIP-Man model, which was derived from color photographs of the same individual. These two data sets for the same individual provide the unique opportunity to compare the methods applied to the CT-based model against the observed distribution of red bone marrow for that individual. The mass of red bone marrow in each bone segment was calculated using both methods. The effect of the different red bone marrow distributions was analyzed by calculating the red bone marrow dose using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code for parallel beams of monoenergetic photons over an energy range of 30 keV to 6 MeV, cylindrical (simplified CT) sources centered about the head and abdomen over an energy range of 30 keV to 1 MeV, and a whole-body electron irradiation treatment protocol for 3.9 MeV electrons. Applying the method with cellularity factors improves the average difference in the estimation of mass in each bone segment as compared to the mass in VIP-Man by 45% over the homogenous mixture method. Red bone marrow doses calculated by the two methods are similar for parallel photon beams at high energy (above about 200 keV), but differ by as much as 40% at lower energies. The calculated red bone marrow doses differ

  3. The importance of education-occupation matching in migration decisions.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael A; Rubb, Stephen

    2005-02-01

    In this article, we present and test a model that incorporates education-occupation matching into the migration decision. The literature on education-occupation matching shows that earnings are affected by how individuals' education matches that required by their occupation. Accordingly, individuals with more schooling than required by their occupation have an additional incentive to migrate: the increase in earnings that occurs with a more beneficial education-occupation match. Using data from Mexico, we found statistical support for the importance of education-occupation matching in migration decisions. Education-occupation matching provides a plausible explanation for the mixed findings in the literature on the relationship between educational attainment and migration.

  4. Tectonic constraints on the development and individualization of the intermontane Ronda basin (external Betics, southern Spain): a structural and geomorphologic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia

    2014-05-01

    As a result of progressive shortening and orogenic wedge thickening, marine foreland basins tend to emerge and divide. We have analyzed possible recent tectonic activity within the late evolution stage of the Ronda basin, an intermontane basin located in the external wedge of the Gibraltar Arc, formerly connected with the Betic foreland basin and infilled by marine Upper-Miocene sediments. We analyze (1) the structures responsible for the basinward relief drop along the arc strike and the different topography of their boundaries; (2) qualitative and quantitative geomorphologic indices to asses which structures could present recent activity; and 3) the structures causing the division of the former Betic foreland basin and the isolation of the Ronda basin. Within the deformational history of the Ronda basin, late structures that control high topographic gradients and generate remarkable fault scarps group into three main types: (a) Extensional structures represented by NW-SE striking normal faults, clustered close to the current SW and NE boundaries of the basin. They usually dip towards the basin and their vertical displacement is maximum up to 1,5 km. These structures partially affect the basal unconformity of the Upper Miocene basin infill and are scarcely developed inside the basin infill. (b) Shortening structures developed both in the basin infill and in the outcropping basement near the Northeastern and Southwestern basin boundaries. They are represented by NE-SW directed plurikilometric box-folds and reverse faults, responsible for the alternation of sierras (altitudes 1000-1500 m) and valleys. (c) Strike-slip dominated structural associations where WSW-ENE lateral faults combined with folds and normal and reverse faults defined a NE-SW directed deformation band constituting the NW basin boundary. This band includes some sierras up to 1.100 m. Regarding the relief of the Ronda basin area, the abrupt slopes of the outcropping basement (heights between 500

  5. Master external pressure charts

    SciTech Connect

    Michalopoulos, E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external...

  10. A Career Story Approach to Management, Business, and Financial Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brott, Pamelia E.

    2012-01-01

    Business, management, and financial occupations are found in organizations in which individuals direct activities and perform tasks related to business and finance. The career cluster includes 144 occupational titles across 57% of the 23 major Standard Occupational Classification groups, with almost half of the occupations considered "bright…

  11. A Career Story Approach to Management, Business, and Financial Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brott, Pamelia E.

    2012-01-01

    Business, management, and financial occupations are found in organizations in which individuals direct activities and perform tasks related to business and finance. The career cluster includes 144 occupational titles across 57% of the 23 major Standard Occupational Classification groups, with almost half of the occupations considered "bright…

  12. Race and Sex Discrimination in Occupations: A 20-Year Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The purpose of this research was to relate perceptions of occupational discrimination to the actual occupational opportunity structure in American society. The latter refers to the relative openness of various occupations to individuals possessing certain characteristics that are, in fact, differentially distributed among occupations. Both cohorts…

  13. Performing Arts and Entertainment-Related Occupations. Reprinted from the

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on performing arts and entertainment-related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include models,…

  14. Occupational justice-bridging theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  15. Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, William R.

    Although fiscal support for occupational programs in California Community Colleges is provided primarily by state and local district taxes, about ten percent of the total support is provided through federal sources. Federal regulations under the Vocational Education Act (VEA) require the recipients of federal funds to provide consultative,…

  16. Occupational cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, D.F.

    1986-09-01

    When cancer is possibly related to occupation, the family physician's task is to put the matter in perspective by educating the patient and carefully documenting the appearance of the tumor and the patient's work history. Occasionally, physicians are the first to recognize new associations between chemicals and cancer and can help to bring hazards under control.

  17. External benefits of natural environments

    Treesearch

    Larry W. Tombaugh

    1971-01-01

    Existing methods of assessing economic benefits arising from certain physical environments left in a relatively natural condition do not include estimates of external benefits. Existence value is one such external benefit that accrues to individuals who have no intention of ever visiting the area in question. A partial measure of the existence value of National Parks...

  18. Lawyers, City Managers, and Social Science Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on lawyers, city managers, and social science occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include city managers,…

  19. Occupation-based intervention in hand injury rehabilitation: Experiences of occupational therapists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Che Daud, Ahmad Zamir; Yau, Matthew K; Barnett, Fiona; Judd, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study consensus was sought from Malaysian occupational therapists of occupation-based intervention (OBI) that was perceived as a means and an end. Occupation as a means refers to occupational and purposeful tasks as a therapeutic agent while occupation as an end refers to occupation as an outcome of intervention. The purpose of this follow-up study was to describe the occupational therapists' experiences of providing OBI in hand injury rehabilitation in Malaysia. Sixteen occupational therapists with more than five years of experience in hand rehabilitation were individually interviewed on their experiences of using OBI in practice. Data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Definition of "Occupation as a means", and "Occupation as an end" was broadened after data analysis of interviews to include two new themes: "Rewarding yet challenging" and "Making OBI a reality". Occupational therapists had positive experiences with OBI and perceived that occupation as a means and an end can be merged into a single therapy session when the occupational therapists use an occupation that is therapeutic. Although occupation as a means and as an end have different purposes, when the ultimate goal is to enhance the clients' maximum level of functioning both can be used for successful rehabilitation of hand injuries.

  20. New developments in occupational dermatology.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2016-09-01

    Occupational skin diseases according to BK No. 5101 - "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease" - is the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases in Germany. Following the optimization of measures of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, today most individuals affected are able to continue their profession. With the revision of the German ordinance on occupational diseases (BKV) in January 2015, skin cancer caused by UV irradiation was added to the list of occupational diseases. The new occupational disease (BK) 5103 is defined as "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratoses of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". In this context, "multiple" signifies the occurrence of either more than five individual actinic keratosis lesions over the course of 12 months or the presence of field cancerization of > 4 cm(2) . In the following review, important aspects of this new occupational disease will be highlighted and discussed.

  1. Effects of divorce on Dutch boys' and girls' externalizing behavior in Gene × Environment perspective: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility in the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study?

    PubMed

    Nederhof, Esther; Belsky, Jay; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-08-01

    The effects of divorce on children's behavioral development have proven to be quite varied across studies, and most developmental and family scholars today appreciate the great heterogeneity in divorce effects. Thus, this inquiry sought to determine whether select dopaminergic genes previously associated with externalizing behavior and/or found to moderate diverse environmental effects (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) might moderate divorce effects on adolescent self-reported externalizing problems; and, if so, whether evidence of gene-environment (G × E) interaction would prove consistent with diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of environmental action. Data from the first and third wave of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1,134) revealed some evidence of G × E interaction reflecting diathesis-stress but not differential susceptibility. It is intriguing that some evidence pointed to "vantage sensitivity," which are benefits accruing to those with a specific genotype when their parents remained together, the exact opposite of diathesis-stress. The limits of this work are considered, especially with regard to the conditions for testing differential susceptibility, and future directions are outlined.

  2. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  3. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  4. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  5. Occupational Orientation: Health Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These experimental curriculum materials for one of five clusters developed for the occupational program in Illinois include a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the health occupations field. The 28 LAPs, each with a different occupation focus, are…

  6. Effective doses due to external irradiation from the Chernobyl accident for different population groups of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Likhtariov, I; Kovgan, L; Novak, D; Vavilov, S; Jacob, P; Paretzke, H G

    1996-01-01

    A model for the external exposure of the Ukrainian population after the Chernobyl accident was developed. It is based on extensive measurements of external gamma-exposure rates (EGER) in air and of external effective doses of members of five population groups. Questionnaires were used to determine the occupancy times of members of the population groups at three types of locations; inside houses, outdoors, and outside of the home settlement. Behavior factors are defined as the ratio of individual external doses to a reference dose for a phantom standing permanently over an open field with the same average 137Cs activity per unit area as in the settlement. The behavior factors were derived for five population groups (children younger than seven years, the age group from eight to seventeen years, employees, agricultural workers, and pensioners) by two methods: first from direct measurements of individual doses by thermoluminescent dosimetry and an experimental determination of the average 137Cs activity per unit area in the settlement of interest; and second from external gamma-exposure rates in air at various types of locations and from the questionnaire data. The methods were found to be consistent and the results were used to calculate external exposures of the five population groups in the years 1987 through 1991.

  7. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises.

  8. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  9. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  10. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  11. Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.

    PubMed

    Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2008-01-01

    In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum.

  12. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  13. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational asthma is important both as a potentially curable and preventable cause of asthma and as a model of adult onset asthma. It is induced by sensitization to a specific agent inhaled at work; for many of its causes, including inhaled proteins and the low molecular weight chemicals acid anhydrides and reactive dyes, it is probably IgE dependent. The risk of developing specific IgE and associated asthma is markedly increased in cigarette smokers, probably as a consequence of non-specific damage to the respiratory mucosa. Asthma caused by several agents, which include some of its most frequent causes, isocyanates, colophony and plicatic acid (Western Red Cedar) persists in some 50% of cases for years, and possibly indefinitely, after avoidance of exposure. The development of chronic symptomatic asthma seems particularly to occur in those with longer duration of symptomatic exposure. PMID:3074282

  14. Architecture & Design Arts Occupations, 1940-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Harry Hillman

    Using data from federal government records and professional membership organizations, this study examines trends in demographics, education, employment, and earnings of architects and individuals in design arts occupations between 1940-1990. Findings indicate that: (1) participation in architecture and design occupations has increased slightly as…

  15. An Analysis of the Landscaping Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemple, Lynn L.; Dilley, John E.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the landscape services occupation. Depending on the preparation and abilities of the individual student, he may enter the landscape area as (1) nursery worker, (2) landscape planter, (3) landscape…

  16. Emergy of the Occupations. Chapter 43

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we calculated the emergy contributed to the economy of the United States in the work done by the workers of 558 occupations in 2008. We determined the empower (semj/yr) delivered by an individual engaged in each occupation, the transformity of the occupation’s work ...

  17. Occupational Therapy Assistants Program. Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Health, Madison.

    Between November 1964 and June 1967, 85 women and five men completed a 4-month course held in several Wisconsin locations to prepare them as Certified Occupational Therapy Assistants to (1) plan and direct a general activity or supportive program of occupational therapy, (2) train individual patients in independent performance of activities of…

  18. Emergy of the Occupations. Chapter 43

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we calculated the emergy contributed to the economy of the United States in the work done by the workers of 558 occupations in 2008. We determined the empower (semj/yr) delivered by an individual engaged in each occupation, the transformity of the occupation’s work ...

  19. Image processing occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  20. The Occupational Mobility Process: An Analysis of Occupational Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Aage B.

