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Sample records for external probes types

  1. Controlling microarray DNA hybridization efficiency by probe-surface distance and external surface electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamhieh, K.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2015-03-01

    DNA microarrays are analytical devices designed to determine the composition of multicomponent solutions of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA. These devices are promising technology for diverse applications, including sensing, diagnostics, and drug/gene delivery. Here, we modify a hybridization adsorption isotherm to study the effects of probe-surface distance and the external electrostatic fields, on the oligonucleotide hybridization in microarray and how these effects are varies depending on surface probe density and target concentration. This study helps in our understanding on-surface hybridization mechanisms, and from it we can observe a significant effect of the probe-surface distance, and the external electrostatic fields, on the hybridization yield. In addition we present a simple new criteria to control the oligonucleotide hybridization efficiency by providing a chart illustrating the effects of all factors on the DNA-hybridization efficiency.

  2. Cleaning of contaminated MFM probes using a BOPP film and external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jinyun; Meng, Qingling; Zhang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ying; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin

    2017-02-24

    When magnetic samples are tested with a magnetic force microscope (MFM), the probe tip can inevitably be contaminated and magnetic particles are often adhered to the tip surface. The probe with magnetic contamination will seriously affect the quality of morphological and magnetic imaging. In the work, a method for the cleaning of contaminated magnetic probe tips was developed by the use of a biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film together with an external magnet field in an MFM system. In the experiments, an MFM system was used for manipulating the tip to push into the BOPP film with a depth of 50-100nm under a magnetic field and hold for 5s, and the relationships between loading forces and separating forces were studied. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images have shown that the use of the BOPP film together with an external magnet field is effective for the cleaning of contaminated MFM probes. This method can greatly improve the quality of magnetic imaging, prolong the service life of magnetic probes and reduce the experimental costs in many MFM applications.

  3. External electro-optic probing of millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, J. F.; Valdmanis, J. A.; Jackson, T. A.; Bhasin, K. B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Mourou, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    An external, noncontact electro-optic measurement system, designed to operate at the wafer level with conventional wafer probing equipment and without any special circuit preparation, has been developed. Measurements have demonstrated the system's ability to probe continuous and pulsed signals on microwave integrated circuits on arbitrary substrates with excellent spatial resolution. Experimental measurements on a variety of digital and analog circuits, including a GaAs selectively-doped heterostructure transistor prescaler, an NMOS silicon multiplexer, and a GaAs power amplifier MMIC are reported.

  4. Probing Phase Coupling Between Two Spin-Torque Nano-Oscillators with an External Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; de Milly, Xavier; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; de Loubens, Grégoire

    2017-06-01

    Phase coupling between auto-oscillators is central for achieving coherent responses such as synchronization. Here we present an experimental approach to probe it in the case of two dipolarly coupled spin-torque vortex nano-oscillators using an external microwave field. By phase locking one oscillator to the external source, we observe frequency pulling on the second oscillator. From coupled phase equations we show analytically that this frequency pulling results from concerted actions of oscillator-oscillator and source-oscillator couplings. The analysis allows us to determine the strength and phase shift of coupling between two oscillators, yielding important information for the implementation of large interacting oscillator networks.

  5. Response of nucleons to external probes in hedgehog models. II. General formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Broniowski, W.; Cohen, T.D. )

    1993-01-01

    Linear response theory for SU(2) hedgehog soliton models is developed in analogy with a standard method in many-body physics. In this framework, we discuss the response of baryons to external probes, and develop expressions for polarizabilities. We discuss isospin effects (neutron-proton splitting) in polarizabilities. Methods for cases with zero modes are presented, including numerical techniques. Our approach is based on the 1/[ital N][sub [ital c

  6. A set of external reference controls/probes that enable quality assurance between different microarray platforms.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hideo; Ueda, Yoji; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Ooshima, Hiroyuki; Ishizawa, Yohei; Kitahiro, Koji; Miyagawa, Isao; Watanabe, Kazufumi; Nakamura, Takazumi; Tanaka, Ritsuka; Yamamoto, Nobuko; Nakae, Hiroki; Kawase, Mitsuo; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Matoba, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    RNA external standards, although important to ensure equivalence across many microarray platforms, have yet to be fully implemented in the research community. In this article, a set of unique RNA external standards (or RNA standards) and probe pairs that were added to total RNA in the samples before amplification and labeling are described. Concentration-response curves of RNA external standards were used across multiple commercial DNA microarray platforms and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and next-generation sequencing to identify problematic assays and potential sources of variation in the analytical process. A variety of standards can be added in a range of concentrations spanning high and low abundances, thereby enabling the evaluation of assay performance across the expected range of concentrations found in a clinical sample. Using this approach, we show that we are able to confirm the dynamic range and the limit of detection for each DNA microarray platform, RT-PCR protocol, and next-generation sequencer. In addition, the combination of a series of standards and their probes was investigated on each platform, demonstrating that multiplatform calibration and validation is possible.

  7. Probe And Enhancement Of SBS Based Phonons In Infrared Fibers Using Waveguide Coupled External Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.

    1989-06-01

    Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.

  8. Capacitive bridge-type probe and conversion circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Kevin A.

    1989-11-01

    A structure for a capacitive bridge-type probe which is suitable for measuring the clearance between a fixed surface, such as the inner surface of the turbine shroud, and a member movable in relation to the fixed surface, such as the tip of a movable turbine blade, is described. The probe is comprised of a capacitance to voltage conversion circuit for converting changes in capacitance of the probe to a voltage. The conversion circuit uses offset means for providing a predetermined imbalance to the bridge thus providing automatic calibration of the circuit. The probe includes an elongated conductive casing filled with a dielectric material in which are embedded four arms, including at least one of which is a sensitive variable capacitance arm. The probe is mounted in the fixed surface such that the plate member of the sensitive arm faces the movable member. The character and magnitude of the dielectric medium between the plate member and the casing is sensitive to a change in clearance between the fixed surface and the movable member. An advantage of the system is the extremely high sensitivity which can be maintained while maintaining stability and wide bandwidth. Lab tests show sensitivity to changes of less than 10(exp -16) farad at bandwidths of 1 megahertz. This enables the use of a very small sensitive plate which reduces the overall size of the probe and improves the accuracy.

  9. Monthly optimum inclination of glass cover and external reflector of a basin type solar still with internal and external reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    In this report, we present a theoretical analysis of a basin type solar still with internal and external reflectors. The external reflector is a flat plate that extends from the back wall of the still, and can presumably be inclined forwards or backwards according to the month. We have theoretically predicted the daily amount of distillate produced by the still throughout the year, which varies according to the inclination angle of both the glass cover and the external reflector, at 30 N latitude. We found the optimum external reflector inclination for each month for a still with a glass cover inclination of 10-50 deg. The increase in the average daily amount of distillate throughout the year of a still with inclined external reflector with optimum inclination in addition to an internal reflector, compared to a conventional basin type still was predicted to be 29%, 43% or 67% when the glass cover inclination is 10 deg, 30 deg or 50 deg and the length of external reflector is half the still's length. (author)

  10. Capacitive bridge-type probe and conversion circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Kevin A.

    1989-11-01

    This invention relates to a structure for a capacitive bridge-type probe which is suitable for measuring the clearance between a fixed surface, such as the inner surface of the turbine shroud, and a member movable in relation to the fixed surface, such as the tip of a movable turbine blade. The system is comprised of a capacitance to voltage conversion circuit for converting changes in capacitance in the probe to voltage. The probe has a bridge with a sensitive arm and excitation means for providing an excitation signal to the capacitive bridge and a detector capable of detecting changes in the excitation signal across the sensitive arm due to changes in capacitance. An advantage of the system is the extremely high sensitivity which can be maintained while maintaining stability and wide bandwidth. Lab tests show sensitivity to changes of less than 10(exp -16) farad at bandwidths of 1 megahertz. This enables the use of a very small sensitive plate which reduces the overall size of the probe and improves the accuracy.

  11. Externally triggered imaging technique for microbolometer-type terahertz imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Sudou, Takayuki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Okubo, Syuichi; Isoyama, Goro; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo; Kato, Ryukou

    2016-04-01

    The authors developed terahertz (THz) imager which incorporates 320x240 focal plane array (FPA) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region (ca. 0.5 THz). The imager includes functions such as external-trigger imaging, lock-in imaging, beam profiling and so on. The function of the external-trigger imaging is mainly described in this paper, which was verified in combination of the THz imager with the pulsed THz free electron laser (THz-FEL) developed by Osaka University. The THz-FEL emits THz radiation in a wavelength range of 25 - 150 μm at repetition rates of 2.5, 3.3, 5.0 and 10 pulses per second. The external trigger pulse for the THz imager was generated with a pulse generator, using brightening pulse for THz-FEL. A series of pulses emitted by the THz-FEL at 86 μm were introduced to the THz imager and Joule meter via beam splitter, so that the output signal of THz imager was normalized with the output of the Joule meter and the stability of the THz radiation from FEL was also monitored. The normalized output signals of THz imager (digits/μJ) obtained at the repetition rates mentioned above were found consistent with one another. The timing-relation of the external trigger pulse to the brightening pulse was varied and the influence of the timing-relation on beam pattern is presented. These experimental results verify that the external trigger imaging function operates correctly.

  12. Probe hybridization array typing: a binary typing method for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, U; Zhang, L; France, A M; Ghosh, D; Shalaby, W; Xie, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between Escherichia coli strains is critical for outbreak investigations. Binary typing, based on the presence or absence of genetic material, provides a high-throughput alternative to gel- and PCR-based typing techniques that generate complex banding patterns and lack uniform interpretation criteria. We developed, validated, and determined the discriminatory power of an E. coli binary typing method, probe hybridization array typing (PHAT). In PHAT, the absence or presence of genetic material is identified by using DNA hybridization to produce a reproducible and portable fingerprint for each genome. PHAT probes were generated from genome subtractive hybridization experiments. We PHAT typed the ECOR collection of strains from a variety of geographical locations, and 33 rectal E. coli strains selected from college-aged women with urinary tract infection. In the set of 33 human rectal strains, the discriminatory power of PHAT (98%) equaled that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, for ECOR strains, which include nonhuman strains, the current set of PHAT probes was less discriminating than MLST, ribotyping, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (80% versus 97, 92, and 97%, respectively). When we limited the analysis to ECOR strains of B2 and D lineage, which are associated with human infection, current PHAT probes were highly discriminatory (94%). PHAT can be applied in a high-throughput format (i.e., "library on a slide"), the discriminatory ability can be varied based on the probe set, and PHAT is readily adapted to other bacterial species with high variation in genetic content.

  13. Epidemiological typing of Moraxella catarrhalis by using DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, D; Scriver, S; Bergeron, M G; Low, D E; Parr, T R; Patterson, J E; Matlow, A; Roy, P H

    1993-01-01

    Small-fragment restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to compare 60 strains of Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from various geographic locations. Restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII resulted in 46 different patterns, 7 of which were shared by more than one isolate. Hybridizations with two DNA probes resulted in 18 different patterns, 11 of which were shared by more than one isolate. Strains with the same restriction enzyme pattern always had the same hybridization pattern. However, of the 50 strains that shared the 11 hybridization patterns, 39 could be further differentiated by restriction enzyme analysis. We found that hybridization is a method that is specific for the epidemiological typing of M. catarrhalis, but because of limited sensitivity, combination with small-fragment restriction enzyme analysis may be necessary to better determine the relatedness of strains. Images PMID:8096219

  14. Probing thermal evanescent waves with a scattering-type near-field microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Y.; Kosaka, K.; Komiyama, S.

    2011-08-01

    Long wavelength infrared (LWIR) waves contain many important spectra of matters like molecular motions. Thus, probing spontaneous LWIR radiation without external illumination would reveal detailed mesoscopic phenomena that cannot be probed by any other measurement methods. Here we developed a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and demonstrated passive near-field microscopy at 14.5 µm wavelength. Our s-SNOM consists of an atomic force microscope and a confocal microscope equipped with a highly sensitive LWIR detector, called a charge-sensitive infrared phototransistor (CSIP). In our s-SNOM, photons scattered by a tungsten probe are collected by an objective of the confocal LWIR microscope and are finally detected by the CSIP. To suppress the far-field background, we vertically modulated the probe and demodulated the signal with a lock-in amplifier. With the s-SNOM, a clear passive image of 3 µm pitch Au/SiC gratings was successfully obtained and the spatial resolution was estimated to be 60 nm (λ/240). The radiation from Au and GaAs was suggested to be due to thermally excited charge/current fluctuations and surface phonons, respectively. This s-SNOM has the potential to observe mesoscopic phenomena such as molecular motions, biomolecular protein interactions and semiconductor conditions in the future. This paper was presented at ISMQC-2010, the 10th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control, held in Osaka, Japan, on 5-9 September 2010. Two other papers from that meeting also appear in this issue.

  15. Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hayoung; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Choy, Won Sik; Kim, Yong In; Koo, Jea Yun

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18 tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a nail (10 mm diameter in 17 tibiae and 11 mm in one tibia) in combination. Average limb lengthening was 4.19 cm (range, 2.5-5.5). The mean duration of external fixation was 12.58 days per centimetre gain in length, and the mean consolidation index was 40.53 (range, 35.45-51.85). All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. Gradual limb lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and circular external fixation in combination was found to be reliable and effective and reduced external fixation time with fewer complications.

  16. Optical Probes of the Quantum Vacuum: the Photon Polarization Tensor in External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, Felix; Roessler, Lars; Döbrich, Babette; Gies, Holger

    2012-07-01

    The photon polarization tensor is the central building block of an effective theory description of photon propagation in the quantum vacuum. It accounts for the vacuum fluctuations of the underlying theory, and in the presence of external electromagnetic fields, gives rise to such striking phenomena as vacuum birefringence and dichroism. Standard approximations of the polarization tensor are often restricted to on-the-light-cone dynamics in homogeneous electromagnetic fields, and are limited to certain momentum regimes only. We devise two different strategies to go beyond these limitations: First, we aim at obtaining novel analytical insights into the photon polarization tensor for homogeneous fields, while retaining its full momentum dependence. Second, we employ wordline numerical methods to surpass the constant-field limit.

  17. Astrochemistry in external galaxies: how to use molecules as probes of their physical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viti, Serena

    It is now well established that chemistry in external galaxies is rich and complex. In this review I will explore whether one can use molecular emissions to determine their physical conditions. There are several considerations to bear in mind when using molecular emission, and in particular molecular ratios, to determine the densities, temperatures and energetics of a galaxy, which I will briefly summarise here. I will then present an example of a study that uses multiple chemical and radiative transfer analyses in order to tackle the too often neglected `degeneracies' implicit in the interpretation of molecular ratios and show that only via such analyses combined with multi-species and multi-lines high spatial resolution data one can truly make molecules into powerful diagnostics of the evolution and distribution of molecular gas.

  18. Postoperative monitoring of free flap reconstruction: A comparison of external Doppler ultrasonography and the implantable Doppler probe

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Rayaad C; Cornejo, Agustin; Wang, Howard T

    2016-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The time to detection of vascular compromise and the postoperative time to re-exploration are shorter using the implantable Doppler (ID) probe, thereby resulting in earlier surgical re-exploration and a higher flap salvage rate. METHODS: A single-centre experience with 176 consecutive free flap reconstructions in 167 patients from 2000 to 2008 in a university-based teaching hospital by retrospective chart review is presented. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in overall flap survival (ID 98.0%, external Doppler [ED] 89.3%) and total flap loss (ID 2.0%, ED 10.7%) between the two groups (P=0.03). The difference in flap salvage rate was not significant (ID 90.9%, ED 63.6%; P=0.068). The false-positive (ID 0%, ED 3%; P=0.18) and false-negative rates (ID 0.0%, ED 4.5%; P=1.0) were not significantly different. There was also a lower median postoperative time to re-exploration for the ID group, from 48 h to one week after initial surgery (ID 74.5 h, ED 136.8 h; P=0.05). CONCLUSION: The present analysis revealed a potential benefit for the ID probe in the postoperative monitoring of free tissue transfers. PMID:27054132

  19. Regulation of oxygen vacancy types on SnO{sub 2} (110) surface by external strain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z. H.; Min, Y. M.; Liu, X. X.; Ding, J. Q.; Liu, L. Z. E-mail: lzliu@nju.edu.cn; Guo, J. H.; Hu, F. R. E-mail: lzliu@nju.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    In tin dioxide nanostructures, oxygen vacancies (OVs) play an important role in their optical properties and thus regulation of both OV concentration and type via external strain is crucial to exploration of more applications. First-principle calculations of SnO{sub 2} (110) surface disclose that asymmetric deformations induced by external strain not only lead to its intrinsic surface elastic changes, but also result in different OV formation energy. In the absence of external strain, the energetically favorable oxygen vacancies(EFOV) appear in the bridging site of second layer. When -3.5% external strain is applied along y direction, the EFOV moves into plane site. This can be ascribed that the compressed deformation gives rise to redistribution of electronic wave function near OVs, therefore, formation of newly bond structures. Our results suggest that different type OVs in SnO{sub 2} surface can be controlled by strain engineering.

  20. Regulation of oxygen vacancy types on SnO2 (110) surface by external strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. H.; Min, Y. M.; Liu, X. X.; Ding, J. Q.; Guo, J. H.; Hu, F. R.; Liu, L. Z.

    2016-05-01

    In tin dioxide nanostructures, oxygen vacancies (OVs) play an important role in their optical properties and thus regulation of both OV concentration and type via external strain is crucial to exploration of more applications. First-principle calculations of SnO2 (110) surface disclose that asymmetric deformations induced by external strain not only lead to its intrinsic surface elastic changes, but also result in different OV formation energy. In the absence of external strain, the energetically favorable oxygen vacancies(EFOV) appear in the bridging site of second layer. When -3.5% external strain is applied along y direction, the EFOV moves into plane site. This can be ascribed that the compressed deformation gives rise to redistribution of electronic wave function near OVs, therefore, formation of newly bond structures. Our results suggest that different type OVs in SnO2 surface can be controlled by strain engineering.

  1. Role of the external NH2 linker on the conformation of surface immobilized single strand DNA probes and their SERS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijie; Langlet, Michel; Stambouli, Valerie

    2017-03-01

    The conformation and topological properties of DNA single strand probe molecules attached on solid surfaces are important, notably for the performances of devices such as biosensors. Commonly, the DNA probes are tethered to the surface using external linkers such as NH2. In this study, the role and influence of this amino-linker on the immobilization way and conformation of DNA probes on Ag nanoparticle surface is emphasized using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). We compare the SERS spectra and their reproducibility in the case of two groups of DNA polybase probes which are polyA, polyC, polyT, and polyG. In the first group, the polybases exhibit an external NH2 functional linker while in the second group the polybases are NH2-free. The results show that the reproducibility of SERS spectra is enhanced in the case of the first group. It leads us to propose two models of polybase conformation on Ag surface according to the presence or the absence of the external NH2 linker. In the presence of the NH2 external linker, the latter would act as a major anchoring point. As a result, the polybases are much ordered with a less random orientation than in the case of NH2-free polybases. Consequently, in view of further in situ hybridization for biosensing applications, it is strongly recommended to use NH2 linker functionalized DNA probes.

  2. Probing the effects of external irradiation on low-mass protostars through unbiased line surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, J. E.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Watanabe, Y.; Bisschop, S. E.; Sakai, N.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-12-01

    the external irradiation from R CrA. Based on observations with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. APEX is a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-08

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a separate White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties leads to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. With early R&D funding, we have achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction. Pre-JDEM AO R&D support will further reduce technical and cost risk. Specific details on the SNAP mission can be found in Aldering et al. (2004, 2005). The primary goal of the SNAP supernova program is to provide a dataset which gives tight constraints on parameters which characterize the dark-energy, e.g. w{sub 0} and w{sub a} where w(a) = w{sub 0} + w{sub a}(1-a). SNAP data can also be used to directly test and discriminate among specific dark energy models. We will do so by building the Hubble diagram of high-redshift supernovae, the same methodology used in the original discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe that established the existence of dark energy (Perlmutter et al. 1998; Garnavich et al. 1998; Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999). The SNAP SN Ia program focuses on minimizing the systematic floor of the supernova method through the use of characterized supernovae that can be sorted into subsets based on subtle signatures of heterogeneity. Subsets may be defined based on host-galaxy morphology, spectral-feature strength and velocity, early-time behavior, inter alia. Independent cosmological analysis of each subset of ''like'' supernovae can be

  4. Conversion of neurons and glia to external-cell fates in the external sensory organs of Drosophila hamlet mutants by a cousin-cousin cell-type respecification.

    PubMed

    Moore, Adrian W; Roegiers, Fabrice; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2004-03-15

    The Drosophila external sensory organ forms in a lineage elaborating from a single precursor cell via a stereotypical series of asymmetric divisions. HAMLET transcription factor expression demarcates the lineage branch that generates two internal cell types, the external sensory neuron and thecogen. In HAMLET mutant organs, these internal cells are converted to external cells via an unprecedented cousin-cousin cell-fate respecification event. Conversely, ectopic HAMLET expression in the external cell branch leads to internal cell production. The fate-determining signals NOTCH and PAX2 act at multiple stages of lineage elaboration and HAMLET acts to modulate their activity in a branch-specific manner.

  5. Identification and epidemiological typing of Naegleria fowleri with DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Kilvington, S; Beeching, J

    1995-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a small free-living amoeboflagellate found in warm water habitats worldwide. The organism is pathogenic to humans, causing fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. When monitoring the environment for the presence of N. fowleri, it is important to reliably differentiate the organism from other closely related but nonpathogenic species. To this end, we have developed species-specific DNA probes for use in the rapid identification of N. fowleri from the environment. Samples were taken from the thermal springs in Bath, England, and cultured for amoebae. Of 84 isolates of thermophilic Naegleria spp., 10 were identified as N. fowleri by probe hybridization. The identity of these isolates was subsequently confirmed by their specific whole-cell DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). One DNA clone was found to contain a repeated element that detected chromosomal RFLPs that were not directly visible on agarose gels. This enabled the further differentiation of strains within geographically defined whole-cell DNA RFLP groups. N. fowleri DNA probes represent a specific and potentially rapid method for the identification of the organism soon after primary isolation from the environment. PMID:7793928

  6. Stability of Turing-Type Patterns in a Reaction-Diffusion System with an External Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glimm, Tilmann; Zhang, Jianying; Shen, Yun-Qiu

    We investigate the stability of Turing-type patterns in one spatial dimension in a system of reaction-diffusion equations with a term depending linearly on the spatial position. The system is a generic model of two interacting chemical species where production rates are dependent on a linear external gradient. This is motivated by mathematical models in developmental biology. In a previous paper, we found analytic approximations of Turing-like steady state patterns. In the present article, we derive conditions for the stability of these patterns and show bifurcation diagrams in two small parameters related to the slope of the external gradient and the ratio of the diffusion coefficients.

  7. Finite element analysis of three commonly used external fixation devices for treating Type III pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, Muhammad Hanif; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-10-01

    Pilon fractures are commonly caused by high energy trauma and can result in long-term immobilization of patients. The use of an external fixator i.e. the (1) Delta, (2) Mitkovic or (3) Unilateral frame for treating type III pilon fractures is generally recommended by many experts owing to the stability provided by these constructs. This allows this type of fracture to heal quickly whilst permitting early mobilization. However, the stability of one fixator over the other has not been previously demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine the biomechanical stability of these external fixators in type III pilon fractures using finite element modelling. Three-dimensional models of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, three cuneiforms and five metatarsal bones were reconstructed from previously obtained CT datasets. Bones were assigned with isotropic material properties, while the cartilage was assigned as hyperelastic springs with Mooney-Rivlin properties. Axial loads of 350 N and 70 N were applied at the tibia to simulate the stance and the swing phase of a gait cycle. To prevent rigid body motion, the calcaneus and metatarsals were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. The results indicate that the model with the Delta frame produced the lowest relative micromovement (0.03 mm) compared to the Mitkovic (0.05 mm) and Unilateral (0.42 mm) fixators during the stance phase. The highest stress concentrations were found at the pin of the Unilateral external fixator (509.2 MPa) compared to the Mitkovic (286.0 MPa) and the Delta (266.7 MPa) frames. In conclusion, the Delta external fixator was found to be the most stable external fixator for treating type III pilon fractures. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Appearance of external genital organs and types of hymen in Turkish female foetal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Özgüner, Gülnur; Öztürk, Kenan; Bilkay, Cemil; Dursun, Ahmet; Sulak, Osman; Koyuncu, Esra

    2017-02-01

    The present study's purpose was to determine the size and morphometric development of the female external genital organs on foetal cadavers. Dimensions of labia majora, labia minora and clitoris, bilabial diameter, vertical and horizontal diameters of hymenal opening, distance between the external urethral orifice and hymenal opening, distance between the clitoris and external urethral orifice and anogenital distance were measured. The hymenal types were determined. Mean values of parameters according to gestational weeks, months and trimesters were calculated. Imperforate hymen were determined in the first trimester. Twenty-eight foetuses with annular hymen, 25 foetuses with imperforate hymen, and 1 foetus with septated hymen were determined in the second trimester. Twenty-four foetuses with annular hymen, 3 foetuses with imperforate hymen, 1 foetus with fimbriated hymen, and 1 foetus with hymenal tag were determined in the third trimester. All foetuses in the full term were determined with annular hymen.

  9. Discomfort/pain due to periodontal and peri-implant probing: Implant type and age.

    PubMed

    Stanner, Julia; Klum, Matthias; Parvini, Puria; Zuhr, Otto; Nickles, Katrin; Eickholz, Peter

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that patients experience more discomfort/pain after peri-implant probing than periodontal probing. However, there are several plausible factors to additionally influence this observation: e.g., implant type, age, smoking. Thus, this study was designed to compare discomfort/pain after periodontal and peri-implant probing in different implant types. Two dentists recruited and examined 80 patients, each of them exhibiting a dental implant with a contralateral natural tooth. Only two types of implants were included. Periodontal and peri-implant probing depths (PPD) and probing attachment level (PAL) were assessed. Whether implant or tooth were measured first was randomly assigned. Immediately after probing patients scored discomfort/pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Eighty patients (median; lower/upper quartile: age 57; 47.5/65.5 years; 40 females, 11 smokers) were examined. With the exception of PPD and PAL at the deepest site as well as mean PPD (p < .05) clinical parameters (PAL, bleeding on probing, suppuration) were well balanced between implants and teeth. Peri-implant probing (VAS: 9.0; 5.0/17.0) caused significantly (p = .038) more discomfort/pain than periodontal probing (5.5; 2.0/13.5). This was confirmed by repeated measures analysis of variance adjusting for several factors (p = .011). Peri-implant probing caused significantly more discomfort/pain than periodontal probing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Probing the interstellar medium of external galaxies using quasar absortion lines: The 3C 232/NGC 3067 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.; Case, James; Donahue, Megan; Shull, J. Michael; Snow, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    Quasar absorption lines offer unique opportunities to probe the interstellar medium of external galaxies. Researchers present new optical and UV absorption line spectroscopy of the quasar 3C232 (z=0.55) revealing new detail in the foreground absorption system due to the bright, spiral galaxy NGC 3067 (cz=1420 km/s). Specifically, the spectra show evidence for two and possibly three separate absorption components in CaII and Na I spanning approx. 150 km/s. The original HI detection of Haschick and Burke (1975) corresponds to the strongest of these metal systems which exhibits doublet ratios consistent with saturation in both CaII and Na I. Due to the recent detection in HI emission of a tidal tail or finger of HI extending from the western edge of NGC 3067 through the position of 3C 232 (Carilli, van Gorkom and Stocke, 1989), the morphology of the HI absorber is now known and is not either a warped disk nor a spherical halo as had been proposed. New deep continuum and H alpha imaging provides a sensitive upper limit on the the ionizing continuum impinging upon this cloud (and thus a limit on the intensity of the extragalactic ionizing radiation field). Together with the observed UV spectrum of 3C 232, the optical emission line ratios and the deep H alpha imaging set a minimum distance between the quasar and the HI cloud disregarding redshift information. This limit strains the non-cosmological redshift interpretation for 3C 232 -- and this quasar is one of the original 5 3C quasars found to be too close to NGC galaxies as if by chance (Burbidge, Burbidge, Solomon and Strittmatter, 1972).

  11. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  12. An interferometric Abbe-type comparator for the calibration of internal and external diameter standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Eom, Tae Bong

    2010-07-01

    We developed an Abbe-type comparator using a laser interferometer and a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) probe as displacement sensors, which can measure the diameter of ring and plug gauges up to 300 mm. The measurement system is configured according to the Abbe principle, and consists of translation stages, a laser interferometer, an LVDT probe and an electronic controller. The main translation stage is made by using a precision ceramic guide and air bearing pads, and is driven by a backlash-free lead screw and a micro-stepping motor. The laser interferometer measures the displacement of a moving mirror aligned with the probe coaxially. The environmental effect is corrected automatically during the measurement. The effective diameter of the probe ball is calibrated using a reference gauge block. The performance of each component was evaluated through experiments and the measurement uncertainty of the overall system was analyzed. We measured three diameter artifacts, which are 11.95 mm and 100 mm ring gauges and a 98.5 mm plug gauge, and compared the measured values with the calibrated ones. They were consistent with each other within 0.3 µm, which is less than the expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2).

  13. Effect of optical pumping in V and λ type pump probe systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Shrabana; Ray, Biswajit; Ghosh, Pradip N.

    2008-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of a strong pump laser copropagating with a probe laser for both λ and V type level schemes of the pump and probe fields inside a room temperature Rb vapour cell. With the λ type scheme certain absorption enhanced peaks are observed across the Doppler broadened probe absorption profile. In addition to these peaks an Electromagnetically Induced Transparency dip is also observed at the centre of one of these peaks. For V type scheme pump probe spectroscopy with co and counter propagating pump probe beams are studied. In both cases we observe velocity selective resonances (VSR) which are strongly modified by optical pumping effects to another hyperfine component of the ground state. A repumping laser, from the dark ground level is used to transfer atoms from the dark state to the pump probe cycle to reduce the optical pumping effect. The effect of a control laser on the Lamb dip spectrum of the probe laser has also been investigated.

  14. Light Echoes as Probes of Supernova Type Ia Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2009-07-01

    Environmental factors of Type Ia supernovae are key in understanding their nature, lightcurve evolution, and utility as cosmological standard candles. The progenitor ages {and many other properties} are bimodal, differing by roughly an order of magnitude. Is this reflected as well in the differences in their immediate surroundings in terms of gas and dust? The most powerful and direct way to address this issue is by imaging the reflected light from the dust itself via a light echo. In order for this approach to work, however, one must start imaging the vicinity of the supernova frequently and soon after the explosion is seen. We propose to maintain the imaging sequences crucial for understanding the three-dimensional dust distribution of two recent and key Type Ia supernovae, in a timely manner that will prevent otherwise significant holes in our knowledge. These observations are likely to be important in determining if the interstellar versus the circumstellar environments are more important in determining the appearance of Type Ia explosions, and thereby offer a clue as to the poorly-understood mass-loss history of SN Ia progenitors.JUSTIFICATION FOR VISIT TIME CONSTRAINTS:We have requested "Before" conditions

  15. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Zhen-jun; Guo, Lin; Deng, Chao; Chen, Ya-qi; Zhang, Hong-hai; Liu, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application.