    To further understanding of the process through which occupational careers are formed, this study analyzed life histories to determine job-shifts undertaken by a cohort of men 30-39 years of age. It was proposed that individuals will decide to leave a job when they perceive that a gain in achievement is possible. The analysis of the outcome of job…

  1. Occupations, work characteristics and common mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, S A; Pike, C; McManus, S; Harris, J; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Hassiotis, A; Jenkins, R; Meltzer, H; Moran, P; Clark, C

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) by occupation in a representative sample of the English adult population. Another aim was to examine whether the increased risk of CMD in some occupations could be explained by adverse work characteristics. Method We derived a sample of 3425 working-age respondents from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. Occupations were classified by Standard Occupational Classification group, and CMD measured by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Job characteristics were measured by questionnaire, and tested as explanatory factors in associations of occupation and CMD. After adjusting for age, gender, housing tenure and marital status, caring personal service occupations had the greatest risk of CMD compared with all occupations (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.58). The prevalence of adverse psychosocial work characteristics did not follow the pattern of CMD by occupation. Work characteristics did not explain the increased risk of CMDs associated with working in personal service occupations. Contrary to our hypotheses, adding work characteristics individually to the association of occupation and CMD tended to increase rather than decrease the odds for CMD. As has been found by others, psychosocial work characteristics were associated with CMD. However, we found that in our English national dataset they could not explain the high rates of CMD in particular occupations. We suggest that selection into occupations may partly explain high CMD rates in certain occupations. Also, we did not measure emotional demands, and these may be important mediators of the relationship between occupation type and CMDs.

  2. Grocery Store Occupations: First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Faith; Moore, Barbara

    The field tested first grade instructional unit is geared to the occupations and duties of meat cutter, shelf stocker, and cashier and is useful in the social studies, art, and mathematics areas. The unit takes approximately 10 hours teaching time, and involves whole class, small group, and individual work. A list of required materials is…

  3. Service Area Market Analysis: Focus on Industry and Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.

    This report presents occupation and industry data (statewide and service area specific) for the purpose of assessing external forces in order to provide information to help guide policymaking at Front Range Community College. The report contains tables that display statewide occupational trends as published by the Colorado Department of Labor and…

  4. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: “Occupational injuries” and “workplace” between 1984 and 2014. Results: Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Conclusions: Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:27051619

  5. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient occupational therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.59 Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions. (a) Basic rule... occupational therapy services only if they are furnished by an individual meeting the qualifications in part...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1201 - Occupational dose limits for adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for adults. 20.1201 Section 20... Limits § 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults. (a) The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under § 20.1206, to the following...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1201 - Occupational dose limits for adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for adults. 20.1201 Section 20... Limits § 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults. (a) The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under § 20.1206, to the following...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1201 - Occupational dose limits for adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for adults. 20.1201 Section 20... Limits § 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults. (a) The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under § 20.1206, to the following...

  9. Theories of Occupational Choice: A Critical Assessment of Selected Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence; And Others

    Five theoretical perspectives related to occupational choice were assessed. These were (1) Super's career development perspective, (2) Holland's typology of occupational choice, (3) status-attainment research in the field of sociology, (4) economic theory of individual willingness to work in different occupations, and (5) a model of decision…

  10. Occupational Information, Placement and Choices for the Japanese Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umetani, Shunichiro

    It is an open question to what extent young people in Japan leaving educational institutions at various levels for their first job have the knowledge of the labor market, occupational choices open to them, and their own individual occupational talents. The objective of this paper is to study the structure of the supply of occupational and labor…

  11. Brainstorm: occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Grosskopf, Shawna; Yang, Ke

    2010-07-01

    Although economists have analyzed earnings, unemployment, and labor force participation for those with bipolar illness, occupational choice has yet to be explored. Psychological and medical studies often suggest an association between bipolar illness and creative achievement, but they tend to focus on eminent figures, case studies, or small samples. We seek to examine occupational creativity of non-eminent individuals with bipolar disorder. We use Epidemiologic Catchment Area data to estimate a multinomial logit model matched to an index of occupational creativity. Those with bipolar illness appear to be disproportionately concentrated in the most creative occupational category. Nonparametric kernel density estimates reveal that the densities of the occupational creativity variable for the bipolar and non-bipolar individuals significantly differ in the ECA data, and suggest that the probability of engaging in creative activities on the job is higher for bipolar than non-bipolar workers. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational Stress and Burnout in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torelli, Joseph A.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    1993-01-01

    Surveys 1,000 Washington principals and superintendents to ascertain the nature and extent of their occupational stress and burnout and the association with sex role orientation. Superintendents perceive less task-based and conflict-mediating stress than do principals, but report more externally caused stress. Task-based stress is the best…

  13. Guide for Occupational Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Intended for use with or without counseling help, this occupational exploration guide is organized around 12 interest areas, 66 work groups, and 348 subgroups of occupational titles. The interest areas (an expansion of John Holland's six occupational categories) represent the broad interest requirements of occupations as well as the vocational…

  14. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  15. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  16. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  17. Occupations of Indonesian Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmier, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of 1978 occupational patterns of college graduates in Indonesia considers occupation type, government employment, pay level, degree, discipline, relevance of education to employment, and concentration of academic majors in certain occupations. No occupation was the preserve of any one subject. (MSE)

  18. Exploring the lived experience of homelessness from an occupational perspective.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Miranda Jane; Slade, Anita

    2017-03-21

    Working in homelessness is a growing area of practice for occupational therapists, however, there is limited literature on the lived experiences of homelessness and occupational engagement Study aim: To explore the lived experience of homeless men in relation to how they engaged in day-to-day occupations when sleeping rough or hostel dwelling Methods: Data were gathered from five men residing in a homeless hostel in the UK. Data collection included semi-structured interviews and photographic diaries. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Results: Participants described their experiences of occupational engagement whilst sleeping on the streets which included engaging in survival occupations, the significance of apparently ordinary occupations and moving beyond survival occupations. The homeless hostel provided opportunities for occupational engagement that the men perceived in an idiosyncratic manner. The men described benefits of engaging in novel occupations and reengaging in known occupations. Occupational injustices were a common theme that occurred throughout participants experiences Conclusion: This study has highlighted the diversity of occupational engagement for 'roofless' or 'houseless' participants and how different individuals experience occupational adaption Significance: This study has furthered understandings of the concept of 'survival occupations' and the importance of community resources to facilitate occupational engagement whilst homeless.

  19. Influence of external information in the minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cara, M. A.; Guinea, F.

    2003-12-01

    The influence of a fixed number of agents with the same fixed behavior on the dynamics of the minority game is studied. Alternatively, the system studied can be considered the minority game with a change in the comfort threshold away from half filling. Agents in the frustrated, nonergodic phase tend to overreact to the information provided by the fixed agents, leading not only to large fluctuations, but to deviations of the average occupancies from their optimal values. Agents that discount their impact on the market, or that use individual strategies reach equilibrium states, which, unlike in the absence of the external information provided by the fixed agents, do not give the highest payoff to the collective.

  20. Borderline Personality and Externalized Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder are diagnostically and clinically characterized by self-harm behavior, as indicated by the criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, “recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior.” However, individuals with borderline personality disorder can display externalized aggressive behavior, as well. In an area characterized by considerably less research, empirical evidence indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder may exhibit physical violence toward partners, physical violence toward known but nonintimate individuals, criminal behaviors that embody externalized violence (e.g., property damage), and, on very rare occasion, murderous behavior (either of family members or anonymous others through serial killing). Given this under-researched area, there are probably other types of externalized aggressive behaviors that have not been empirically revealed. However, externalized aggressive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder clearly exist and need to be assessed in both psychiatric and primary care settings in an effort to promote safety of medical personnel and effective patient management. PMID:22567607

  1. Health Occupations. Dental Auxiliaries, Nursing, Therapy and Rehabilitation, Health Services Administration. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental…

  2. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-04-29

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  5. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing †

    PubMed Central

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  6. Historical perspectives of occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P

    1980-01-01

    Three topics are discussed in this review, which is not intended to give even a short description of the history of occupational cancer. First, the present state and possible future trends of occupational cancer are examined. Such factors as rapid industrialization, increasing amounts of chemical compounds in the environment, and discoveries of new occupational carcinogens such as asbestos and vinyl chloride indicate that occupational cancer is likely to become more frequent in the future. The controversial issue of the proportion of cancers related to occupation is briefly considered. The upward trend of estimates of various authors during a quarter of a century indicates a growing proportion of occupational cancers in the overall incidence of cancer. Second, some lessons from the past are considered. Careful observations and alertness of physicians and proper documentation of occupational cancer cases are pointed out. Interdisciplinary teamwork and international cooperation have been useful in the past and continue to be desirable. Some details of the studies of skin cancer caused by mineral oil are informative. Individual susceptibility, whether genetically determined or due to pathological conditions, needs further study. As an example of the predictive value of animal experiments, skin cancer related to the oil shale industry in Estonia is discussed. The third topic--input from experimental cancer research--deals mainly with the problem of modifying factors. Experimental data on such factors could facilitate investigations of life-style effects, using the proposed classification of modifying factors. The problem of nasal cancer in woodworkers may be easier to solve by taking into account some experimental data on tannin-containing material. Some possibilities for future action and suggestions for further research are outlined.

  7. [Occupational diseases in Poland, 2012].

    PubMed

    Wilczyńska, Urszula; Sobala, Wojciech; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to present basic statistical data on occupational diseases diagnosed in 2012. The work was based on the data from "Occupational Disease Reporting Forms" received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2012. The data comprised information on nosologic units, gender and age of patients, duration of occupational exposure, sections of the national economy and voivodeships. The incidence was specified in terms of the number of cases in relation to paid employees or to employed people. The number of occupational diseases accounted for 2402 cases. The incidence rate was 23 cases per 100 000 paid employees. In spite of the general decline in the number of cases, the incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases increased by 8.6%. The highest incidence was noted for infectious and parasitic diseases (6.8/100,000), pneumoconioses (5.5/100,000), hearing loss (2.1/100,000), diseases of: the peripheral nervous system (2/100,000), voice disorders (1.9/100,000) and the musculoskeletal system pathologies (1.1/100,000). The pathologies specified above accounted in total for 84% of all occupational diseases. The industrial sectors of the national economy characterized by the highest incidence included mining and quarrying (288.3/100,000) and manufacturing (27.8/100,000). The highest incidence was recorded in the Silesian (46.2/100,000) and the lowest in the Opolskie (4.2/100,000) voivodeships. The downward trend in the incidence of occupational diseases continues. Different incidence of voice disorders among teachers in individual provinces suggests that uniform preventive, diagnostic and certification standards are missing.

  8. Occupational class inequalities in behavioral and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease among workers in medium- and small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Yuko; Tabata, Masaji; Kido, Teruhiko; Koyama, Yoshiko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether occupational class inequalities existed in the behavioral and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease among workers in medium- and small-scale enterprises. We asked 1,900 enterprises in the Ishikawa prefecture who were users of an external heath check-up facility to supply anonymous individual data in 2009. The 446 enterprises consented to the invitation. The study population was 12,625 individuals (8,104 males and 4,521 females) 16-59 yr of age. We compared indices among occupational classes. The indices of lipid and glucose metabolism were used only for subjects 40-59 yr of age. The results of this study revealed occupational class inequalities in the prevalence of current smoking, heavy drinking and hypertension in men. These inequalities were more prominent among men in the younger age group than in the older age group. In men, the most disadvantaged occupational class was transportation workers, followed by laborers. Occupational class inequalities in smoking were also found among female workers. However, the influences of occupational class on obesity and indices of lipid or glucose metabolism were inconsistent. A strategy for health promotion that targets the disadvantaged population is necessary for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  9. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding privacy in occupational health services.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anne; Wickström, Gustav; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of privacy in occupational health services. Data were collected through in-depth theme interviews with occupational health professionals (n = 15), employees (n = 15) and employers (n = 14). Our findings indicate that privacy, in this context, is a complex and multilayered concept, and that companies as well as individual employees have their own core secrets. Co-operation between the three groups proved challenging: occupational health professionals have to consider carefully in which situations and how much they are entitled to release private information on individual employees for the benefit of the whole company. Privacy is thus not an absolute right of an individual, but involves the idea of sharing responsibility. The findings open up useful new perspectives on ethical questions of privacy and on the development of occupational health practices.

  11. Occupational balance: exploring the relationships among daily occupations and their influence on well-being.

    PubMed

    Backman, Catherine L

    2004-10-01

    In this lecture, I have reviewed theoretical discussions and definitions of occupational balance, findings from selected studies, and highlighted some methods for measuring aspects of occupational balance. Are any of these ideas directly applicable to occupational therapy practice, education and research? Consider the hassles of everyday life, and add the complicating factors of illness, injury, disability, and limited income. Life, and the pursuit of necessary, desirable and obligatory occupations, can become overwhelming. Given that occupational therapists aim to enable individuals, regardless of ability, to successfully engage in a range of occupations, the answer to the question is yes. Furthering our understanding of occupational balance can improve our ability to serve individual clients and society. In 2001, Fearing stated in her Muriel Driver Memorial Lecture: We will not only recognize and value the skill of maintaining balance, our own and that of our clients, but we will live it. Balance will not be viewed as a set of scales that has equal parts such as work on one side and play on the other but rather the kind of balance that comes from being centred so that we act from a stable base. From that stable base, we will gain a keen sensitivity to rhythm--knowing when to move and when to let go. (Fearing, 2001 pp. 214-215) Perhaps these reflections have added a little coherence to the study of occupational balance. Occupational balance is a relative state, recognizable by a happy or pleasant integration of life activities and demands. There are indicators of imbalance, more so than tangible ways to measure it, and once recognized occupational therapists have the strategies to help restore a sense of occupational balance. Given our collective history and skill in client-centred practice, occupational therapists are capable of both advancing this line of inquiry and attaining occupational balance for ourselves and our clients.

  12. An Exploration of the Use of Occupational Language in School-Based Occupational Therapy Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of occupation-based terminology in the documentation of school-based occupational therapists. A retrospective qualitative analysis of school-based documents using a priori codes was completed. Analysis included 33 Individual Educational Program (IEP) documents and 118 OT goals. Analyses showed that…

  13. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  14. Occupational Causes of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Kira L.; Newman, Lee S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Sarcoidosis, the multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, remains mysterious. Several important investigations in the past two years add to accumulating evidence for both occupational and environmental causes of granulomatous inflammation. Recent findings This review considers the most recent studies that contribute to the hypothesis that sarcoidosis occurs when individuals are exposed to foreign antigens and to inorganic particulates that promote inflammation. Major recent findings, such as those emerging from the study of World Trade Center responders, the study of nanoparticles, and cases of work-associated sarcoidosis support the probability that occupational, as well as environmental, exposures to inflammatory stimuli trigger sarcoidosis-like illness. Major recent studies of microbially-rich indoor environments, including moldy indoor workplaces and mycobacterially-contaminated settings, contribute to the evidence that a variety of microbial antigens serve as targets for the hypersensitivity immune response in an inflammatory milieu. Summary There is increasing evidence that sarcoidosis can occur in workplace settings in which there is exposure to both foreign antigens and inorganic triggers of inflammation that promote an exuberant granulomatous immune response. It is likely that sarcoidosis has more than one cause. PMID:22314258

  15. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  16. The occupational health audit.

    PubMed

    Davis, R L

    1976-02-01

    The final report contains no magic or proprietary secrets. It is simply a logical review of what exists with an orderly recommendation of what should be done. To repeat -- many times the hardest part of any job is getting started. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a plan and a way to get started. This may seem like something so obvious that it is not needed. But a review of existing occupational health programs dispels that view. Five years after the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, hundreds of thousands of physical examinations are still being performed in a total vacuum; examinations whose contents bear little relationship to the hazards encountered. Countless laboratory determinations are being provided to personnel officers and plant managers who have absolutely no background in interpreting the meaning of those results. Millions of records are being meticulously kept with no goal in mind as to what purpose they should serve nor consideration for the privacy of individuals. In short, untold millions of dollars are being wasted while the things that should be done are left undone because, to quote, "the cost is too high." Often health professionals are employed by an organization because health crises have developed which force expert handling. The health professional enters chaos and is kept so busy answering fire-calls that there is no time for the orderly evaluation of needs and the development of operating routines required to prevent new crises from developing. Today's crises are being addressed while tomorrow's crises are developing out of routine situations. The health professional is not at fault; rather, executive management has failed to provide the necessary systems to meet its responsibilities. So long as this situation prevails, there is a need for someone to take the time to develop an orderly approach to occupational health surveillance. When such a condition exists, it is time to call in an independent auditor

  17. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Podonsky, Glenn S.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  18. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  19. Occupational skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2012-05-01

    Occupational skin diseases are the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases. In Germany, 23 596 out of a total of 71 263 reported occupational diseases in 2010 were classified as occupational skin diseases (BK No. 5101: "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease"). Contact dermatitis (allergic, irritant) of the hands is the most common skin disease and atopic skin diathesis is often an important co-factor. The number of work-related skin diseases is many times higher than the number of notified occupational dermatoses. This CME article explains the legal framework of occupational diseases, the tasks and obligations of the legal statutory work insurance. Typical allergens and irritants of high risk professions are also presented as are the important steps from diagnosis to compensation. Early prevention of occupational skin diseases is very important to avoid severe chronic hand eczema. Therefore the "dermatologist's report" is crucial. Other occupational dermatoses (outside of BK 5101) are briefly mentioned. In recent years the number of notifications of occupational skin cancer due to occupational UV-irradiation has increased. According to recent epidemiological findings, there is a significant and consistent positive association between occupational UV-irradiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, an important criterion for a new occupational disease is fulfilled. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  20. Occupational Deprivation or Occupational Adaptation of Mexican Americans on Renal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Shirley A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the occupational changes and perceptions experienced by Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their families living with dialysis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 Mexican Americans with ESRD and 17 family members. The participants with ESRD described altered or lost activity patterns, capacities and freedoms. With a heightened awareness of death, the family members made altered occupational choices, which were consistent with their cultural values. Changes in the physical body, adhering to the dialysis regimen and environmental restrictions created barriers to occupational participation. These findings suggest that living with dialysis facilitate occupational deprivation among individuals with ESRD and adaption among the family members within cultural alignments. This phenomenon could affect the design of occupational therapy intervention and call for research on the role of occupation therapy services with this population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Diagnosis of occupational chronic pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Maestrelli, P; Guarnieri, G

    2010-01-01

    Occupational risk factors may induce chronic nonmalignant respiratory diseases such as pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma or bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Diagnosis is well codified by international guidelines for most of these occupational diseases except for COPD. The study of occupational COPD is complicated by several issues. In fact, COPD is a multifactorial disease and has a long latency between exposure to causative agents and the occurrence of disease. The main confounding factor is smoking. The quantitative estimation of cigarette smoked is easier and more accurate than that of occupational exposure. The diagnosis of COPD is based on the presence of chronic airflow limitation at spirometry; moreover, an accelerated decline in respiratory function may be observed in the longitudinal evaluation of workers. The retrospective assignment of occupational aetiology of COPD remains difficult in individual cases, especially with a significant history of smoking.

  2. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  3. Occupational Clusters. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in fifteen occupational clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business and office, (3) communications and media, (4) construction, (5) consumer and homemaking, (6) environment, (7) fine arts and humanities, (8) health, (9) hospitality and recreation,…

  4. Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions of Spirituality in Training.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha

    2015-12-01

    Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.

  5. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p <0.001), primarily among workers in the industry sector. A total of 32% of the workers in the province of Salamanca was exposed to some occupational carcinogen. Women were more exposed in the service sector and men in the agriculture and livestock sector. Nearly one third of the workers belonging to the external prevention services of the province of Salamanca, were exposed to some kind of occupational carcinogens. The most frequent being biological risks, solvent products, and silica, which were above the national mean of exposure. It is important to consider the exposure to occupational carcinogens in the implementation of interventions in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational allergy to animals.

    PubMed

    Seward, J P

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the epidemiology, manifestations, etiologic agents, and exposure controls related to occupational allergies from animals and insects, including both respiratory and dermatologic responses. The overall prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in exposed workers is about 23% 4-9% of exposed individuals develop asthma. Symptom development is related to duration and intensity of exposure. The most prevalent dermatologic findings are contact urticaria and eczematous dermatitis. While a history of atopy is associated with the risk of symptom development, this factor has poor predictive value for any given individual. Similarly, skin testing and RAST testing are not sufficiently predictive to be recommended as screening tools, although they may identify individuals at some increased risk. The specific tissue sources of the major allergens are reviewed; for laboratory rats and mice, a urinary protein complex has been implicated. Environmental control of antigens is key in the prevention of allergic disease. Task-specific engineering controls, general environmental hygiene, training, and medical surveillance of workers are important elements of the prevention program.

  7. Electricity Occupations Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Champaign, IL.

    The first of four main sections of the electrical occupations curriculum guide is an introduction which describes the design and use of the guide and which provides five pages of suggested curriculum resources. Section two contains job descriptions for 18 electrical occupations. For each occupation the guide explains industry's expectations of the…

  8. Occupational Status and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Dominique I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined relationship between occupational status and suicide in California males since 1925. Findings show an inverse relationship between occupational status and suicide for all age groups. Over time, male suicide rates have increased, particularly for employed males over 65, employed males aged 14 to 24, and males in low-status occupations.…

  9. Manual on Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Graham D.

    This manual on occupational analysis, developed in Australia, is organized in three sections. The first section provides a framework for occupational analysis (OA) and a discussion of possible outputs from an OA from each of three phases: (1) determining the nature and scope of the occupational area; (2) developing a competencies list; and (3)…

  10. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  11. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  12. Occupation and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H; Della Valle, Curt T; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-05-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text 'occupation' 'job' 'employment' or 'work' and 'thyroid cancer'. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarised the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender-stratified results are reported. The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and healthcare occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis.

  13. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  14. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  15. Occupational justice--bridging theory and practice. Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2010; 17: 57-63.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  16. History of ergonomics and occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Gainer, Rochelle D

    2008-01-01

    Ergonomics is commonly known as "the scientific study of human work" [14, p. 3] and "the application of scientific information concerning human beings to the design of objects, systems, and environments" (p. 4). The American Occupational Therapy Association defines occupational therapy as "skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It gives people the 'skills for the job of living' necessary for independent and satisfying lives [1]." Both professions share common backgrounds. Occupational therapy has been involved in health care and ergonomics is looking for its place in the health care field.

  17. Occupational Choice: A Conditional Logit Model with Special Reference to Wage Subsidies and Occupational Choice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    A model of occupational choice based on the theory of human capital is developed and estimated by conditional logit analysis. The empirical results estimated the probability of individuals with certain characteristics (such as race, sex, age, and education) entering each of 11 occupational groups. The results indicate that individuals tend to…

  18. Fast Food Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    This coordinator's guide consists of materials for use in implementing four individualized units that have been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and are employed in fast food restaurants. Addressed in the individual units are the following occupations: cashier (DOT No. 211.462-010), counter attendant (DOT No.…

  19. Occupational-Technical Program Need Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Lester W., Jr.

    An occupational/technical program needs assessment model is described by which colleges can alter existing programs or develop new ones in anticipation of job market requirements. The report first discusses the two-part (existing and potential programs), tri-level (initial evaluation, individual program screening, and individual program planning),…

  20. Radiation dose reconstruction US occupation forces in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945-1946. Final report 1 March-6 August 80

    SciTech Connect

    McRaney, W.; McGahan, J.

    1980-08-06

    Upper limit dose estimates (internal and external) are determined for those units of the U.S. occupation forces assigned to Hiroshima or Nagasaki following the detonations of atomic weapons in those two cities. In the absence of specific maneuver and patrol data, these dose estimates are based on the maximum recorded activity levels with exposure over the entire stay period for each unit. The upper limit external dose is .03 rem for Hiroshima and .08 rem for Nagasaki. For the Nishiyama area, the upper limit is 0.63 rem. The dose from internal emitters (inhalation and ingestion) is considerably less. There is no basis for assuming that any individual in the occupation units received these upper limit doses.

  1. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  2. Employee occupational stress in banking.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Maria; Georgiou, Yiota

    2005-01-01

    Occupational stress literature emphasizes the importance of assessment and management of work related stress. The recognition of the harmful physical and psychological effects of stress on both individuals and organizations is widely studied in many parts of the world. However, in other regions such research is only at the introductory stages. The present study examines occupational stress of employees in the banking sector. A sample of 60 bank employees at different organizational levels and educational backgrounds was used. Data collection utilized the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Results of data analysis provided evidence that employees' educational levels affect the degree of stress they experience in various ways. Bank employees cannot afford the time to relax and "wind down" when they are faced with work variety, discrimination, favoritism, delegation and conflicting tasks. The study also shows the degree to which some employees tend to bring work-related problems home (and take family problems to work) depends on their educational background, the strength of the employees' family support, and the amount of time available for them to relax. Finally, the drinking habits (alcohol) of the employees were found to play a significant role in determining the levels of occupational stress.