  16. Lensed Type Ia supernovae as probes of cluster mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, J.; Rubin, D.; Richard, J.; Rykoff, E.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Atek, H.; Barbary, K.; Deustua, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Huang, X.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lidman, C.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Spadafora, A. L.; Suzuki, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2014-05-01

    Using three magnified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detected behind CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble) clusters, we perform a first pilot study to see whether standardizable candles can be used to calibrate cluster mass maps created from strong lensing observations. Such calibrations will be crucial when next-generation Hubble Space Telescope cluster surveys (e.g. Frontier) provide magnification maps that will, in turn, form the basis for the exploration of the high-redshift Universe. We classify SNe using combined photometric and spectroscopic observations, finding two of the three to be clearly of Type Ia and the third probable. The SNe exhibit significant amplification, up to a factor of 1.7 at ˜5σ significance (SN-L2). We conducted this as a blind study to avoid fine-tuning of parameters, finding a mean amplification difference between SNe and the cluster lensing models of 0.09 ± 0.09stat ± 0.05sys mag. This impressive agreement suggests no tension between cluster mass models and high-redshift-standardized SNe Ia. However, the measured statistical dispersion of σμ = 0.21 mag appeared large compared to the dispersion expected based on statistical uncertainties (0.14). Further work with the SN and cluster lensing models, post-unblinding, reduced the measured dispersion to σμ = 0.12. An explicit choice should thus be made as to whether SNe are used unblinded to improve the model, or blinded to test the model. As the lensed SN samples grow larger, this technique will allow improved constraints on assumptions regarding e.g. the structure of the dark matter halo.

  17. Neurofibromatosis type 1 with external genitalia involvement presentation of 4 patients.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Lopez-Pereira, Pedro; Savasta, Salvatore; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Lago, Carlos Míguelez; Cisternino, Mariangela

    2008-11-01

    Genitourinary neurofibromas with clitoral involvement in neurofibromatosis type 1 are rare, and even more infrequent are the neurofibromas involving genitalia in males. The most frequent presenting sign of neurofibroma in females is clitoromegaly with pseudopenis, and enlarged penis is the most common sign in males. Labium majus neurofibroma not associated with clitoral involvement is extremely rare. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of the neurofibromas has seldom been reported. We report 4 children, 3 girls and 1 boy, with plexiform neurofibromas involving the external genitalia. Three of the 4 patients had histologic confirmation of neurofibroma. Two girls with clitoral hypertrophy had a neurofibroma that infiltrated the clitoris and extended unilaterally to the lower bladder wall. One girl had a plexiform neurofibroma that affected a labium. One boy with asymmetric penile hypertrophy since 2 years of age and ipsilateral gluteal hypertrophy had plexiform neurofibromas that extended between the left lumbogluteal and penile regions, infiltrating the left rectum wall and bladder with compression of both structures, the left prostate, and the left half of the cavernous corpi with hypertrophy of this part and asymmetry of the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated in all patients that external genitalia and plexiform neurofibroma formed images of nondetachable structures. However, hermaphroditism was discarded by chromosomal study in all 3 girls before ratifying the diagnosis of external genitalia neurofibroma.

  18. Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries: our experience with a new external fixator.

    PubMed

    Lollino, Nicola; Assom, Marco; Fumero, Sergio; Collura, Maurizio; Merolla, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Proximal humeral fractures in the pediatric population are commonly treated conservatively. When there is an indication for surgery, percutaneous pinning is considered to be the elective choice. We report our experience with a new external fixator that reduces the risk of pin migration and permits an early rehabilitation. The range of motion was completely restored in all patients and no pain or discomfort was detected at follow-up. According to the literature, a small varus malunion at the first x-ray control can be tolerated in the pediatric population because of the remodeling ability of the bone. We conclude that this system provides a good stability and healing of Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries.

  19. Long-term outcome after supination-external rotation type-4 fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Stufkens, S A S; Knupp, M; Lampert, C; van Dijk, C N; Hintermann, B

    2009-12-01

    We have compared the results at a mean follow-up of 13 years (11 to 14) of two groups of supination-external rotation type-4 fractures of the ankle, in one of which there was a fracture of the medial malleolus and in the other the medial deltoid ligament had been partially or completely ruptured. Of 66 patients treated operatively between 1993 and 1997, 36 were available for follow-up. Arthroscopy had been performed in all patients pre-operatively to assess the extent of the intra-articular lesions. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hind-foot score was used for clinical evaluation and showed a significant difference in both the total and the functional scores (p < 0.05), but not in those for pain or alignment, in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament (p < 0.05). The only significant difference between the groups on the short-form 36 quality-of-life score was for bodily pain, again in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament. There was no significant difference between the groups in the subjective visual analogue scores or in the modified Kannus radiological score. Arthroscopically, there was a significant difference with an increased risk of loose bodies in the group with an intact deltoid ligament (p < 0.005), although there was no significant increased risk of deep cartilage lesions in the two groups. At a mean follow-up of 13 years after operative treatment of a supination-external rotation type-4 ankle fracture patients with partial or complete rupture of the medial deltoid ligament tended to have a better result than those with a medial malleolar fracture.

  20. Beta cell specific probing with fluorescent exendin-4 is progressively reduced in type 2 diabetic mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Janne; Schäffer, Lauge; Rasch, Morten Grønbech; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Ahnfelt-Rønne, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Probes based on GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 have shown promise as in vivo β cell tracers. However, questions remain regarding the β cell specificity of exendin-4 probes, and it is unclear if the expression levels of the GLP-1R are affected in a type 2 diabetic state. Using in vivo probing followed by ex vivo imaging we found fluorescent exendin-4 probes to distinctly label the pancreatic islets in mice in a Glp-1r dependent manner. Furthermore, a co-localization study revealed a near 100 percent β cell specificity with less than one percent probing in other analyzed cell types. We then tested if probing was affected in models of type 2 diabetes using the Leprdb/db (db/db) and the Diet-Induced Obese (DIO) mouse. Although nearly all β cells continued to be probed, we observed a progressive decline in probing intensity in both models with the most dramatic reduction seen in db/db mice. This was paralleled by a progressive decrease in Glp-1r protein expression levels. These data confirm β cell specificity for exendin-4 based probes in mice. Furthermore, they also suggest that GLP-1R targeting probes may provide a tool to monitor β cell function rather than mass in type 2 diabetic mouse models. PMID:26963143

  1. Hot probe measurements of n-type conduction in Sb-doped ZnO microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Masmali, N.; Jia, H.; Guenther, J.; Abu Jeib, H.; Kerr, Lei L.; Eid, K. F.

    2015-04-01

    The charge carriers type in antimony-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sb) microwires was studied using the hot probe technique. The wires were grown by a simple thermal evaporation method. Contrary to the expected p-type behavior reported for Sb doped ZnO thin films and nanowires, our hot probe measurements of representative single Sb-doped ZnO wires show a stable n-type behavior. The hot probe technique is a simple and efficient way to determine the charge carrier type from thermoelectric measurements on a single semiconductor wire and could offer an alternative to Hall effect measurements. The technique relies on creating a temperature gradient across the wire (i.e., heating one side of the wire relative to the other) and monitoring the resulting open-circuit voltage between the two ends. We also performed Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy measurements to identify and monitor the elemental composition in these ZnO:Sb wires.

  2. Hinged external fixation for Regan-Morrey type I and II fractures and fracture-dislocations.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Alberto; D'amico, Salvatore; Combi, Alberto; Benazzo, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Elbow fracture-dislocation is always demanding to manage due to the considerable soft-tissue swelling or damage involved, which can make an early open approach and ligamentous reconstruction impossible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of elbow hinged external fixation (HEF) as a definitive treatment in patients with elbow dislocations associated with Regan-Morrey (R-M) type I and II coronoid fractures and soft-tissue damage. We treated 11 patients between 2010 and 2012 with HEF. Instability tests and standard X-ray examinations were performed before surgery and 1-3 to 3-6 months after surgery, respectively. All patients underwent a preoperative CT scan. Outcomes were assessed with a functional assessment scale (Mayo Elbow Performance Score, MEPS) that included 4 parameters: pain, ROM, stability, and function. The results were good or excellent in all 11 patients, and no patient complained of residual instability. Radiographic examination showed bone metaplasia involving the anterior and medial sides of the joint in 5 patients. HEF presented several advantages: it improves elbow stability and it avoids long and demanding surgery in particular in cases with large soft tissue damage. We therefore consider elbow HEF to be a viable option for treating R-M type I and II fracture-dislocations.

  3. Externally Sensitized Deprotection of PPG-Masked Carbonyls as a Spatial Proximity Probe in Photoamplified Detection of Binding Events

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Tiffany P.; Metzel, Greg A.

    2013-01-01

    Externally-sensitized electron-transfer fragmentation in dithiane PPG-protected carbonyls is adopted for detection and amplification of molecular recognition events. The new methodology allows for detection of as low as 50 attomoles of avidin utilizing an imager based on a low sensitivity mass-produced consumer CCD camera. Numeric modelling is carried out to demonstrate the intrinsic limitations of 2D amplification on surfaces and the advantages of unconstrained amplification in a compartmentalized volume of spatially addressable 3D solutions. PMID:22252455

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Infrared Fiber Optic Probe Spectroscopy Identify Collagen Type in Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues

  5. Development of the blackbody probe type pyrometer, part 1. Experimental study on the fundamental characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisamatsu, Toru; Mori, Noriyuki; Hamamatsu, Teruhide; Abe, Toshio

    1988-06-01

    For the benefit of the monitoring and controlling high temperature equipment, such as a coal gasification furnace or a gas turbine, measuring the internal temperature of equipment is very important. The black body probe type pyrometer using cavity radiation was designed and studied to develop a pyrometer with high accuracy of measurement in very high temperature of nearly 2000 C or in the corrosive ambient atmosphere. This pyrometer has a small spherical cavity as a pseudo-blackbody at the tip of its probe. Temperature measurement with this pyrometer is carried out by measuring infrared radiation from the cavity. It was shown that the ceramic probe with microcavity can be manufactured by sintering an assembly of powder mouldings to one body. As a calibration result of this pyrometer using an electric furnace, the infrared radiation output of the probe conformed with one measured by a blackbody furnace for calibration with an error of + or - 1 percent or less. The accuracy of temperature measurement was as high as that of the thermocouple.

  6. Automated type specific ELISA probe detection of amplified NS3 gene products of dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, V T; Yong, R Y; Ngoh, B L; Chan, Y C

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To apply an automated system of nucleic acid hybridisation coupled with the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the type specific detection of amplification products of dengue viruses. METHODS: Non-structural 3 (NS3) gene targets of reference strains of all four dengue and other flaviviruses, as well as dengue patient viraemic sera, were subjected to reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction using consensus and dengue type specific primers and digoxigenin-11-dUTP label incorporation. The amplification products were detected by biotinylated type specific primers which served as ELISA capture probes bound to streptavidin coated tubes. RESULTS: Significantly high spectrophotometric absorbance readings were obtained by hybridisation of the consensus and seminested amplification products of all four dengue viruses with their respective capture probes. In contrast, extremely low absorbances were observed for consensus products of Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, and Kunjin viruses, which served as negative controls. These ELISA data correlated well with agarose gel electrophoresis of dengue type specific amplified products of diagnostic sizes. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of in vitro amplification and antibody based detection offers rapid, type specific, high throughput, and gel-free detection of amplified products of dengue viruses. Images PMID:9215155

  7. Probe classification of on-off type DNA microarray images with a nonlinear matching measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Munho; Kim, Jong Dae; Min, Byoung Goo; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Y. Y.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear matching measure, called counting measure, as a signal detection measure that is defined as the number of on pixels in the spot area. It is applied to classify probes for an on-off type DNA microarray, where each probe spot is classified as hybridized or not. The counting measure also incorporates the maximum response search method, where the expected signal is obtained by taking the maximum among the measured responses of the various positions and sizes of the spot template. The counting measure was compared to existing signal detection measures such as the normalized covariance and the median for 2390 patient samples tested on the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA chip. The counting measure performed the best regardless of whether or not the maximum response search method was used. The experimental results showed that the counting measure combined with the positional search was the most preferable.

  8. Pulsed floating-type Langmuir probe for measurements of electron energy distribution function in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ikjin; Kim, Aram; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    A floating type Langmuir probe was studied to measure the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in plasmas. This method measures the current (I)-voltage (V) curve with rising and falling variations based on a floating potential by using charge-discharge characteristics of the series capacitor when a square-pulse voltage is applied. In addition, this method measures the EEDF by using the alternating current (ac) superposition method. The measured EEDFs were in good agreement with results from a conventional single Langmuir probe. This technique could be applied as a plasma diagnostic method in the capacitively coupled plasma where the plasma potential is extremely high or the processing plasma where the deposition gas is used.

  9. Pure quadratic or higher-order optical effects in anisotropic crystals induced by external dc fields and probed by a single low-intensity plane electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnichuk, Mike; Wood, Lowell T.

    2017-07-01

    The determination of a clear theoretical demarcation between a true or a false quadratic or higher-order low-intensity optical effect induced by an externally applied static or quasistatic (dc) vector field in anisotropic crystals is the scope of the present work. A complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions required for the practical possibility of direct detection, measurement, and tabulation of only those pure optical contributions is finally obtained. The dc electro-optic effect stands out as the most representative of all of these low-power dc optical effects. However, although the dc Kerr effect remains the main topic of application of the analytical treatment developed in this work, the current theoretical formalism is extended to include other dc conventional crystal optics effects, such as electrogyration, electroabsorption, and externally induced ray or energy propagation. Even more, the theoretical conditions are further generalized to apply to any pure higher-order crystal optics effect induced by external dc fields. These can be electric, magnetic, force, and even temperature or concentration gradient fields. The current treatment does not extend to multiple-beam high-intensity nonlinear optics effects induced by optical (ac) fields. Compared to previously published expressions, a more general Fresnel equation is also provided here together with the most general Jones vectors describing the eigenpolarizations of the single probing beam of light. All the generalizations and extensions mentioned in this article are valid as long as the field-dependent coefficients of the particular optical effect under consideration satisfy the equation of a positive-definite complex Hermitian form.

  10. Anatomic Fixation of Supination External Rotation Type IV Equivalent Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Little, Milton M T; Berkes, Marschall B; Schottel, Patrick C; Garner, Matthew R; Lazaro, Lionel E; Birnbaum, Jacqueline F; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2015-05-01

    To compare radiographic and clinical outcomes of supination external rotation type IV equivalent (SER IV E) ankle fractures (AO/OTA classification 44-B2.1) treated with transsyndesmotic screw fixation with those treated with deltoid and posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL) repair. Case series and single-surgeon retrospective analysis of a prospective database. Academic level I trauma center. Forty-five SER IV E ankle fractures fulfilled all inclusion/exclusion criteria with at least 12 months of radiographic follow-up. Deltoid and PITFL repair in addition to lateral malleolus fixation compared with transsyndesmotic screw fixation. Syndesmotic reduction compared with contralateral extremity on a postoperative computed tomography scan and maintenance of reduction based on final postoperative radiographs [medial clear space (MCS) and tibiofibular clear space (TCS)]. There was no significant difference in mean postoperative TCS, MCS, or change in TCS or MCS between the cohorts. The anatomic treatment group had significantly better postoperative syndesmotic reduction compared with the transsyndesmotic cohort (7.4% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.02). Fourteen patients in the transsyndesmotic screw cohort underwent removal compared with 3 patients in the anatomic cohort who required secondary procedures. The transsyndesmotic screw cohort had statistically significant better mean dorsiflexion of ankle (mean 20 vs. 17 degrees; P = 0.02). This comparison of treatment strategies for SER IV E ankle fractures has shown an improvement in immediate postoperative syndesmotic reduction and the elimination of reoperation for removal of transsyndesmotic screws in patients treated with PITFL repair. Previous research has shown a good correlation between functional outcomes and syndesmotic reduction; however, further investigation into the functional outcomes of these patients is necessary to determine the future clinical impact of this anatomic fixation strategy. Therapeutic Level III

  11. The external-internal loop of interference: Two types of attention and their influence on the learning abilities of mice

    PubMed Central

    Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Kwan, Stephanie; Matzel, Louis D.

    2016-01-01

    Attention is a component of the working memory system, and as such, is responsible for protecting task-relevant information from interference. Cognitive performance (particularly outside of the laboratory) is often plagued by interference, and the source of this interference, either external or internal, might influence the expression of individual differences in attentional ability. By definition, external attention (also described as “selective attention”) protects working memory against sensorial distractors of all kinds, while internal attention (also called “inhibition”) protects working memory against emotional impulses, irrelevant information from memory, and automatically-generated responses. At present, it is unclear if these two types of attention are expressed independently in non-human animals, and how they might differentially impact performance on other cognitive processes, such as learning. By using a diverse battery of four attention tests (with varying levels of internal and external sources of interference), here we aimed both to explore this issue, and to obtain a robust and general (less task-specific) measure of attention in mice. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two factors (external and internal attention) that in total, accounted for 73% of the variance in attentional performance. Confirmatory factor analyses found an excellent fit with the data of the model of attention that assumed an external and internal distinction (with a resulting correlation of 0.43). In contrast, a model of attention that assumed one source of variance (i.e., “general attention”) exhibited a poor fit with the data. Regarding the relationship between attention and learning, higher resistance against external sources of interference promoted better new learning, but tended to impair performance when cognitive flexibility was required, such as during the reversal of a previously instantiated response. The present results suggest that there can be (at

  12. Atom probe field ion microscopy of Type 308 CRE stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Addition of controlled residual elements (CRE), such as 0.007 wt % B, to type 308 stainless steel welds, improved creep-rupture properties. In this paper, B distribution and microstructure development were studied. The microstructural evolution during high-temperature aging was found to similar to that of commercial SS308 welds. Atom probe analysis showed that B and C segregate to the ferrite-austenite interface. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the segregation is due to preferential partitioning of B and C to the liquid during solidification. Further work is needed to study B redistribution in aging stages.

  13. Probing mass transfer in mesoporous faujasite-type zeolite nanosheet assemblies.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Dirk; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Valiullin, Rustem; Kärger, Jörg

    2014-06-06

    Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion studies are performed by using cyclohexane to probe transport properties in a NaX-type zeolite with a hierarchical pore structure (house-of-cards-like assemblies of mesoporous nanosheets), which is compared with a purely microporous sample. With guest loadings chosen to ensure saturation of the micropores, and the meso- and macropores left essentially unoccupied, guest diffusion is shown to be enhanced by almost one order of magnitude, even at room temperature. Diffusivity enhancement is further increased with increasing temperature, which may, therefore, be unambiguously attributed to the contribution of mass transfer in the meso- and macropores.

  14. Does medial tenderness predict deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation type ankle fractures?

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Nicola A; Eskander, Mark S; French, Bruce G

    2007-04-01

    To identify whether medial tenderness is a predictor of deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation ankle fractures. All Weber B lateral malleolar fractures with normal medial clear space over a 9 month period were prospectively included in the study. Fracture patterns not consistent with a supination-external rotation mechanism were excluded. High-volume tertiary care referral center and Level I trauma center. Fifty-five skeletally mature patients with a Weber B lateral malleolar fracture and normal medial clear space presenting to our institution were included. All study patients had ankle anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise radiographs. Each patient was seen and evaluated by an orthopedic specialist and the mechanism of injury was recorded. Each patient was assessed for tenderness to palpation in the region of the deltoid ligament and then had an external rotation stress mortise radiograph. Correlating medial tenderness with deep deltoid competence as measured by stress radiographs. Thirteen patients (23.6%) were tender medially and had a positive external rotation stress radiograph. Thirteen patients (23.6%) were tender medially and had a negative external rotation stress radiograph. Nineteen patients (34.5%) were nontender medially and had a negative external rotation stress radiograph. Ten patients (18.2%) were nontender medially and had a positive external rotation stress radiograph. We calculated a chi statistic of 2.37 as well as the associated P value of 0.12. Medial tenderness as a measure of deep deltoid ligament incompetence had a sensitivity of 57%, a specificity of 59%, a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 66%, and an accuracy of 42%. There was no statistical significance between the presence of medial tenderness and deep deltoid ligament incompetence. There is a 25% chance of the fracture in question with medial tenderness having a positive external rotation stress and a 25% chance the fracture

  15. Ballpoint probe gives optimum results in ultrasonic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. E.

    1967-01-01

    Ballpoint-type ultrasonic probe assembly focuses its beam precisely on the bond lines of a composite thin face sheet structure when testing for bond integrity. It can scan in any direction, and eliminate external couplant spray.

  16. Quantitative detection of the tumor-associated antigen large external antigen in colorectal cancer tissues and cells using quantum dot probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Wanming; Yuan, Dezheng; Song, Jindan; Fang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The large external antigen (LEA) is a cell surface glycoprotein that has been proven to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) as a tumor-associated antigen. To evaluate and validate the relationship between LEA expression and clinical characteristics of CRC with high efficiency, LEA expression levels were detected in 85 tissue blocks from CRC patients by quantum dot-based immunohistochemistry (QD-IHC) combined with imaging quantitative analysis using quantum dots with a 605 nm emission wavelength (QD605) conjugated to an ND-1 monoclonal antibody against LEA as a probe. Conventional IHC was performed in parallel for comparison. Both QD-IHC and conventional IHC showed that LEA was specifically expressed in CRC, but not in non-CRC tissues, and high LEA expression was significantly associated with a more advanced T-stage (P<0.05), indicating that LEA is likely to serve as a CRC prognostic marker. Compared with conventional IHC, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that QD-IHC possessed higher sensitivity, resulting in an increased positive detection rate of CRC, from 70.1% to 89.6%. In addition, a simpler operation, objective analysis of results, and excellent repeatability make QD-IHC an attractive alternative to conventional IHC in clinical practice. Furthermore, to explore whether the QD probes can be utilized to quantitatively detect living cells or single cells, quantum dot-based immunocytochemistry (QD-ICC) combined with imaging quantitative analysis was developed to evaluate LEA expression in several CRC cell lines. It was demonstrated that QD-ICC could also predict the correlation between LEA expression and the T-stage characteristics of the cell lines, which was confirmed by flow cytometry. The results of this study indicate that QD-ICC has the potential to noninvasively detect rare circulating tumor cells in clinical samples in real clinical applications.

  17. External rotation and active supination CT arthrography for the postoperative evaluation of type II superior labral anterior to posterior lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Ja-Young; Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of external rotation and active supination CT arthrography in postoperative evaluation by comparing it with neutral CT arthrography and analyzing its agreement with postoperative clinical results after the repair of type II superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions. A total of 25 patients who had undergone CT arthrography in neutral, external rotation and active supination position at least 1 year after the arthroscopic repair of SLAP lesions were enrolled. Two radiologists independently evaluated the status of the repaired SLAP lesions with neutral CT arthrography and then with external rotation and active supination CT arthrography. Five patients had residual symptoms and positive findings upon SLAP-specific examinations. Agreements between the presence of symptoms and radiologic diagnoses based on neutral CT arthrography were insignificant for reader 1 (κ = 0.138, p = n.s.) and significant for reader 2 (κ = 0.328, p = 0.027). However, agreements were highly significant in the analysis following the evaluation of external rotation and active supination CT arthrography for both readers (κ = 0.694, p < 0.001 in reader 1; κ = 0.783, p < 0.001 in reader 2). The presence of contrast-filled gaps between the labrum and glenoid on neutral CT arthrography after SLAP repair is frequent with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Gaps without additional widening upon external rotation and active supination CT arthrography may suggest postoperatively stable biceps anchors, so this new method could minimize the overdiagnosis of recurrent SLAP lesions. Additional gap widening on external rotation and active supination CT arthrography could be related to a true recurrent SLAP lesion and the symptoms of the patients. Case series, Level IV.

  18. [Missed diagnosis of hiding posterior marginal fracture of ankle with pronation-external rotation type and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Tang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To analyze causes of missed diagnosis of hiding post-malleolar fractures in treating ankle joint fractures of pronation-external rotation type according to Lauge-Hansen classification and assess its medium-term outcomes. Among 103 patients with ankle joint fracture of pronation-external rotation type treated from March 2002 to June 2010,9 patients were missed diagnosis,including 6 males and 3 females,with a mean age of 35.2 years old (ranged, 18 to 55 years old) . Four patients were diagnosed during operation, 2 patients were diagnosed 2 or 3 days after first surgery and 3 patients came from other hospital. All the patients were treated remedially with lag screws and lock plates internal fixation. After operation,ankle joint function was evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). All the 9 patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 14 to 30 months (averaged, 17 months). No incision infection was found, and all incision healed at the first stage. At the latest follow-up, AOFAS was 83.0 +/- 4.4, the score of 4 patients diagnosed during operation was 85.0 +/- 2.9, and the score of 5 patients treated by secondary operation was 81.0 +/- 5.3. All the patients got fracture union observed by X-ray at a mean time of 2.2 months after operation. There were no complications such as internal fixation loosing, broken and vascular or nerve injuries. Ankle joint fracture of pronation-external rotation type may be combined with hiding post-malleolar fractures. So to patients with ankle joint fracture of pronation-external rotation type, lateral X-ray should be read carefully, and if necessary, CT or MRI examination should be performed. If adding lateral X-ray examination after reduction of exterior and interior ankle joint fixation, the missed diagnosis may be avoided.

  19. Fluorescent Trimethoprim Conjugate Probes To Assess Drug Accumulation in Wild Type and Mutant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Novel fluorescent TMP probes inhibited eDHFR activity with comparable potency to TMP, but did not kill or inhibit growth of wild type Escherichia coli. However, bactericidal activity was observed against an efflux pump deficient E. coli mutant strain (ΔtolC). A simple and quick fluorescence assay was developed to measure cellular accumulation of the TMP probe using either fluorescence spectroscopy or flow cytometry, with validation by LC-MS/MS. This fluorescence assay may provide a simple method to assess efflux pump activity with standard laboratory equipment. PMID:27737551

  20. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  1. Biomechanical effectiveness of different types of tendon transfers to the shoulder for external rotation.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Robert U; Barlow, Jonathan D; An, Kai-Nan; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2012-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine and compare the external rotation moment arm (ERMA) of the latissimus dorsi (LD), teres major (TM), and lower trapezius (LT) when transferred to selected locations on the proximal humerus. We hypothesize that the LT transfer has a higher ERMA compared with LD or TM. Six fresh frozen cadaveric hemithoraces were used in a novel experimental design. The tendon and joint displacement method was used to calculate ERMA for 6 transfer pairs: LD to superolateral humeral head (SHH), LD to proximal-lateral humeral diaphysis (LHD), TM to SHH, TM to LHD, LT to infraspinatus insertion (ISI), and LT to teres minor insertion (TMI). Tendon transfer pair had a significant effect on ERMA (P < .001), with a significant interaction effect between tendon transfer and position of the humerus (P < .0001). With the humerus at 0° abduction, the ERMAs of the LT-ISI (28.1 mm) or LT-TMI (22.3 mm) transfers were significantly higher than the ERMAs of LD-SHH (10.6 mm; P = .0001, P = .04) or LD-LHD (6.5 mm; P < .0001, P < .001). Also, ERMAs of LT-ISI and LT-TMI transfers were significantly higher than ERMA of TM-LHD (10.4 mm; P = .0001, P = .03). Shoulder external rotation tendon transfers differ in effectiveness and may be affected by arm position. LT potentially results in superior restoration of shoulder external rotation with the arm at the side compared with LD and should be considered as a potential tendon transfer to restore external rotation in selected patients. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simple electronics for inertial and Pan-type piezoelectric positioners used in scanning probe microscopes.

    PubMed

    Chen, LeuJen; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Alfred K H; de Lozanne, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new type of circuit designed for driving piezoelectric positioners that rely on the stick-slip phenomenon. The circuit can be used for inertial positioners that have only one piezoelectric element (or multiple elements that are moved simultaneously) or for designs using a sequential movement of independent piezoelectric elements. A relay switches the piezoelectric elements between a high voltage source and ground, thus creating a fast voltage step followed by a slow ramp produced by the exponential discharging of the piezoelectric elements through a series resistor. A timing cascade is generated by having each relay power the next relay in the sequence. This design is simple and inexpensive. While it was developed for scanning probe microscopes, it may be useful for any piezoelectric motor based on a fast jump followed by a slow relaxation.

  3. Probing nanofriction and Aubry-type signatures in a finite self-organized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiethe, J.; Nigmatullin, R.; Kalincev, D.; Schmirander, T.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.

    2017-05-01

    Friction in ordered atomistic layers plays a central role in various nanoscale systems ranging from nanomachines to biological systems. It governs transport properties, wear and dissipation. Defects and incommensurate lattice constants markedly change these properties. Recently, experimental systems have become accessible to probe the dynamics of nanofriction. Here, we present a model system consisting of laser-cooled ions in which nanofriction and transport processes in self-organized systems with back action can be studied with atomic resolution. We show that in a system with local defects resulting in incommensurate layers, there is a transition from sticking to sliding with Aubry-type signatures. We demonstrate spectroscopic measurements of the soft vibrational mode driving this transition and a measurement of the order parameter. We show numerically that both exhibit critical scaling near the transition point. Our studies demonstrate a simple, well-controlled system in which friction in self-organized structures can be studied from classical- to quantum-regimes.

  4. Simple electronics for inertial and Pan-type piezoelectric positioners used in scanning probe microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, LeuJen; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Alfred K. H.; de Lozanne, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new type of circuit designed for driving piezoelectric positioners that rely on the stick-slip phenomenon. The circuit can be used for inertial positioners that have only one piezoelectric element (or multiple elements that are moved simultaneously) or for designs using a sequential movement of independent piezoelectric elements. A relay switches the piezoelectric elements between a high voltage source and ground, thus creating a fast voltage step followed by a slow ramp produced by the exponential discharging of the piezoelectric elements through a series resistor. A timing cascade is generated by having each relay power the next relay in the sequence. This design is simple and inexpensive. While it was developed for scanning probe microscopes, it may be useful for any piezoelectric motor based on a fast jump followed by a slow relaxation.

  5. Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

  6. Investigation into the effect that probe immobilisation method type has on the analytical signal of an EIS DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Brian; Manning, Mary; Hurley, Eileen; Berney, Helen; Duane, Russell; Mathewson, Alan; Sheehan, Michelle M

    2007-02-15

    The analytical performance of an enhanced surface area electrolyte insulator semiconductor (EIS) device was investigated for DNA sensor development. The work endeavored to advance EIS performance by monitoring the effect of DNA probe layers have on the impedimetric signal during target hybridisation detection. Two universally employed covalent chemistries, direct and spacer-mediated attachment of amino modified probe molecules to amino-functionalised surfaces were investigated. Relative areal densities of immobilised probe were measured on planar and enhanced surface area substrates using epi-fluorescence microscopy. The reproducibility of the each immobilisation method was seen to have a direct effect on the reproducibility of the impedimetric signal. The sensitivity and selectivity was seen to be dependent on the type of immobilisation method. Real time, impedimetric detection of target DNA hybridisation concentrations as low as 25 and 1 nM were possible. The impact that probe concentration had on the impedimetric signal for selective and non-selective interactions was also investigated.

  7. AMEGO as a supernova alarm: alert, probe and diagnosis of Type Ia explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Wang, Xilu

    2017-08-01

    A Type Ia supernova (SNIa) could go entirely unnoticed in the Milky Way and nearby starburst galaxies, due to the large optical and near-IR extinction in the dusty environment, low radio and X-ray luminosities, and a weak neutrino signal. But the recent SN2014J confirms that Type Ia supernovae emit γ-ray lines from 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe radioactive decay, spanning 158 keV to 2.6 MeV. The Galaxy and nearby starbursts are optically thin to γ-rays, so the supernova line flux will suffer negligible extinction. The All-Sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) will monitor the entire sky every 3 hours from ~200 keV to >10 GeV. Most of the SNIa gamma-ray lines are squarely within the AMEGO energy range. Thus AMEGO will be an ideal SNIa monitor and early warning system. We will show that the supernova signal is expected to emerge as distinct from the AMEGO background within days after the explosion in the SN2014J shell model. The early stage observations of SNIa will allow us to explore the progenitor types and the nucleosynthesis of SNIa. Moreover, with the excellent line sensitivity, AMEGO will be able to detect the SNIa at a rate of a few events per year and will obtain enough gamma-ray observations over the mission lifetimes (~10 SNIa) to sample the SNIa. The high SNIa detection rate will also enable the precise measurement of the 56Ni mass generated during the Type Ia explosion, which will help us test the cosmic distance calibration and probe the cosmic acceleration.