  3. Occupational rhinitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  4. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  5. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  6. Independence: proposing an initial framework for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Bethan

    2017-11-01

    The concept of independence is common in occupational therapy theory and practice but has rarely been clearly defined or conceptualized within in occupational therapy literature and there seems to be no standard definition. This can result in ambiguity, which potentially jeopardizes client-centred practice. This paper proposes an occupational therapy independence framework (OTIF) that synthesizes the range of characterizations of independence in a practically useful and occupation-centred manner. A review of literature, clinical experience, doctoral research and conversations with occupational therapists and disabled people, in particular those involved in a disability activism group and people with physical disabilities, has led to the development of the OTIF. Independence and interdependence, as characterized in the OTIF, occur when an individual exerts choice over occupational performance and can engage in occupations in a manner acceptable to the individual. Interdependence results when occupations are performed with another person whereas independence involves solitary occupational performance. Dependence typically results from inability to choose occupations or a mismatch between performance capacity and environmental factors. The OTIF has the potential to clarify the conceptualization of independence within occupational therapy theory and practice. This initial proposal is presented to stimulate debate and discussion.

  7. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

  8. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    PubMed

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 10 CFR 835.202 - Occupational dose limits for general employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... External Exposure § 835.202 Occupational dose limits for general employees. (a) Except for planned special... equivalent dose to the whole body for external exposures and the committed equivalent dose to any organ or... extremity for external exposures and the committed equivalent dose to the skin or to any extremity of...

  10. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined.

  11. Individual thyroid dose estimates for a case-control study of chernobyl-related thyroid cancer among children of Belarus--part II. Contributions from long-lived radionuclides and external radiation.

    PubMed

    Minenko, Victor F; Ulanovsky, Alexander V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir V; Shemiakina, Elena V; Gavrilin, Yuri I; Khrouch, Valeri T; Shinkarev, Sergei M; Voillequé, Paul G; Bouville, André; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Luckyanov, Nickolas

    2006-04-01

    Significant quantities of long-lived radionuclides were released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. These radionuclides contributed to radiation doses due to ingestion of contaminated foods and external exposure from the ground deposition that resulted. The contributions of these exposure pathways to thyroid doses received by subjects of an epidemiologic study of children from Belarus are evaluated and presented. The analysis shows that ingestion of the long-lived radionuclides, primarily radiocesium, typically contributed a small percentage of the total thyroid dose received by the study subjects. The median and mean fractional contributions were 0.76 and 0.95%, respectively. The contribution of external exposure to the thyroid dose was generally larger and more variable, with median and mean contributions of 1.2 and 1.8% of the total thyroid doses, respectively. For regions close to the reactor site, where radionuclide deposition was highest, the contributions of radiocesium ingestion and external exposure were generally lower than those of the short-lived radioiodine isotopes (132I and 133I) and their precursors (132Te). In other areas, the contributions of these two pathways were comparable to those of the short-lived radioiodines. For all subjects, intakes of 131I were the primary source of dose to the thyroid.

  12. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  14. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  15. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  16. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  17. INFECTION AS OCCUPATIONAL RISK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The percentage of the job-connected infectious diseases of the total number of occupational diseases has been subject to only minor fluctuations...since 1949. Of the occupational infections of medical personnel, tuberculosis and infectious hepatitis are the most important; among diseases that can be...importance in the recognition of an infectious disease as an occupational disease. The article discusses the sources of infection, the manner of

  18. Mapping the Evolving Ideas of Occupational Justice: A Critical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jyothi

    2016-10-12

    The values of occupational therapy are grounded in justice, and its origins in activism and advocacy. Enabling individuals to participate in meaningful occupations to enhance health and well-being was the genesis of the profession that answered a call to justice. Occupational science brought focus to understand humans as occupational beings and made justice more visible in the discourse. A systematic mapping review was undertaken to deconstruct how notions of occupational justice (OJ) have been woven in the literature. The ideas of OJ were dominant in 40 out of the 120 articles that met the study's inclusion criteria. OJ was represented mainly in the context of disadvantaged groups and dissonance in practice. For OJ to influence policy, the focus on the individuals' experiences of occupational injustices must be seen as transacting with systems and policies that contribute to participation inequities in groups and populations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  20. Image Processing Occupancy Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-14

    The Image Processing Occupancy Sensor, or IPOS, is a novel sensor technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The sensor is based on low-cost embedded microprocessors widely used by the smartphone industry and leverages mature open-source computer vision software libraries. Compared to traditional passive infrared and ultrasonic-based motion sensors currently used for occupancy detection, IPOS has shown the potential for improved accuracy and a richer set of feedback signals for occupant-optimized lighting, daylighting, temperature setback, ventilation control, and other occupancy and location-based uses. Unlike traditional passive infrared (PIR) or ultrasonic occupancy sensors, which infer occupancy based only on motion, IPOS uses digital image-based analysis to detect and classify various aspects of occupancy, including the presence of occupants regardless of motion, their number, location, and activity levels of occupants, as well as the illuminance properties of the monitored space. The IPOS software leverages the recent availability of low-cost embedded computing platforms, computer vision software libraries, and camera elements.

  1. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... AOTA Education Summit AOTA/NBCOT National Student Conclave School Based Specialty Conference Member Appreciation Celebration Older Driver Safety Awareness Week Occupational Therapy Month Mental Health Specialty ...

  2. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to improve your documentation. Children & Youth Health & Wellness Mental Health Productive Aging Rehabilitation & Disability Work & Industry Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants ...

  3. Is occupational stress associated with work engagement ?

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.

  4. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  5. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  6. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  7. End-stage renal disease after occupational lead exposure: 20 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marie; Discacciati, Andrea; Quershi, Abdul Rashid; Åkesson, Agneta; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2017-06-01

    Whether low-level exposure to lead may give rise to chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is debated. In this study, we aimed to specifically investigate if low-level occupational exposure to lead was associated with increased incidence of ESRD. The incidence of starting renal replacement therapy as a result of ESRD was examined in a cohort of10 303 lead-workers who had controlled blood lead concentrations due to a compulsory occupational health surveillance programme in Sweden during the time period 1977-1990. The ESRD incidence (obtained through register-linkage) among the lead-exposed workers was compared with the age, sex and calendar period-adjusted expected incidence based on data from the Swedish renal registry. Dose-response association was evaluated in external (general population) and internal (within the occupational cohort) comparisons by highest achieved blood lead level. There were 30 (0.29%) individuals in the cohort who developed ESRD during the median follow-up period of 26.3 years. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for ESRD incidence was 0.79 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.13). Among those who achieved the highest blood lead (>41.4 µg/dL), the SIR was 1.01 (0.44 to 1.99). There was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between the maximum achieved blood lead or the cumulative blood lead exposure and ESRD in external or internal comparisons. This study of workers with documented occupational lead exposures followed for 20 years shows no statistically significant association between lead exposure (following the current occupational recommendations for Sweden) and ESRD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  9. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  10. Water exposure--challenging differences between occupations.

    PubMed

    Meding, Birgitta; Anveden Berglind, Ingegärd; Alderling, Magnus; Lindahl, Gunborg; Wrangsjö, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have compared water exposure between different occupations in the general population. To investigate and compare the extent of occupational water exposure, with a focus on service, healthcare and production occupations previously classified as involving a high risk for hand eczema. In two public health surveys (2006 and 2010), a validated question regarding occupational water exposure was answered by 18 342 and 15,736 gainfully employed individuals, respectively. Exposure for ≥ 0.5 h/day was reported by 17.5% and 16.3% (p = 0.020) for the respective years, and exposure for > 2 h/day by 7.8% and 7.7% (p = 0.73). Exposure in women was almost twice as high as in men for both years (p ≤ 0.001) and exposure levels (p < 0.001). Exposure for > 2 h/day was more common in high-risk occupations in service and healthcare than in non-high-risk occupations [prevalence proportion ratios of 16.7 (95%CI: 14.0-20.0) and 8.3 (95%CI: 6.9-9.9), respectively]. Exposure was highest in service occupations, where 44.6% reported exposure for > 2 h/day in 2010, and kitchen work, cleaning and hairdressing dominated. In healthcare, the corresponding figure was 22.0%. Challenging differences in water exposure between occupational groups were found, and extensive water exposure was reported in a number of occupations previously classified as involving a high risk for hand eczema. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. MS People's Performance and Satisfaction With Daily Occupations: Implications for Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Eman J; Badr, Hanan E; Manee, Fahad

    2017-08-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) face difficulties in performing daily occupations. The objectives of this study were to assess the performance of and level of satisfaction with daily occupations among people with MS, and to explore factors associated with their performance and satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 MS individuals. The Arabic version of Satisfaction With Daily Occupations (SDO) scale was used. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis. SDO performance and satisfaction median scores were 10/14 and 51/70, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that unemployment and cognitive symptoms were associated with poor occupational performance. Furthermore, unemployment, being married, visual problems, and low endurance were significant correlates of poor satisfaction with performing daily occupations. Social and clinical factors contributed to dissatisfaction with the poor performance of daily occupations among people with MS. Intervention studies are needed to investigate the role of occupational therapy in improving the performance of daily occupations in people with MS.

  12. Genetic counseling: the development of a new interdisciplinary occupational field.

    PubMed

    Kenen, R H

    1984-01-01

    A power approach to the study of occupations is used to understand the development of a new occupation--the Masters level genetic counselor. The internal dimension of the power perspective is utilized in analyzing this new health care provider's efforts to gain a place alongside practitioners who possess medical or doctoral degrees. The external dimension is used to focus on the relationship between occupational control and other institutional bases of power in the society. The status of genetic counselor is compared to that of the nurse-practitioner and nurse-midwife. Claims of expertise regarding control over indetermination and uncertainty are discussed as well as society's willingness to accept these assertions.

  13. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  14. Occupational fatalities in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdallat, Emad M; Oqailan, Ahmad Mohammad A; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational fatalities are a worldwide problem. Certain occupations pose a greater risk than others. Recent statistics on global occupational injuries and diseases that might lead to temporary or permanent disability and even worse might lead to death, are staggering. The purpose of this study was to estimate the death rates from occupational injuries in Jordan over a period of four years; to estimate occupational fatality rate that results from accidental injuries and identify the most risky concurrent occupations with the type of injuries, the age and nationality of the victims. A total of 88 work related fatalities were admitted to three hospitals in Amman through 2008-2012 and were examined by a forensic (occupational) physician at the time. They were categorized according to, age, nationality, occupation, type of injury and were all tested for toxic substances. The occupation with the most fatalities was construction (44%); falling from a height was the commonest type of accident (44%) and head injuries were the leading injury type (21.6%); 9.1% of the deaths were positive for alcohol. Moreover, 22.7% of deaths were between ages of 25-29. Consequently, the mean occupational fatality rate was 2 per 100.000 workers during 2008-2012. Constructions and other types of occupations are more extensive problems than what is usually anticipated, especially when safety precautions are not effective or implemented. They may cause injuries and death, which will have a socioeconomic burden on families, society, governments and industries. Not to mention the grief that is associated with the death of a worker at his work site to all concerned parties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  16. Successful business process design. Business plan development for the occupational health services unit.

    PubMed

    Kalina, C M; Fitko, J

    1997-02-01

    1. The occupational health nurse is often mandated by management to validate health services offered and programs developed for employees as valuable to the business and company mission. 2. The business plan of the occupational health service is a working document, changing as needs of the client/customer and internal and external business and socio-economic environment evolve. 3. Alignment with and support of the company mission, goals, and objectives is another method of proving good occupational health is good business. 4. Business planning is a basic business tool the wise and prudent occupational health nurse can use in proving good occupational health is vital to the success of a company.

  17. Beyond reputation: debate on the role of corporate influence in occupational and environmental medicine.

    PubMed

    Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Egilman, David

    2008-01-01

    In his article in this issue, Tee Guidotti casts recent works addressing corporate influence on occupational medicine as "collective act[s] of disparagement ... undertaken ... for political reasons." We move beyond the question of reputation to address key conflicts in the history of occupational medicine, including the American Occupational Medical Association's historical role in weakening the beryllium standard and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine's recent efforts to limit the extent of the Family Medical Leave Act. The corporate practice of externalizing health and safety costs makes industry influence an important ongoing topic of debate in occupational and environmental medicine.

  18. Occupational dermatitis in hairdressers: do they claim workers' compensation?

    PubMed

    Lyons, Georgina; Keegel, Tessa; Palmer, Amanda; Nixon, Rosemary

    2013-03-01

    Hairdressers are one of the largest occupational groups attending our Occupational Dermatology Clinic. However, few seek workers' compensation for their occupational dermatitis. To retrospectively analyse and compare workers' compensation claims data and diagnosed disease data for occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers from 1993 to 2009, for the state of Victoria, Australia. Data from the Occupational Dermatology Clinic database, the Compensation Research Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used in this study. The clinic database identified 157 hairdressers and apprentices with a confirmed diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis assessed between 1993 and 2009. Forty-six unique claims for occupational contact dermatitis from 46 individuals were identified from the Compensation Research Database over the same time period. Hairdressers in the 15-24-year age group were significantly over-represented in the claims data relative to the diagnosed disease data (p < 0.01). The median cost per claim was AU$1421, and the median time off work per claim was 20 days. Increased efforts are needed to reduce the incidence of occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers in Australia, and to ensure that hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis are aware of their compensation entitlements. Reliance on workers' compensation data for disease surveillance may lead occupational health and safety regulators to underestimate the magnitude of the problem of occupational contact dermatitis in the hairdressing profession. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The pan occupational paradigm: development and key concepts.

    PubMed

    Hitch, Danielle; Pepin, Genevieve; Stagnitti, Karen

    2017-06-07

    Wilcock's Occupational Perspective of Health (OPH) aligns with the profession's re-discovery of its holistic, occupationally focused roots. Its dimensions of occupation-doing, being, becoming and belonging - resonate strongly with therapists on an intuitive, implicit level. However, its documented use in practice to date has been sparse, and several barriers to its implementation have been identified. The aim of this article is to present a renewal of the OPH - the Pan Occupational Paradigm (POP). Method of development: POP was developed using critical analysis, reflection and a comprehensive literature review. Each stage of development is described in detail, including the POP's inherent assumptions. Key concepts: POP retains the four dimensions of occupation, and shows their interdependent role within occupational entities (e.g. individuals, groups or communities). An entity can be approached by occupational therapy at any point and all the dimensions (either directly or indirectly) can be engaged. Occupational entities move along a continuum of wellbeing, and this movement can be in both positive and negative directions over a lifespan. POP is a distillation of occupational therapy's unique way of knowing about occupation and the promotion of wellbeing. It is put forward as an updated paradigm for occupational therapy in the 21st century.

  20. Reducing occupation-based disparities related to tobacco: roles for occupational health and organized labor.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; McLellan, Deborah; Levenstein, Charles; DeLaurier, Gregory F; Kelder, Graham; Sorensen, Glorian

    2004-08-01

    Persistent and growing occupation-based disparities related to tobacco pose a serious public health challenge. Tobacco exacts a disproportionate toll on individuals employed in working class occupations, due to higher prevalence of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke among these workers compared to others. We provide an overview of recent advances that may help to reduce these disparities, including research findings on a successful social contextual intervention model that integrates smoking cessation and occupational health and safety, and a new national effort to link labor unions and tobacco control organizations around their shared interest in reducing tobacco's threat to workers' health. Implications of these efforts for future research and action are discussed.

  1. [Need for occupational and environmental allergology in occupational health - the 45th Japanese society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy Annual Meeting 2014 in Fukuoka].

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Reiko; Oshikawa, Chie

    2014-12-01

    The 45th Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy (OEA) Annual Meeting 2014 was held in Fukuoka city in conjunction with a technical course for occupational health physicians to learn occupational and environmental diseases more deeply. Allergic reaction due to low concentrations of chemical and biological materials is important in toxicological diseases due to highly concentrated chemical materials in the field of occupational and environmental medicine. In this paper we describe the activities of the OEA, which was established in 1970 and has completely cured patients with severe occupational asthma, such as the regional Konjac asthma in Gunma prefecture and Sea Squirt asthma in Hiroshima prefecture. Regard for the occupational environment will prevent the onset and/or exacerbation of allergic occupational disease in individual employees with allergy. Occupational cancer of the bile duct and asbestosis are also current, serious issues that should be resolved as soon as possible. It is desirable for the occupational health physician to have a large stock of knowledge about toxicological and allergic diseases in various occupational settings to maintain the health and safety of workers.

  2. Occupational stress and constructive thinking: health and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Tróccoli, Bartholomeu Torres

    2004-06-01

    Occupational stress is associated with specific situations, characteristics of the work environment, and individual perceptions and reactions in the context of the workplace, but many nursing studies of occupational stress have tended to analyse aspects related to the job itself. In Brazil nursing is acknowledged as a stressful occupation whose stresses are generally associated with the job itself, while the effects of personal characteristics on an individual's response to occupational stress are dismissed. The aim of this paper is to describe: (1) occupational stress, job satisfaction and state of health in Brazilian nurses, and (2) the relationship of these variables to a constructive thinking coping style. A correlational study was performed during 1999 with 461 nurses recruited from the public health and education system in the Federal District of Brazil. Instruments used were the Nursing Stress Inventory, Constructive Thinking Inventory, subscales of the Occupational Stress Indicator, and a researcher-designed questionnaire. Normal distributions were found for occupational stress, state of health (physical and psychological), and job satisfaction. Results suggest that nurses have fewer psychological health problems and similar job satisfaction compared with other Brazilian government white-collar workers. Occupational stress was directly associated with state of health, and inversely associated with global constructive thinking and job satisfaction. Brazilian nurses in this study seem to have adapted satisfactorily to their profession, but the finding that constructive thinking was significantly related to psychological ill-health, occupational stress and physical ill-health highlights a need to value individual coping styles in the work environment.

  3. Facilitators of implementing occupation based practice among Iranian occupational therapists: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupation-Based Practice (OBP) is a central core of occupational therapy (OT).It refers to using a meaningful occupation based on the client’s interests, needs, health and participation in daily life. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of implementing OBP among Iranian occupational therapists. Methods: Fourteen occupational therapists participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the sampling method was purposeful. The interviews were continued until data saturation was reached, and data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using constant comparative analysis. Results: Our analysis explored two themes: Factors attributed to context, and factors attributed to therapists. The first theme consisted of three subthemes: Educational programs of OT department, public information about OBP and clinical setting compatible with OBP. The second theme also contained three subthemes including: Positive attitude regarding effectiveness of OBP, emphasis on client- centered and family- centered practice and convincing the clients to utilize OBP. Conclusion: The facilitators of implementing OBP are attributed to factors internal to the therapists as well as to issues in the external environment and context. Understanding these factors will help occupational therapists, OT educational staff, administrators and rehabilitation team members to facilitate the implementation of OBP. PMID:26913270

  4. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution §...

  5. Hollywood takes on intellectual/ developmental disability: cinematic representations of occupational participation.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Rebecca; Schormans, Ann Fudge; Shore, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Adults with intellectual/developmental disability (IDD), and their occupational participation, are vastly under-represented in Hollywood films. Because films often provide individuals' only experience of people with IDD, cinematic representations can influence audience perceptions. Thus, films can help inform public perceptions about desired and appropriate occupational participation for people with IDD, potentially impacting their access to meaningful occupational participation and achievement of occupational potential. Accordingly, this research examined occupational portrayals of adults with IDD in contemporary Hollywood films. Occupational portrayals, as defined here, refer to representations of the dynamic process of the person participating in occupation(s) in a context. Grounded theory methods guided coding and analysis of qualitative data collected from eight contemporary films using an occupation-focused tool. Two major, striking themes emerging from the qualitative analysis--infantilization and simplification of participation in complex occupations (with three associated sub-themes)--are discussed. Implications of the findings and future research directions are considered.

  6. Study on a model for future occupational health: proposal for an occupational health service model in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Toshiaki

    2006-10-01

    submit reports on risk evaluation and improvement measures; (2) establishment of the obligation to prepare a report on results of medical examinations in all sizes of businesses. 4. Introduction of a merit system into businesses in establishment of a new system: the application of the special merit system of the workers' compensation insurance shall be revised to add occupational health activities, cover business with 20 or more to 100 or less employees and expand the period of application for three years under the present laws to five years. 5. Ensuring of international coordination: harmonization of standards of individual countries for occupational health and safety; thorough (1) ensuring of international agreement on high-level specialist qualifications; (2) mutual recognition of qualifications of occupational physician, nurse, occupational hygienist, ergonomist, and counselor; (3) preparation of guidelines for occupations relating to occupational health businesses.

  7. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  8. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of…

  9. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  10. Occupations, U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science,…

  11. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  12. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  13. Bricklayer. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cap, Orest; Cap, Ihor; Semenovych, Viktor

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a bricklayer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as bricklayer-mason, brick and stone mason, and mason. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the…

  14. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  15. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  16. Occupational Information Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharf, Richard S.

    This three-part book provides an overview of 500 occupations. The book is organized into three parts. Part I introduces the following seven occupational classification systems, along with their manuals and dictionaries: an observational classification system, Roe's Classification System, Holland's Classification System, the Standard Occupational…

  17. Occupational Health Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Medical Training Inst., Bethesda, MD.

    This manual is designed to be used for "Administrative Aspects of Occupational Medicine," one of two officer correspondence courses offered by the Naval Medical Training Institute. Part one comprises guidelines for setting up occupational health clinics, covering the areas of staffing, layout, equipment, other services, and records…

  18. Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the cabinetmaker…

  19. Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2010-11-01

    The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.

  20. Going to an Occupational Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do things on his own. What Is Occupational Therapy? Everyone has an occupation or job. A kid's ... is to grow , learn, do schoolwork, and play. Occupational therapy (or OT) helps kids who have a physical, ...

  1. [Occupational selection in industrial medicine].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with contemporary state of occupational selection (educational, social and psychologic, medical) in Russia, its importance in industrial medicine and connection with ethic problems. The author defined topical directions in research of occupational selection and occupational fitness examination.

  2. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  3. [Market oriented occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

    2012-09-09

    The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities.

  4. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  5. The Universe of Need for Occupational Education in New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Resource Center for Occupational Education, Newton, MA.

    This first part of a comprehensive study designed to provide decision makers with an understanding of the needs and capabilities of occupational education in New England focuses on the number of individuals, especially dropouts, in need of occupational education and training as compared to the capabilities of the various institutions to meet such…

  6. Dimensions of Occupational Stress: Implications for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopps, Zona Joyce

    Since vocational education normally deals with potential workers, it needs to include courses whose content focuses on developing effective coping strategies to deal with occupational stressors that affect job satisfaction. Occupational stress is defined as a dynamic reciprocal relationship between an individual and the work environment.…

  7. Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program. Pilot Test 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Janice; And Others

    Pilot testing was conducted on parts of the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a classroom program designed to enhance the career awareness and career understandings of seventh and eighth grade students through simulations, games, and small group and individualized activities. The Introduction to Occupational Exploration unit and three…

  8. Occupational Health and Sleep Issues in Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Kalliny, Medhat; McKenzie, Judith Green

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders and occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses impact an individual's overall health. In the United States, substantial racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in sleep and occupational health. Primary care physicians working in underserved communities should be aware of this disparity and target these higher-risk populations for focused evaluation and intervention.