  8. Manipulation of type-I and type-II Dirac points in PdTe2 superconductor by external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, R. C.; Gong, P. L.; Wu, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wei, M. J.; Li, J. Y.; Lv, H. Y.; Luo, X.; Tong, P.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2017-08-01

    A pair of type-II Dirac cones in PdTe2 was recently predicted by theories and confirmed in experiments, making PdTe2 the first material that processes both superconductivity and type-II Dirac fermions. In this paper, we study the evolution of Dirac cones in PdTe2 under hydrostatic pressure by first-principles calculations. Our results show that the pair of type-II Dirac points disappears at 6.1 GPa. Interestingly, a new pair of type-I Dirac points from the same two bands emerges at 4.7 GPa. Due to the distinctive band structures compared with those of PtSe2 and PtTe2, the two types of Dirac points can coexist in PdTe2 under proper pressure (4.7-6.1 GPa). The emergence of type-I Dirac cones and the disappearance of type-II Dirac ones are attributed to an increase/decrease of the energy of the states at the Γ and A points, which have antibonding/bonding characters of the interlayer Te-Te atoms. On the other hand, we find that the superconductivity of PdTe2 slightly decreases with pressure. The pressure-induced types of Dirac cones combined with superconductivity may open a promising way to investigate the complex interactions between Dirac fermions and superconducting quasiparticles.

  9. Probing the 2D kinematic structure of early-type galaxies out to three effective radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Robert N.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Spolaor, Max; Mendel, J. Trevor; Spitler, Lee

    2009-09-01

    We detail an innovative new technique for measuring the two-dimensional (2D) velocity moments (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 and h4) of the stellar populations of galaxy haloes using spectra from Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) multi-object spectroscopic observations. The data are used to reconstruct 2D rotation velocity maps. Here we present data for five nearby early-type galaxies to ~three effective radii. We provide significant insights into the global kinematic structure of these galaxies, and challenge the accepted morphological classification in several cases. We show that between one and three effective radii the velocity dispersion declines very slowly, if at all, in all five galaxies. For the two galaxies with velocity dispersion profiles available from planetary nebulae data we find very good agreement with our stellar profiles. We find a variety of rotation profiles beyond one effective radius, i.e. rotation speed remaining constant, decreasing and increasing with radius. These results are of particular importance to studies which attempt to classify galaxies by their kinematic structure within one effective radius, such as the recent definition of fast- and slow-rotator classes by the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae project. Our data suggest that the rotator class may change when larger galactocentric radii are probed. This has important implications for dynamical modelling of early-type galaxies. The data from this study are available on-line.

  10. Littrow-type external-cavity blue laser for holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tomiji; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sako, Kageyasu; Kasegawa, Ryo; Toishi, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Samuels, David; Takeya, Motonobu

    2007-06-01

    An external-cavity laser with a wavelength of 405 nm and an output of 80 mW has been developed for holographic data storage. The laser has three states: the first is a perfect single mode, whose coherent length is 14 m; the second is a three-mode state with a coherent length of 3 mm; and the third is a six-mode state with a coherent length of 0.3 mm. The first and second states are available for angular-multiplexing recording; all states are available for coaxial multiplexing recording. Due to its short wavelength, the recording density is higher than that of a 532 nm laser.

  11. Enhanced external quantum efficiency in GaN-based vertical-type light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yung-Chi; Hwang, Jung-Min; Yang, Zu-Po; Haung, Jing-Yu; Lin, Chia-Ching; Shen, Wei-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yang; Wang, Mei-Tan; Huang, Chun-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Tzu-Neng; Shen, Ji-Lin; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a GaN-based vertical-type light emitting diode (VLED) through the coupling of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance with the wave-guided mode light is studied. To achieve this experimentally, Ag nanoparticles (NPs), as the LSP resonant source, are drop-casted on the most top layer of waveguide channel, which is composed of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods capped on the top of GaN-based VLED. Enhanced light-output power and external quantum efficiency are observed, and the amount of enhancement remains steady with the increase of the injected currents. To understand the observations theoretically, the absorption spectra and the electric field distributions of the VLED with and without Ag NPs decorated on ZnO NRs are determined using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results prove that the observation of enhancement of the external quantum efficiency can be attributed to the creation of an extra escape channel for trapped light due to the coupling of the LSP with wave-guided mode light, by which the energy of wave-guided mode light can be transferred to the efficient light scattering center of the LSP.

  12. Enhanced external quantum efficiency in GaN-based vertical-type light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yung-Chi; Hwang, Jung-Min; Yang, Zu-Po; Haung, Jing-Yu; Lin, Chia-Ching; Shen, Wei-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yang; Wang, Mei-Tan; Huang, Chun-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Tzu-Neng; Shen, Ji-Lin; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a GaN-based vertical-type light emitting diode (VLED) through the coupling of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance with the wave-guided mode light is studied. To achieve this experimentally, Ag nanoparticles (NPs), as the LSP resonant source, are drop-casted on the most top layer of waveguide channel, which is composed of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods capped on the top of GaN-based VLED. Enhanced light-output power and external quantum efficiency are observed, and the amount of enhancement remains steady with the increase of the injected currents. To understand the observations theoretically, the absorption spectra and the electric field distributions of the VLED with and without Ag NPs decorated on ZnO NRs are determined using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results prove that the observation of enhancement of the external quantum efficiency can be attributed to the creation of an extra escape channel for trapped light due to the coupling of the LSP with wave-guided mode light, by which the energy of wave-guided mode light can be transferred to the efficient light scattering center of the LSP. PMID:26935648

  13. Design and synthesis of a FlAsH-type Mg2+ fluorescent probe for specific protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomohiko; Shindo, Yutaka; Hotta, Kohji; Citterio, Daniel; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Suzuki, Koji; Oka, Kotaro

    2014-02-12

    Although the magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) is one of the most abundant divalent cations in cells and is known to play critical roles in many physiological processes, its mobilization and underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we describe a novel fluorescent Mg(2+) probe, "KMG-104-AsH", composed of a highly selective fluorescent Mg(2+) probe, "KMG-104", and a fluorescence-recoverable probe, "FlAsH", bound specifically to a tetracysteine peptide tag (TCtag), which can be genetically incorporated into any protein. This probe was developed for molecular imaging of local changes in intracellular Mg(2+) concentration. KMG-104-AsH was synthesized, and its optical properties were investigated in solution. The fluorescence intensity of KMG-104-AsH (at λ(em/max) = 540 nm) increases by more than 10-fold by binding to both the TCtag peptide and Mg(2+), and the probe is highly selective for Mg(2+) (K(d/Mg) = 1.7 mM, K(d/Ca) ≫ 100 mM). Application of the probe for imaging of Mg(2+) in HeLa cells showed that this FlAsH-type Mg(2+) sensing probe is membrane-permeable and binds specifically to tagged proteins, such as TCtag-actin and mKeima-TCtag targeted to the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. KMG-104-AsH bound to TCtag responded to an increase in intracellular Mg(2+) concentration caused by the release of Mg(2+) from mitochondria induced by FCCP, a protonophore that eliminates the inner membrane potential of mitochondria. This probe is expected to be a strong tool for elucidating the dynamics and mechanisms of intracellular localization of Mg(2+).

  14. Probing the Final Stages of Massive Star Evolution With Type IIn Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ori

    2013-06-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn), defined by their dense circumstellar medium (CSM), have gained considerable attention over the past decade given their association with massive star progenitors. Due to the nature of the dense CSM, many SNe IIn have been linked to the eruptive state of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), but the identification of a single progenitor class remains ambiguous. The pre-SN mass-loss history of SNe IIn must be better understood since it is the progenitors smoking gun, serving as a direct probe of the late stages of massive star evolution. Differences in wind speeds, densities, compositions, and asymmetries result in distinguishable observational behaviors. Many SNe IIn observations have been obtained at relatively early epochs (<100 days), which provides only an instantaneous snapshot of the CSM characteristics at small radii. Shock interaction and dust formation in the dense CSM, however, often result in significant emission ranging from X-ray to radio for many years post-explosion. Here I will present recent observations of the diverse late-time (>100 days) multi-wavelength evolution of SNe IIn, tracing the complete mass-loss history of the progenitors out to larger radii.

  15. Initial dynamics of the Norrish Type I reaction in acetone: probing wave packet motion.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Sølling, Theis I; Møller, Klaus B

    2011-02-10

    The Norrish Type I reaction in the S(1) (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels toward the S(1) minimum in less than 30 fs and stays there for more than 100 picoseconds [Chem. Phys. Lett.2008, 461, 193]. In this work we present simulated TRMS and TRPES signals based on ab initio multiple spawning simulations of the dynamics during the first 200 fs after excitation, getting quite good agreement with the experimental signals. We can explain the ultrafast decay of the experimental signals in the following manner: the wave packet simply travels, mainly along the deplanarization coordinate, out of the detection window of the ionizing probe. This window is so narrow that subsequent revival of the signal due to the coherent deplanarization vibration is not observed, meaning that from the point of view of the experiment the wave packets travels directly to the S(1) minimum. This result stresses the importance of pursuing a closer link to the experimental signal when using molecular dynamics simulations in interpreting experimental results.

  16. Dislocation is a risk factor for poor outcome after supination external rotation type ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Lazaro, Lionel E; Little, Milton M; Berkes, Marschall B; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2016-01-01

    Ankle fractures are one of the most common fractures requiring surgical treatment. Ankle fracture-dislocations are significant injuries to the osseous and soft tissue envelope, but studies focused on the effect of dislocation on radiographic and functional outcomes are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dislocations on postoperative outcomes in SER IV ankle fracture patients. From 2004 through 2010, all operative SER IV ankle fractures treated by a single surgeon were enrolled in a prospective database. SER IV ankle fractures were separated into two groups based on clinical or radiographic evidence of dislocation. The primary and secondary functional outcomes measures were the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and ankle and subtalar range of motion (ROM) with a minimum of 1-year follow-up, respectively. 108 patients with SER IV ankle fractures were identified, with 73 in the non-dislocation group (68%) and 35 patients in the dislocation group (32%). Patient demographics and co-morbidities were similar between the two groups. The incidence of open fractures and the application of an external fixator were significantly higher in the dislocation group (p = 0.037 and p = 0.003, respectively). The dislocation group showed a significant decrease in the accuracy of articular reduction (p = 0.003). At a mean follow-up of 21 months, ankle fracture-dislocation patients had increased pain (p = 0.005) and decreased activities of daily living (p = 0.014) on FAOS outcome measures and significantly worse ankle and subtalar ROM. The results of this study suggest that concurrent dislocation at time of ankle fracture is associated with worse radiographic and functional outcomes, but not an increase in superficial or deep infection. The results from this study may be helpful in counseling patients regarding expected clinical outcomes after ankle fracture-dislocation and in the surgical management of this complex injury.

  17. Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Schering, Alexander; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The need remains great for early diagnosis of diseases. The special structure of the eye provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive light-based imaging of fundus vasculature. To detect endothelial injury at the early and reversible stage of adhesion molecule up-regulation, we generated novel imaging agents that target two distinct types of endothelial molecules, a mediator of rolling, P-selectin, and one that mediates firm adhesion, ICAM-1. Interactions of these double-conjugated fluorescent microspheres (MSs) in retinal or choroidal microvasculature were visualized in live animals by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The new imaging agents showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of endothelial injury than singly conjugated MSs (rPSGL-1- or α-ICAM-1-conjugated), both in terms of rolling (P<0.01) and firm adhesion (P<0.01). The rolling flux of α-ICAM-1-conjugated MSs did not differ in EIU animals, whereas double-conjugated MSs showed significantly higher rolling flux (P<0.01), revealing that ICAM-1 in vivo supports rolling, once MS interaction with the endothelium is initiated. Double-conjugated MSs specifically detected firmly adhering leukocytes (P<0.01), allowing in vivo quantification of immune response. Antiinflammatory treatment with dexamethasone led to reduced leukocyte accumulation (P<0.01) as well as MS interaction (P<0.01), which suggests that treatment success and resolution of inflammation is quantitatively reflected with this molecular imaging approach. This work introduces novel imaging agents for noninvasive detection of endothelial injury in vivo. Our approach may be developed further to diagnose human disease at a much earlier stage than currently possible.—Sun, D., Nakao, S., Xie, F., Zandi, S., Schering, A., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers. PMID:20103715

  18. Effect of halogens and inhibitors on the external stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Whorlow, K.; Hutto, F.; Woolridge, E.

    1997-11-01

    The methodology of the drip procedure of the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal Insulation on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASTM C 692-95a) was used to research the effect of halogens and inhibitors on the external stress corrosion cracking (ESCC) of Type 304 stainless steel as it applies to the insulation industry. Simulated insulation extraction solutions were made with pure chemical reagents for the halogens and inhibitors. The results indicated that sodium silicate compounds that were higher in sodium were more effective for preventing chloride-induced ESCC in Type 304 austenitic stainless steel. Potassium silicate was not as effective as sodium silicate. Fluoride, bromide, and iodide may cause ESCC but they were much less active than chloride and could be effectively inhibited by sodium silicate compound. The addition of fluoride ions to the chloride/sodium silicate systems, at the threshold of ESCC, appeared to have no synergistic effect. The ratio of sodium + silicate (mg/kg) to chloride (mg/kg) at the lower end of the RG 1.36 Acceptability Curve was not adequate to prevent ESCC using the methods of this research.

  19. Effects of fluoride and other halogen ions on the external stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Whorlow, K.M.; Hutto, F.B. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The drip procedure from the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal Insulation on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASTM C 692-95a) was used to research the effect of halogens and inhibitors on the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) of Type 304 stainless steel as it applies to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.36, Nonmetallic Thermal Insulation for Austenitic Stainless Steel. The solutions used in this research were prepared using pure chemical reagents to simulate the halogens and inhibitors found in insulation extraction solutions. The results indicated that sodium silicate compounds that were higher in sodium were more effective for preventing chloride-induced ESCC in Type 304 austenitic stainless steel. Potassium silicate (all-silicate inhibitor) was not as effective as sodium silicate. Limited testing with sodium hydroxide (all-sodium inhibitor) indicated that it may be effective as an inhibitor. Fluoride, bromide, and iodide caused minimal ESCC which could be effectively inhibited by sodium silicate. The addition of fluoride to the chloride/sodium silicate systems at the threshold of ESCC appeared to have no synergistic effect on ESCC. The mass ratio of sodium + silicate (mg/kg) to chloride (mg/kg) at the lower end of the NRC RG 1.36 Acceptability Curve was not sufficient to prevent ESCC using the methods of this research.

  20. Immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    adsorption reaction between ɛ-polylysine and endotoxin. ɛ-polylysine has the structure of straight chain molecule composed by 25-30 residues made by lysine, and it is used as an antimicrobial agent, moreover, cellulose beads with immobilized ɛ-polylysine is used as the barrier filter for endotoxin removal. Therefore, it is expected that the endotoxin be adsorbed to the immobilized ɛ-polylysine onto the probe. As the result of this reaction, the mass of the probe is increased, and endotoxin can be detected by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In our previous research, we have already acquired the proteins immobilization technique onto Au and Si surface. In this report, the proposal of molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system, and the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by XPS and AFM. The purpose of this study is to bring about the realization of "Real-time endotoxin detection system".

  1. Difference in thermodynamics between two types of esophageal temperature probes: Insights from an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gianni, Carola; Atoui, Moustapha; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Trivedi, Chintan; Bai, Rong; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Burkhardt, J David; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Horton, Rodney P; Sanchez, Javier E; Di Biase, Luigi; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R; Natale, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Luminal esophageal temperature monitoring is performed with a variety of temperature probes, but little is known about the relationship between the structure of a given probe and its thermodynamic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in thermodynamics between a 9Fr standard esophageal probe and an 18Fr esophageal stethoscope. In the experimental setting, each probe was submerged in a constant temperature water bath maintained at 42°C; in the patient setting, we monitored the temperature with both probes at the same time. The time constant of the stethoscope was higher than that of the probe (33.5 vs 8.3 s). Compared to the probe, the mean temperature measured by the stethoscope at 10 seconds was significantly lower (22.5°C ± 0.4°C vs 33.5°C ± 0.3°C, P<.0001), whereas the time to reach the peak temperature was significantly longer (132.6 ± 5.9 s vs 38.8 ± 1.0 s, P<.0001). Even in the ablation cases we observed that when the esophageal probe reached a peak temperature of 39.6°C ± 0.3°C, the esophageal stethoscope still displayed a temperature of 37.3°C ± 0.2°C (a mean of 2.39°C ± 0.3°C lower, P<.0001), showing a <0.5°C increase in temperature half of the times. The 18Fr esophageal stethoscope has a significantly slower time response compared to the 9Fr esophageal probe. In the clinical setting, this might result in a considerable underestimation of the luminal esophageal temperature with potentially fatal consequences. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two Types of Neurons in the Primate Globus Pallidus External Segment Play Distinct Roles in Antisaccade Generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    The globus pallidus external segment (GPe) constitutes part of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Because of inhibitory projections from the striatum, most GPe neurons are expected to reduce activity during movements. However, many GPe neurons in fact display increased activity. We previously found that both excitatory and inhibitory responses were modulated during antisaccades, when eyes were directed away from a visual stimulus. To elucidate the roles of these neurons during antisaccades, we examined neuronal activities as monkeys performed antisaccades, prosaccades, and NoGo tasks under 2 conditions. In the Deliberate condition, the task-rule was instructed by color of the fixation point, while in the Immediate condition, it was given by color of the target. Under both conditions, the increase-type neurons exhibited greater activity during antisaccades compared with the other tasks and neuronal activity negatively correlated with saccade latency. The decrease-type neurons also showed greater modulation during antisaccades but their activity was comparable between NoGo and antisaccade trials in the Immediate condition. These results suggest that the increase-type neurons might play a role in facilitating antisaccades, whereas the decrease-type neurons could mediate signals for reflexive saccade suppression. We propose that these GPe neurons are differently involved in basal ganglia pathways.

  3. Study of alternative probe technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

  4. Role of incoherent pumping field on absorption-dispersion properties of probe pulse in a graphene nanostructure under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Hamedi, H. R.; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of weak probe light based on quantum coherence and interference in Landau-quantized graphene nanostructure driven by two coherent fields and incoherent pumping field is investigated. The linear dynamical properties of the graphene by means of density matrix method and perturbation theory are discussed. It is found that under certain condition and for appropriate choosing the parameters of the medium, the absorption, dispersion, group index of the weak probe light can be controlled. Moreover, it is shown that by means of incoherent pumping field the superluminal light propagation in the system is accompanied by amplification to make sure that the probe field is amplified as it passes through the system. Moreover, it is observed that the probe amplification can be obtained in the presence or absence of population inversion by properly choosing of system's parameters. We hope that these results may have useful in the future quantum communicational system and networks.

  5. External stress-corrosion cracking of a 1.22-m-diameter type 316 stainless steel air valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Telesman, Jack; Moore, Allan S.; Johnson, Dereck F.; Kuivinen, David E.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure of a massive AISI Type 316 stainless steel valve which controlled combustion air to a jet engine test facility. Several through-the-wall cracks were present near welded joints in the valve skirt. The valve had been in outdoor service for 18 years. Samples were taken in the cracked regions for metallographic and chemical analyses. Insulating material and sources of water mist in the vicinity of the failed valve were analyzed for chlorides. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine whether foreign elements were present in a crack. On the basis of the information generated, the failure was characterized as external stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking resulted from a combination of residual tensile stress from welding and the presence of aqueous chlorides. Recommended countermeasures are included.

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes targeting members of the phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria falsely target Eikelboom type 1851 filaments and other Chloroflexi members.

    PubMed

    Nittami, Tadashi; Speirs, Lachlan B M; Fukuda, Junji; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Seviour, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The FISH probe TM7-305 is thought to target the filamentous Eikelboom morphotype 0041 as a member of the Candidatus ‘Saccharibacteria’ (formerly TM7) phylum. However, with activated sludge samples in both Japan and Australia, this probe hybridized consistently with filamentous bacteria fitting the description of the morphotype 1851, which also responded positively to the CHL1851 FISH probe designed to target Chloroflexi members of this morphotype. 16S rRNA clone libraries from samples containing type 1851 TM7-305-positive filaments yielded Chloroflexi clones with high sequence similarity to Kouleothrix aurantiaca. These contained a variant TM7-305 probe target site possessing weakly destabilizing mismatches insufficient to prevent probe hybridization. Furthermore, the TM7-905 FISH probe, designed to target members of the entire Candidatus ‘Saccharibacteria’ phylum, also hybridized with the filament morphotypes 0041/0675, which responded also to the phylum level Chloroflexi probes. Many Chloroflexi sequences have only a single base mismatch to the TM7-905 probe target sequence. When competitor probes for both the TM7-305 and TM7-905 Chloroflexi non-target sites were applied, no fluorescent signal was seen in any of the filamentous organisms also hybridizing with the aforementioned Chloroflexi probes. These data indicate that these competitor probes must be included in hybridizations when both the TM7-905 and TM7-305 FISH probes are applied, to minimize potential false positive FISH results.

  7. Determination of mutated genes in the presence of wild-type DNA by using molecular beacons as probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yonghua; Ai, Junjie; Gu, Qiaorong; Gao, Qiang; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2017-03-01

    Low-abundance mutations in the presence of wild-type DNA can be determined using molecular beacon (MB) as probe. A MB is generally used as DNA probe because it can distinguish single-base mismatched target DNA from fully matched target DNA. However, the probe can not determine low-abundance mutations in the presence of wild-type DNA. In this study, this limitation is addressed by enhancing the stability of unpaired base-containing dsDNA with a hydrogen-bonding ligand, which was added after hybridization of the MB to the target DNA. The ligand formed hydrogen bonds with unpaired bases and stabilized the unpaired base-containing dsDNA if target DNA is mutated one. As a result, more MBs were opened by the mutant genes in the presence of the ligand and a further increase in the fluorescence intensity was obtained. By contrast, fluorescence intensity did not change if target DNA is wild-type one. Consequent increase in the fluorescence intensity of the MB was regarded as a signal derived from mutant genes. The proposed method was applied in synthetic template systems to determine point mutation in DNA obtained from PCR analysis. The method also allows rapid and simple discrimination of a signal if it is originated in the presence of mutant gene or alternatively by a lower concentration of wild gene.

  8. Twenty-one-year follow-up of supination-external rotation type II-IV (OTA type B) ankle fractures: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Donken, Christian C M A; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Edwards, Michael J; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate long-term results after protocoled treatment of supination-external rotation (SER) Type II-IV ankle injuries. Retrospective cohort study. Level I trauma center. Two hundred seventy-six adult patients with an SER Type II-IV ankle fracture between January 1, 1985, and January 1, 1990. All patients were approached to participate in this study. Fractures with tibiotalar congruity were treated nonoperative and unstable fractures with joint incongruity were treated operatively. MEAN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: 1) a functional outcome questionnaire (Olerud score); 2) range of motion; 3) functional impairment (American Medical Association guidelines); and 4) radiologic anatomic result (medial clear space widening; osteoarthritis; Cedell score). After a median of 21 years in 54% (n = 148) of patients, follow-up was achieved. Seventy-six patients (51%) had a SER Type II injury, four patients (3%) a SER Type III injury, and 68 (46%) had sustained a SER Type IV. Excellent or good results were found in 92% (Olerud score), 97% (loaded dorsal range of motion), 92% (medial clear space widening), 97% (osteoarthritis), and 76% (Cedell score) of patients. Functional impairment expressed as percentage of whole person impairment varied between 0% and 16%. The various fracture types performed statistically equal on all outcome parameters. There was no difference between operative and nonoperative treatment. There was no correlation between the Olerud score and other parameters. The very long-term overall results of the stratified surgical treatment of SER Type II-IV ankle fractures is 'excellent' or 'good' in the majority of patients and therefore seems justified. Although additional soft tissue damage is unavoidable in case of operative treatment, it does not negatively affect outcome in the long term. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Block of the L-type Ca2+ channel pore by external and internal Mg2+ in rat phaeochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, C C; Hess, P

    1993-01-01

    1. Three to eight micromolar external Mg2+ produces discrete block of the unitary inward currents through the L-type Ca2+ channel carried by 300 mM external Li+. Like the Ca2+ block, increasing Li+ concentration decreases the Mg2+ on-rate and increases the Mg2+ off-rate. 2. These kinetic changes are saturating and the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for the on-rates in 75 mM Li+ (in activity), the same as that in the case of Ca2+ block. This suggests that Mg2+ and Ca2+ produce the discrete block at the same site. The apparent Kd for the off-rates is 300 mM, much smaller than that in the case of Ca2+ block. This indicates that Mg2+ exerts much less repulsion on the Li+ ion in the neighbouring (enhancement) site than Ca2+, although Mg2+ and Ca2+ both have two charges. The theoretical fits to the off-rates also suggest that Mg2+ can exit the blocking sites at a rate of several hundred per second in the absence of any enhancement effect. 3. Seventeen to forty-eight micromolar internal Mg2+ produces discrete block of the outward unitary currents carried by 300 mM internal Li+. The off-rates are in general approximately 20 times faster as compared to the Mg2+ off-rates in the inward currents. This finding suggests that Mg2+ in the high-affinity sites can much more easily exit to the outside than to the inside, implying significantly higher energy barriers on the inner side of the high-affinity sites for Mg2+. 4. At least 5-10 mM internal Mg2+ is needed to produce discrete block of the inward unitary currents carried by 215 mM external Na+. The off-rates in such experiments are generally the same as those in the case of external Mg2+ block of inward currents. This suggests that internal and external Mg2+ both reach the same site, namely the high-affinity Ca2+ binding sites in the pore, to produce the discrete block. 5. Other than discrete block, 5-10 mM internal Mg2+ also decreases the size of the inward unitary current. This is most probably due to a fast block at

  10. Phase control of probe response in a Doppler-broadened N-type four-level system

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Xijun; Liu Zhongbo; Liang Ying; Jia Kening; Tong Dianmin

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate theoretically the effect of the relative phase ({phi}) between the probe and driving fields on gain (absorption) and dispersion of the probe field in a Doppler-broadened N-type four-level system with spontaneously generated coherence from different respects. It is shown that gain (absorption) and dispersion are very sensitive to variations in the relative phase, and changing the Doppler width also has an obvious effect on the phase-dependent gain (absorption) and dispersion. When the probe and driving fields have the same propagation directions (copropagating), for the same Doppler width, the dispersion curve with {phi}={alpha} is the same as the gain (absorption) curve with {phi}={alpha}+{pi}/2; however, when the probe and driving fields have opposite propagation directions (counterpropagating), the dispersion curve and gain (absorption) curve are different and the difference becomes more considerable with an increase in Doppler width. In the co- and counterpropagating cases, gain (absorption) and dispersion always vary periodically with varying {phi}, and the period is 2{pi}. By adjusting the value of {phi}, the largest gain (absorption) and dispersion can be obtained, and a large index of refraction without absorption can be realized. Generally speaking, gain decreases with an increase in Doppler width, but by adjusting value of {phi}, at some special values of Doppler width, a larger gain than that without Doppler broadening can be obtained. Our study also shows that gain in the copropagating case is much larger than that in the counterpropagating case.

  11. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Data is given in graphical and tabular form.

  12. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Additional information is given in tabular form.

  13. Measurements of thermal effusivity of a fine wire and contact resistance of a junction using a T type probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianli; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Gangping

    2009-07-01

    The thermal effusivity of a fine wire and the thermal contact resistance of a junction have been measured by a modified T type probe using a periodic heating method. The modified T type probe is made of a short periodic heated platinum wire and a test wire with one end contacting to the midpoint of the hot wire. Dimensionless expressions for the temperature responses of the hot wire with respect to the thermal effusivity of the test wire and the thermal contact resistance of the junction between the test wire and the hot wire were presented. A measurement system based on a flexible resolution A/D board and a LABVIEW-based virtual lock-in was setup. The probe was further verified by measuring four kinds of commercially available metallic wires at room temperature. The obtained thermal contact resistances were repeatable, with the calculated thicknesses of about 1 to 2 microm. The present method can further be applied to measure the thermal effusivity of nonconductive wires, and to analyze the thermal contact resistance of nano/microscale junction.

  14. Human leukocyte antigen typing using a knowledge base coupled with a high-throughput oligonucleotide probe array analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Lin, Hong Huang; DeLuca, David S; Leppanen, Scott; Milford, Edgar L; Reinherz, Ellis L; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are important biomarkers because multiple diseases, drug toxicity, and vaccine responses reveal strong HLA associations. Current clinical HLA typing is an elimination process requiring serial testing. We present an alternative in situ synthesized DNA-based microarray method that contains hundreds of thousands of probes representing a complete overlapping set covering 1,610 clinically relevant HLA class I alleles accompanied by computational tools for assigning HLA type to 4-digit resolution. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 21 blood samples, 18 cell lines, and multiple controls. The method is accurate, robust, and amenable to automation. Typing errors were restricted to homozygous samples or those with very closely related alleles from the same locus, but readily resolved by targeted DNA sequencing validation of flagged samples. High-throughput HLA typing technologies that are effective, yet inexpensive, can be used to analyze the world's populations, benefiting both global public health and personalized health care.

  15. Young's type interference for probing the mode symmetry in photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Intonti, F; Riboli, F; Caselli, N; Abbarchi, M; Vignolini, S; Wiersma, D S; Vinattieri, A; Gerace, D; Balet, L; Li, L H; Francardi, M; Gerardino, A; Fiore, A; Gurioli, M

    2011-04-08

    A revisited realization of the Young's double slit experiment is introduced to directly probe the photonic mode symmetry by photoluminescence experiments. We experimentally measure the far field angular emission pattern of quantum dots embedded in photonic molecules. The experimental data well agree with predictions from Young's interference and numerical simulations. Moreover, the vectorial nature of photonic eigenmodes results in a rather complicated parity property for different polarizations, a feature which has no counterpart in quantum mechanics.

  16. Young's Type Interference for Probing the Mode Symmetry in Photonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intonti, F.; Riboli, F.; Caselli, N.; Abbarchi, M.; Vignolini, S.; Wiersma, D. S.; Vinattieri, A.; Gerace, D.; Balet, L.; Li, L. H.; Francardi, M.; Gerardino, A.; Fiore, A.; Gurioli, M.

    2011-04-01

    A revisited realization of the Young’s double slit experiment is introduced to directly probe the photonic mode symmetry by photoluminescence experiments. We experimentally measure the far field angular emission pattern of quantum dots embedded in photonic molecules. The experimental data well agree with predictions from Young’s interference and numerical simulations. Moreover, the vectorial nature of photonic eigenmodes results in a rather complicated parity property for different polarizations, a feature which has no counterpart in quantum mechanics.

  17. Piezoelectricity in collagen type II fibrils measured by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, D.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Hsu, T.; Habelitz, S.; Fertala, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    The converse piezoelectric effect in collagen type II fibrils, the main collagen constituent in cartilage, was investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. The fibrils exhibited shear piezoelectric behavior similar to that previously reported in collagen type I fibrils and followed the same cantilever-fibril angle dependence present for type I. A uniform polarization directed from the amine to carboxyl termini, as seen for collagen type I, was observed in all type II fibrils studied. The shear piezoelectric coefficient, d15, however, for type II was roughly 28-32% of the value measured for type I fibrils. Possible explanations for the reduced piezoelectric coefficient of type II collagen are provided.

  18. Preoperative Radiographic and CT Findings Predicting Syndesmotic Injuries in Supination-External Rotation-Type Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Kyoung Min

    2014-07-16

    The Lauge-Hansen classification system does not provide sufficient data related to syndesmotic injuries in supination-external rotation (SER)-type ankle fractures. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors helpful for the preoperative detection of syndesmotic injuries in SER-type ankle fractures using radiographs and computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 191 consecutive patients (104 male and eighty-seven female patients with a mean age [and standard deviation] of 50.7 ± 16.4 years) with SER-type ankle fractures who had undergone operative treatment were included. Preoperative ankle radiographs and CT imaging scans were made for all patients, and clinical data, including age, sex, and mechanism of injury (high or low-energy trauma), were collected. Patients were divided into two groups: the stable syndesmotic group and the unstable syndesmotic group, with a positive intraoperative lateral stress test leading to syndesmotic screw fixation. Fracture height, fracture length, medial joint space, extent of fracture, and bone attenuation were measured on radiographs and CT images and were compared between the groups. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that significantly contributed to unstable syndesmotic injuries. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated, and cutoff values were suggested to predict unstable syndesmotic injuries on preoperative imaging measurements. Of the 191 patents with a SER-type ankle fracture, thirty-eight (19.9%) had a concurrent unstable syndesmotic injury. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, fracture height, medial joint space, and bone attenuation were significantly different between the two groups. In the binary logistic analysis, fracture height, medial joint space, and bone attenuation were found to be significant factors contributing to unstable syndesmotic injuries. The cutoff values for predicting unstable syndesmotic injuries were a fracture height of >3 mm and a medial

  19. Two-View Gravity Stress Imaging Protocol for Nondisplaced Type II Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures: Introducing the Gravity Stress Cross-Table Lateral View.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C; Gervais, Samuel J

    Assessing ankle stability in nondisplaced Lauge-Hansen supination external rotation type II injuries requires stress imaging. Gravity stress mortise imaging is routinely used as an alternative to manual stress imaging to assess deltoid integrity with the goal of differentiating type II from type IV injuries in cases without a posterior or medial fracture. A type II injury with a nondisplaced fibula fracture is typically treated with cast immobilization, and a type IV injury is considered unstable and often requires operative repair. The present case series (two patients) highlights a standardized 2-view gravity stress imaging protocol and introduces the gravity stress cross-table lateral view. The gravity stress cross-table lateral view provides a more thorough evaluation of the posterior malleolus owing to the slight external rotation and posteriorly directed stress. External rotation also creates less bony overlap between the tibia and fibula, allowing for better visualization of the fibula fracture. Gravity stress imaging confirmed medial-sided injury in both cases, confirming the presence of supination external rotation type IV or bimalleolar equivalent fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed, and both patients achieved radiographic union. No further treatment was required at 21 and 33 months postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. External quality assessment for molecular typing of Salmonella 2013-2015: performance of the European national public health reference laboratories.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M B F; Schjørring, S; Björkman, J T; Torpdahl, M; Litrup, E; Nielsen, E M; Niskanen, T

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of three consecutive External Quality Assessments (EQAs) for molecular subtyping of Salmonella to assess the performance of the European national public health reference laboratories (NPHRLs). The EQA included the molecular typing methods used for European enhanced surveillance of human Salmonella infections: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), including gel analysis by the use of the software BioNumerics, and 5-locus multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for serovar Typhimurium. The participation in the PFGE laboratory part was higher (27/35) than in the gel analysis (19/35) and MLVA (15/35), suggestive of the need for capacity building in methods requiring specialized equipment (MLVA) or software (gel analysis). The majority (25/27) of the participating NPHRLs produced inter-laboratory comparable PFGE gel(s). Two laboratories continued to produce low-quality gels and should have additional technical assistance in the future. In particular, two gel quality evaluation parameters, measuring "image acquisition and running conditions" and "bands", were identified to cause gel quality problems throughout the EQAs. Despite the high number of laboratories participating in the PFGE laboratory part, the participation in gel analysis was low, although increasing. In the MLVA part, the NPHRLs correctly assigned 96% (405/420) allelic profiles according to the nomenclature. In conclusion, the EQAs identified critical parameters for unsuccessful performance and helped to offer assistance to those laboratories that needed it most. The assessments supported the development of quality in molecular typing and promoted the harmonization of subtyping methods used for EU/EEA-wide surveillance of human Salmonella infections.

  1. Distal tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA type B, and C) treated with the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sasa; Mitković, Milorad; Micić, Ivan; Mladenović, Desimir; Najman, Stevo; Trajanović, Miroslav; Manić, Miodrag; Mitković, Milan

    2013-09-01

    Distal tibial pilon fractures include extra-articular fractures of the tibial metaphysis and the more severe intra-articular tibial pilon fractures. There is no universal method for treating distal tibial pilon fractures. These fractures are treated by means of open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) and external skeletal fixation. The high rate of soft-tissue complications associated with primary ORIF of pilon fractures led to the use of external skeletal fixation, with limited internal fixation as an alternative technique for definitive management. The aim of this study was to estimate efficacy of distal tibial pilon fratures treatment using the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method. We presented a series of 31 operated patients with tibial pilon fractures. The patients were operated on using the method of external skeletal fixation with a minimal internal fixation. According to the AO/OTA classification, 17 patients had type B fracture and 14 patients type C fractures. The rigid external skeletal fixation was transformed into a dynamic external skeletal fixation 6 weeks post-surgery. This retrospective study involved 31 patients with tibial pilon fractures, average age 41.81 (from 21 to 60) years. The average follow-up was 21.86 (from 12 to 48) months. The percentage of union was 90.32%, nonunion 3.22% and malunion 6.45%. The mean to fracture union was 14 (range 12-20) weeks. There were 4 (12.19%) infections around the pins of the external skeletal fixator and one (3.22%) deep infections. The ankle joint arthrosis as a late complication appeared in 4 (12.90%) patients. All arthroses appeared in patients who had type C fractures. The final functional results based on the AOFAS score were excellent in 51.61%, good in 32.25%, average in 12.90% and bad in 3.22% of the patients. External skeletal fixation and minimal internal fixation of distal tibial pilon fractures is a good method for treating all types of inta-articular pilon fractures. In

  2. Surface potential measurement of n-type organic semiconductor thin films by mist deposition via Kelvin probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Akihiro; Satoh, Nobuo; Katori, Shigetaka

    2017-08-01

    We partially deposited fullerene (C60) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin films that are typical n-type semiconductor materials on indium-tin oxide by mist deposition at various substrate temperatures. The topographic and surface potential images were observed via dynamic force microscopy/Kelvin probe force microscopy with the frequency modulation detection method. We proved that the area where a thin film is deposited depends on the substrate temperature during deposition from the topographic images. It was also found that the surface potential depends on the substrate temperature from the surface potential images.

  3. Muons as local probes of three-body correlations in the mixed state of type-II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Menon, G I; Drew, A; Divakar, U K; Lee, S L; Gilardi, R; Mesot, J; Ogrin, F Y; Charalambous, D; Forgan, E M; Momono, N; Oda, M; Dewhurst, C; Baines, C

    2006-10-27

    The vortex glass state formed by magnetic flux lines in a type-II superconductor is shown to possess nontrivial three-body correlations. While such correlations are usually difficult to measure in glassy systems, the magnetic fields associated with the flux vortices allow us to probe these via muon-spin rotation measurements of the local field distribution. We show via numerical simulations and analytic calculations that these observations provide detailed microscopic insight into the local order of the vortex glass and more generally validate a theoretical framework for correlations in glassy systems.

  4. A Fluorescent Molecular Probe for the Detection of Hydrogen Based on Oxidative Addition Reactions with Crabtree-Type Hydrogenation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kos, Pavlo; Plenio, Herbert

    2015-11-02

    A Crabtree-type Ir(I) complex tagged with a fluorescent dye (bodipy) was synthesized. The oxidative addition of H2 converts the weakly fluorescent Ir(I) complex (Φ=0.038) into a highly fluorescent Ir(III) species (Φ=0.51). This fluorogenic reaction can be utilized for the detection of H2 and to probe the oxidative addition step in the catalytic hydrogenation of olefins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evaluation of three types of reference image data for external beam radiotherapy target localization using digital tomosynthesis (DTS).

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Devon J; Ren, Lei; Yan, Hui; Wu, Q; Yoo, Sua; Oldham, M; Yin, Fang Fang

    2007-08-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a fast, low-dose three-dimensional (3D) imaging approach which yields slice images with excellent in-plane resolution, though low plane-to-plane resolution. A stack of DTS slices can be reconstructed from a single limited-angle scan, with typical scan angles ranging from 10 degrees to 40 degrees and acquisition times of less than 10 s. The resulting DTS slices show soft tissue contrast approaching that of full cone-beam CT. External beam radiotherapy target localization using DTS requires the registration of on-board DTS images with corresponding reference image data. This study evaluates three types of reference volume: original reference CT, exact reference DTS (RDTS), and a more computationally efficient approximate reference DTS (RDTSapprox), as well as three different DTS scan angles (22 degrees, 44 degrees, and 65 degrees) for the DTS target localization task. Three-dimensional mutual information (MI) shared between reference and onboard DTS volumes was computed in a region surrounding the spine of a chest phantom, as translations spanning +/-5 mm and rotations spanning +/-5 degrees were simulated along each dimension in the reference volumes. The locations of the MI maxima were used as surrogates for registration accuracy, and the width of the MI peaks were used to characterize the registration robustness. The results show that conventional treatment planning CT volumes are inadequate reference volumes for direct registration with on-board DTS data. The efficient RDTSapprox method also appears insufficient for MI-based registration without further refinement of the technique, though it may be suitable for manual registration performed by a human observer. The exact RDTS volumes, on the other hand, delivered a 3D DTS localization accuracy of 0.5 mm and 0.50 along each axis, using only a single 44 degrees coronal on-board DTS scan of the chest phantom.

  6. Evaluation of three types of reference image data for external beam radiotherapy target localization using digital tomosynthesis (DTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Ren Lei; Yan Hui; Wu, Q.; Yoo Sua; Oldham, M.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-08-15

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a fast, low-dose three-dimensional (3D) imaging approach which yields slice images with excellent in-plane resolution, though low plane-to-plane resolution. A stack of DTS slices can be reconstructed from a single limited-angle scan, with typical scan angles ranging from 10 deg. to 40 deg. and acquisition times of less than 10 s. The resulting DTS slices show soft tissue contrast approaching that of full cone-beam CT. External beam radiotherapy target localization using DTS requires the registration of on-board DTS images with corresponding reference image data. This study evaluates three types of reference volume: original reference CT, exact reference DTS (RDTS), and a more computationally efficient approximate reference DTS (RDTS{sub approx}), as well as three different DTS scan angles (22 deg., 44 deg., and 65 deg.) for the DTS target localization task. Three-dimensional mutual information (MI) shared between reference and on-board DTS volumes was computed in a region surrounding the spine of a chest phantom, as translations spanning {+-}5 mm and rotations spanning {+-}5 deg. were simulated along each dimension in the reference volumes. The locations of the MI maxima were used as surrogates for registration accuracy, and the width of the MI peaks were used to characterize the registration robustness. The results show that conventional treatment planning CT volumes are inadequate reference volumes for direct registration with on-board DTS data. The efficient RDTS{sub approx} method also appears insufficient for MI-based registration without further refinement of the technique, though it may be suitable for manual registration performed by a human observer. The exact RDTS volumes, on the other hand, delivered a 3D DTS localization accuracy of 0.5 mm and 0.5 deg. along each axis, using only a single 44 deg. coronal on-board DTS scan of the chest phantom.

  7. Probe-based real-time PCR method for multilocus melt typing of Xylella fastidiosa strains.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jeff A; Faske, Jennifer B; Ator, Rebecca A; Castañeda-Gill, Jessica M; Mitchell, Forrest L

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of Pierce's disease (PD) can be confounded by a lack of taxonomic detail on the bacterial causative agent, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). PD in grape is caused by strains of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, but is not caused by other subspecies of Xf that typically colonize plants other than grape. Detection assays using ELISA and qPCR are effective at detecting and quantifying Xf presence or absence, but offer no information on Xf subspecies or strain identity. Surveying insects or host plants for Xf by current ELISA or qPCR methods provides only presence/absence and quantity information for any and all Xf subspecies, potentially leading to false assessments of disease threat. This study uses a series of adjacent-hybridizing DNA melt analysis probes that are capable of efficiently discriminating Xf subspecies and strain relationships in rapid real-time PCR reactions.

  8. Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic literature search and independent external validation study

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, Linda M; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Stolk, Ronald P; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Moons, Karel G M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beulens, Joline W J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify existing prediction models for the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and to externally validate them in a large independent cohort. Data sources Systematic search of English, German, and Dutch literature in PubMed until February 2011 to identify prediction models for diabetes. Design Performance of the models was assessed in terms of discrimination (C statistic) and calibration (calibration plots and Hosmer-Lemeshow test).The validation study was a prospective cohort study, with a case cohort study in a random subcohort. Setting Models were applied to the Dutch cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study (EPIC-NL). Participants 38 379 people aged 20-70 with no diabetes at baseline, 2506 of whom made up the random subcohort. Outcome measure Incident type 2 diabetes. Results The review identified 16 studies containing 25 prediction models. We considered 12 models as basic because they were based on variables that can be assessed non-invasively and 13 models as extended because they additionally included conventional biomarkers such as glucose concentration. During a median follow-up of 10.2 years there were 924 cases in the full EPIC-NL cohort and 79 in the random subcohort. The C statistic for the basic models ranged from 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.75) to 0.84 (0.82 to 0.85) for risk at 7.5 years. For prediction models including biomarkers the C statistic ranged from 0.81 (0.80 to 0.83) to 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94). Most prediction models overestimated the observed risk of diabetes, particularly at higher observed risks. After adjustment for differences in incidence of diabetes, calibration improved considerably. Conclusions Most basic prediction models can identify people at high risk of developing diabetes in a time frame of five to 10 years. Models including biomarkers classified cases slightly better than basic ones. Most models overestimated the actual risk of diabetes. Existing

  9. [Radial external fixator for closed treatment of type III and IV supracondylar humerus fractures in children. A new surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Slongo, T

    2014-02-01

    Closed, anatomical reduction and reliable fixation of type III and IV supracondylar fractures that are either difficult or impossible to treat with conventional methods. According the Pediatric Comprehensive AO Classification for long bones this technique is preferred for type III and IV supracondylar fractures that cannot be reduced using closed standard manipulative techniques, where stable fixation using standard percutaneous wire configurations cannot be achieved, when severe swelling, open fracture, primary neurological or vascular problems ("pulseless pink hand") or multiple injuries indicate that optimal management of the injured limb should be free from cast. In patients with comorbidities (e.g., seizures or spasticity) requiring more stable fixation. In principle there are no contraindications. Prior to reduction of the fracture, fluoroscopically controlled insertion of a single Schanz screw into the lateral (radial) aspect of the distal fragment, which is defined by bulls eyeing the capitellum in the perfect lateral radiographic projection of the epiphysis, parallel to the physis. For very distal fractures this screw may be intra-epiphyseal, although usual placement is in the metaphysis just distal to the fracture line. After obtaining perfect lateral radiographic projection of the distal humeral metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction, a second Schanz screw is inserted independently into the proximal fracture fragment at the proximal end of the lateral supracondylar ridge in the sagittal plane perpendicular to the long axis of the humeral diaphysis. By bringing the screws parallel to each other in the coronal and transverse planes direct manipulations of the fragments and anatomical reduction using the so-called joystick technique is achieved. Fracture reduction can then be adjusted anatomically under fluoroscopic control and through clinical assessment. Once reduction is achieved the fragments have to be secured with a so-called "anti-rotation" K-wire. This

  10. Frontiers of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Part 2. Perturbation methods, fields of applications, and types of analytical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Noteworthy experimental practices, which are advancing forward the frontiers of the field of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, are reviewed with the focus on various perturbation methods currently practiced to induce spectral changes, pertinent examples of applications in various fields, and types of analytical probes employed. Types of perturbation methods found in the published literature are very diverse, encompassing both dynamic and static effects. Although a sizable portion of publications report the use of dynamic perturbatuions, much greater number of studies employ static effect, especially that of temperature. Fields of applications covered by the literature are also very broad, ranging from fundamental research to practical applications in a number of physical, chemical and biological systems, such as synthetic polymers, composites and biomolecules. Aside from IR spectroscopy, which is the most commonly used tool, many other analytical probes are used in 2D correlation analysis. The ever expanding trend in depth, breadth and versatility of 2D correlation spectroscopy techniques and their broad applications all point to the robust and healthy state of the field.

  11. Sensitive and specific fluorescent probes for functional analysis of the three major types of mammalian ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Irina V; Pande, Praveen; Patton, Wayne F

    2011-01-01

    An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1/2 (ABCC1/2) and BCRP/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression levels of ABC transporters in live cells, but most dyes used as indicators (rhodamine 123, DiOC(2)(3), calcein-AM) have limited applicability as they do not detect all three major types of ABC transporters. Dyes with broad coverage (such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin and mitoxantrone) lack sensitivity due to overall dimness and thus may yield a significant percentage of false negative results. We describe two novel fluorescent probes that are substrates for all three common types of ABC transporters and can serve as indicators of MDR in flow cytometry assays using live cells. The probes exhibit fast internalization, favorable uptake/efflux kinetics and high sensitivity of MDR detection, as established by multidrug resistance activity factor (MAF) values and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Used in combination with general or specific inhibitors of ABC transporters, both dyes readily identify functional efflux and are capable of detecting small levels of efflux as well as defining the type of multidrug resistance. The assay can be applied to the screening of putative modulators of ABC transporters, facilitating rapid, reproducible, specific and relatively simple functional detection of ABC transporter activity, and ready implementation on widely available instruments.

  12. The reflection-type configuration in the pump-probe scheme of nonlinear polarization spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gancherenok, I.I.; Lavrinenko, A.V.

    1995-06-01

    An expression allowing one to optimize the polarization and geometric conditions used to observe signals in the reflection-type configuration of the method of nonlinear polarization spectroscopy is derived. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Salter-Harris type II metacarpal and metatarsal fracture in three foals. Treatment by minimally-invasive lag screw osteosynthesis combined with external coaptation.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein Bregger, Micaël D; Fürst, Anton E; Kircher, Patrick R; Kluge, Katharina; Kummer, Martin

    2016-05-18

    To describe minimally-invasive lag screw osteosynthesis combined with external coaptation for the treatment of Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal and third metatarsal bone fractures. Three foals aged two weeks to four months with a Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal or third metatarsal fracture. Surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia in lateral recumbency. After fracture reduction, the metaphyseal fragment was stabilized with two cortical screws placed in lag fashion under fluoroscopic control. A cast was applied for at least two weeks. All foals had a good outcome with complete fracture healing and return to complete soundness without any angular limb deformity. All foals had moderate transient digital hyperextension after cast removal. Internal fixation of Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal or third metatarsal fractures with two cortical screws in lag fashion, combined with external coaptation provided good stabilization and preserved the longitudinal growth potential of the injured physis.

  14. Species specificities among primates probed with commercially available fluorescence-based multiplex PCR typing kits.

    PubMed

    Hiroshige, Yuuji; Ohtaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Ogawa, Hisae; Ishii, Akira; Yamamoto, Toshimichi

    2015-09-01

    To assess species specificities among primates of signals from short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in two commercially available kits, mainly the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit and additionally the GenePrint PowerPlex 16 system, we analyzed 69 DNA samples from 22 nonhuman primate species representing apes, Old World Monkeys (OWMs), New World Monkeys (NWMs), and prosimians. Each prosimian species and the NWM cotton-top tamarin apparently lacked all STR loci probed. Only one peak, the amelogenin-X peak, was evident in samples from all other NWMs, except the owl monkey. In contrast, several loci, including the amelogenin-X peak, was evident in samples from each OWM species. Notably, for each ape sample, the amelogenin peaks were concordant with morphological gender of the individual. Among the primates, especially in apes, the numbers of alleles for STR loci were increasing according to their phylogenetic order: prosimians

  15. Evaluation of Geno Type MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay for Early Detection of Drug Resistance in Tuberculous Meningitis Patients in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renu; Thakur, Rajeev; Gupta, Prerna; Jalan, Nupur; Kushwaha, Suman; Gupta, Meena; Gupta, Piyush; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Manchanda, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods which allow for rapid and reliable detection of drug resistance have yet not been sufficiently evaluated for timely management of patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to evaluate Geno Type MTBDRplus line probe assay for early detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and CSF samples of confirmed tuberculous meningitis patients. This was a multicentric prospective study carried out from July 2011 to December 2013 in tertiary care hospitals of Delhi. The assay was performed on 89 M. tuberculosis isolates and 31 direct CSF samples from microbiologically confirmed tuberculous meningitis patients. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was calculated in comparison to drug susceptibility testing by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The sensitivity, specificity for detection of resistance to Isoniazid was 93%, 97% and to Rifampicin was 80%, 98.8%, respectively by this assay in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The line probe assay could detect M. tuberculosis in 55% of CSF samples from patients with microbiologically confirmed tuberculous meningitis. Only 5/89 isolates (5.6%) were resistant to both Isoniazid and Rifampicin while 9/89 (10%) isolates were additionally resistant to Isoniazid. Resistance to any of the drugs, namely Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Streptomycin or Ethambutol, was seen in 24.7% of strains. The line probe assay has a good sensitivity and specificity for detection of drug resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin in M. tuberculosis culture isolates. However, this assay has limited role in detection of M. tuberculosis and drug resistance from direct samples with confirmed diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

  16. Assessment of photon migration for subsurface probing in selected types of bone using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Churchwell, John H.; Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Goodship, Allen E.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Bone diseases and disorders are a growing challenge in aging populations; so effective diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are now essential to manage the demands of healthcare sectors effectively. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for chemically specific sub-surface probing and has a great potential to become an in vivo tool for early non-invasive detection of bone conditions. Bone is a complex hierarchical material and the volume probed by SORS is dependent on its optical properties. Understanding and taking into account the variations in diffuse scattering properties of light in various bone types is essential for the effective development and optimization of SORS as a diagnostic in vivo tool for characterizing bone disease. This study presents SORS investigations at 830 nm excitation on two specific types of bone with differing mineralization levels. Thin slices of bone from horse metacarpal cortex (0.6 mm thick) and whale bulla (1.0 mm thick) were cut and stacked on top of each other (4-7 layers with a total thickness of 4.1 mm). To investigate the depth origin of the detected Raman signal inside the bone a 0.38 mm thin Teflon slice was used as test sample and inserted in between the layers of stacked bone slices. For both types of bone it could be demonstrated that chemically specific Raman signatures different from those of normal bone can be retrieved through 3.8-4.0 mm of overlying bone material with a spatial offset of 7-8 mm. The determined penetration depths can be correlated with the mechanical and optical properties of the specimens. The findings of this study increase our understanding of SORS analysis of bone and thus have impact for medical diagnostic applications e.g. enabling the non-invasive detection of spectral changes caused by degeneration, infection or cancer deep inside the bone matrix.

  17. The sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for α-fetoprotein based on enrichment by Fe3O4-Au magnetic nano probes and signal amplification by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hankun; Gan, Ning; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Zeng, Saolin; Zheng, Lei; Guo, Zhiyong

    2012-10-09

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for ultra trace levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) based on sandwich immunoreaction strategy by enrichment using magnetic capture probes and quantum dots coated with Au shell (CdS-Au) as the signal tag. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing the primary antibody of AFP (Ab1) on the core/shell Fe(3)O(4)-Au nanoparticles, which was first employed to capture AFP antigens to form Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP complex from the serum after incubation. The product can be separated from the background solution through the magnetic separation. Then the CdS-Au labeled secondary antibody (Ab2) as signal tag (CdS-Au/Ab2) was conjugated successfully with Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP complex to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex (Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP/Ab2/CdS-Au), which can be further separated by an external magnetic field and produce ECL signals at a fixed voltage. The signal was proportional to a certain concentration range of AFP for quantification. Thus, an easy-to-use immunosensor with magnetic probes and a quantum dots signal tag was obtained. The immunosensor performed at a level of high sensitivity and a broad concentration range for AFP between 0.0005 and 5.0 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.2 pg mL(-1). The use of magnetic probes was combined with pre-concentration and separation for trace levels of tumor markers in the serum. Due to the amplification of the signal tag, the immunosensor is highly sensitive, which can offer great promise for rapid, simple, selective and cost-effective detection of effective biomonitoring for clinical application.

  18. Atom probe tomography of apatites and bone-type mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Lyle M; Tran, Lawrence; Joester, Derk

    2012-12-21

    Nanocrystalline biological apatites constitute the mineral phase of vertebrate bone and teeth. Beyond their central importance to the mechanical function of our skeleton, their extraordinarily large surface acts as the most important ion exchanger for essential and toxic ions in our body. However, the nanoscale structural and chemical complexity of apatite-based mineralized tissues is a formidable challenge to quantitative imaging. For example, even energy-filtered electron microscopy is not suitable for detection of small quantities of low atomic number elements typical for biological materials. Herein we show that laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, a technique that combines subnanometer spatial resolution with unbiased chemical sensitivity, is uniquely suited to the task. Common apatite end members share a number of features, but can clearly be distinguished by their spectrometric fingerprint. This fingerprint and the formation of molecular ions during field evaporation can be explained based on the chemistry of the apatite channel ion. Using end members for reference, we are able to interpret the spectra of bone and dentin samples, and generate the first three-dimensional reconstruction of 1.2 × 10(7) atoms in a dentin sample. The fibrous nature of the collagenous organic matrix in dentin is clearly recognizable in the reconstruction. Surprisingly, some fibers show selectivity in binding for sodium ions over magnesium ions, implying that an additional, chemical level of hierarchy is necessary to describe dentin structure. Furthermore, segregation of inorganic ions or small organic molecules to homophase interfaces (grain boundaries) is not apparent. This has implications for the platelet model for apatite biominerals.

  19. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval.

  20. A brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) for probe-type dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Quast, Ulrich; Kaulich, Theodor W; Álvarez-Romero, José T; Carlsson Tedgren, Sa; Enger, Shirin A; Medich, David C; Mourtada, Firas; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J; Zakaria, G Abu

    2016-06-01

    In photon brachytherapy (BT), experimental dosimetry is needed to verify treatment plans if planning algorithms neglect varying attenuation, absorption or scattering conditions. The detector's response is energy dependent, including the detector material to water dose ratio and the intrinsic mechanisms. The local mean photon energy E¯(r) must be known or another equivalent energy quality parameter used. We propose the brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT)(E¯), to characterize the photon radiation quality in view of measurements of distributions of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, around BT sources. While the external photon beam radiotherapy (EBRT) radiation quality index Q(EBRT)(E¯)=TPR10(20)(E¯) is not applicable to BT, the authors have applied a novel energy dependent parameter, called brachytherapy photon radiation quality index, defined as Q(BT)(E¯)=Dprim(r=2cm,θ0=90°)/Dprim(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), utilizing precise primary absorbed dose data, Dprim, from source reference databases, without additional MC-calculations. For BT photon sources used clinically, Q(BT)(E¯) enables to determine the effective mean linear attenuation coefficient μ¯(E) and thus the effective energy of the primary photons Eprim(eff)(r0,θ0) at the TG-43 reference position Pref(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), being close to the mean total photon energy E¯tot(r0,θ0). If one has calibrated detectors, published E¯tot(r) and the BT radiation quality correction factor [Formula: see text] for different BT radiation qualities Q and Q0, the detector's response can be determined and Dw(r,θ) measured in the vicinity of BT photon sources. This novel brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT) characterizes sufficiently accurate and precise the primary photon's penetration probability and scattering potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [The effect of different types of weather on external respiratory function in children ill with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Saralinova, G M; Povazhnaia, E L; Toĭchieva, F M; Niiazbekova, E A

    2000-01-01

    Questioning of 70 children with bronchial asthma aged 9 to 14 has identified high percent (71.4%) of meteolabile patients who respond to unfavourable weather with changed function of the external respiration. Reduction of pulmonary ventilation led to clinical deterioration.

  2. N-type calcium channel inactivation probed by gating-current analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L P; DeMaria, C D; Yue, D T

    1999-01-01

    N-type calcium channels inactivate most rapidly in response to moderate, not extreme depolarization. This behavior reflects an inactivation rate that bears a U-shaped dependence on voltage. Despite this apparent similarity to calcium-dependent inactivation, N-type channel inactivation is insensitive to the identity of divalent charge carrier and, in some reports, to the level of internal buffering of divalent cations. Hence, the inactivation of N-type channels fits poorly with the "classic" profile for either voltage-dependent or calcium-dependent inactivation. To investigate this unusual inactivation behavior, we expressed recombinant N-type calcium channels in mammalian HEK 293 cells, permitting in-depth correlation of ionic current inactivation with potential alterations of gating current properties. Such correlative measurements have been particularly useful in distinguishing among various inactivation mechanisms in other voltage-gated channels. Our main results are the following: 1) The degree of gating charge immobilization was unchanged by the block of ionic current and precisely matched by the extent of ionic current inactivation. These results argue for a purely voltage-dependent mechanism of inactivation. 2) The inactivation rate was fastest at a voltage where only approximately (1)/(3) of the total gating charge had moved. This unusual experimental finding implies that inactivation occurs most rapidly from intermediate closed conformations along the activation pathway, as we demonstrate with novel analytic arguments applied to coupled-inactivation schemes. These results provide strong, complementary support for a "preferential closed-state" inactivation mechanism, recently proposed on the basis of ionic current measurements of recombinant N-type channels (Patil et al., . Neuron. 20:1027-1038). PMID:10233069

  3. Extended pump-probe Faraday rotation spectroscopy of the submicrosecond electron spin dynamics in n -type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, V. V.; Evers, E.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Fobbe, F.; Greilich, A.; Bayer, M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop an extended pump-probe Faraday rotation technique to study submicrosecond electron spin dynamics with picosecond time resolution in a wide range of magnetic fields. The electron spin dephasing time T2* and the longitudinal spin relaxation time T1, both approaching 250 ns in weak fields, are measured thereby in n -type bulk GaAs. By tailoring the pump pulse train through increasing the contained number of pulses, the buildup of resonant spin amplification is demonstrated for the electron spin polarization. The spin precession amplitude in high magnetic fields applied in the Voigt geometry shows a nonmonotonic dynamics deviating strongly from a monoexponential decay and revealing slow beatings. The beatings indicate a two spin component behavior with a g -factor difference of Δ g ˜4 ×10-4 , much smaller than the Δ g expected for free and donor-bound electrons. This g -factor variation indicates efficient, but incomplete spin exchange averaging.

  4. A highly specific and sensitive DNA probe derived from chromosomal DNA of Helicobacter pylori is useful for typing H. pylori isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Ferguson, D A; Ha, T; Chi, D S; Thomas, E

    1993-01-01

    HindIII-digested DNA fragments derived from an EcoRI-digested 6.5-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA prepared from Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43629 (type strain) were cloned into the pUC19 vector. A 0.86-kb insert was identified as a potential chromosomal DNA probe. The specificity of the probe was evaluated by testing 166 non-H. pylori bacterial strains representing 38 genera and 91 species which included aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerophilic flora of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. None of the 166 non-H. pylori strains hybridized with this probe (100% specificity), and the sensitivity of this probe was also 100% when H. pylori isolates from 72 patients with gastritis and with the homologous ATCC type strain were tested by dot blot hybridization. The capability of this probe for differentiating between strains of H. pylori was evaluated by Southern blot hybridization of HaeIII-digested chromosomal DNA from 68 clinical isolates and the homologous ATCC type strain of H. pylori. Fifty-one unique hybridization patterns were seen among the 69 strains tested, demonstrating considerable genotypic variation among H. pylori clinical isolates. We propose that this probe would be of significant value for conducting epidemiologic studies. Images PMID:8370744

  5. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  6. Fluorescence probing investigation of the mechanism of formation of MSU-type mesoporous silica prepared in fluoride medium.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Cédric; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Marichal, Claire; Patarin, Joël; Zana, Raoul

    2005-09-13

    The mechanism of formation of a MSU-type siliceous material from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of the nonionic surfactant tergitol T-15-S-12, sulfuric acid, and sodium fluoride has been investigated using mainly fluorescence probing techniques and, to a lesser extent, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The tergitol micelles present in the systems obtained by progressively generating the reaction mixture giving rise to the mesostructured material by adding to an appropriate tergitol solution sulfuric acid, TEOS, and NaF were characterized by fluorescence probing (micelle aggregation number, micropolarity, and microviscosity) and also by dynamic light scattering (apparent micelle diameter). 29Si NMR experiments were also performed on selected systems after hydrolysis of the TEOS. The fluorescence probing techniques were also used to follow the changes of micelle characteristics with time during the evolution of the full reaction mixture from a limpid solution to a system containing a minor amount of condensed siliceous material. The synthesized solid material was characterized by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses. The micelle aggregation number N was found to change only little, and the micropolarity remained constant when going from the tergitol solution to the full reaction mixture. The results of DLS measurements agree with this finding. Besides, while the condensation of silica took place after addition of NaF, the N value increased only very little with time up to the point where a small amount of mesostructured material precipitated out. These results indicate that the interaction between tergitol micelles and the siliceous species formed in the system by the hydrolysis of TEOS and also between micelles and the growing siliceous species must be very weak. As in our previous studies of the mechanism of formation of MCM41-type material from sodium silicate in the presence of

  7. Fabrication of Micro Probe-Type Electrodes for Microelectro-Chemical Machining Using Microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W. B.; Choi, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kim, G. M.; Shin, H. S.; Chu, C. N.; Kim, B. H.