  9. Providing Educationally Relevant Occupational and Physical Therapy Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverdure, Patricia A.; Rose, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    As defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, occupational and physical therapists provide services to support students to access, participate, and progress in their educational program within the least restrictive educational environment. Educationally relevant occupational and physical therapy services in school…

  10. Occupational Constraints and Opportunities Faced by School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between building human capital of former dropouts and their occupational standing and the interaction effects with individual characteristics. By applying the growth curve model, this study highlighted the factors that lead high school dropouts to enhance their occupational standing. An increment in the work…

  11. Providing Educationally Relevant Occupational and Physical Therapy Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverdure, Patricia A.; Rose, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    As defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, occupational and physical therapists provide services to support students to access, participate, and progress in their educational program within the least restrictive educational environment. Educationally relevant occupational and physical therapy services in school…

  12. New Limits to Growth. Economic Transformation and Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.

    The roles played by occupational education in the U.S. economy are changing. Because of the growing demand for and shrinking supply of skilled workers, economic success--of the nation and of individual members of the work force--is increasingly tied to educational and occupational attainments. Unless the nation increases its investment in…

  13. Stepping Up Occupational Safety and Health Through Employee Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is examined, and it is suggested that employee participation could help improve occupational safety and health in the future, through safety committees, safety circles, safety teams, and individual participation. (MSE)

  14. Occupational Constraints and Opportunities Faced by School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between building human capital of former dropouts and their occupational standing and the interaction effects with individual characteristics. By applying the growth curve model, this study highlighted the factors that lead high school dropouts to enhance their occupational standing. An increment in the work…

  15. Social Support and Occupational Stress among University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosio, Saharay E.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…

  16. Religious Occupations and Stress Questionnaire (ROS): Instrument Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, Janice M.; Rayburn, Carole A.; Richmond, Lee J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of the Religious Occupations and Stress Questionnaire (ROS), which attempts to fill the need for an appropriate measure of the stress experienced by individuals in religious occupations. Results of reliability and validity studies indicate high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity.…

  17. Evidence in Support of Gottfredson's Common Cognitive Map of Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Gottfredson proposed that most people share an understanding of the world of work based upon the sex type, social status and type of occupations. Individuals use these three dimensions to organise their view of the world of work. There is as a consequence, she argued, a common cognitive map of occupations. She depicted this map graphically. This…

  18. Social Support and Occupational Stress among University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosio, Saharay E.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Information Technology Design/Build Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document contains Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for occupations in the Information Technology Design and Build Cluster (technical writer, programmer, system analyst, network architect, application product architect, network engineer, and database administrator). The skill standards define what an individual should know and the…

  20. Teaching Occupational Social Skills. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elksnin, Nick; Elksnin, Linda K.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this guide focuses on teaching occupational social skills. Chapter 1, "Why Teach Occupational Social Skills?," explains the importance of these skills for successful…

  1. Teaching Occupational Social Skills. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elksnin, Nick; Elksnin, Linda K.

    Part of a series that provides practical resources to transition personnel on topics essential to the process of preparing individuals with disabilities for adulthood, this guide focuses on teaching occupational social skills. Chapter 1, "Why Teach Occupational Social Skills?," explains the importance of these skills for successful…

  2. Time for a Change: A Woman's Guide to Nontraditional Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauley, Constance Drake

    This guide for women interested in nontraditional occupations (NTOs) describes nontraditional occupations and offers suggestions for deciding whether an NTO is appropriate for the individual. The need for women in NTOs is first addressed. Rewards are considered, and a checklist is provided to test for readiness to choose an NTO. These myths…

  3. Educational and Occupational Status of Young Deaf Adults in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Stephen P.; And Others

    A questionnaire was used to obtain information from 464 hearing impaired individuals concerning occupational status and to determine any relationship between types of educational programs attended and later occupational achievement. Subjects had attended exclusively one of four types of programs: residential, day school programs in Chicago, day…

  4. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  5. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  6. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  7. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  8. Occupations: Military--Civilian Occupational Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armed Forces Vocational Testing Group, Universal City, TX.

    Information on enlisted military occupations is offered in the source book to arrive at a comprehensive statement of job tasks in the military service and their similarities to jobs in civilian life. Basic information about five areas of the U.S. military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) focuses on their military…

  9. A bibliometric analysis of occupational therapy publications.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Fong, Kenneth N K

    2018-01-01

    Bibliometrics involves the statistical analysis of the publications in a specific discipline or subject area. A bibliometric analysis of the occupational therapy refereed literature is needed. A bibliometric analysis was completed of the occupational therapy literature from 1991-2014, indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded or the Social Sciences Citation Index. Publications were searched by title, abstract, keywords, and KeyWords Plus. Total number of article citations, citations per journal, and contributions per country, individual authors, and institution were calculated. 5,315 occupational therapy articles were published in 821 journals. It appears that there is a citation window of an approximate 10-year period between the time of publication and the peak number of citations an article receives. The top three most highly cited articles were published in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, JAMA, and Lancet. AJOT, BJOT and AOTJ published the largest number of occupational therapy articles with the United States, Australia, and Canada producing the highest number of publications. McMaster University, the University of Queensland, and the University of Toronto were the institutions that published the largest number of occupational therapy journal articles. The occupational therapy literature is growing and the frequency of article citation is increasing.

  10. Burnout in occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J C; Dodson, S C

    1988-12-01

    Burnout is a job-related condition involving feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981a) is the instrument most widely used to measure job-related stress in human service professions, such as occupational therapy. This study explored the application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for use with occupational therapists. The subjects were 99 registered occupational therapists residing in the southeastern United States. Mean scores lower than the aggregate occupational norms provided by the test's authors on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization subscales supported the need to develop specific norms for occupational therapists. Results of this study indicate that use of the aggregate norms would underestimate the level of experienced burnout. Correlational analyses delineated significant relationships between age and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, education and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, years of work as an occupational therapist and Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment, years in the present position and Personal Accomplishment (intensity only), hours of direct patient contact and Emotional Exhaustion (intensity only), and hours of direct patient contact and Depersonalization (frequency only). These correlates of burnout furnish clues for understanding the development of work-related stress in occupational therapists.

  11. Using Consultants in the Design, Construction, and Occupancy of New Healthcare Facilities.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2015-11-01

    Nurse leaders are critical players in the design, construction, and occupancy of new healthcare facilities or renovation projects. While most hospitals and healthcare systems have internal resources needed to manage large projects, there is often a recognized need for expertise of external consultants during various phases of design and construction. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of types of external consultants that can be contracted to ensure the success of the project from concept through initial occupancy.

  12. Health Occupations Module. The Integumentary System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the integumentary system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, objectives (e.g., list and describe the types of glands formed in the skin, and explain the…

  13. Occupational Demand in Minnesota for 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copa, George H.; Irvin, Donald E., Jr.

    Effective planning of vocational education programs requires information about both the educational demand of individuals and the manpower demands of business and industry. Two characteristics of the manpower demand in Minnesota which are defined and estimated in this report are occupational demand, the total number of employment positions in a…

  14. Michigan Occupational Information System Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Eric M.; And Others

    An evaluation of the Michigan Occupational Information System (MOIS) was conducted. (The MOIS is a system designed to provide reliable and current career information organized in a readily accessible system for individuals involved in career exploration and decision making.) Three types of survey instruments (site, staff, and client surveys) were…

  15. Advanced Listening Comprehension Training in Occupational ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Graham

    1982-01-01

    In the English Language Training Unit of the Bank of Canada, the duties performed by an individual worker are examined closely and a language-use profile developed. Authentic recordings of specific problematic occupational situations are used and found to be highly motivating in training. Examples of exercise discourse are given. (MSE)

  16. Health Occupations Education--A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Kaye Reames

    Developed to provide curriculum materials that secondary Health Occupations Education (HOE) teachers/coordinators can use in organizing their individual programs, this curriculum guide contains performance-based units covering the majority of a four-semester program of study in HOE. The following topics are covered: medical ethics, law, and…

  17. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  18. Diversified Satellite Occupations Program. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, John Reed

    This interim report, covering the period of September 1970 to June 1971, describes a program conducted for elementary, junior high, and senior high grades. The elementary program was designed to help students develop an understanding of occupational competence. The prevention of dropouts and individualizing instruction were concerns of the junior…

  19. A Case Study of Occupational Jargon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    This paper examines the language used by workers in a china factory in order to present the characteristics and underlying features of occupational jargon. The paper shows: (1) jargon is affected by regional-local pronunciation, grammatical expressions and lexical items, and by individual speech styles which result from general linguistic…

  20. Racial Discrimination in Occupations; Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    1981-01-01

    A study of perceived discrimination by race and by sex for each of 21 occupations was compared with actual percentages of Blacks in each field. The study suggested that: (1) perception of opportunity corresponded to actual structure of opportunity; and (2) both a change in the social structure and individual belief systems is needed to further…

  1. Health Occupations Education--A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Kaye Reames

    Developed to provide curriculum materials that secondary Health Occupations Education (HOE) teachers/coordinators can use in organizing their individual programs, this curriculum guide contains performance-based units covering the majority of a four-semester program of study in HOE. The following topics are covered: medical ethics, law, and…

  2. Health Occupations Module. The Integumentary System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the integumentary system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, objectives (e.g., list and describe the types of glands formed in the skin, and explain the…

  3. Occupational cancer in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  4. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  5. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  6. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement <50%, and 4) No improvement. Intra and postoperative complications were also recorded. Fifty-two patients, 14 male and 38 female, were included in the study, with 2 patients having bilateral surgery. The average age of the patients was 55.8 years. The average length of follow up was 221 days. Surgical outcomes showed 72% of patients with complete resolution of epiphora and 21% with >50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  7. Occupational health in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Krstev, Srmena; Perunicic, Bogoljub; Vidakovic, Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health in Yugoslavia was once well organized in accordance with WHO declarations and ILO conventions and recommendations. Since the 1990s, the system has been disrupted by destruction of the former Yugoslavia, wars, refugees, changes in the economy, and NATO bombardment. Economic trends, main industries, and employment and unemployment conditions in Yugoslavia are presented. The organization of occupational health services, their tasks, and prevailing problems are discussed. Occupational diseases and relevant research and educational opportunities are described. The authors conclude by suggesting approaches to improving worker's health in the future.

  8. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  9. [Occupational health and the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act].

    PubMed

    Carlos Cárcoba, A

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the main problems currently involved in matters concerning the prevention of occupational hazards, the basic contents of the recently passed Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act (Ley 31/1995), and the challenges that this law pose for the unions, employers, public administration, professionals in prevention and insurance companies for matters concerning occupational hazards and occupational illnesses.

  10. Occupational therapists' perceptions of gender - a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Hensing, Gunnel

    2010-10-01

    Women and men are shaped over the courses of their lives by culture, society and human interaction according to the gender system. Cultural influences on individuals' social roles and environment are described in occupational therapy literature, but not specifically from a gender perspective. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how a sample of occupational therapists perceives the 'gender' concept. Four focus group interviews with 17 occupational therapists were conducted. The opening question was: 'How do you reflect on the encounter with a client depending on whether it is a man or a woman?' The transcribed interviews were analysed and two main themes emerged: 'the concept of gender is tacit in occupational therapy' and 'client encounters'. The occupational therapists expressed limited theoretical knowledge of 'gender'. Furthermore, the occupational therapists seemed to be 'doing gender' in their encounters with the clients. For example, in their assessment of the client, they focussed their questions on different spheres: with female clients, on the household and family; with male clients, on their paid work. This study demonstrated that occupational therapists were unaware of the possibility that they were 'doing gender' in their encounters with clients. There is a need to increase occupational therapists' awareness of their own behaviour of 'doing gender'. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate whether gendered perceptions will shorten or lengthen a rehabilitation period and affect the chosen interventions, and in the end, the outcome for the clients. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  11. Industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Yorifuji, Takashi; Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Hiransuthikul, Narin; Doi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    In industrializing countries, occupational safety and health have been affected by globalization. However, a lack of reliable data prevents evaluation of this situation. Therefore, we examined industrial distributions and risks of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand, which is one of the few industrializing countries that compiles nationwide data. Data on workers who made claims for occupational injuries from 2007 to 2009 were extracted from the Workmen's Compensation Fund records in Thailand. Among 501,334 claimants, we evaluated the industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries (i.e., permanent disability and death). We then examined the associations between industry and those injuries, using proportionate ratios (PRs) between each industrial category and the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The number of workers in manufacturing making claims for severe occupational injuries was the largest among all industrial categories (319,114/501,334 injuries), although the total number of occupational injuries recently declined. Additionally, workers in manufacturing experienced severe occupational injuries more often compared with the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The PRs (95% confidence interval) for manufacturing were 1.17 (1.14-1.20) in men and 1.33 (1.27-1.38) in women. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the results did not substantially change. Manufacturing seems to have the largest burden of occupational injuries in industrializing countries like Thailand.