    In this study, the mass fabrication of microelectrode tools for microelectrochemical machining (MECM) was studied using microfabrication processes. The cantilever type geometry of microelectrodes was defined by photolithography processes, and metal patterns were made for electrical contacts. Various fabrication processes were studied for the fabrication of microelectrode tools, such as wet etching, lift-off, and electroforming for metal layer patterning. MECM test results showed feasibility of the fabricated electrode tools. The microfabricated electrodes can be used as micromachining tools for various electrical micromachining of steel mold and parts of microdevices.

  8. Suture Button Fixation Versus Syndesmotic Screws in Supination-External Rotation Type 4 Injuries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neary, Kaitlin C; Mormino, Matthew A; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    In stress-positive, unstable supination-external rotation type 4 (SER IV) ankle fractures, implant selection for syndesmotic fixation is a debated topic. Among the available syndesmotic fixation methods, the metallic screw and the suture button have been routinely compared in the literature. In addition to strength of fixation and ability to anatomically restore the syndesmosis, costs associated with implant use have recently been called into question. This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of the suture button and determine whether suture button fixation is more cost-effective than two 3.5-mm syndesmotic screws not removed on a routine postoperative basis. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Studies with the highest evidence levels in the available literature were used to estimate the hardware removal and failure rates for syndesmotic screws and suture button fixation. Costs were determined by examining the average costs for patients who underwent surgery for unstable SER IV ankle fractures at a single level-1 trauma institution. A decision analysis model that allowed comparison of the 2 fixation methods was developed. Using a 20% screw hardware removal rate and a 4% suture button hardware removal rate, the total cost for 2 syndesmotic screws was US$20,836 and the total effectiveness was 5.846. This yielded a total cost of $3564 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) over an 8-year time period. The total cost for suture button fixation was $19,354 and the total effectiveness was 5.904, resulting in a total cost of $3294 per QALY over the same time period. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to assess suture button fixation costs as well as screw and suture button hardware removal rates. Other possible treatment scenarios were also examined, including 1 screw and 2 suture buttons for operative fixation of the syndesmosis. To become more cost-effective, the screw hardware removal rate would have to be reduced to less than 10

  9. Type II Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase: Probing the Mechanism with Alkyne/Allene Diphosphate Substrate Analogues†

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nagendra K.; Pan, Jian-Jung; Poulter, C. Dale

    2010-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the basic five-carbon building blocks of isoprenoid molecules. Two structurally unrelated classes of IDI are known. Type I IPP isomerase (IDI-1) utilizes a divalent metal in a protonation-deprotonation reaction. In contrast, the type II enzyme (IDI-2) requires reduced flavin, raising the possibility that the reaction catalyzed by IDI-2 involves the net addition/abstraction of a hydrogen atom. As part of our studies of the mechanism of isomerization for IDI-2, we synthesized allene and alkyne substrate analogues for the enzyme. These molecules are predicted to be substantially less reactive toward proton addition than IPP and DMAPP, but have similar reactivities toward hydrogen atom addition. This prediction was verified by calculations of gas phase heats of reaction for addition of a proton and of a hydrogen atom to 1-butyne (3) and 1,2-butadiene (4) to form the 1-buten-2-yl carbocation and radical, respectively, and related affinities for 2-methyl-1-butene (5) and 2-methyl-2-butene (6) using G3MP2B3 and CBS-QB3 protocols. Alkyne 1-OPP and allene 2-OPP were not substrates for Thermus thermophilus IDI-2 or Escherichia coli IDI-1, but instead were competitive inhibitors. The experimental and computational results are consistent with a protonation-deprotonation mechanism for the enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of IPP and DMAPP. PMID:20560533

  10. Surgical correction of bilateral metacarpophalangeal valgus with curved osteotomies and type II external skeletal fixation in a seven-month-old alpaca.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Mike J; Whitfield, Chase T; Rochat, Mark C; Streeter, Robert N; Sippel, Kate

    2016-09-20

    To report the successful surgical correction of severe bilateral metacarpophalangeal valgus angular limb deformities in a seven-month-old intact male alpaca cria using curved osteotomies stabilized with type II external skeletal fixation. Using a 21 mm crescentic shaped oscillating saw blade, bilateral osteotomies were performed in the distal metaphyses of the fused third and fourth metacarpal bones to correct valgus angular limb deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joints. Axial alignment of each limb was achieved by medially rotating the distal metacarpus in the frontal plane along the curved osteotomies. The osteotomies were stabilized using type II external skeletal fixators. The alpaca was immediately weight-bearing following the surgical procedure and no to minimal lameness was observed during healing of the osteotomies. Evaluation at five and 10 months following the surgery demonstrated acceptable axial alignment in the left forelimb while moderate to severe varus deformity (overcorrection) was observed in the right. Curved osteotomy of the distal metacarpus stabilized with type II external skeletal fixation can provide a favourable outcome in older alpaca crias affected with metacarpophalangeal angular limb deformities. Placement of the distal transfixation pins relative to the metacarpal physes should be carefully evaluated as overcorrection is possible, especially if growthpotential remains in only one physis of the fused third and fourth metacarpal bones.

  11. Probing post-explosion evolution of supernovae in the Type Ia single degenerate channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehner, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Two leading theories exist to explain the progenitor models of Type Ia supernovae. In the single-degenerate scenario (SDS), a carbon-oxygen white dwarf slowly accretes matter from a non-degenerate binary companion that is exceeding its roche lobe until the mass of the white dwarf reaches the Chandrasekhar limit (M ˜ 1.4 solar masses). At this point a deflagration wave begins in the core, eventually turning into a detonation wave that reaches the surface and annihilates the white dwarf, causing the supernova event. In the double-degenerate scenario (DDS), two white dwarfs lose angular momentum due to the emission of gravitational waves and merge together, exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit and causing a supernova. In this study, we explore the observational evidence indicative of only the single-degenerate scenario by looking at the long-term effects caused by the interaction between the supernova debris and the non-degenerate companion. We model the interaction in two dimensions using the PROTEUS code that utilizes adaptive mesh refinement. Our simulations involve one supernova type interacting with one of seven different companion types -- four main-sequence-like stars (MS), one subgiant (SG), and two red giants (SY). During the interaction, a region mostly devoid of material is formed behind the companion. We find that the structure of this `hole' formed behind the companion is similar across each of these models, with an angular size extending 30°-45°. The structure of the supernova remnant is affected out to 90°-100° as a result of the interaction with the companion. Each companion type has a characteristic percentage of mass stripped from it by the end of the simulation with MS stars losing about ˜20% of their mass, the SG star losing about ˜10%, and the SY stars losing about ˜40%, where in the SY case only the denerate core and a small portion of the stellar envelope is left over. We find that the interaction contaminates the companion with trace

  12. Probing the 2-D Kinematic Structure of Early-Type Galaxies Out to 3 Effective Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Robert N.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Spolaor, Max; Trevor Mendel, J.; Spitler, Lee

    2010-06-01

    We detail an innovative new technique for measuring the 2-D velocity moments (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 and h4) using spectra from Keck DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopic observations. The data are used to reconstruct 2-D rotation velocity maps. Here we present data for one of five early-type galaxies whose kinematics we have measured out to ~3 effective radii (see [1]). From these data 2D kinematic maps are constructed. We show such analyses can provide significant insights into the global kinematic structure of galaxies, and, in some cases, challenge the accepted morphological classification. Our results are of particular importance to studies which attempt to classify galaxies by their kinematic structure within one effective radius, such as the recent definition of fast- and slow- rotator classes by the SAURON project.

  13. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE PEARS SURVEY: PROBING THE STELLAR POPULATIONS AT MODERATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Pirzkal, Nor; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Panagia, Nino; Lisker, Thorsten; Daddi, Emanuele; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2009-11-20

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) slitless grism spectra from the PEARS program, we study the stellar populations of morphologically selected early-type galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. The sample-extracted from a visual classification of the (v2.0) HST/ACS images and restricted to redshifts z > 0.4-comprises 228 galaxies (i {sub F775W} < 24 mag, AB) out to z approx< 1.3 over 320 arcmin{sup 2}, with a median redshift z {sub M} = 0.75. This work significantly increases our previous sample from the GRAPES survey in the HUDF (18 galaxies over approx11 arcmin{sup 2}). The grism data allow us to separate the sample into 'red' and 'blue' spectra, with the latter comprising 15% of the total. Three different grids of models parameterizing the star formation history are used to fit the low-resolution spectra. Over the redshift range of the sample-corresponding to a cosmic age between 5 and 10 Gyr-we find a strong correlation between stellar mass and average age, whereas the spread of ages (defined by the root mean square of the distribution) is roughly approx1 Gyr and independent of stellar mass. The best-fit parameters suggest that it is the formation epoch and not the formation timescale that best correlates with mass in early-type galaxies. This result-along with the recently observed lack of evolution of the number density of massive galaxies-motivates the need for a channel of (massive) galaxy formation bypassing any phase in the blue cloud, as suggested by the simulations of Dekel et al.

  14. Early-Type Galaxies in the PEARS Survey: Probing the Stellar Populations at Moderate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Pirzkal, Nor; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lisker, Thorsten; Panagia, Nino; Daddi, Emanuele; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2009-11-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) slitless grism spectra from the PEARS program, we study the stellar populations of morphologically selected early-type galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. The sample—extracted from a visual classification of the (v2.0) HST/ACS images and restricted to redshifts z > 0.4—comprises 228 galaxies (i F775W < 24 mag, AB) out to z lsim 1.3 over 320 arcmin2, with a median redshift z M = 0.75. This work significantly increases our previous sample from the GRAPES survey in the HUDF (18 galaxies over ~11 arcmin2). The grism data allow us to separate the sample into "red" and "blue" spectra, with the latter comprising 15% of the total. Three different grids of models parameterizing the star formation history are used to fit the low-resolution spectra. Over the redshift range of the sample—corresponding to a cosmic age between 5 and 10 Gyr—we find a strong correlation between stellar mass and average age, whereas the spread of ages (defined by the root mean square of the distribution) is roughly ~1 Gyr and independent of stellar mass. The best-fit parameters suggest that it is the formation epoch and not the formation timescale that best correlates with mass in early-type galaxies. This result—along with the recently observed lack of evolution of the number density of massive galaxies—motivates the need for a channel of (massive) galaxy formation bypassing any phase in the blue cloud, as suggested by the simulations of Dekel et al.

  15. External Fixator for Maintaining Reduction Before Volar Plating: A Simple Treatment Method for Association of Osteosynthesis Type C3 Distal Radius Fracture.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Wang, Ta-I; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Lin, Tsung-Li

    2016-03-01

    Volar plating for Association of Osteosynthesis type C3 distal radius fractures involves more time and more radiation exposure because it is extremely difficult to simultaneously maintain the reduction and restore the congruity of the articular surface. The authors present a technique of maintaining the acceptable reduction by using an external fixator followed by open volar plating for restoring articular congruity. A consecutive series of 96 Association of Osteosynthesis type C3 distal radius fractures treated with the technique were retrospectively reviewed between January 2004 and December 2012. The technique makes surgery simpler and more effective, and reduces radiation exposure.

  16. Probing the pinning landscape in type-II superconductors via Campbell penetration depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willa, R.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G.

    2016-02-01

    Type-II superconductors owe their magnetic and transport properties to vortex pinning, the immobilization of flux quanta through material inhomogeneities or defects. Characterizing the potential energy landscape for vortices, the pinning landscape (or short, pinscape), is of great technological importance. Aside from measurement of the critical current density jc and of creep rates S , the ac magnetic response provides valuable information on the pinscape which is different from that obtained through jc or S , with the Campbell penetration depth λC defining a characteristic quantity well accessible in an experiment. Here, we derive a microscopic expression for the Campbell penetration depth λC using strong-pinning theory. Our results explain the dependence of λC on the state preparation of the vortex system and the appearance of hysteretic response. Analyzing different pinning models, metallic or insulating inclusions, as well as δ Tc and δ ℓ pinning, we discuss the behavior of the Campbell length for different vortex-state preparations within the phenomenological H -T phase diagram and compare our results with recent experiments.

  17. Highly sensitive detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA using time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue F.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Wodnicki, Pawel; Siadat-Pajouh, M.; Herman, Brian

    1995-04-01

    We have been interested in the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and its diagnosis; to that end we have been developing microscopic imaging and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to genotype and quantitate the amount of HPV present at a single cell level in cervical PAP smears. However, we have found that low levels of HPV DNA are difficult to detect accurately because theoretically obtainable sensitivity is never achieved due to nonspecific autofluorescence, fixative induced fluorescence of cells and tissues, and autofluorescence of the optical components in the microscopic system. In addition, the absorption stains used for PAP smears are intensely autofluorescent. Autofluorescence is a rapidly decaying process with lifetimes in the range of 1-100 nsec, whereas phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence have lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) ec-10 msec. The ability to discriminate between specific fluorescence and autofluorescence in the time-domain has improved the sensitivity of diagnostic test such that they perform comparably to, or even more sensitive than radioisotopic assays. We have developed a novel time-resolved fluorescence microscope to improve the sensitivity of detection of specific molecules of interest in slide based specimens. This time-resolved fluorescence microscope is based on our recently developed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FILM) in conjunction with the use of long lifetime fluorescent labels. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the long lifetime probe (europium), we have demonstrated the utility of this technique for detection of HPV DNA in cervicovaginal cells. Our results indicate that the use of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes increases the sensitivity of detection by removing autofluorescence and will thus lead to improved early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Since the highly sensitive detection of DNA in clinical samples using

  18. Probing high-pressure phase transitions in Ti-based perovskite-type ferroelectrics using visible resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, Guillaume; Rouquette, Jérôme; Haines, Julien; Bornand, Véronique; Papet, Philippe; Pereira, Altaïr Soria

    2012-12-03

    We report unprecedented dramatic changes in the 647.1 nm Raman signal of PbZr(0.6)Ti(0.4)O(3) occurring in the same pressure ranges as the critical pressures of the antiferrodistortive and ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transitions. This huge decrease in intensity of both the Raman modes and the background, observed for both pressure transmitting media used (glycerol or 4:1 methanol ethanol mixture), is shown to originate from the two-step loss of a resonance Raman effect and the concomitant fluorescence. Changes in the local titanium environment (first with the onset of octahedral tilting and then with the removal of polar cation displacements) alter the electronic band structure and modify the resonance conditions. Furthermore, the optimal resonance conditions are found to be particularly narrow, as shown by the fluorescence spectrum of PbZr(0.6)Ti(0.4)O(3) at atmospheric pressure characterized by the presence of a very well-defined sharp peak (fwhm = 8 nm) centered around 647.1 nm. These results thus demonstrate that visible resonance Raman spectroscopy can be used as a quick and efficient technique for probing phase transitions in PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O(3) (PZT) and other technologically important perovskite-type materials such as PMN-xPT, PZN-xPT relaxors, lead free piezoelectrics, and ferroelectric nanopowders. This technique appears also a good alternative to UV Raman spectroscopy for probing the polar order at the nanoscale in ultrathinfilms and superlattices.

  19. PROBING THE ISOTROPY OF COSMIC ACCELERATION TRACED BY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Javanmardi, B.; Porciani, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method to test the isotropy of the magnitude–redshift relation of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and single out the most discrepant direction (in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio) with respect to the all-sky data. Our technique accounts for possible directional variations of the corrections for SNe Ia and yields all-sky maps of the best-fit cosmological parameters with arbitrary angular resolution. To show its potential, we apply our method to the high-redshift SNe Ia from the recent Union2.1 compilation, building maps with three different angular resolutions. We use a Monte Carlo method to estimate the statistical significance with which we could reject the null hypothesis that the magnitude–redshift relation is isotropic based on the properties of the observed most discrepant directions. We find that, based on pure signal-to-noise arguments, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at any meaningful confidence level. However, if we also consider that the strongest deviations in the Union2.1 sample closely align with the dipole temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, we find that the null hypothesis should be rejected at the 95%–99% confidence level, slightly depending on the angular resolution of the study. If this result is not due to a statistical fluke, it might either indicate that the SN data have not been cleaned from all possible systematics or even point toward new physics. We finally discuss future perspectives in the field for achieving larger and more uniform data sets that will vastly improve the quality of the results and optimally exploit our method.

  20. Probing the Isotropy of Cosmic Acceleration Traced By Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanmardi, B.; Porciani, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method to test the isotropy of the magnitude-redshift relation of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and single out the most discrepant direction (in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio) with respect to the all-sky data. Our technique accounts for possible directional variations of the corrections for SNe Ia and yields all-sky maps of the best-fit cosmological parameters with arbitrary angular resolution. To show its potential, we apply our method to the high-redshift SNe Ia from the recent Union2.1 compilation, building maps with three different angular resolutions. We use a Monte Carlo method to estimate the statistical significance with which we could reject the null hypothesis that the magnitude-redshift relation is isotropic based on the properties of the observed most discrepant directions. We find that, based on pure signal-to-noise arguments, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at any meaningful confidence level. However, if we also consider that the strongest deviations in the Union2.1 sample closely align with the dipole temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, we find that the null hypothesis should be rejected at the 95%-99% confidence level, slightly depending on the angular resolution of the study. If this result is not due to a statistical fluke, it might either indicate that the SN data have not been cleaned from all possible systematics or even point toward new physics. We finally discuss future perspectives in the field for achieving larger and more uniform data sets that will vastly improve the quality of the results and optimally exploit our method.

  1. Differences between left and right ventricular anatomy determine the types of reentrant circuits induced by an external electric shock. A rabbit heart simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Blanca; Eason, James C; Trayanova, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Despite the fact that elucidating the mechanisms of cardiac vulnerability to electric shocks is crucial to understanding why defibrillation shocks fail, important aspects of cardiac vulnerability remain unknown. This research utilizes a novel anatomically based bidomain finite-element model of the rabbit ventricles to investigate the effect of shock polarity reversal on the reentrant activity induced by an external defibrillation-strength shock in the paced ventricles. The specific goal of the study is to examine how differences between left and right ventricular chamber anatomy result in differences in the types of reentrant circuits established by the shock. Truncated exponential monophasic shocks of duration 8 ms were delivered via two external electrodes at various timings. Vulnerability grids were constructed for shocks of reversed polarity (referred to as RV- or LV- when either the RV or the LV electrode is a cathode). Our results demonstrate that reversing electrode polarity from RV- to LV- changes the dominant type of post-shock reentry: it is figure-of-eight for RV- and quatrefoil for LV- shocks. Differences in secondary types of post-shock arrhythmia also occur following shock polarity reversal. These effects of polarity reversal are primarily due to the fact that the LV wall is thicker than the RV, resulting in a post-shock excitable gap that is predominantly within the LV wall for RV- shocks and in the septum for LV- shocks.

  2. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  3. Stability assessment of the ankle mortise in supination-external rotation-type ankle fractures: lack of additional diagnostic value of MRI.

    PubMed

    Nortunen, Simo; Lepojärvi, Sannamari; Savola, Olli; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ohtonen, Pasi; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Lantto, Iikka; Kortekangas, Tero; Pakarinen, Harri

    2014-11-19

    This prospective diagnostic study assessed the utility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) findings for the deep aspect of the deltoid ligament in evaluating the stability of the ankle mortise in patients who have an SER (supination-external rotation)-type lateral malleolar fracture with no widening of the medial clear space. Sixty-one patients with a unilateral lateral malleolar fracture resulting from an SER mechanism were enrolled. Two surgeons assessed the stability of the ankle mortise with use of an external-rotation stress test. The anterior and posterior parts of the deep deltoid ligament were investigated with 3.0-T MRI and were graded (as normal, edematous, partial tear, or complete tear) by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The medial clear space was measured and compared with the MRI findings for the deep deltoid ligament in stable and unstable injuries. Interobserver reliability was calculated for both external-rotation stress testing and MRI assessment. Thirty-three patients had a medial clear space of ≥ 5 mm in the external-rotation stress test. According to MRI, all of these patients had an injury involving the deep deltoid ligament (an edematous ligament in five, a partial tear in twenty-six, and a total tear in two). Twenty-eight patients had a medial clear space of <5 mm, and MRI indicated a deep deltoid ligament injury in all of these patients as well (an edematous ligament in nine and a partial tear in nineteen). The medial clear space increased according to the severity of the deep deltoid ligament injury as indicated by MRI (p < 0.001). The interobserver agreement of the external-rotation stress test was excellent (94% agreement; kappa = 0.87), whereas the interobserver reliability of the MRI assessments by the two musculoskeletal radiologists was fair to moderate (72% agreement for the posterior part of the deep deltoid ligament and 56% for the anterior part; kappa = 0.46 and 0.22, respectively). On the basis of the study results, we do

  4. Spatially resolved variations of the IMF mass normalization in early-type galaxies as probed by molecular gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Timothy A.; McDermid, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    We here present the first spatially resolved study of the initial mass function (IMF) in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio (M/L). We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine M/L gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar IMF mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massive ETGs. We find good agreement between our IMF normalizations derived using molecular gas kinematics and those derived using other techniques. Despite this, we do not see find any correlation between the IMF normalization and galaxy dynamical properties or stellar population parameters, either locally or globally. In the future, larger studies which use molecules as tracers of galaxy dynamics can be used to help us disentangle the root cause of IMF variation.

  5. Novel HDD-type SNDM ferroelectric data storage system aimed at high-speed data transfer with single probe operation.

    PubMed

    Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Uda, Tomoya; Kurihashi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Kenkou; Cho, Yasuo

    2007-12-01

    In this study, several read/write tests were conducted using a novel ferroelectric data storage test system equipped with a spindle motor, targeted at high-speed data transfer using a single probe head. A periodically inverted signal can be read out correctly with a bit rate of 100 kbps using this test system, and 10 Mbps data transfer is also possible during writing operations. The effect of a dc-offset voltage applied to the writing waveform with high-speed probe scanning is discussed. In addition, a novel noncontact probe height control technique was adopted to solve the problem of tip abrasion.

  6. Periodontal disease progression in type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Part I--Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment.

    PubMed

    Novaes, A B; Gutierrez, F G; Novaes, A B

    1996-01-01

    Periodontal disease progression of 30 type II diabetic patients (NIDDM) and 30 patients in whom diabetes was not detected was evaluated. Age ranged from 30 to 77 years. To determine the periodontal condition, probing pocket depth and periodontal attachment loss were measured; to determine the metabolic control of the patients, glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose were measured. At the end of the study, the diabetic group was divided into three subgroups, according to the metabolic state of the patients: controlled patients, moderately controlled patients, and poorly controlled patients. Comparing the diabetic and the control groups as a whole, there was no statistically significant difference in probing pocket depth, but significance (P < 0.01) was observed for attachment loss. When diabetic patients were divided into subgroups, significant differences were observed between the poorly controlled and the control groups (P < 0.01) for both the probing pocket depth and periodontal attachment. The glycosylated hemoglobin test was more reliable than the fasting glucose analysis.

  7. Reducing and preventing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program.

    PubMed

    Westrupp, E M; Northam, E; Lee, K J; Scratch, S E; Cameron, F

    2015-11-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental health problems, which in turn are associated with poor glycemic control, diabetes-related complications, and long-term psychiatric morbidity. We tested the efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in reducing or preventing mental health problems and improving glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Diabetes Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and randomized to Triple P or standard diabetes care. The primary outcome was child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 3 and 12 months postrandomization. Secondary outcomes were glycemic control, parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning at 3 and 12 months, and glycemic control at 24 months. A total of 76 participants were randomized (38 to intervention and 38 to control), 60 completed 3-month, and 57 completed 12-month assessments. Benefits of Triple P were evident at 3 months for parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning (p < 0.05), but not for child mental health or glycemic control, with little effect at 12 months. Prespecified subgroup analyses for children with pre-existing internalizing or externalizing behavior problems indicated greater improvements in child mental health, parent mental health, parenting skills, and diabetes family conflict (p < 0.05), but lower parenting self-efficacy at 3 months. Improvements in parent mental health and parenting competency associated with Triple P were sustained to 12 months for children with pre-existing mental health problems. This study provides some support for the efficacy of Triple P in improving parent and family outcomes, and reducing child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems primarily in children who have pre-existing mental health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Case-control study on close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction for the treatment of pediatric Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures].

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Xiang; Wei, Xiao-Chun; Li, Hai-Ming

    2014-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects between close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction and operation for the treatment of pediatric closed Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures without neurovascular injury complications. From June 2009 to June 2012, 151 children with closed Gartland III supracondylar humerus fractures were retrospectively studied and divided into two groups, including 87 boys and 64 girls, ranging in age from 1 to 12 years old with an average of 5.3 years old. Among them, 76 children (conservative group) were treated with close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction; 75 children (operation group) underwent surgical operation. The time of elbow joint function exercise, the healing time of fracture, the function recovery of elbow joint and carrying angle was recorded and analyzed. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by the Flynn criteria system. All patients were followed up from 6 to 36 months (18.3 months on average). The average time of fracture healing and elbow joint functional exercise of the conservative group was shorter than those of operation group (P < 0.001). Motion range of the elbows and carrying angle of two groups were no statistical difference (P > 0.05). According to Flynn criteria system, in conservative group, the result was excellent in 31 cases, good in 35, fair in 7, and poor in 3; in operation group, 27 in excellent, 30 in good, 17 in fair and 1 in poor; there was no significant difference between two groups in therapeutic effects (P > 0.05). Close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction in treatment of pediatric closed Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures without neurovascular injury complications,which has similar effect to surgical treatment, and the time of fracture healing and elbow joint function exercise are significantly shorter.

  9. The effect of external non-driving factors, payment type and waiting and queuing on fatigue in long distance trucking.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ann; Friswell, Rena

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of external influences on long distance trucking, in particular, incentive-based remuneration systems and the need to wait or queue to load or unload on driver experiences of fatigue. Long distance truck drivers (n=475) were recruited at truck rest stops on the major transport corridors within New South Wales, Australia and asked to complete a survey by self-administration or interview. The survey covered demographics, usual working arrangements, details of the last trip and safety outcomes including fatigue experiences. On average drivers' last trip was over 2000 km and took 21.5 h to complete with an additional 6h of non-driving work. Incentive payments were associated with longer working hours, greater distances driven and higher fatigue for more drivers. Drivers required to wait in queues did significantly more non-driving work and experienced fatigue more often than those who did not. Drivers who were not paid to wait did the longest trips with average weekly hours above the legal working hours limits, had the highest levels of fatigue and the highest levels of interference by work with family life. In contrast, drivers who were paid to wait did significantly less work with shorter usual hours and shorter last trips. Multivariate analysis showed that incentive-based payment and unpaid waiting in queues were significant predictors of driver fatigue. The findings suggest that mandating payment of drivers for non-driving work including waiting would reduce the amount of non-driving work required for drivers and reduce weekly hours of work. In turn this would reduce driver fatigue and safety risk as well as enhancing the efficiency of the long distance road transport industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Shaft of the Type 1 Fimbriae Regulates an External Force to Match the FimH Catch Bond

    PubMed Central

    Zakrisson, Johan; Wiklund, Krister; Axner, Ove; Andersson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae mediate adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to host cells. It has been hypothesized that due to their ability to uncoil under exposure to force, fimbriae can reduce fluid shear stress on the adhesin-receptor interaction by which the bacterium adheres to the surface. In this work, we develop a model that describes how the force on the adhesin-receptor interaction of a type 1 fimbria varies as a bacterium is affected by a time-dependent fluid flow mimicking in vivo conditions. The model combines in vivo hydrodynamic conditions with previously assessed biomechanical properties of the fimbriae. Numerical methods are used to solve for the motion and adhesion force under the presence of time-dependent fluid profiles. It is found that a bacterium tethered with a type 1 pilus will experience significantly reduced shear stress for moderate to high flow velocities and that the maximum stress the adhesin will experience is limited to ∼120 pN, which is sufficient to activate the conformational change of the FimH adhesin into its stronger state but also lower than the force required for breaking it under rapid loading. Our model thus supports the assumption that the type 1 fimbria shaft and the FimH adhesin-receptor interaction are optimized to each other, and that they give piliated bacteria significant advantages in rapidly changing fluidic environments. PMID:23708354

  11. Comparison of a reverse-transverse cross pin technique with a same side cross pin type II external skeletal fixator in 89 dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Yang; Pead, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel reverse-transverse cross pin insertion technique could increase the stability of type II external skeletal fixators (ESF) in dogs compared with an alternate, same side cross pin ESF. Reverse-transverse cross pin technique and type II ESFs same side cross pin technique were applied and compared among subjects. Two of 42 ESFs (4.8%) applied with the reverse-transverse cross pin technique and 39 of 47 ESFs (83%) applied with the same side cross pin technique were subjectively unstable at the time of fixator removal (P < 0.001). The same side cross pin ESFs had significantly more pin tract new bone formation than the reverse-transverse ESFs (P = 0.038). In summary, this approach may provide a method of treating a variety of musculoskeletal conditions and soft tissue cases, which reverse-transverse cross pin ESFs are tolerated in dogs for a variety of conditions.

  12. Distribution of type I Fc epsilon-receptors on the surface of mast cells probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Kubitscheck, U; Schweitzer-Stenner, R; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M; Pecht, I

    1993-01-01

    The aggregation state of type I Fc epsilon-receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on the surface of single living mast cells was investigated by resonance fluorescence energy transfer. Derivatization of Fc epsilon RI specific ligands, i.e., immunoglobulin E or Fab fragments of a Fc epsilon RI specific monoclonal antibody, with donor and acceptor fluorophores provided a means for measuring receptor clustering through energy transfer between the receptor probes. The efficiency of energy transfer between the ligands carrying distinct fluorophores was determined on single cells in a microscope by analyzing the photobleaching kinetics of the donor fluorophore in the presence and absence of receptor ligands labeled with acceptor fluorophores. To rationalize the energy transfer data, we developed a theoretical model describing the dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the geometry of the fluorescently labeled macromolecular ligands and their aggregation state on the cell surface. To this end, the transfer process was numerically calculated first for one pair and then for an ensemble of Fc epsilon RI bound ligands on the cell surface. The model stipulates that the aggregation state of the Fc epsilon RI is governed by an attractive lipid-protein mediated interaction potential. The corresponding pair-distribution function characterizes the spatial distribution of the ensemble. Using this approach, the energy transfer efficiency of the ensemble was calculated for different degrees of receptor aggregation. Comparison of the theoretical modeling results with the experimental energy transfer data clearly suggests that the Fc epsilon RI are monovalent, randomly distributed plasma membrane proteins. The method provides a novel approach for determining the aggregation state of cell surface components. PMID:8431535

  13. SU-E-T-328: The Volume Effect Correction of Probe-Type Dosimetric Detectors Derived From the Convolution Model

    SciTech Connect

    Looe, HK; Poppe, B; Harder, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To derive and introduce a new correction factor kV, the “volume effect correction factor”, that accounts for not only the dose averaging over the detector's sensitive volume but also the secondary electron generation and transport inclusive of the disturbance of the field of secondary electrons within the detector. Materials and Methods: Mathematical convolutions and Fourier's convolution theorem have been used. Monte Carlo simulations of photon pencil beams were performed using EGSnrc. Detector constructions were adapted from manufacturers' information. Results: For the calculation of kV, the three basic convolution kernels have to be taken into account: the dose deposition kernel KD(x) (fluence to dose), the photon fluence response kernel KM(x) (photon fluence to detector signal) and the “dose response kernel” K(x) (dose to detector signal). K(x) is calculated from FT[K(x)] = [1/sqrt(2”)]FT[KM(x)]/FT[KD(x)], where the magnitude of kV(x) can be thereby calculated for arbitrary photon beam profiles and the areanormalized K(x). Conclusions: n order to take into account for the dimensions of dosimetric detectors in narrow photon beams, the “volume effect correction factor” kV has been introduced into the fundamental equation of probe-type dosimetry, and the convolution method has proven to be a method for the derivation of its numerical values. For narrow photon beams, whose width is comparable to the secondary electron ranges, kV can reach very high values, but it can be shown that the signals of small diamond detectors are well representing the absorbed dose to water averaged over the detector volume.

  14. External quality assessment of enterovirus detection and typing. European Union Concerted Action on Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, A. M.; Cleator, G. C.; Ras, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of an enterovirus proficiency panel for use in isolation and serotyping and/or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) carried out by 12 laboratories in nine European countries. Eleven laboratories reported results of virus isolation and serotyping. In addition, four laboratories reported results of a PCR for enterovirus detection. Correct virus isolation results were obtained for 105 of 110 samples (95.5%, four false-negatives, one false-positive), and correct PCR results for 39 of 40 (97.5%, one false-negative). The highest isolation rate (87.5%) was observed in primary and tertiary monkey kidney cells; on monkey kidney cell lines, human diploid fibroblasts or human heteroploid cells the isolation rate varied between 64% and 71.4%. Serotyping results were less satisfactory. Only 63 of 106 (59.4%) isolated viruses were typed correctly. Major problems were seen with samples containing mixtures of enteroviruses and with enterovirus 71 or echovirus 4, with 9%, 50%, and 55% correct results, respectively. These results underline the need for improvement of enterovirus typing, especially in view of the poliomyelitis eradication initiative. PMID:10212511

  15. Probing Skills for Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Beryl E.

    The Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services (OASIS) at the University of California at San Diego sponsors a workshop that teaches tutors to use five types of probing skills. The use of the skills is fundamental to the student learner's acquisition of complex relationships and problem solving skills. The five types of probes are:…

  16. A rosette cooling cell: more effective container for solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes under probe-type ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yasumitsu, Tatsuki; Liu, Gang; Leveque, Jean-Marc; Aonuma, Shuji; Duclaux, Laurent; Kimura, Takahide; Komatsu, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Probe-type ultrasonication has been employed for surfactant-aided solubilization, or individualization, of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The resulting solution can be used not only for spectroscopic analyses such as absorption, photoluminescence, and circular dichroism, but also for separation by density gradient ultracentrifugation, dielectrophoresis, chromatography, and polymer wrapping. In spite of its importance, the sonochemical processing of SWNTs has not been considered seriously. Herein, we report on a more efficient cooling cell for probe-type ultrasonication. As compared with a conventional cylindrical cell, the concentration of the SWNTs solubilized in water was found to be almost double in a rosette cooling cell after ultracentrifugation. The efficiency of a rosette cell can be attributed to the higher efficiency in circulation and cooling of the SWNT dispersion as well as enhancement of the cavitation process.

  17. Effect of chelate type and radioisotope on the imaging efficacy of four fibrin-specific PET probes

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Francesco; Oliveira, Bruno L.; Rietz, Tyson A.; Rotile, Nicholas J.; Day, Helen; Looby, Richard J.; Ay, Ilknur; Caravan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thrombus formation plays a major role in cardiovascular diseases, but noninvasive thrombus imaging is still challenging. Fibrin is a major component of both arterial and venous thrombi, and represents an ideal candidate for imaging of thrombosis. Recently we showed that 64Cu-DOTA-labeled PET probes based on fibrin-specific peptides are suitable for thrombus imaging in vivo, however the metabolic stability of these probes was limited. Here we describe four new probes using either 64Cu or Al18F chelated to two NOTA derivatives. Methods Probes were synthesized using a known fibrin-specific peptide conjugated to either NODAGA (FBP8, FBP10) or NOTA-monoamide (FBP9, FBP11) as chelators, followed by labeling with 64Cu (FBP8 and FBP9) or Al18F (FBP10 and FBP11). PET imaging efficacy, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolic stability were assessed in a rat model of arterial thrombosis. Results All probes had similar nanomolar affinity (435–760 nM) for the soluble fibrin fragment DD(E). PET imaging allowed clear visualization of thrombus by all probes, with a 5-fold or higher thrombus-to-background ratio. Compared to the previous DOTA derivative, the new 64Cu probes FBP8 and FBP9 showed substantially improved metabolic stability (>85% intact in blood at 4h post-injection) which resulted in high uptake at the target site (0.5–0.8% ID/g) that persisted over 5h, producing increasingly greater target-to-background ratios. The thrombus uptake was 5- to 20-fold higher than the uptake in the contralateral artery, blood, muscle, lungs, bone, spleen, large intestine and heart at 2h post-injection, and 10 to 40-fold higher at 5h. The Al18F derivatives FBP10 and FBP11 were less stable, in particular the NODAGA conjugate (FBP10, <30% intact in blood at 4h post-injection) which showed high bone uptake and low thrombus:background ratios that decreased over time. The high thrombus:contralateral ratios for all probes were confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography

  18. Reptilian reovirus utilizes a small type III protein with an external myristylated amino terminus to mediate cell-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jennifer A; Duncan, Roy

    2004-04-01

    Reptilian reovirus is one of a limited number of nonenveloped viruses that are capable of inducing cell-cell fusion. A small, hydrophobic, basic, 125-amino-acid fusion protein encoded by the first open reading frame of a bicistronic viral mRNA is responsible for this fusion activity. Sequence comparisons to previously characterized reovirus fusion proteins indicated that p14 represents a new member of the fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein family. Topological analysis revealed that p14 is a representative of a minor subset of integral membrane proteins, the type III proteins N(exoplasmic)/C(cytoplasmic) (N(exo)/C(cyt)), that lack a cleavable signal sequence and use an internal reverse signal-anchor sequence to direct membrane insertion and protein topology. This topology results in the unexpected, cotranslational translocation of the essential myristylated N-terminal domain of p14 across the cell membrane. The topology and structural motifs present in this novel reovirus membrane fusion protein further accentuate the diversity and unusual properties of the FAST protein family and clearly indicate that the FAST proteins represent a third distinct class of viral membrane fusion proteins.

  19. Application of probe manipulator to repair probe cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Egashira, Mitsuru; Machida, Kazumichi; Urata, Atsuo

    2006-03-01

    We fabricated an apparatus for manipulation and welding of fine metal objects using a probe. The apparatus is composed of a work probe of a tungsten alloy needle, stages, a DC power supply, and an observation system. The work probe is held vertically above a gold substrate placed on stages to control the relative position against the work probe. The DC power supply is equipped to apply voltage of 0-10kV between the work probe and the substrate. One application of the apparatus is to repair probe cards. Thousands of contact probes (needles) are mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB) in the probe card. The contact probes are mounted one by one by the hands. Recently, an array of the contact probe on the PCB is produced by the LIGA process in response to narrower semiconductor pitch length. The problem is that there are no methods to repair a wrong contact probe. Whole of the contact probes should be a waste owing to one wrong contact probe. We propose to replace a wrong contact probe with a good one using our apparatus. Experiments to remove a contact probe by the apparatus is carried out using the specimen of a mimic probe card, where a cantilever type contact probes are arranged with a pitch of 25 micrometers. Removal of the wrong contact probe is carried out by a non-contact discharge and a contact discharge using the apparatus. High voltage of about 1-2kV is applied after the work probe is moved to above the target contact probe for the non-contact discharge. While high voltage of about10kV is applied after the work probe is positioned in contact with the target contact probe for the contact discharge. The target contact probe is removed by both methods, though the neighboring contact probes are damaged. The latter method is hopeful for removal for repair of the probe card.

  20. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: a case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Jukic, Drazen M; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-12-01

    Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs) To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6-12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  2. Management of paediatric tibial fractures using two types of circular external fixator: Taylor spatial frame and Ilizarov circular fixator.

    PubMed

    Tafazal, Suhayl; Madan, Sanjeev S; Ali, Farhan; Padman, Manoj; Swift, Simone; Jones, Stanley; Fernandes, James A

    2014-05-01

    The use of circular fixators for the treatment of tibial fractures is well established in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the Ilizarov circular fixator (ICF) with the Taylor spatial frame (TSF) in terms of treatment results in consecutive patients with tibial fractures that required operative management. A retrospective analysis of patient records and radiographs was performed to obtain patient data, information on injury sustained, the operative technique used, time duration in frame, healing time and complications of treatment. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. Ten patients were treated with ICF between 2000 and 2005, while 15 patients have been treated with TSF since 2005. Two of the 10 treated with ICF and 5 of the 15 treated with TSF were open fractures. All patients went on to achieve complete union. Mean duration in the frame was 12.7 weeks for ICF and 14.8 weeks for the TSF group. Two patients in the TSF group had delayed union and required additional procedures including adjustment of fixator and bone grafting. There was one malunion in the TSF group that required osteotomy and reapplication of frame. There were seven and nine pin-site infections in the ICF and TSF groups, respectively, all of which responded to antibiotics. There were no refractures in either group. In an appropriate patient, both types of circular fixator are equally effective but have different characteristics, with TSF allowing for postoperative deformity correction. Of concern are the two cases of delayed union in the TSF group, all in patients with high-energy injuries. We feel another larger study is required to provide further clarity in this matter. Level II-comparative study.

  3. The membrane-proximal external region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope: dominant site of antibody neutralization and target for vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Montero, Marinieve; van Houten, Nienke E; Wang, Xin; Scott, Jamie K

    2008-03-01

    Enormous efforts have been made to produce a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1; there has been little success. However, the identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against epitopes on the highly conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 envelope protein has delineated this region as an attractive vaccine target. Furthermore, emerging structural information on the MPER has provided vaccine designers with new insights for building relevant immunogens. This review describes the current state of the field regarding (i) the structure and function of the gp41 MPER; (ii) the structure and binding mechanisms of the broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5, 4E10, and Z13; and (iii) the development of an MPER-targeting vaccine. In addition, emerging approaches to vaccine design are presented.

  4. Probing the mechanism of cellulosome attachment to the Clostridium thermocellum cell surface: computer simulation of the Type II Cohesin-Dockerin complex and its variants

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiancong; Smith, Jeremy C

    2010-10-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrolysis is the bottleneck in cellulosic ethanol production. Efficient degradation of biomass by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is carried out by the multicomponent cellulosome complex. The bacterial cell-surface attachment of the cellulosome is mediated by high-affinity protein-protein interactions between the Type II cohesin domain borne by the cell envelope protein and the Type II dockerin domain, together with neighboring X-module present at the C-terminus of the scaffolding protein (Type II coh-Xdoc). Here, the Type II coh-Xdoc interaction is probed using molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations and essential dynamics analyses on both the wild type and various mutants of the C. thermocellum Type II coh-Xdoc in aqueous solution. The simulations identify the hot spots, i.e. the amino acid residues that may lead to a dramatic decrease in binding affinity upon mutation and also probe the effects of mutations on the mode of binding. The results suggest that bulky and hydrophobic residues at the protein interface, which make specific contacts with their counterparts, may play essential roles in retaining a rigid cohesin-dockerin interface. Moreover, dynamical cross-correlation analysis indicates that the X-module has a dramatic effect on the cohesin-dockerin interaction and is required for the dynamical integrity of the interface.

  5. Outcomes of anterolateral thigh-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with bone grafting in gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Chung, Duke Whan; Han, Chung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility and the clinical outcomes of anterolateral thigh (ALT)-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with plating and bone grafting in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures. A total of 21 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 18 months and the mean age was 46.7 years. There were 18 men and three women. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 11.6 days. The mean size of flaps used was 15.3 × 8.2 cm. The mean size of bone defects was 2.26 cm. Segmental bone defects were observed in 5 five cases, for which bone transport or vascularized fibular graft were performed. When flaps were successful and the fracture sites did not have any evidence of infection, internal fixation with plates and bone grafting were performed. Flaps survived in 20 cases. In the 20 cases with successful flaps, two cases developed osteomyelitis, but the 20 cases achieved solid bone union at a mean of 8.6 months after the injury, salvaging the lower extremity in 100% of the cases. At the last follow-up, 9 nine cases were measured excellent or good; 6, fair; and 6, poor in the functional assessment based on the method developed by Puno et al. ALT- free flaps to cover soft tissue defects in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures are considered as useful option for the treatment of composite defects. In addition, conversion to internal fixation and bone grafting can be an alternative method in order to reduce the risk of complications and inconvenience of external fixators.

  6. Specific identification of human papillomavirus type in cervical smears and paraffin sections by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes: a preliminary communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.; Gendelman, H.E.; Naghashfar, Z.; Gupta, P.; Rosenshein, N.; Sawada, E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Shah, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears and paraffin sections of biopsy specimens obtained from women attending dysplasia clinics were examined for viral DNA sequences by in situ hybridization technique using TVS-labeled cloned recombinant DNA probes of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, and 16. These and one unrelated DNA probe complementary to measles virus RNA were labeled by nick translation using either one or two TVS-labeled nucleotides. Paraffin sections and cervical smears were collected on pretreated slides, hybridized with the probes under stringent or nonstringent conditions for 50 h, and autoradiographed. Additional cervical specimens from the same women were examined for the presence of genus-specific papillomavirus capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase technique. Preliminary results may be summarized as follows. The infecting virus could be identified in smears as well as in sections. Viral DNA sequences were detected only when there were condylomatous cells in the specimen and in only a proportion of the condylomatous cells. Even under stringent conditions, some specimens reacted with both HPV-6 and HPV-11. In some instances, the cells did not hybridize with any of the three probes even when duplicate specimens contained frankly condylomatous, capsid antigen-positive cells. In situ hybridization of Papanicolaou smears or of tissue sections is a practical method for diagnosis and follow-up of specific papillomavirus infection using routinely collected material.

  7. Development and evaluation of a low cost probe-type instrument to measure the equilibrium moisture content of grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storage bags are common in Africa, Asia and many other less developed countries therefore a grain probing method is well-suited for moisture content (MC) measurement. A low cost meter was developed as part of a USAID project to reduce the post-harvest loss (PHL). The meter measures the MC of maize a...

  8. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical signs in cases of isolated supination-external rotation-type lateral malleolar fractures.

    PubMed

    Nortunen, S; Flinkkilä, T; Lantto, I; Kortekangas, T; Niinimäki, J; Ohtonen, P; Pakarinen, H

    2015-08-01

    We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical findings to evaluate the stability of the ankle mortise in patients with supination-external rotation-type fractures of the lateral malleolus without widening of the medial clear space. The cohort included 79 patients with a mean age of 44 years (16 to 82). Two surgeons assessed medial tenderness, swelling and ecchymosis and performed the external rotation (ER) stress test (a reference standard). A diagnostic radiographer performed the gravity stress test. For the gravity stress test, the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 5.80 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.75 to 12.27, and the negative LR was 0.15 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.35), suggesting a moderate change from the pre-test probability. Medial tenderness, both alone and in combination with swelling and/or ecchymosis, indicated a small change (positive LR, 2.74 to 3.25; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47), whereas swelling and ecchymosis indicated only minimal changes (positive LR, 1.41 to 1.65; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47). In conclusion, when gravity stress test results are in agreement with clinical findings, the result is likely to predict stability of the ankle mortise with an accuracy equivalent to ER stress test results. When clinical examination suggests a medial-side injury, however, the gravity stress test may give a false negative result. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Nickel(II) and iron(III) selective off-on-type fluorescence probes based on perylene tetracarboxylic diimide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixia; Wang, Delou; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiyou; Schalley, Christoph A

    2010-03-07

    Two novel "turn-on" fluorescent probes with perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as the fluorophore and two different di-(2-picolyl)-amine (DPA) groups as the metal ion receptor (PDI-1 and PDI-2) were successfully synthesized with satisfactory yields. PDI-1 exhibited high selectivity toward Ni(2+) in the presence of various other metal cations including Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) which were expected to interfere significantly. A 1 : 2 stoichiometry was found for the complex formed by PDI-1 and Ni(2+) by a Job's plot and by non-linear least square fitting of the fluorescence titration curves. By introducing an extra diamino ethylene group between DPA and the phenyl bridge, the receptor was modified and the high selectivity of the sensor toward Ni(2+) shifted to Fe(3+). The enhancement factor of the fluorescence response of PDI-2 to Fe(3+) was as high as 138. The binding behavior of the receptors in these two compounds is affected significantly by the PDI fluorophores. Most interestingly, both Ni(2+) and Fe(3+) are paramagnetic metal ions, which are known as fluorescence quenchers and are rarely targeted with "turn-on" fluorescence probes. This result suggests that PDIs are favorable fluorophores for a "turn-on" fluorescence probe for paramagnetic transition metal ions because of their high oxidation potential.

  11. INCREASED SERUM LEVELS OF UREA AND CREATININE ARE SURROGATE MARKERS FOR DISRUPTION OF RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR EXTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE AND INNER SEGMENT ELLIPSOID ZONE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sandeep; Ruia, Surabhi; Prasad, Senthamizh; Jain, Astha; Mishra, Nibha; Natu, Shankar M; Meyer, Carsten H; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Kruzliak, Peter; Akduman, Levent

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the role of serum urea and creatinine as surrogate markers for disruption of retinal photoreceptor external limiting membrane (ELM) and inner segment ellipsoid zone (EZ) in Type 2 diabetic retinopathy (DR) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, for the first time. One hundred and seventeen consecutive cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes without retinopathy [No DR; n = 39], nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR; n = 39], proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR; n = 39]) and 40 healthy control subjects were included. Serum levels of urea and creatinine were assessed using standard protocol. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to grade the disruption of ELM and EZ as follows: Grade 0, no disruption of ELM and EZ; Grade 1, ELM disrupted, EZ intact; Grade 2, ELM and EZ disrupted. Data were analyzed statistically. Increase in serum levels of urea (F = 22.93) and creatinine (F = 15.82) and increased grades of disruption of ELM and EZ (γ = 116.3) were observed with increased severity of DR (P < 0.001). Increase in serum levels of urea (F = 10.45) and creatinine (F = 6.89) was observed with increased grades of disruption of ELM and EZ (P = 0.001). Serum levels of urea and creatinine are surrogate markers for disruption of retinal photoreceptor ELM and EZ on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in DR.

  12. Use of a Repetitive DNA Probe To Type Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a Cluster of Cutaneous Infections in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    James, Michael J.; Lasker, Brent A.; McNeil, Michael M.; Shelton, Mark; Warnock, David W.; Reiss, Errol

    2000-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is second to A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis, but no standard method exists for molecular typing of strains from human sources. A repetitive DNA sequence cloned from A. flavus and subcloned into a pUC19 vector, pAF28, was used to type 18 isolates from diverse clinical, environmental, and geographic sources. The restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated with EcoRI- or PstI-digested genomic DNA and probed with digoxigenin-labeled pAF28 revealed complete concordance between patterns. Eighteen distinct fingerprints were observed. The probe was used to investigate two cases of cutaneous A. flavus infection in low-birth-weight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Both infants were transported by the same ambulance and crew to the NICU on the same day. A. flavus strains of the same genotype were isolated from both infants, from a roll of tape used to fasten their umbilical catheters, from a canvas bag used to store the tape in the ambulance, and from the tape tray in the ambulance isolette. These cases highlight the need to consider exposures in critically ill neonates that might occur during their transport to the NICU and for stringent infection control practices. The hybridization profiles of strains from a second cluster of invasive A. flavus infections in two pediatric hematology-oncology patients revealed a genotype common to strains from a definite case patient and a health care worker. A probable case patient was infected with a strain with a genotype different from that of the strain from the definite case patient but highly related to that of an environmental isolate. The high degree of discrimination and reproducibility obtained with the pAF28 probe underscores its utility for typing clinical and environmental isolates of A. flavus. PMID:11015372

  13. Evaluation of Performance of the Gen-Probe Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load Assay Using Primary Subtype A, C, and D Isolates from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sandra; Bodrug, Sharon; Richardson, Barbra A.; Giachetti, Cristina; Bott, Martha A.; Panteleeff, Dana; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Nduati, Ruth; Bwayo, Job; Kreiss, Joan K.; Overbaugh, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA has been invaluable as a marker for disease prognosis and for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 disease. The first generation of commercially available HIV-1 RNA tests were optimized to detect the predominant HIV-1 subtype found in North America and Europe, subtype B. However, these tests are frequently suboptimal in detecting HIV-1 genetic forms or subtypes found in other parts of the world. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a new viral load assay with non-subtype B viruses. A transcription-mediated amplification method for detection and quantitation of diverse HIV-1 subtypes, called the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay, is under development. In this study we examined the performance of the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay relative to that of the commonly used commercial HIV-1 RNA assays using a panel of primary isolates from Kenya. For comparison, we included several subtype B cloned viruses, and we quantified each virus using an in-house quantitative-competitive reverse transcriptase PCR (QC-RT-PCR) method and gagp24 antigen capture. The Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay and a version of the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test (version 1.5) that was designed to detect a broader range of subtypes were both sensitive for the quantification of Kenyan primary isolates, which represented subtype A, C, and D viruses. The Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay was more sensitive for the majority of viruses than the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test version 1.0, the Bayer Quantiplex HIV RNA 3.0 assay, or a QC-RT-PCR method in use in our laboratory, suggesting that it provides a useful method for quantifying HIV-1 RNAs from diverse parts of the world, including Africa. PMID:10878065

  14. Reconstruction of the external genitals and repair of skin defects of the perineal region using three types of lateral groin flap.

    PubMed

    Sun, G C; Zhong, A G; He, W; Du, P; Song, W M; Ma, J G

    1990-04-01

    Three types of lateral groin flap have been applied to reconstruct the external genitals and to repair skin defects in the perineal region. A single lateral groin flap was used to construct a vagina for 2 patients who had congenital absence of vagina. A composite flap containing iliac crest bone was applied to reconstruct the penis in 11 patients: 8 suffered traumatic amputation and 3 had congenital micropenis. A coaxial pedicle flap of the lateral groin and abdominal area was used to repair skin defects of the penis and scrotum after resection of the elephantiasis caused by recurrent erysipelas in 2 patients, and to relieve postburn scar contracture in the perineal region in another. Using this operative technique, 14 flaps survived completely with satisfactory results; 70% of one composite flap was lost as a result of hematoma. In the single-flap group, the distal portion (3 x 5 cm) of one flap necrosed and was resected and resurfaced with a free skin graft; the final result was good.

  15. Malleolar fractures and their ligamentous injury equivalents have similar outcomes in supination-external rotation type IV fractures of the ankle treated by anatomical internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Berkes, M B; Little, M T M; Lazaro, L E; Sculco, P K; Cymerman, R M; Daigl, M; Helfet, D L; Lorich, D G

    2012-11-01

    It has previously been suggested that among unstable ankle fractures, the presence of a malleolar fracture is associated with a worse outcome than a corresponding ligamentous injury. However, previous studies have included heterogeneous groups of injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any specific pattern of bony and/or ligamentous injury among a series of supination-external rotation type IV (SER IV) ankle fractures treated with anatomical fixation was associated with a worse outcome. We analysed a prospective cohort of 108 SER IV ankle fractures with a follow-up of one year. Pre-operative radiographs and MRIs were undertaken to characterise precisely the pattern of injury. Operative treatment included fixation of all malleolar fractures. Post-operative CT was used to assess reduction. The primary and secondary outcome measures were the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the range of movement of the ankle. There were no clinically relevant differences between the four possible SER IV fracture pattern groups with regard to the FAOS or range of movement. In this population of strictly defined SER IV ankle injuries, the presence of a malleolar fracture was not associated with a significantly worse clinical outcome than its ligamentous injury counterpart. Other factors inherent to the injury and treatment may play a more important role in predicting outcome.

  16. External Fixation combined with Limited Internal Fixation versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Treating Ruedi-Allgower Type III Pilon Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Tong, Liangyong; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of type III pilon fractures remains controversial. Hence, we performed this study to investigate whether open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is superior to external fixations combined with limited internal fixations (EFLIF). Material/Methods From January 2012 to October 2013, a total of 78 patients were included. Twenty-six patients underwent EFLIF and 52 patients underwent ORIF. All subjects were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. All outcomes and complications were recorded. Results No statistical differences were observed in Mazur score or ROM between the 2 groups. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in hospital stay (P<0.001), reduction results (P=0.019), screw loosening (P=0.025), and traumatic arthritis (P=0.037). Conclusions Similar functional outcomes were achieved in EFLIF and ORIF groups. Due to several limitations of this study, a well-designed randomized controlled trial involving more patients and long-term follow-up is needed to find an optimal treatment protocol. PMID:26050786

  17. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  18. Singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in the songbird basal ganglia: comparison to the primate internal and external pallidal segments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Adler, Avital; Bergman, Hagai; Fee, Michale S.

    2010-01-01

    The songbird area X is a basal ganglia homologue that contains two pallidal cell types—local neurons that project within the basal ganglia and output neurons that project to the thalamus. Based on these projections, it has been proposed that these classes are structurally homologous to the primate external (GPe) and internal (GPi) pallidal segments. To test the hypothesis that the two area X pallidal types are functionally homologous to GPe and GPi neurons, we recorded from neurons in area X of singing juvenile male zebra finches, and directly compare their firing patterns to neurons recorded in the primate pallidus. In area X, we find two cell classes that exhibited high firing (HF) rates (>60Hz) characteristic of pallidal neurons. HF-1 neurons, like most GPe neurons we examined, exhibited large firing rate modulations, including bursts and long pauses. In contrast, HF-2 neurons, like GPi neurons, discharged continuously without bursts or long pauses. To test if HF-2 neurons were the output neurons that project to the thalamus, we next recorded directly from pallidal axon terminals in thalamic nucleus DLM, and found that all terminals exhibited singing-related firing patterns indistinguishable from HF-2 neurons. Our data show that singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in area X: thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPi, and non-thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPe. These results suggest that song learning in birds and motor learning in mammals employ conserved basal ganglia signaling strategies. PMID:20484651

  19. The use of waveguide acoustic probes for void fraction measurement in the evaporator of BN-350-Type reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, V.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I.

    1995-09-01

    The present paper deals with some results of the experimental studies which have been carried out to investigate the steam generation dynamics in the Field tubes of sodium-water evaporators used in the BN-350 reactors. The void fraction measurements have been taken with the aid of waveguide acoustic transducers manufactured in accordance with a specially designed technology (waveguide acoustic transducers-WAT technology). Presented in this paper also the transducer design and calibration methods, as well as the diagram showing transducers arrengment in the evaporator. The transducers under test featured a waveguide of about 4 m in length and a 200-mm long sensitive element (probe). Besides, this paper specifies the void fraction data obtained through measurements in diverse points of the evaporator. The studies revealed that the period of observed fluctuations in the void fraction amounted to few seconds and was largely dependent on the level of water in the evaporator.

  20. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  1. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  2. The effect on external rotation of an anchor placed anterior to the biceps in type 2 SLAP repairs in a cadaveric throwing model.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Patrick C; Andrews, Wade J; Alexander, Jerry; Brekke, Adam; Duwani, Salim; Noble, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether there is a difference in external rotation (ER) between type 2 SLAP repairs consisting of anchors placed only posterior to the biceps insertion compared with repairs with an additional anchor placed anterior to the biceps. Seven cadaveric shoulders from donors with a mean age of 39.4 years were tested. Type 2 SLAP lesions were created, followed by a 3-anchor repair: a standard repair with 2 anchors posterior to the biceps plus an additional anchor anterior to the biceps. The specimens were placed on a material testing system machine and rotation was measured under a constant torque. The sutures were then removed sequentially from anterior to posterior during testing. The average ER of the intact shoulder was 115.7° ± 2.6°. After SLAP tear creation and cyclic loading, the ER was 118.5° ± 2.6°, which decreased to 116.5° ± 2.6° after repair. This corresponds to a reduction of 2.0° of ER (P < .0001) with the repair. After release of the anterior anchor, the ER increased to 117.9° ± 2.6°, which corresponds to an increase in shoulder motion of 1.4° of ER (P = .0011). Additional release of the middle anchor, leaving only the posterior anchor intact, resulted in 118.0° ± 2.7° of ER, which corresponds to an increase of only 0.1° of ER (P = .7667). Following type 2 SLAP repair in the cadaveric shoulder, removing the effect of the anchor anterior to the biceps resulted in a small but statistically significant increase in ER. The anterior anchor had the greatest effect on ER. The presence of 1 or 2 anchors posterior to the biceps did not have a significant effect on rotation. When performing SLAP repairs on those in whom even a small loss of ER would be detrimental, such as baseball pitchers, avoidance of the use of an anchor anterior to the biceps should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Probing pathways periodically.

    PubMed

    Elston, Timothy C

    2008-10-21

    Signal transduction pathways are used by cells to process and transmit information about their external surroundings. These systems are dynamic, interconnected molecular networks. Therefore, full characterization of their behavior requires a systems-level analysis. Investigations with temporally oscillating input signals probed the dynamic properties of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These studies shed light on how the network functions as a whole to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Ubiquitin-Yop hybrids as probes for post-translational transport by the Yersinia type III secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Schneewind, Olaf

    2007-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica uses type III secretion to transport Yop proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. Previous work generated hypotheses for both co- and post-translational transport mechanisms in the Yersinia type III pathway. Here, we used ubiquitin (Ub) and UBP1, the Ub-specific protease, to examine whether Yops can be secreted when synthesized prior to recognition by the type III machinery. Fusion of Ub to the N-terminus of Yops blocked substrate recognition and secretion of hybrids generated with YopE, YopQ or YopR. UBP1 removed Ub from the N-terminus of these hybrids and allowed YopE, YopQ or YopR cleavage products to enter the secretion pathway. Following the release of Ub, Yersinia type III machines also transported the YopE cleavage product into the cytosol of tissue culture cells. Minimal secretion signals were also examined with the Ub/UBP1 system and some, but not all, of these signals promoted type III secretion even after polypeptides had been freed from Ub. These results suggest that recognition and secretion of Yop substrates by the type III machinery can occur by a post-translational mechanism.

  5. A Fiberoptic (Photodynamic Therapy Type) Device with a Photosensitizer and Singlet Oxygen Delivery Probe Tip for Ovarian Cancer Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David; Ghogare, Ashwini; Ghosh, Goutam; Abramova, Inna; Hasan, Tayyaba; Greer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A portable “fiber optic-based sensitizer delivery” device has been developed and studied. Before there might be success in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-bacterial ambitions, an understanding of basic factors on device performance were needed. Thus, the device was examined for the localized delivery of sensitizer molecules in ovarian cancer cells and production of high concentrations of singlet oxygen for their eradication in vitro. The device-tip releases stored pheophorebide by attack of singlet oxygen from sensitized oxygen gas delivered through the hollow fiber using 669-nm laser light. The performance of the device was enhanced when configured with a fluorosiliane tip by virtue of its Teflon-like property compared to a conventional glass tip (greater sensitizer quantities photoreleased and laterally diffused, and greater amounts of ovarian OVCAR-5 cancer cell killing). No cell damage was observed at 2.2 N of force applied by the probe tip itself, an amount used for many of the experiments described here. PMID:23495787

  6. Comparison of currents predicted by NASCAP/LEO model simulations with elementary Langmuir-type bare probe models for an insulated cable containing a single pinhole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.