  12. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    feedback signals, we propose a distributed solution, which ensures that a consensus is attained among all occupants upon convergence, irrespective of their temperature preferences being in coherence or conflicting. Occupants are only assumed to be rational, in that they choose their own temperature set-points so as to minimize their individual energy cost plus discomfort. We use Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers ( ADMM) to solve our consensus problem. We further establish the convergence of the proposed algorithm to the optimal thermal set point values that minimize the sum of the energy cost and the aggregate discomfort of all occupants in a multi-zone building. For simulating our consensus algorithm we use realistic building parameters based on the Watervliet test facility. The simulation study based on real world building parameters establish the validity of our theoretical model and provide insights on the dynamics of the system with a mobile user population. In the third part we present a game-theoretic (auction) mechanism, that requires occupants to "purchase" their individualized comfort levels beyond what is provided by default by the building operator. The comfort pricing policy, derived as an extension of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) pricing, ensures incentive-compatibility of the mechanism, i.e., an occupant acting in self-interest cannot benefit from declaring their comfort function untruthfully, irrespective of the choices made by other occupants. The declared (or estimated) occupant comfort ranges (functions) are then utilized by the building operator---along with the energy cost information---to set the environment controls to optimally balance the aggregate discomfort of the occupants and the energy cost of the building operator. We use realistic building model and parameters based on our test facility to demonstrate the convergence of the actual temperatures in different zones to the desired temperatures, and provide insight to the pricing

  13. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the...

  15. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    PubMed

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  16. Occupational Analysis and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Arthur E.

    1985-01-01

    A form of occupational analysis called DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) and its advantages in course development and performance assessment are discussed and specific suggestions on conducting a DACUM session are provided. (CT)

  17. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... various needs improve their cognitive, physical, sensory, and motor skills and enhance their self-esteem and sense of ... Occupational therapists might: help kids work on fine motor skills so they can grasp and release toys and ...

  18. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  19. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  20. The Client-Centred Evidence-Based Practice of Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Mary; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; von Zweck, Claudia; Vallerand, Josee

    1998-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is therapy guided by the results of scientifically sound, relevant research. The Occupational Performance Process Model outlines the occupational therapy problem-solving process to assist occupational therapists in integrating information about individual clients into research findings to implement EBP. (SK)

  1. Health Practitioners. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health practitioners, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians,…

  2. Health Practitioners. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health practitioners, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians,…

  3. Changes in Occupational Characteristics in the Next Decade: Their Implications for Planning in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecht, Leonard A.; And Others

    The study seeks to expand the occupational information available to educators by relating job openings data to information about the earnings of persons employed in different occupations, their educational attainment, and the opportunities individual fields are expected to offer for women and nonwhites. The data refer to 123 occupations including…

  4. Black Students' Occupational Expectations: A National Study of the Impact of School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.

    1983-01-01

    A study of Black high school graduates found that school desegregation influences expectations of individuals entering the highest level occupational categories; however, when other occupational socialization factors are considered, the relative effect of desegregation on expectations of entering a nontraditionally Black occupation is significant…

  5. Physical and Life Scientists. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on physical and life scientists, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include biochemists, life scientists, soil…

  6. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  7. Machine Repairers and Operators. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on machine repairers and operators, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include appliance repairers,…

  8. [Psychiatric occupational therapy practice in Shinshu University Hospital--collaboration with psychiatrist].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fukushmima, Sachie; Kawano, Koujiro; Ohnishi, Ayumi; Ogiwara, Tomomi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toru; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji

    2011-01-01

    This report describes psychiatric occupational therapy practice and collaboration between occupational therapists and psychiatrists at Shinshu University Hospital. Collaboration with psychiatrists enables us to provide the following occupational therapy programs. (1) Individual occupational therapy approaches for patients at the early recovery stage in the psychiatric ward. (2) Psychoeducational interventions by a multi-disciplinary team (MDs, nurses, OTRs, PSWs, CPs). (3) Occupational therapy approaches used in combination with m-ECT for severe psychiatric disorders. (4) Recovery support programs for psychiatric outpatients. It is suggested that occupational therapists should collaborate with psychiatrists in order to facilitate rehabilitation services for people with psychiatric disorders.

  9. Benefits of occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Govender, Paran; Kalra, Lalit

    2007-08-01

    Stroke is the largest single cause of severe physical disability and rehabilitation to reduce functional deficits is the most effective treatment. Occupational therapists play a central role in rehabilitation as members of a multidisciplinary team. Occupational therapy is a client-centered profession that uses meaningful activities across the spectrum of physical and mental domains to reduce limitations after stroke. Where remediation is not possible, occupational therapists implement compensatory strategies to promote independence. Rehabilitation is based on the concept of brain plasticity, which implies that it is possible to modulate or facilitate cerebral reorganization by external inputs. Occupational therapy activities are specifically geared to promote this re-education process and encourage the development of lost skills while accommodating for specific physical, cognitive or affective impairments. Principles of motor, sensory, cognitive and affective rehabilitation are incorporated into effective task-specific activities and environments are adapted to create the optimum conditions for successful rehabilitation. Several promising new rehabilitation approaches, based on neuropsychology and technological advances, have been developed to complement therapy inputs and exploit the brain's capacity to recover from stroke.

  10. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  11. "Homosexual occupations" in Mesoamerica?

    PubMed

    Murray, S O

    1991-01-01

    Data gathered among self-identified homosexual men in Guatemala City and Mexico City call into question the intrinsic connection between homosexuality and occupational choice posited by Whitam and Mathy (1986). Concentrations of homosexual men in some occupations can be explained as effects of discrimination and of the normal transmission through personal networks of information about job opportunities, and does not require recourse to any innate drive for homosexual men to be actors, hairdressers or interior decorators.

  12. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  13. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  14. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  15. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  16. Investigating the experiences in a school-based occupational therapy program to inform community-based paediatric occupational therapy practice.

    PubMed

    Rens, Lezahn; Joosten, Annette

    2014-06-01

    A collaborative approach with teachers is required when providing community-based occupational therapy to educationally at risk children. Collaborators share common goals and interact and support each other but challenges arise in providing collaborative occupational therapy in settings outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to capture experiences of teachers and occupational therapists working within a school-based occupational therapy program to determine if their experiences could inform collaborative practice. In this pilot study, participant responses to questionnaires (n = 32) about their experiences formed the basis for focus groups and individual interviews. Two focus group were conducted, one with teachers (n = 11) and one with occupational therapy participants (n = 6). Individual interviews were conducted with the supervising occupational therapist, school principal and two leading teachers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data from closed questions, and thematic analysis using a constant comparison approach was used to analyse open ended questions, focus groups and interviews. Three main themes emerged: (i) the need for occupational therapists to spend time in the school, to explain their role, build relationships, understand classroom routines and the teacher role; (ii) occupational therapists need to not see themselves as the expert but develop equal partnerships to set collaborative goals and (iii) occupational therapists advocating for all parties to be informed throughout the occupational therapy process. The pilot study findings identified teacher and therapist experiences within the school setting that could inform improved collaborative practice with teachers and community-based occupational therapists and these findings warrant further investigation. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. An occupational preference model of turnover behaviour: the case of Israel's medical sector employees.

    PubMed

    Mano-Negrin, R

    2001-01-01

    Occupational preferences and subsequent turnover behaviour are part of a complex relationship between employees and their occupational and organizational labour markets. Both markets contribute to matching skills and jobs. Differences in individual and occupational attributes can predict the direction and intensity of preferences for alternative organizations, occupations and job locations. Occupational preferences, which reflect the attractiveness of alternative positions within and outside the employing organization, are examined as central antecedents of occupation-specific turnover behaviour. The results of a logistic regression analysis, based on a cross-sectional occupational representative data set of 700 medical sector employees and a follow-up sample of 81 "quitters" suggest that turnover behaviour is influenced by organizational and occupational employment opportunities and occupational preferences.

  18. Occupational health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  19. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. [Occupational dermatoses: clinical picture, noxious compounds, prevention].

    PubMed

    Raab, W

    1989-11-30

    Various occupational substances may cause dermatological lesions. Toxic, toxic-degenerative and allergic eczemas have to be mentioned on the first hand. The prevention of dermatoses ranges among the most important tasks of occupational medicine. The first measure should be a minimization of the direct skin contact with dermatotoxic substances. Here, adequate cleaning products play an important part. --When working with potentially toxic substances, the use of protective devices must be recommended. There are two possibilities: wearing gloves or application of protective ointments. In both instances, numerous disadvantages have to be considered. The main point is the reduced quality of work. Recently, a foam product for external protection has been developed. Clinical experiments and first practical experiences permit the assumption that this foam product which forms a biphasic lattice in the outer layers of the stratum corneum may ameliorate the situation.

  1. Assessment of occupational exposure in a granite quarry and processing factory.

    PubMed

    Tejado, J J; Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2016-09-01

    Workers in the granite industry face an occupational hazard: silicosis due to the crystalline silica present in inhalable dust. As granite can also present a variable, and occasionally significant, content of naturally occurring radionuclides, they may also face a radiological hazard. In order to assess the risk, a granite industry with a quarry and processing factory was selected to assess the occupational exposure. Three main potential pathways were observed: external irradiation, inhalation of granite dust, and radon exposure. The external dose rate was similar to that in a nearby farming area. A slight increment (0.016-0.076 mSv yr(-1)) was observed in the quarry and stockpile, due to quarry faces and granite blocks. The effective dose due to granite dust inhalation was 0.182  ±  0.009 mSv yr(-1) in the worst case scenario (3 mg m(-3) dust load in air and no use of filter masks). Thus, the mean value of the effective dose from these two pathways was 0.26 mSv yr(-1), lower than the reference level of 1 mSv yr(-1) for the general population. The annual mean value of radon concentration in the indoor air was 33 Bq m(-3). However, during granite processing works the radon concentration can increase up to 216 Bq m(-3), due to mechanical operations (sawing, polishing, sanding, etc). This radon concentration was below the 600 Bq m(-3) reference level for action in working places. Therefore, workers in this granite factory face no significant additional radiological exposure, and no-one needs to be designated as occupationally exposed and subject to individual dosimetry.

  2. Occupant-to-occupant contact injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2017-10-03

    This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk of occupant-to-occupant contact injury by crash type and occupant age. It focused on rear impacts because of a recent Senate inquiry. 1994-2013 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the effects of occupant-to-occupant contact on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+) by crash type and age group. NASS-CDS in-depth cases were analyzed to identify crash circumstances for AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury in rear crashes. Serious injury (AIS 3+) due to occupant-to-occupant contact was uncommon. It represented only 0.84% of all AIS 3+ injury for all age groups. The overall risk of AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury was 0.042 ± 0.007%. The highest incidence was in side impacts (69.8%) followed by rollovers (22.9%). Occupant-to-occupant contact injury risk was lower in rear impacts than in other crash types, at 0.0078 ± 0.0054%. The highest risk of AIS 3+ injury with occupant-to-occupant was for the <9-year-old age group when compared to other age groups for all crash types. The risk was 0.051 ± 0.026%, representing 2.69% of all AIS 3+ injury in the <9-year-old age group. Only 4.2% of AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury occurred to children <9 years old in rear impacts. The corresponding injury risk was lowest in rear impacts, at 0.014 ± 0.014%%, when compared to other crash types. The analysis of in-depth NASS-CDS cases of occupant-to-occupant contact injury in children< 9 years old involved in rear impacts identified very severe collisions in older model vehicles with deformation of the occupant compartment and yielding front seats as main factors for the contact injury. Front seat occupants injuring rear-seated children was not identified in the in-depth NASS-CDS cases. AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury occurs primarily in side impacts and rollovers. Most contact injury is to adults (89.4% incidence). Occupant-to-occupant contact injury to

  3. [Occupational asthma: current state of the problem].

    PubMed

    Bousová, Karin

    2004-01-01

    possibilities for the application of particular diagnostic methods are given with emphasis on their advantages and limitations and the necessity to determine a proper diagnostic method for the individual patient. In searching for a particular cause of the occupational disease a significant benefit is the determination of a wide range of specific Ig E class serum antigens, in case IgG and standardization of the method provoke tests for its practical application.