    1990-01-01

    The behavior of a defect in the insulation of a short biased section of cable in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment was examined. Such studies are of the utmost importance for large space power systems where great quantities of cabling will be deployed. An insulated probe containing a pinhole was placed into a hypothetical high speed LEO plasma. The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO) was used to explore sheath growth about the probe as a function of applied voltage and to predict I-V behavior. A set of independent current calculations using Langmuir's formulations for concentric spheres and coaxial cylinders were also performed. The case of concentric spheres was here extended to include the case of concentric hemispheres. Several simple Langmuir-type models were then constructed to bracket the current collected by the cable. The space-charge sheath radius and impact parameters were used to determine the proper current regime. I-V curves were plotted for the models and comparisons were made with NASCAP/LEO results. Finally, NASCAP/LEO potential contours and surface cell potential plots were examined to explain interesting features in the NASCAP/LEO I-V curve.

  7. Evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay using minor groove binding probe for specific detection of Chinese wild-type classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guoyuan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Luo, Qingping; Liao, Yonghong; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Rongrong; Wang, Hongling; Ai, Diyun; Luo, Ling; Song, Nianhua; Shao, Huabin

    2011-09-01

    A one-step real-time RT-PCR assay using a minor groove binding probe was developed for the specific detection of Chinese wild-type classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The assay detected wild-type CSFV strains representing different genotypes, but did not amplify viral RNA from the Hog Cholera Lipinized Virus (HCLV) vaccine-strain and other porcine viruses. The assay had a detection limit of 10 copies/reaction or 3.0 median tissue culture infective dose/reaction. In comparison to the sequencing nested RT-PCR assay, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98.3% and 94.3%, respectively, when testing 515 veterinary samples. Wild-type CSFV RNA was detected in nasal swabs 2-4 days before detection in serum samples from pigs exposed to infection by contact, and 2-4 days prior to the onset of clinical disease. HCLV RNA remained undetectable in nasal swabs and serum samples from vaccinated pigs. In conclusion, the novel assay described in this study provides a rapid and sensitive method for differentiating between wild-type and the HCLV-strain of CSFV. It could be used for monitoring in CSF outbreak areas or as a screening method for CSFV eradication strategies.

  8. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  9. Type III omega-agatoxins: a family of probes for similar binding sites on L- and N-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Ertel, E A; Warren, V A; Adams, M E; Griffin, P R; Cohen, C J; Smith, M M

    1994-05-03

    The peptide omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA) from venom of the funnel web spider Agelenopsis aperta is the only known agent that blocks L-type and N-type Ca channels with equal high potency (IC50 < or = 1 nM). From the same venom, we have purified and sequenced a family of peptides which are homologous to omega-Aga-IIIA but vary over 100-fold in their relative affinity for L-type versus N-type Ca channels. One of these, omega-Aga-IIIB, is 76 amino acids long and identical to omega-Aga-IIIA in 66 positions. We identified two other similar peptides, omega-Aga-IIIC and omega-Aga-IIID, as well as one single amino acid variant of omega-Aga-IIIA and two of omega-Aga-IIIB. The type III omega-agatoxins exhibit similar but distinct activities on voltage-gated Ca channels. omega-Aga-IIIA, omega-Aga-IIIB, and omega-Aga-IIID are nearly indistinguishable in their actions at the insect neuromuscular junction (no effect at 0.1 microM), on atrial T-type Ca channels (no effect at 0.5 microM), and in two assays for synaptosomal Ca channels: they are nearly equipotent inhibitors of 125I-omega-conotoxin GVIA binding to rat brain synaptic membranes (IC50 = 0.17-0.33 nM) and blockers of the K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ influx into chick brain synaptosomes (omega-Aga-IIIB, 1.2 nM; omega-Aga-IIIA, 2.4 nM). In contrast, omega-Aga-IIIA is a better blocker of locust Ca channels (IC50 approximately 10-50 nM) than is omega-Aga-IIIB. Finally, although omega-Aga-IIIA, omega-Aga-IIIB, and omega-Aga-IIID all block atrial L-type Ca channels, omega-Aga-IIIA is over 100-fold more potent. Thus, although type III omega-agatoxins appear to recognize a binding site common to L- and N-type Ca channels, omega-Aga-IIIB and omega-Aga-IIID identify differences between the two channels.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new acyclic pyrimidine derivative as a probe for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Meščić, Andrijana; Betzel, Thomas; Müller, Adrienne; Slavik, Roger; Cermak, Stjepko; Raić-Malić, Silvana; Ametamey, Simon M

    2013-07-19

    With the idea of finding a more selective radiotracer for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression by means of positron emission tomography (PET), a novel [¹⁸F]fluorine radiolabeled pyrimidine with 4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl side chain at N-1 (HHB-5-[¹⁸F]FEP) was prepared and evaluated as a potential PET probe. Unlabeled reference compound, HHB-5-FEP, was synthesized via a five-step reaction sequence starting from 5-(2-acetoxyethyl)-4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one. The radiosynthesis of HHB-[¹⁸F]-FEP was accomplished by nucleophilic radiofluorination of a tosylate precursor using [¹⁸F]fluoride-cryptate complex in 45% ± 4 (n = 4) radiochemical yields and high purity (>99%). The biological evaluation indicated the feasibility of using HHB-5-[¹⁸F]FEP as a PET radiotracer for monitoring HSV1-tk expression in vivo.

  11. Germanium-doped carbon dots as a new type of fluorescent probe for visualizing the dynamic invasions of mercury(II) ions into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yun Huan; Li, Rong Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Zhu Lian; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-10-28

    Carbon dots doped with germanium (GeCDs) were firstly prepared by a new simple 15 min carbonation synthesis route, exhibiting excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL), which could avoid autofluorescence in bioimaging applications. The as-prepared GeCDs have low cell toxicity, good biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, stability and could be applied for detection of mercury(II) ions with excellent selectivity in complicated medium. It is to be noted that the as-prepared GeCDs used as a new type of probe for visualization of dynamic invasions of mercury(II) ions into Hep-2 cells display greatly different properties from most of the previously reported CDs which are regularly responsive to iron ions. All the results suggest that the GeCDs can be employed for visualization and monitoring of the significant physiological changes of living cells induced by Hg(2+).

  12. Vacancy-type defects in bulk GaN grown by the Na-flux method probed using positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, Akira; Imanishi, Masayuki; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    Defects in bulk GaN grown by the Na-flux method have been studied using a positron annihilation technique. Pyramidal bulk samples showed striation and inhomogeneous color distributions. Measurements of the Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons revealed that the concentration of vacancy-type defects increased with decreasing transparency of the samples. The major defect species was identified as a Ga vacancy coupled with nitrogen vacancies. A correlation between the oxygen incorporation and the introduction of such vacancies was observed. For c-plane GaN grown by a coalescence growth method, the concentration of vacancy-type defects was close to or under the detection limit of positron annihilation technique (≤1015cm-3), suggesting that high-quality bulk GaN can be fabricated using this method.

  13. Proton micro-probe analysis of framboidal pyrite and associated maceral types in a Devonian black shale

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L. . Center for Applied Energy Research); Robertson, J.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    Framboids are spherical, raspberry-like aggregates of pyrite which are typically associated with organic matter in black shales. Because framboids are often intimately intergrown with macerals of the kerogen in black shales the objectives of this study were to: (1) Select tramboidal pyrite with close spatial relationship to distinct maceral types; (2) Determine the trace-element variations within different maceral types and that of framboidal pyrite occurring adjacent to those macerals and; (3) Examine whether the S/Fe ratios of the tramboids vary based on different maceral-type association. This study investigates a Devonian-Mississippian black shale from East-Central Kentucky. The organic-rich matrix consists predominantly of bituminite, alginite and to lesser extent of vitrinite. Most framboids range between < 1[mu]m and 27 [mu]m in size and typically occur as clusters which are engulfed by lamellar flowing vitrinite, indicating that the framboids were already present before compaction. 161 PIXE-analyses were performed in both macerals and framboids. To understand the likelihood of framboid precursors in macerals the authors checked the constancy of the S, Fe and trace-element content in the immediate vicinity of the framboid particle. Moreover, the authors analyzed traverses through framboids associated with the three different maceral types. The S/Fe ratio of the framboids is always that of stoichiometric pyrite. The combined results suggest that the framboids may have formed independent of the sulfur and trace-element concentration among the macerals. Globular, partly translucent grains were observed to have great resemblances in size and trace-element contents compared to those of framboids. The S/Fe ratio of these grains was typically well in excess of 2.0 suggesting that the transparent matrix may have been a sulfur-rich phase that possibly serves as precursor for the framboids.

  14. Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp41 Membrane Proximal External Region Arrayed on Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Particles

    PubMed Central

    Phogat, S; K, Svehla; M, Tang; A, Spadaccini; J, Muller; J, Mascola; Berkower; R, Wyatt

    2009-01-01

    Vaccine immunogens derived from the envelope glycoproteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that elicit broad neutralizing antibodies remains an elusive goal. The highly conserved 30 amino acid membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV gp41 contains the hydrophobic epitopes for two rare HIV-1 broad cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, 2F5 and 4E10. Both these antibodies possess relatively hydrophobic HCDR3 loops and demonstrate enhanced binding to their epitopes in the context of the native gp160 precursor envelope glycoprotein by the intimate juxtaposition of a lipid membrane. The Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) S1 protein forms nanoparticles that can be utilized both as an immunogenic array of the MPER and to provide the lipid environment needed for enhanced 2F5 and 4E10 binding. We show that recombinant HBsAg particles with MPER (HBsAg-MPER) appended at the C-terminus of the S1 protein are recognized by 2F5 and 4E10 with high affinity compared to positioning the MPER at the N-terminus or the extracellular loop (ECL) of S1. Addition of C-terminal hydrophobic residues derived from the HIV-1 Env transmembrane region further enhances recognition of the MPER by both 2F5 and 4E10. Delipidation of the HBsAg-MPER particles decreases 2F5 and 4E10 binding and subsequent reconstitution with synthetic lipids restores optimal binding. Inoculation of the particles into small animals raised cross-reactive antibodies that recognize both the MPER and HIV-1 gp160 envelope glycoproteins expressed on the cell surface; however, no neutralizing activity could be detected. Prime:boost immunization of the HBsAg-MPER particles in sequence with HIV envelope glycoprotein proteoliposomes (Env-PLs) did not raise neutralizing antibodies that could be mapped to the MPER region. However, the Env-PLs did raise anti-Env antibodies that had the ability to neutralize selected HIV-1 isolates. The first generation HBsAg-MPER particles represent a unique means to

  15. Germanium-doped carbon dots as a new type of fluorescent probe for visualizing the dynamic invasions of mercury(ii) ions into cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yun Huan; Li, Rong Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Zhu Lian; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dots doped with germanium (GeCDs) were firstly prepared by a new simple 15 min carbonation synthesis route, exhibiting excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL), which could avoid autofluorescence in bioimaging applications. The as-prepared GeCDs have low cell toxicity, good biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, stability and could be applied for detection of mercury(ii) ions with excellent selectivity in complicated medium. It is to be noted that the as-prepared GeCDs used as a new type of probe for visualization of dynamic invasions of mercury(ii) ions into Hep-2 cells display greatly different properties from most of the previously reported CDs which are regularly responsive to iron ions. All the results suggest that the GeCDs can be employed for visualization and monitoring of the significant physiological changes of living cells induced by Hg2+.Carbon dots doped with germanium (GeCDs) were firstly prepared by a new simple 15 min carbonation synthesis route, exhibiting excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL), which could avoid autofluorescence in bioimaging applications. The as-prepared GeCDs have low cell toxicity, good biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, stability and could be applied for detection of mercury(ii) ions with excellent selectivity in complicated medium. It is to be noted that the as-prepared GeCDs used as a new type of probe for visualization of dynamic invasions of mercury(ii) ions into Hep-2 cells display greatly different properties from most of the previously reported CDs which are regularly responsive to iron ions. All the results suggest that the GeCDs can be employed for visualization and monitoring of the significant physiological changes of living cells induced by Hg2+. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures (Fig. S1-15). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05326a

  16. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  17. A new method for probing the late-time dynamics in the Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Takehiro; Ito, Yuta; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2017-08-01

    The type IIB matrix model has been investigated as a possible nonperturbative formulation of superstring theory. In particular, it was found by Monte Carlo simulation of the Lorentzian version that the 9D rotational symmetry of the spatial matrices is broken spontaneously to the 3D one after some "critical time". In this paper we develop a new simulation method based on the effective theory for the submatrices corresponding to the late time. Using this method, one can obtain the results for N× N matrices by simulating matrices typically of the size O(√{N}). We confirm the validity of this method and demonstrate its usefulness in simplified models.

  18. Probing physical and chemical changes in cortical bone due to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Donghua; Taylor, Amanda; Rendina, Beth; Smith, Brenda; Department of Physics Collaboration; Department of Nutritional Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species. The authors appreciate financial support for this project from the College of Human Sciences and the College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University.

  19. Probing hydrogen peroxide oxidation kinetics of wild-type Synechocystis catalase-peroxidase (KatG) and selected variants.

    PubMed

    Vlasits, Jutta; Furtmüller, Paul G; Jakopitsch, Christa; Zamocky, Marcel; Obinger, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) are unique bifunctional heme peroxidases that exhibit peroxidase and substantial catalase activities. Nevertheless, the reaction pathway of hydrogen peroxide dismutation, including the electronic structure of the redox intermediate that actually oxidizes H(2)O(2), is not clearly defined. Several mutant proteins with diminished overall catalase but wild-type-like peroxidase activity have been described in the last years. However, understanding of decrease in overall catalatic activity needs discrimination between reduction and oxidation reactions of hydrogen peroxide. Here, by using sequential-mixing stopped-flow spectroscopy, we have investigated the kinetics of the transition of KatG compound I (produced by peroxoacetic acid) to its ferric state by trapping the latter as cyanide complex. Apparent bimolecular rate constants (pH 6.5, 20 degrees C) for wild-type KatG and the variants Trp122Phe (lacks KatG-typical distal adduct), Asp152Ser (controls substrate access to the heme cavity) and Glu253Gln (channel entrance) are reported to be 1.2x10(4)M(-1)s(-1), 30M(-1)s(-1), 3.4x10(3)M(-1)s(-1), and 8.6x10(3)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. These findings are discussed with respect to steady-state kinetic data and proposed reaction mechanism(s) for KatG. Assets and drawbacks of the presented method are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Students' Ability to Connect Function Properties to Different Types of Elementary Functions: An Empirical Study on the Role of External Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bock, Dirk; Neyens, Deborah; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on the phenomenon of improper proportional reasoning focused on students' understanding of elementary functions and their external representations. So far, the role of basic function properties in students' concept images of functions remained unclear. We add to this research line by investigating how accurate students are in…

  1. Studies on the structural stability of rabbit prion probed by molecular dynamics simulations of its wild-type and mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2010-05-07

    Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Rabbits are the only mammalian species reported to be resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species (Vorberg et al., 2003). Fortunately, the NMR structure of rabbit prion (124-228) (PDB entry 2FJ3), the NMR structure of rabbit prion protein mutation S173N (PDB entry 2JOH) and the NMR structure of rabbit prion protein mutation I214V (PDB entry 2JOM) were released recently. This paper studies these NMR structures by molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation results confirm the structural stability of wild-type rabbit prion, and show that the salt bridge between D177 and R163 greatly contributes to the structural stability of rabbit prion protein.

  2. Magnetomotive molecular probes for targeted contrast enhancement and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-03-01

    The diagnostic, interrogational, and therapeutic potential of molecular probes is rapidly being investigated and exploited across virtually every biomedical imaging modality. While many types of probes enhance contrast or delivery therapy by static localization to targeted sites, significant potential exists for utilizing dynamic molecular probes. Recent examples include molecular beacons, photoactivatable probes, or controlled switchable drug-releasing particles, to name a few. In this review, we describe a novel class of dynamic molecular probes that rely on the application and control of localized external magnetic fields. These magnetomotive molecular probes can provide optical image contrast through a modulated scattering signal, can interrogate the biomechanical properties of their viscoelastic microenvironment by tracking their underdamped oscillatory step-response to applied fields, and can potentially delivery therapy through nanometer-to-micrometer mechanical displacement or local hyperthermia. This class of magnetomotive agents includes not only magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles, but also new magnetomotive microspheres or nanostructures with embedded iron-oxide agents. In vitro three-dimensional cell assays and in vivo targeting studies in animal tumor models have demonstrated the potential for multimodal detection and imaging, using magnetic resonance imaging for whole-body localization, and magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for high-resolution localization and imaging.

  3. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  4. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  5. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  6. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  7. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  8. Photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy investigation of three dimensional GaN structures with various crystal facets, doping types, and wavelengths of illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Deeb, Manal; Ledig, Johannes; Wei, Jiandong; Wang, Xue; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Three dimensional GaN structures with different crystal facets and doping types have been investigated employing the surface photo-voltage (SPV) method to monitor illumination-induced surface charge behavior using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Various photon energies near and below the GaN bandgap were used to modify the generation of electron-hole pairs and their motion under the influence of the electric field near the GaN surface. Fast and slow processes for Ga-polar c-planes on both Si-doped n-type as well as Mg-doped p-type GaN truncated pyramid micro-structures were found and their origin is discussed. The immediate positive (for n-type) and negative (for p-type) SPV response dominates at band-to-band and near-bandgap excitation, while only the slow process is present at sub-bandgap excitation. The SPV behavior for the semi-polar facets of the p-type GaN truncated pyramids has a similar characteristic to that on its c-plane, which indicates that it has a comparable band bending and no strong influence of the polarity-induced charges is detectable. The SPV behavior of the non-polar m-facets of the Si-doped n-type part of a transferred GaN column is similar to that of a clean c-plane GaN surface during illumination. However, the SPV is smaller in magnitude, which is attributed to intrinsic surface states of m-plane surfaces and their influence on the band bending. The SPV behavior of the non-polar m-facet of the slightly Mg-doped part of this GaN column is found to behave differently. Compared to c- and r-facets of p-type surfaces of GaN-light-emitting diode micro-structures, the m-plane is more chemically stable.

  9. Topology of electron charge density for chemical bonds from valence bond theory: a probe of bonding types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixian; Ying, Fuming; Wu, Wei; Hiberty, Philippe C; Shaik, Sason

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the nature of bonding we derive the topological properties of the electron charge density of a variety of bonds based on ab initio valence bond methods. The electron density and its associated Laplacian are partitioned into covalent, ionic, and resonance components in the valence bond spirit. The analysis provides a density-based signature of bonding types and reveals, along with the classical covalent and ionic bonds, the existence of two-electron bonds in which most of the bonding arises from the covalent-ionic resonance energy, so-called charge-shift bonds. As expected, the covalent component of the Laplacian at the bond critical point is found to be largely negative for classical covalent bonds. In contrast, for charge-shift bonds, the covalent part of the Laplacian is small or positive, in agreement with the weakly attractive or repulsive character of the covalent interaction in these bonds. On the other hand, the resonance component of the Laplacian is always negative or nearly zero, and it increases in absolute value with the charge-shift character of the bond, in agreement with the decrease of kinetic energy associated with covalent-ionic mixing. A new interpretation of the topology of the total density at the bond critical point is proposed to characterize covalent, ionic, and charge-shift bonding from the density point of view.

  10. Biological properties of coral GFP-type proteins provide clues for engineering novel optical probes and biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Anya; Larkum, Anthony W.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Wiedenmann, Joerg; Szymczak, Ron; Cox, Guy C.

    2004-06-01

    In recent years, a variety of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-like pigments have been discovered from corals and other marine organisms. They are widely used to expand the range of available GFP-type proteins in imaging applications, such as in vivo markers for gene expression and protein localization studies, FRET-based (Förster resonance energy transfer) multicolor imaging and biosensors. They have known diverse optical and biochemical properties but their in vivo spectral properties and biological function in marine organisms is only beginning to be understood. We have investigated their spectral diversity, optical properties and cellular microstructure in corals of the Great Barrier Reef with the aim of elucidating their photo-biological function/s as well as to identify novel proteins suitable for GFP-based technologies. We found numerous spectral variants, with emissions covering almost the full range of the visible spectrum. Many of these GFP-like proteins, especially in corals from the more extreme habitats, such as sun-exposed shallows or in deep water, showed a range of light-related spectral characteristics: high photostability, spectral tuning for energy transfer and dynamic photo-induced transformation properties. Intra-cellularly they were organized into spectral donor-acceptor pairs or even arrays, tuned for FRET. Coral color proteins thus offer an exciting potential to expand the use of the available GFPs in bio-imaging applications and as a basis for improved protein engineering.

  11. Probing Vortex Matter Phase Transition and the Peak Effect in Type-II Superconductors using SANS and NSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryul Park, Sang

    2002-03-01

    The existence and the nature of the phase transition in the Abrikosov vortex state in weak-pinning type-II superconductors have been a prominant problem in condensed matter physics in recent years. I'll first discuss our recent discovery [1] of the hysteresis effect in the structure function of vortex matter using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), providing the first structural evidence for an order-disorder (melting) transition at the peak effect. I'll also describe our recent rocking curve measurements [2] in which a giant hysteresis effect is observed for the longitudinal correlation length. It is found that the melting of the Bragg glass is a single first-order transition, accompanied by a disentanglement-entanglement transition. We also found preliminary evidence [2] from neutron spin echo (NSE) that the vortex phase above the peak of the peak effect is a viscous liquid matter. This work was supported by NSF-DMR and was done in collaboration with X.S. Ling, B.A. McClain, J.W. Lynn, S.M. Choi. D.C. Dender, F. Mezei, G. Kali, and M. Russina. [1] X.S. Ling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 712 (2001). [2] S.R. Park et al., to be published.)

  12. Real & Simulated IFU Observations of Low-Mass Early-Type Galaxies: Environmental Influence Probed for Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybilska, Agnieszka; Łokas, Ewa Luiza; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    We combine high-quality IFU data with a new set of numerical simulations to study low-mass early type galaxies (dEs) in dense environments. Our earlier study of dEs in the Virgo cluster has produced the first large-scale maps of kinematic and stellar population properties of dEs in those environments (Ryś et al. 2013, 2014, 2015). A quantitative discrimination between various (trans)formation processes proposed for these objects is, however, a complex issue, requiring a priori assumptions about the progenitors of galaxies we observe and study today. To bridge this gap between observations and theoretical predictions, we use the expertise gained in the IFU data analysis to look ``through the eye of SAURON'' at our new suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of dEs in the Virgo cluster. Mimicking the observers perspective as closely as possible, we can also indicate the existing instrumental and viewer limitations regarding what we are/are not able to detect as observers.

  13. Probing Minor-merger-driven Star Formation In Early-type Galaxies Using Spatially-resolved Spectro-photometric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Crockett, M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.; Windhorst, R.; Cappellari, M.; Bureau, M.; Davies, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies that leverage the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum have revealed widespread recent star formation in early-type galaxies (ETGs), traditionally considered to be old, passively-evolving systems. This recent star formation builds 20% of the ETG stellar mass after z 1, driven by repeated minor mergers between ETGs and small, gas-rich satellites. We demonstrate how spatially-resolved studies, using a combination of high-resolution UV-optical imaging and integral-field spectroscopy (IFS), is a powerful tool to quantify the assembly history of individual ETGs and elucidate the poorly-understood minor-merger process. Using a combination of WFC3 UV-optical (2500-8200 angstroms) imaging and IFS from the SAURON project of the ETG NGC 4150, we show that this galaxy experienced a merger with mass ratio 1:15 around 0.9 Gyr ago, which formed 3% of its stellar mass and a young kinematically-decoupled core. A UV-optical analysis of its globular cluster system shows that the bulk of the stars locked up in these clusters likely formed 6-7 Gyrs in the past. We introduce a new HST-WFC3 programme, approved in Cycle 19, which will leverage similar UV-optical imaging of a representative sample of nearby ETGs from SAURON to study the recent star formation and its drivers in unprecedented detail and put definitive constraints on minor-merger-driven star formation in massive galaxies at late epochs.

  14. Experimental estimation of tungsten impurity sputtering due to Type I ELMs in JET-ITER-like wall using pedestal electron cyclotron emission and target Langmuir probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemaut, C.; Jardin, A.; Horacek, J.; Borodkina, I.; Autricque, A.; Arnoux, G.; Boom, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; De La Luna, E.; Devaux, S.; Eich, T.; Harting, D.; Kirschner, A.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Meigs, A.; Moulton, D.; O'Mullane, M.; Stamp, M.; contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline scenario, with 500 MW of DT fusion power and Q = 10, will rely on a Type I ELMy H-mode and will be achieved with a tungsten (W) divertor. W atoms sputtered from divertor targets during mitigated ELMs are expected to be the dominant source in ITER. W impurity concentration in the plasma core can dramatically degrade its performance and lead to potentially damaging disruptions. Understanding the physics of the target W source due to sputtering during ELMs and inter-ELMs is important and can be helped by experimental measurements with improved precision. It has been established that the ELMy target ion impact energy has a simple linear dependence with the pedestal electron temperature measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE). It has also been shown that Langmuir Probes (LP) ion flux measurements are reliable during ELMs due to the surprisingly low electron temperature. Therefore, in this paper, LP and ECE measurements in JET-ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) unseeded Type I ELMy H-mode experiments have been used to estimate the W sputtering flux from divertor targets in ELM and inter-ELM conditions. Comparison with similar estimates using W I spectroscopy measurements shows a reasonable agreement for the ELM and inter-ELM W source. The main advantage of the method involving LP measurements is the very high time resolution of the diagnostic (˜10 μs) allowing very precise description of the W sputtering source during ELMs.

  15. Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira; Malinverni, Marco; Martin, Denis; Grandjean, Nicolas; Okumura, Hironori; Ishibashi, Shoji

    2016-06-28

    Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN were probed using a monoenergetic positron beam. GaN films with a thickness of 0.5–0.7 μm were grown on GaN/sapphire templates using ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by measuring Doppler broadening spectra. Although no vacancies were detected in samples with a Mg concentration [Mg] below 7 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}, vacancy-type defects were introduced starting at above [Mg] = 1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. The major defect species was identified as a complex between Ga vacancy (V{sub Ga}) and multiple nitrogen vacancies (V{sub N}s). The introduction of vacancy complexes was found to correlate with a decrease in the net acceptor concentration, suggesting that the defect introduction is closely related to the carrier compensation. We also investigated Mg-doped GaN layers grown using In as the surfactant. The formation of vacancy complexes was suppressed in the subsurface region (≤80 nm). The observed depth distribution of defects was attributed to the thermal instability of the defects, which resulted in the introduction of vacancy complexes during the deposition process.

  16. Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, Akira; Malinverni, Marco; Martin, Denis; Okumura, Hironori; Ishibashi, Shoji; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN were probed using a monoenergetic positron beam. GaN films with a thickness of 0.5-0.7 μm were grown on GaN/sapphire templates using ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by measuring Doppler broadening spectra. Although no vacancies were detected in samples with a Mg concentration [Mg] below 7 × 1019 cm-3, vacancy-type defects were introduced starting at above [Mg] = 1 × 1020 cm-3. The major defect species was identified as a complex between Ga vacancy (VGa) and multiple nitrogen vacancies (VNs). The introduction of vacancy complexes was found to correlate with a decrease in the net acceptor concentration, suggesting that the defect introduction is closely related to the carrier compensation. We also investigated Mg-doped GaN layers grown using In as the surfactant. The formation of vacancy complexes was suppressed in the subsurface region (≤80 nm). The observed depth distribution of defects was attributed to the thermal instability of the defects, which resulted in the introduction of vacancy complexes during the deposition process.

  17. Sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after bilateral reconstruction of auricles and external auditory canals and fitting of new canal-type hearing aids to replace a bone conduction hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Asato, Hirotaka

    2017-04-01

    Each of eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted bilateral canal-type hearing aids in the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. The ability to discriminate inter-aural intensity difference (IID) and even inter-aural time difference (ITD) was retained in all these patients. This study studied the post-operative sound lateralization ability of patients with bilateral microtia and atresia after total reconstruction of both auricles and external auditory canals, followed by fitting of bilateral canal-type hearing aids. Eight patients with bilateral microtia and atresia ranging in age from 13-43 years were recruited in this study. Each of them underwent bilateral reconstruction of the auricles and external auditory canals and were fitted canal-type hearing aids in both the operated ears to replace a bone conduction hearing aid. A sound lateralization test was conducted to determine IID and ITD discrimination ability thresholds. In all the patients, the IID discrimination ability thresholds of the patients were more than 3-fold those of the controls, the ITD discrimination ability threshold was more than 5-fold those of controls, and binaural hearing was retained.

  18. Determination of Arterial Blood Flow by Percutaneously Introduced Flow Sensors in an External Magnetic Field, II. Implementation of the Method In Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Kolin, Alexander; Grollman, Julius H.; Steckel, Richard J.; Snow, Harold D.

    1971-01-01

    Blood flow in a dog's aorta has been measured by percutaneous introduction of a flow sensor. Two types of flow probes have been used in conjunction with an external magnetic field: Loop-shaped probes used as rate of volume-flow meters and L-shaped probes as velometers. Methods of calibration and establishing the base line are discussed, and the performance of the apparatus is illustrated by records of blood flow in the thoracic and abdominal regions of the aorta. Images PMID:5276298

  19. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  20. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  1. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  2. PROBING THE LOW-REDSHIFT STAR FORMATION RATE AS A FUNCTION OF METALLICITY THROUGH THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, R.; Stanek, K. Z.; Pogge, R. W.; Prieto, J. L.

    2013-08-10

    Type II supernovae (SNe) can be used as a star formation tracer to probe the metallicity distribution of global low-redshift star formation. We present oxygen and iron abundance distributions of Type II SN progenitor regions that avoid many previous sources of bias. Because iron abundance, rather than oxygen abundance, is of key importance for the late stage evolution of the massive stars that are the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, and because iron enrichment lags oxygen enrichment, we find a general conversion from oxygen abundance to iron abundance. The distributions we present here are the best yet observational standard of comparison for evaluating how different classes of supernovae depend on progenitor metallicity. We spectroscopically measure the gas-phase oxygen abundance near a representative subsample of the hosts of Type II SNe from the first-year Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) SN search, using a combination of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra near the SN location (9 hosts) and new longslit spectroscopy (25 hosts). The median metallicity of these 34 hosts at or near the SN location is 12+log(O/H) = 8.65, with a median error of 0.09. The median host galaxy stellar mass from fits to SDSS photometry is 10{sup 9.9} M{sub Sun }. They do not show a systematic offset in metallicity or mass from a redshift-matched sample of the MPA/JHU value-added catalog. In contrast to previous SN host metallicity studies, this sample is drawn from a single survey. It is also drawn from an areal rather than a targeted survey, so SNe in the lowest-mass galaxies are not systematically excluded. Indeed, the PTF SN search has a slight bias toward following up transients in low mass galaxies. The progenitor region metallicity distribution we find is statistically indistinguishable from the metallicity distribution of Type II SN hosts found by targeted surveys and by samples from multiple surveys with different selection functions. Using the relationship between

  3. A Tale of Two Methods: Comparing Regression and Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Effects of Preschool Child Care Type on the Subsequent Externalizing Behavior of Children in Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Danielle A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Huston, Aletha C.