  4. [Occurrence of occupational diseases in Poland, 2014].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    The aim of the annual analysis of the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland is to evaluate the extent of the incidence and to identify its causes as well as activities involving factors that are harmful or annoying to such an extent that they result in occupational diseases. Occupational diseases reporting forms supplied to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases were used as the study material. In 2014, there were 2351 cases of occupational diseases recorded, i.e., 16.5 cases per 100 thousand of employees. The most numerous categories comprised infectious or parasitic diseases (borreliosis), pneumoconiosis, voice disorders and hearing loss (in total 79.7% of cases). The main causative factors of occupational diseases were as follows: industrial dust containing free silica, tick-transmitted Borrelia spirochete, and the way the work is done, including excessive vocal effort, and noise. The highest incidence per 100 thousand workers were recorded in mining and quarrying (296), manufacturing (24.9), education (24.6), agriculture and forestry (24.2) sectors. Compared with the previous year, there was a slight increase in the number of cases of certified occupational diseases (6.2%), primarily due to the increased incidence of Lyme disease. The incidence of voice disorders among teachers continues to vary considerably in individual provinces (0-11.3/10 000), reflecting the use of non-uniform diagnostic and certification methods. Med Pr 2016;67(3):327-335. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Occupational and environmental medicine in a family medicine residency.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, T E; Teitelbaum, H S

    2001-05-01

    responses of the health managers and the patients were positive. This program in occupational medicine was found to be educationally sound with demonstrated community benefit and patient satisfaction. Further, it is cost-effective, requiring no external funding.

  6. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  7. Contribution of occupational therapists in positive behaviour support.

    PubMed

    Perez, Micah; Carlson, Glenys; Ziviani, Jenny; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-12-01

    Positive behaviour support employs specific strategies which aim to both reduce the incidence of behaviours of concern and enhance the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. This study aims to identify activities and experiences of occupational therapists working in behaviour support contexts to understand how they see their contributions in this area. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 occupational therapists who have provided behaviour support for people with intellectual disabilities. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Three major themes emerged from the interview data: contextualising and understanding behaviour; occupational therapy - why and how?; and 'challenges, strengths and expanding horizons'. Participants saw themselves as providing an occupational perspective in the delivery of behaviour support, to individuals with behaviour support needs. They highlighted that this was achieved utilising their skills and knowledge about positive behaviour support strategies. Their approaches were seen as drawing on: their understanding of neurological function and how it relates to a person's occupational engagement; combining occupationally focussed approaches with behavioural analysis methodology to guide practice; and advocating for person-centred interventions. These observations form the basis for exploring ways in which occupational therapists can advance their contributions in positive behaviour support settings. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  9. [Somnology and occupational safety].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B

    2013-01-01

    Somnology has saved up enough great volume of objective knowledge of negative effects of a lack of the sleep, the raised drowsiness and sleep pathologies for health of people and occupational safety to formulate this knowledge in the accessible form for a society and acceptance by the state of acts and the organizational actions preventing these negative effects. The necessity of the salvation of these problems has led to occurrence of a new area of occupational sleep medicine, which problem is the analysis of influence of physiological mechanisms ofa sleep and functioning circadian systems on efficiency of professional activity and health of people. For a designation of the various items causing infringements of professional work use the term fatique. It is believed that fatigue development is connected with three major factors: deficiency of a sleep - defined by duration of previous wakefulness and a sleep, time-of-day and at last, task-related factors. Within the limits of approaches developed the occupational sleep medicine had been formulated the Fatigue Risk Management System. In the Russian literature there is a lack of the information on influence of mechanisms of a sleep on occupational safety, therefore the review will be interesting to a wide range of the experts dealing with the analysis of the human factor, health and an occupational safety

  10. Do workers' health surveillance examinations fulfill their occupational preventive objective? Analysis of the medical practice of occupational physicians in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jareño, Mari Cruz; Molinero, Emilia; de Montserrat, Jaume; Vallès, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta

    2017-10-06

    Although routine workers' health examinations are extensively performed worldwide with important resource allocation, few studies have analyzed their quality. The objective of this study has been to analyze the medical practice of workers' health examinations in Catalonia (Spain) in terms of its occupational preventive aim. A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online survey addressed to occupational physicians who were members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine. The questionnaire included factual questions on how they performed health examinations in their usual practice. The bivariate analysis of the answers was performed by type of occupational health service (external/internal). The response rate was 57.9% (N = 168), representing 40.3% of the reference population. A high percentage of occupational physicians had important limitations in their current medical practice, including availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity of tests, and early detection and appropriate management of suspected occupational diseases. The situation in external occupational health services - that covered the great majority of Catalan employees - was worse remarkably in regard to knowledge of occupational and nonoccupational sickness absence data, participation in the investigation of occupational injuries and diseases, and accessibility for workers to the occupational health service. This study raises serious concerns about the occupational preventive usefulness of these health examinations, and subsequently about our health surveillance system, based primarily on them. Professionals alongside health and safety institutions and stakeholders should promote the rationalization of this system, following the technical criteria of need, relevance, scientific validity and effectiveness, whilst ensuring that its ultimate goal of improving the health and safety of workers in relation to work is fulfilled. Other countries with

  11. [Recognition of occupational cancers: review of existing methods and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Salmi, L Rachid; Brochard, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Occupational risk factors represent a significant part of cancer causes and are involved in all type of cancers. Nonetheless, the frequency of these cancers is largely under-estimated. Parallel to the epidemiological approach (collective), the concept of occupational cancer is often linked (at the individual level) to the compensation of occupational diseases. To give rise to a financial compensation, the occupational origin of the exposition has to be established for a given cancer. Whatever the method used to explore an occupational cause, the approach is that of an imputation. The aim of this work is to synthesize and describe the main principles of recognition of occupational cancers, to discuss the limits of available methods and to consider the research needed to improve these methods. In France, the recognition of a cancer's occupational origin consists in tables of occupational diseases that are based on presumption of causality. These tables consist in medical, technical and administrative conditions that are necessary and sufficient for the recognition of an occupational disease and its financial compensation. Whenever causality presumption does not apply, imputation is based on case analyses run by experts within regional committees of occupational diseases recognition that lack reproducibility. They do not allow statistical quantization and do not always take into account the weight of associated factors. Nonetheless, reliability and validity of the expertise could be reinforced by the use of formal consensus techniques. This process could ideally lead to the generation of decision-making algorithms that could guide the user towards the decision of imputing or not the cancer to an occupational exposure. This would be adapted to the build-up of new tables. The imputation process would be better represented by statistical methods based on the use of Bayes' theorem. The application of these methods to occupational cancers is promising but remains limited

  12. Enabling occupation at the end of life: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine; Payne, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Occupation, or meaningful activity, can contribute to the well-being and quality of life of all individuals. It is thus a logical tautology that occupation should be enabled for those at the end of life. Our present review examines current provision of these processes by Occupational Therapist, who can be much-valued members of multidisciplinary palliative care teams. Following a literature search and critical selection, 10 global papers were identified examining occupation and occupational therapy at the end of life in the acute, hospice, and community environments. Universally, there appeared to be a dearth of therapists working in end-of-life care. Provision of palliative care in hospitals was found to be compensatory or rehabilitative. Hospice therapy emerged as pleasingly occupational, though the number of hospice places was disappointingly few. Community literature was sparse, so it proved challenging to draw definitive conclusions. Promising research refracted light on occupation at home; however, it also revealed stretched domiciliary services, where clients are not well informed about the potential scope of occupational therapy. A "good death" involving a quality end-of-life experience is the foundational goal overarching all therapy and medicine in the provision of palliative care. Arguably, an occupation-focused approach provided by therapists meets client needs to enable meaningful experiences in the limited time left to them. Current occupational therapy practice environments are not necessarily achieving these goals in commensurate fashion. There is a need to promote the role of occupational therapy and circumscribe what therapists can offer. Further research is necessitated across all environments and future funding for therapist positions in palliative teams. End-of-life care can be complex and challenging; however, therapists can facilitate fulfillment of client-centered occupational goals. In engaging with personally constructed nuances of meaning

  13. Occupational Characteristics of Adults with Pediatric-Onset Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employment rates among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are lower than in the general population and little is known about the specific occupations in which they are employed. Objectives: To describe specific occupations of adults with pediatric-onset SCI using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and to determine associations between SOC occupations and demographic factors. Methods: Cross-sectional data specific to education and employment were collected from the last interviews of a larger longitudinal study. Occupations were categorized according to the 2010 SOC system. SOC groups were compared within gender level of injury and final education. Results: Of the 461 total participants 219 (47.5%) were employed and specific occupations were available for 179. Among the SOC groups Education Law Community Service Arts and Media Occupations were most prevalent (30.2%) followed by Management Business and Finance Occupations (21.1%) Computer Engineering and Science Occupations (10.6%) Administrative and Office Support Occupations (10.0%) Service Occupations (7.3%) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations (3.9%) and Production Occupations (3.4%). Differences were found in the distribution of SOC groups between gender levels of injury and final education groups. Conclusion: A wide variety of occupations were reported in adults with pediatric-onset SCI generally in concordance with final education and functional ability levels. PMID:25762856

  14. Occupational characteristics of adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Miriam; Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Employment rates among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are lower than in the general population and little is known about the specific occupations in which they are employed. To describe specific occupations of adults with pediatric-onset SCI using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and to determine associations between SOC occupations and demographic factors. Cross-sectional data specific to education and employment were collected from the last interviews of a larger longitudinal study. Occupations were categorized according to the 2010 SOC system. SOC groups were compared within gender level of injury and final education. Of the 461 total participants 219 (47.5%) were employed and specific occupations were available for 179. Among the SOC groups Education Law Community Service Arts and Media Occupations were most prevalent (30.2%) followed by Management Business and Finance Occupations (21.1%) Computer Engineering and Science Occupations (10.6%) Administrative and Office Support Occupations (10.0%) Service Occupations (7.3%) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations (3.9%) and Production Occupations (3.4%). Differences were found in the distribution of SOC groups between gender levels of injury and final education groups. A wide variety of occupations were reported in adults with pediatric-onset SCI generally in concordance with final education and functional ability levels.

  15. Graduate education in occupational hygiene: a rational framework.

    PubMed

    Vincent, James H

    2005-11-01

    Occupational hygiene has been an important part of occupational health since it first emerged after World War II as the science and art that deals with the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of human exposures to hazards in the working environment. A need exists for well-qualified professionals who can not only respond to hazards that are currently known and understood, but also to ones that are not yet known or understood. For this, graduate-level academic programs in occupational hygiene must go beyond the training of skills and imparting of facts. Rather they must provide the education that enables the development of critical faculties, allowing future self-learning and the study of new scenarios not yet anticipated. Ideally, occupational hygiene should be taught firstly in the interdisciplinary context of the whole of occupational health (including occupational medicine, occupational health nursing, occupational safety and ergonomics) and secondly in relation to the wider field of public health (including epidemiology and biostatistics). In addition, modern occupational hygiene education also needs to embrace the management and social sciences. The Education and Research Centers (ERCs) sponsored in the United States by the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOSH) have refined this approach and provided a useful model for all occupational hygiene education, identifying the need for both masters and doctoral-level endeavor. Other countries might usefully consider integrating existing academic programs in order to emulate the NIOSH approach, perhaps through internal and external partnerships. In terms of content, such education needs to be carried out within a framework that places human exposure to hazardous agents at the center of the anticipation-recognition-evaluation-control rationale. Such a framework also places occupational hygiene in the context of the other occupational and environmental health disciplines. Finally it has to be

  16. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  17. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  18. The 'morality' of occupational health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2002-01-01

    Both ethics and law are based on value systems. George Lakoff has contributed to our understanding of the value systems that influence attitudes toward public issues in his book, Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't (University of Chicago Press, 1996). He argues that two antagonistic but co-existing moral systems influence attitudes toward public issues. Both are derived from metaphors of family life and child development and the "morality" of allowing certain actions. One moral system stresses individual responsibility and risk-taking, the other empathy and mutual assistance. The tension between these value systems explains much in political debate; issues generally tend to fall on one side or the other. Occupational health and related issues, almost uniquely, have the unfortunate characteristic of falling short in both. Our best efforts may be judged "immoral" by the strictest interpretations of both systems, even when they are successful. The practical implication is that we must not accept this pattern of thinking. The work relationship is not like a family. It is important to separate issues in occupational health from this pattern of thinking in both professional and public discourse.

  19. Fibromyalgia: clinical and occupational aspects.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists.

  20. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.