    2011-01-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children’s social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research. PMID:20822221

  4. A tale of two methods: comparing regression and instrumental variables estimates of the effects of preschool child care type on the subsequent externalizing behavior of children in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Danielle A; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Huston, Aletha C

    2010-09-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound causal inferences in child care research, we compare instrumental variables results with those obtained using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. We find that our OLS estimates concur with prior studies showing small positive associations between center-based care and later externalizing behavior. By contrast, our IV estimates indicate that preschool-aged children with center care experience are rated by mothers and teachers as having fewer externalizing problems on entering elementary school than their peers who were not in child care as preschoolers. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on associations between different types of community-based child care and children's social behavior, particularly within low-income populations. Moreover, we use this study to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses of each analytic method for addressing causal questions in developmental research.

  5. Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes is an established technique for rapid prototyping and automated maskless fabrication of nanostructured devices. In this review, we present the primary types of near-field probes and their physical processing mechanisms. Highlights of recent developments include improved resolution by optimizing the probe shape, incorporation of surface plasmonics in probe design, broader use in biological and magnetic storage applications, and increased throughput using probe arrays as well as high speed writing and patterning. PMID:22713756

  6. A Magneto-Microfluidic System for Investigating the Influence of an Externally Induced Force Gradient in a Collagen Type I ECM on HMVEC Sprouting.

    PubMed

    Herath, Sahan C B; Sharghi-Namini, Soheila; Du, Yue; Wang, Dongan; Ge, Ruowen; Wang, Qing-Guo; Asada, Harry; Chen, Peter C Y

    2016-11-01

    Advances in mechanobiology have suggested that physiological and pathological angiogenesis may be differentiated based on the ways in which the cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) that exhibits partially different mechanical properties. This warrants investigating the regulation of ECM stiffness on cell behavior using angiogenesis assays. In this article, we report the application of the technique of active manipulation of ECM stiffness to study in vitro angiogenic sprouting of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) in a microfluidic device. Magnetic beads were embedded in the ECM through bioconjugation (between the streptavidin-coated beads and collagen fibers) in order to create a pretension in the ECM when under the influence of an external magnetic field. The advantage of using this magneto-microfluidic system is that the resulting change in the local deformability of the collagen fibers is only apparent to a cell at the pericellular level near the site of an embedded bead, while the global intrinsic material properties of the ECM remain unchanged. The results demonstrate that this system represents an effective tool for inducing noninvasively an external force on cells through the ECM, and suggest the possibility of creating desired stiffness gradients in the ECM for manipulating cell behavior in vitro.

  7. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  8. Probing intracellular dynamics in living cells with near-field optics.

    PubMed

    Bui, J D; Zelles, T; Lou, H J; Gallion, V L; Phillips, M I; Tan, W

    1999-07-01

    Near-field optics (NFO) overcomes the diffraction limit of light microscopes and permits visualization of single molecules. However, despite numerous applications of NFO in the physical sciences, there is still a paucity of applications in the neurosciences. In this work, the authors have developed NFO probes to image intracellular dynamic processes in living cells. This is the first time a NFO probe has been inserted inside a living cell to deliver light to a spatially controlled region for optical measurements and to record cellular responses to external stimuli. Two different optical detection systems (CCD camera and avalanche photon detection) were developed to monitor cellular responses to drug administration in two different cell types. NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were penetrated with NFO probes. Intracellular Ca2+ increases post drug stimulation were detected by NFO probes. The cells were loaded with either fura-2/AM or fluo-3/AM calcium dyes. VSMC were stimulated with angiotensin II, resulting in a precise area of intracellular Ca2+ increase. Different response profiles of Ca2+ increases were observed after ionomycin and bradykinin administration in NG108-15 cells. Responsive heterogeneities due to ionomycin among different cells of the same type were recorded. The results show that NFO probes make possible real-time visualization of intracellular events. With refinement, intracellular NFO probes offer the potential of probing cell function with fast temporal and excellent spatial resolutions.

  9. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller.

    PubMed

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions.

  10. Protective shield for an instrument probe

    DOEpatents

    Johnsen, Howard A.; Ross, James R.; Birtola, Sal R.

    2004-10-26

    A shield is disclosed that is particularly useful for protecting exposed optical elements at the end of optical probes used in the analysis of hazardous emissions in and around an industrial environment from the contaminating effects of those emissions. The instant invention provides a hood or cowl in the shape of a right circular cylinder that can be fitted over the end of such optical probes. The hood provides a clear aperture through which the probe can perform unobstructed analysis. The probe optical elements are protected from the external environment by passing a dry gas through the interior of the hood and out through the hood aperture in sufficient quantity and velocity to prevent any significant mixing between the internal and external environments. Additionally, the hood is provided with a cooling jacket to lessen the potential for damaging the probe due to temperature excursions.

  11. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  12. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  13. Neuromuscular symptoms in a patient with familial pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib diagnosed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Saitoh, Akihiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2013-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to imprinting defects in the maternally derived GNAS allele. Patients with PHP-Ib are usually identified by tetany, convulsions, and/or muscle cramps, whereas a substantial fraction of patients remain asymptomatic and are identified by familial studies. Although previous studies on patients with primary hypoparathyroidism have indicated that hypocalcemia can be associated with various neuromuscular abnormalities, such clinical features have been rarely described in patients with PHP-Ib. Here, we report a 12-year-old male patient with familial PHP-Ib and unique neuromuscular symptoms. The patient presented with general fatigue, steppage gait, and myalgia. Physical examinations revealed muscular weakness and atrophies in the lower legs, a shortening of the bilateral Achilles' tendons and absence of deep tendon reflexes. Laboratory tests showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated serum intact PTH level, and impaired responses of urinary phosphate and cyclic AMP in an Ellsworth-Howard test, in addition to an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Clinical features of the patient were significantly improved after 1 month of treatment with alfacalcidol and calcium. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) and subsequent PCR analyses identified a methylation defect at exon A/B of GNAS and a microdeletion involving exons 4-6 of the GNAS neighboring gene STX16 in the patient and in his asymptomatic brother. The results suggest that various neuromuscular features probably associated with hypocalcemia can be the first symptoms of PHP-Ib, and that MS-MLPA serves as a powerful tool for screening of GNAS abnormalities in patients with atypical manifestations.

  14. Spinel-type manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) microspheres: A novel affinity probe for selective and fast enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Long, Xing-Yu; Li, Jia-Yuan; Sheng, Dong; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2017-05-01

    The spinel-type magnetic manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) microspheres synthesized by simple solvothermal method were used as a novel adsorbent for selective enrichment and effective isolation of phosphopeptides. The uniform MnFe2O4 magnetic affinity microspheres (MAMSs) had a narrow particle size distribution between 250 and 260nm, and displayed superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 67.0emu/g. Comprehensively, the possible formation mechanism of MnFe2O4 microspheres with ferric and manganous sources as dual precursors was elucidated by comparison with those of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and MnOOH nanosheets respectively with either ferric or manganous source as single precursor. It was suggested that the spherical or sheet nanostructures could be achieved via secondary recrystallization or Ostwald ripening. The MnFe2O4 MAMSs probe exhibited excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution, and rapid magnetic separation within 15s, as well as good reusability. More importantly, MnFe2O4 was highly selective for phosphopeptides because of the strong coordination interaction between metal ions (Fe(3+) and Mn(2+)) and phosphate groups of phosphopeptdies. This high specificity was demonstrated by effectively enriching phosphopeptides from digest mixture of β-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with high content of non-phosphopeptides, and embodied further in phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum. Consequently, the prepared MnFe2O4 affinity materials are expected to possess great potential in phosphoproteome research.

  15. PCR/oligonucleotide probe typing of HLA class II alleles in a Filipino population reveals an unusual distribution of HLA haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Bugawan, T. L.; Chang, J. D.; Klitz, W.; Erlich, H. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in a Filipino population by PCR amplification of the DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 second-exon sequences from buccal swabs obtained from 124 family members and 53 unrelated individuals. The amplified DNA was typed by using nonradioactive sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Twenty-two different DRB1 alleles, including the novel Filipino *1105, and 46 different DRB1/DQB1 haplotypes, including the unusual DRB1*0405-DQB1*0503, were identified. An unusually high frequency (f = .383) of DPB1*0101, a rare allele in other Asian populations, was also observed. In addition, an unusual distribution of DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was seen in this population, with DR2 (f = .415) and DRB1*1502-DQB1*0502 (f = .233) present at high frequencies. This distribution of DRB1 alleles differs from the typical HLA population distribution, in which the allele frequencies are more evenly balanced. The distribution of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in this Filipino population is different from that of other Asian and Pacific groups: of those populations studied to date; the Indonesian population is the most similar. DRB1*1502-DQB1*0502 was in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = .41) with DPB1*0101 (f = .126, for the extended haplotype), which is consistent with selection for this DR, DQ, DP haplotype being responsible for the high frequency of these three class II alleles in this population. PMID:8304349

  16. Genetic and epigenetic states of the GNAS complex in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Yuno, Akiko; Usui, Takeshi; Yambe, Yuko; Higashi, Kiichiro; Ugi, Satoshi; Shinoda, Junji; Mashio, Yasuo; Shimatsu, Akira

    2013-02-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare disorder resulting from genetic and epigenetic aberrations in the GNAS complex. PHP-Ib, usually defined by renal resistance to parathyroid hormone, is due to a maternal loss of GNAS exon A/B methylation and leads to decreased expression of the stimulatory G protein α (Gsα) in specific tissues. To clarify the usefulness of methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA), we evaluated genetic and epigenetic changes of the GNAS locus in Japanese PHP-Ib patients. Retrospective case series. We studied 13 subjects with PHP-Ib (three families with eight affected members and one unaffected member and four sporadic cases). The methylation status of GNAS differentially methylated regions (DMRs) was evaluated using MS-MLPA. The main outcome measure was the presence of deletion mutations in the GNAS locus and STX16, which were assessed using MLPA. In all familial PHP-Ib cases, a ~3 kb deletion of STX16 and demethylation of the A/B domain were identified. In contrast, no deletion was detected throughout the entire GNAS locus region in the sporadic cases. Broad methylation abnormalities were observed in the GNAS DMRs. MS-MLPA allows for precise and rapid analysis of the methylation status in GNAS DMRs as well as the detection of microdeletion mutations in PHP-Ib. Results confirm the previous findings in this disorder and demonstrate that this method is valuable for the genetic evaluation and visualizing the methylation status. The MS-MLPA assay is a useful tool that may facilitate making the molecular diagnosis of PHP-Ib.

  17. Deuterium exchange of operator 8CH groups as a Raman probe of repressor recognition: interactions of wild-type and mutant lambda repressors with operator OL1.

    PubMed

    Reilly, K E; Becka, R; Thomas, G J

    1992-03-31

    The rate of deuterium exchange of a purine 8CH group in DNA is highly sensitive to both macromolecular secondary structure and intermolecular interactions which restrict solvent access to the major groove [Lamba, O.P., Becka, R., & Thomas, G.J., Jr. (1990) Biopolymers 29, 1465-1477]. We have exploited the sensitivity of the 8CH----8CD reaction to probe DNA recognition by the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of phage lambda cI repressor. We find that purine exchanges in the 19-base-pair OL1 operator are strongly and specifically restricted by binding of the HTH N-terminal domain of the repressor fragment (RF) comprising residues 1-102. The kinetics indicate large-scale obstruction of solvent access to operator 7N-8C purine sites. Interpretation of the exchange kinetics using a simple model suggests that only 7 purine residues (5 of 10 adenines and 2 of 9 guanines) remain unrestricted with respect to 8CH exchange in complexes of OL1 with the wild-type repressor. On the other hand, the 8CH exchange profile for the complex of OL1 with the Tyr88----Cys mutant repressor indicates that 9 purines (7 adenines and 2 guanines) are exchangeable. These results suggest important differences in major groove recognition in the two complexes. The proposed 8CH labeling profiles are consistent with molecular models of related complexes determined by X-ray crystallography [Jordan, S.R., & Pabo, C.O. (1988) Science 242, 893-899] and indicate that the structures observed in the crystal are largely maintained in solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Incidences of vaccine-preventable Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia and meningitis in Indonesian children: hamlet-randomised vaccine-probe trial.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Bradford D; Sutanto, Agustinus; Linehan, Mary; Djelantik, I Gusti Gede; Fletcher, Tracy; Gerudug, I Komang; Ingerani; Mercer, David; Moniaga, Vanda; Moulton, Lawrence H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Mulholland, Kim; Nelson, Carib; Soemohardjo, Soewignjo; Steinhoff, Mark; Widjaya, Anton; Stoeckel, Philippe; Maynard, James; Arjoso, Soemarjati

    Most studies of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in Asia have found low rates, and few Asian countries use Hib vaccine in routine immunisation programmes. Whether Hib disease truly is rare or whether many cases remain undetected is unclear. To estimate incidences of vaccine-preventable Hib pneumonia and meningitis among children younger than 2 years in Lombok, Indonesia, during 1998-2002, we undertook a hamlet-randomised, controlled, double-blind vaccine-probe study (818 hamlets). Children were immunised (WHO schedule) with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP) or DTP-PRP-T (Hib conjugate) vaccine. Vaccine-preventable disease incidences were calculated as the difference in rates of clinical outcomes between DTP and DTP-PRP-T groups. Analyses included all children who received at least one vaccine dose. We enrolled 55073 children: 28147 were assigned DTP-PRP-T and 26926 DTP. The proportion of pneumonia outcomes prevented by vaccine ranged from less than 0 to 4.8%. Calculated incidences of vaccine-preventable Hib disease (per 10(5) child-years of observation) for outcome categories were: substantial alveolar consolidation or effusion, less than zero (-43 [95% CI -185 to 98]); all severe pneumonia, 264 (95% CI less than zero to 629); all clinical pneumonia, 1561 (270 to 2853); confirmed Hib meningitis, 16 (1.4 to 31); meningitis with cerebrospinal-fluid findings consistent with a bacterial aetiology, 67 (22 to 112); and admission for suspected meningitis or presenting to a clinic with convulsions, 158 (42 to 273). Hib vaccine did not prevent the great majority of pneumonia cases, including those with alveolar consolidation. These results do not support a major role for Hib vaccine in overall pneumonia-prevention programmes. Nevertheless, the study identified high incidences of Hib meningitis and pneumonia; inclusion of Hib vaccine in routine infant immunisation programmes in Asia deserves consideration.

  19. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA. PMID:21687524

  20. Evaluation of five imidazopyrazinone-type chemiluminescent superoxide probes and their application to the measurement of superoxide anion generated by Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, O; Wu, C; Murai, A; Nakamura, H

    1998-05-01

    Superoxide-triggered chemiluminescence of five new imidazopyrazinone derivatives was investigated using the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system as the source of superoxide anion. The results showed that they are highly sensitive and have favorable properties in measuring superoxide anion. With those new probes, the generation of superoxide anion from the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes was examined. The results confirmed the previous report that L. monocytogenes is an unusual organism that extracellularly and continuously generates a high level of superoxide anion in the presence of acetaldehyde. The data indicated that two of the probes, 3,7-dihydro-2-methyl-6-phenylethynylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3- one (4) and its methoxy derivative (5), are highly sensitive and useful in the measurements of superoxide anion and are clearly superior to 3,7-dihydro-2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-on e (MCLA), which-has been generally considered the most sensitive superoxide probe in the past. When tested at a probe concentration of 3.3 microM, the luminescence response and the signal-background ratio of compound 4 were 1.5 and 2.5 times those of MCLA, respectively, and the signal-background ratio of compound 5 was almost 15 times that of MCLA, though the luminescence response of this compound was slightly lower than that of MCLA. The low probe concentration used enhances the usefulness of probes in the measurements of superoxide in functioning biological systems.

  1. Measured and predicted impingement noise for a model-scale under the wing externally blown flap configuration with a QCSEE type nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Jet/flap interaction noise was measured and predicted for a small-scale model two-flap, under-the-wing, externally blown flap configuration equipped with and without noise suppression devices. The devices consisted of short spanwise fairings centered in relationship to the jet axis and positioned in the slots between the wing and flaps. The nozzle approximated that of the Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Takeoff noise reductions of 6 dB in the flyover and 5 dB in the sideline plane were obtained over a wide range of radiation angles. Approach noise reductions of about 5 dB were obtained only in the forward quadrant of the flyover plane; no reductions were obtained in the sideline plane. Models of several noise sources were combined analytically to form an overall noise prediction, the results from which compared favorably with the measured data. The aerodynamic performance characteristics for these configurations were substantially the same in the takeoff attitude. However, in the approach attitude, the suppressed configuration produced a 6 percent reduction in the flow turning efficiency.

  2. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Blankemeyer, Eric; Lieberman, Brian P; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary in vivo evaluation of novel 5-[(18)F]fluoroalkyl-2'-deoxyuridines ([(18)F]FPrDU, [(18)F]FBuDU, [(18)F]FPeDU; [(18)F]1a-c, respectively) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-[(18)F]fluoroalkyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl uracils ([(18)F]FFPrAU, [(18)F]FFBuAU, [(18)F]FFPeAU; [(18)F]1d-f, respectively) as probes for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression is described. [(18)F]1a-f were successfully synthesized by a rapid and efficient two-step one-pot nucleophilic fluorination reaction using 5-O-mesylate precursors and [(18)F]F(-). For in vivo studies, tumor xenografts were grown in nude mice by implanting RG2 cells stably expressing HSV1-tk (RG2TK+) and wild-type cells (RG2). Biodistribution studies at 2 h pi revealed that the uptake of [(18)F]1a-b and [(18)F]1d-e in RG2TK+ tumors was not significantly different from control tumors. However, [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f had an average 1.6- and 1.7-fold higher uptake in RG2TK+ tumors than control RG2 tumors. Blood activity curves for [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f highlight rapid clearance of radioactivity in the blood. Dynamic small animal PET (A-PET) imaging studies of tumor-bearing mice with [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f showed higher initial uptake (3.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in RG2TK+ tumors than in control tumors, with continued washout of activity from both tumors over time. Biological evaluations suggest that [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f may have limited potential for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression due to fast washout of activity from the blood, thus significantly decreasing sensitivity and specificity of tracer accumulation in HSV1-tk-expressing tumors.

  4. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  5. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  6. Thermal protection system development, testing, and qualification for atmospheric probes and sample return missions. Examples for Saturn, Titan and Stardust-type sample return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.; Arnold, J. O.; Wright, M. J.; Allen, G. A.

    2009-07-01

    The science community has continued to be interested in planetary entry probes, aerocapture, and sample return missions to improve our understanding of the Solar System. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such missions are critical to the understanding not only of the individual planets, but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the Solar System. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient to provide the desired data on its atmospheric composition. An aerocapture mission would enable delivery of a satellite to provide insight into how gravitational forces cause dynamic changes in Saturn's ring structure that are akin to the evolution of protoplanetary accretion disks. Heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes, Saturn aerocapture, and sample Earth return missions with higher re-entry speeds (13-15 km/s) from Mars, Venus, comets, and asteroids are in the range of 1-6 KW/cm 2. New, mid-density thermal protection system (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission enabling for mass efficiency and also for use on smaller vehicles enabled by advancements in scientific instrumentation. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet arcjet facility that was used to qualify carbon phenolic for the Galileo probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technologies and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arcjet that can be used for TPS development, in test gases appropriate for future planetary probe and aerocapture applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include new versions of the Apollo Avcoat material and a densified variant of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). Application of these and other TPS materials and the use of other facilities for development and qualification of TPS for Saturn, Titan, and Sample Return missions of the Stardust class with entry speeds from 6.0 to 28.6 km/s are discussed.

  7. Exergy applied to the heat conduction analysis in glass covers of a solar cooker box-type with internal and external reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Chávez, S.; López, R.; Vaca, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an exergy evaluation to determine the energy availability across to glass covers, place where the solar radiation enters toward a solar cooker box-type is done. Considering the heating process of water, the energy not used is quantified by means of exergy. The results allow identifying the glasses in the cover as the zone where the solar cooker could be improved. The conduction heat transfer losses for the glasses is most big than 75%. Because the values for the conduction heat losses are around 90%, which are very important, this allows to identify the cover glass as the area where improvements could be made in this type of solar cookers.

  8. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  9. Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and GenoType MTBDRplus DNA Probes for Detection of Mutations Associated with Rifampicin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Arfatur; Sahrin, Mahfuza; Afrin, Sadia; Earley, Keith; Ahmed, Shahriar; Rahman, S M Mazidur; Banu, Sayera

    2016-01-01

    GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and Genotype MTBDRplus (DRplus) are two World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed probe based molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST) methods for rapid diagnosis of drug resistant tuberculosis. Both methods target the same 81 bp Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of bacterial RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) for detection of Rifampicin (RIF) resistance associated mutations using DNA probes. So there is a correspondence of the probes of each other and expected similarity of probe binding. We analyzed 92 sputum specimens by Xpert, DRplus and LJ proportion method (LJ-DST). We compared molecular DSTs with gold standard LJ-DST. We wanted to see the agreement level of two molecular methods for detection of RIF resistance associated mutations. The 81bp RRDR region of rpoB gene of discrepant cases between the two molecular methods was sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The agreement of Xpert and DRplus with LJ-DST for detection of RIF susceptibility was found to be 93.5% and 92.4%, respectively. We also found 92.4% overall agreement of two molecular methods for the detection of RIF susceptibility. A total of 84 out of 92 samples (91.3%) had agreement on the molecular locus of RRDR mutation by DRplus and Xpert. Sanger sequencing of 81bp RRDR revealed that Xpert probes detected seven of eight discrepant cases correctly and DRplus was erroneous in all the eight cases. Although the overall concordance with LJ-DST was similar for both Xpert and DRplus assay, Xpert demonstrated more accuracy in the detection of RIF susceptibility for discrepant isolates compared with DRplus. This observation would be helpful for the improvement of probe based detection of drug resistance associated mutations especially rpoB mutation in M. tuberculosis.

  10. Electromagnetic simulations of coaxial type HOM coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Haipeng Wang; Robert Rimmer; Charles Reece

    2005-07-10

    DESY-type coaxial high order mode (HOM) coupler was used in many superconducting cavities. The electric probe tip is located at the maximum B-field inside the coupler can. For continuous wave (CW) high current application, the heating of this tip can be severe to degrade the cavity performance. Electromagnetic (EM) simulation was done to estimate the tip heating. The geometric remedies and detuning effect were discussed. The effect to HOM external quality factor (Qext) was also estimated due to these remedies. The HOM probe tip heating power was provided for CEBAF 12-GeV cavities and AES injector cavities.

  11. Characterization of Akiyama probe applied to dual-probes atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hequn; Gao, Sitian; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Li, Qi; Li, Shi; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of nano-scale line-width has always been important and difficult in the field of nanometer measurements, while the rapid development of integrated circuit greatly raises the demand again. As one kind of scanning probe microscope (SPM), atomic force microscope (AFM) can realize quasi three-dimensional measurement, which is widely used in nanometer scale line-width measurement. Our team researched a dual-probes atomic force microscope, which can eliminate the prevalent effect of probe width on measurement results. In dual-probes AFM system, a novel head are newly designed. A kind of self-sensing and self-exciting probes which is Nanosensors cooperation's patented probe—Akiyama probe, is used in this novel head. The Akiyama probe applied to dual-probe atomic force microscope is one of the most important issues. The characterization of Akiyama probe would affect performance and accuracy of the whole system. The fundamental features of the Akiyama probe are electrically and optically characterized in "approach-withdraw" experiments. Further investigations include the frequency response of an Akiyama probe to small mechanical vibrations externally applied to the tip and the effective loading force yielding between the tip and the sample during the periodic contact. We hope that the characterization of the Akiyama probe described in this paper will guide application for dual-probe atomic force microscope.

  12. An external loop region of domain III of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein is involved in serotype-specific binding to mosquito but not mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jan-Jong; Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Young, Ming-Jer; Kao, Chuan-Liang; King, Chwan-Chuen; Chang, Wen

    2004-01-01

    Dengue virus (DV) is a flavivirus and infects mammalian cells through mosquito vectors. This study investigates the roles of domain III of DV type 2 envelope protein (EIII) in DV binding to the host cell. Recombinant EIII interferes with DV infection to BHK21 and C6/36 cells by blocking dengue virion adsorption to these cells. Inhibition of EIII on BHK21 cells was broad with no serotype specificity; however, inhibition of EIII on C6/36 cells was relatively serotype specific. Soluble heparin completely blocks binding of EIII to BHK21 cells, suggesting that domain III binds mainly to cell surface heparan sulfates. This suggestion is supported by the observation that EIII binds very weakly to gro2C and sog9 mutant mammalian cell lines that lack heparan sulfate. In contrast, heparin does not block binding of EIII to mosquito cells. Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that includes amino acids (aa) 380 to 389 of EIII, IGVEPGQLKL, inhibits binding of EIII to C6/36 but not BHK21 cells. This peptide corresponds to a lateral loop region on domain III of E protein, indicating a possible role of this loop in binding to mosquito cells. In summary, these results suggest that EIII plays an important role in binding of DV type 2 to host cells. In addition, EIII interacts with heparan sulfates when binding to BHK21 cells, and a loop region containing aa 380 to 389 of EIII may participate in DV type 2 binding to C6/36 cells.

  13. An External Loop Region of Domain III of Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Is Involved in Serotype-Specific Binding to Mosquito but Not Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Jan-Jong; Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Young, Ming-Jer; Kao, Chuan-Liang; King, Chwan-Chuen; Chang, Wen

    2004-01-01

    Dengue virus (DV) is a flavivirus and infects mammalian cells through mosquito vectors. This study investigates the roles of domain III of DV type 2 envelope protein (EIII) in DV binding to the host cell. Recombinant EIII interferes with DV infection to BHK21 and C6/36 cells by blocking dengue virion adsorption to these cells. Inhibition of EIII on BHK21 cells was broad with no serotype specificity; however, inhibition of EIII on C6/36 cells was relatively serotype specific. Soluble heparin completely blocks binding of EIII to BHK21 cells, suggesting that domain III binds mainly to cell surface heparan sulfates. This suggestion is supported by the observation that EIII binds very weakly to gro2C and sog9 mutant mammalian cell lines that lack heparan sulfate. In contrast, heparin does not block binding of EIII to mosquito cells. Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that includes amino acids (aa) 380 to 389 of EIII, IGVEPGQLKL, inhibits binding of EIII to C6/36 but not BHK21 cells. This peptide corresponds to a lateral loop region on domain III of E protein, indicating a possible role of this loop in binding to mosquito cells. In summary, these results suggest that EIII plays an important role in binding of DV type 2 to host cells. In addition, EIII interacts with heparan sulfates when binding to BHK21 cells, and a loop region containing aa 380 to 389 of EIII may participate in DV type 2 binding to C6/36 cells. PMID:14671119

  14. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; Dial, R.E.; Finnell, W.F.R.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a gamma thermometer probe for detecting heat produced within the thermometer probe. It comprises: an outer elongate thermometer sheath; an elongate rod; annular recesses; a longitudinal bore; and an integrated thermocouple pack. The thermocouple pack comprises: a first type wire, and second type wires. The second type wires comprises: an outer section; and an inner segment.

  15. An interference-free and label-free sandwich-type magnetic silicon microsphere -rGO-based probe for fluorescence detection of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyu; He, Kui; Liao, Rong; Chen, Chunyan; Chen, Xiaoming; Cai, Changqun

    2017-11-01

    An interference-free and label-free sensing platform was developed for the highly sensitive detection of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in vitro by magnetic silicon microsphere (MNP)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based sandwich probe. In this method, DNA capture probes (P1) were connected with MNPs at the 5' end and hybridized with completely complementary target miRNA. Subsequently, rGO was retained and induced the fluorescence quenching in the supernatant. Through the magnetic separation, the supernatant environment was simplified and the interference to analytical signal was eliminated. When DNA capture probe-modified magnetic silicon microspheres (MNP-P1) were adsorbed through rGO in the absence of a target and formed a sandwich structure, the formed nanostructure was easily removed from the solution by a magnetic field and the fluorescence intensity was maximally recovered. This proposed strategy, which both overcame the expensive and cumbersome fluorescent labeling, and eliminated interference to analytical signal for guaranteeing high signal-to-background ratio, exhibited high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 0.098nM and special selectivity toward miRNA-21. The method was potentially applicable for not only detection of miRNA-21 but also various biomarker analyses just by changing capture probes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal Use of a Line Probe Assay for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Predicts Phenotypic Resistance and Clinical Progression in Patients Failing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Servais, Jean; Lambert, Christine; Plesséria, Jean-Marc; Fontaine, Elodie; Robert, Isabelle; Arendt, Vic; Staub, Thérèse; Hemmer, Robert; Schneider, François; Schmit, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    An observational study assessed the longitudinal use of a new line probe assay for the detection of protease mutations. Probe assays for detection of reverse transcriptase (Inno-LiPA HIV-1 RT; Innogenetics) and protease (prototype kit Inno-LiPA HIV Protease; Innogenetics) mutations gave results for 177 of 199 sequential samples collected over 2 years from 26 patients failing two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one protease inhibitor (first line: indinavir, n = 6; ritonavir, n = 10; and saquinavir, n = 10). Results were compared to recombinant virus protease inhibitor susceptibility data (n = 87) and to clinical and virological data. Combinations of protease mutations (M46I, G48V, I54V, V82A or -F, I84V, and L90M) predicted phenotypic resistance to the protease inhibitor and to nelfinavir. The sum of protease mutations was associated with virological and clinical outcomes from 6 and 3 months on, respectively. Moreover, a poorer clinical outcome was linked to the sum of reverse transcriptase mutations. In conclusion, despite the limited number of patients studied and the restricted number of codons investigated, probe assay-based genotyping correlates with phenotypic drug resistance and predicts new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B and C clinical events and virological outcome. Line probe assays provide additional prognostic information and should be prospectively investigated for their potential for treatment monitoring. PMID:12019110

  17. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  18. Development and Application of Multiple-Probe Scanning Probe Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Kubo, O.; Shingaya, Y.; Higuchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Jiang, C. S.; Okuda, T.; Kuwahara, Y.; Takami, K.; Aono, M.

    2012-04-03

    the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Development and application of multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Kubo, Osamu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Higuchi, Seiji; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Okuda, Taichi; Kuwahara, Yuji; Takami, Kazuhiro; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-04-03

    In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Anisotropy and optical gain improvement in type-II In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 nano-scale heterostructure under external uniaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Riyaj, Md.; Anjum, S. G.; Yadav, Nisha; Rathi, Amit; Siddiqui, M. J.; Alvi, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in optical transitions and distortions in wave symmetry in nano-scale QW (quantum well) heterostructures are seen due to external uniaxial strain under different polarizations. This paper reports the anisotropy phenomena and optical gain improvement realized in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 type-II QW-heterostructure (well width = 20 Å) under uniaxial strain in the SWIR (short wave infra red) region. The detailed study of the band structure, wave functions associated with the charge carriers in the respective bands and optical gain under electromagnetic field perturbation is reported. The 6 × 6 diagonal k → ·p → Hamiltonian matrix is evaluated and Luttinger-Kohn model is used for the band structure calculation. Optical gain spectrum in the QW-heterostructure under uniaxial strain along [110] for different polarizations of light is calculated. For a charge carrier injection of 5 × 1012/cm2 the optical gain is ∼1600/cm under input z-polarization, ∼14500/cm under x-polarization and ∼15700/cm under y-polarization without external uniaxial strain applied. A significant improvement in optical gain is observed under uniaxial strain along [110] direction under different input polarizations. Keeping in views its utilization in optoelectronics due its very high optical gain in near-infra-red region in x- or y-polarization mode, such structure can be considered as a novel structure.

  1. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phil; Rackow, Kirk A.; Hohman, Ed

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  2. EXTERNAL VALIDATION OF THE DIAREM SCORE AS REMISSION PREDICTOR OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    SAMPAIO-NETO, José; NASSIF, Luís Sérgio; BRANCO-FILHO, Alcides José; BOLFARINI, Luciana Alves; LORO, Luiara Stefanelo; de SOUZA, Mayara Prudêncio; BIANCO, Thais

    2015-01-01

    Background : DiaRem score consists in preoperative model for predicting remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese patients who underwent gastric bypass. Aim : To evaluate the applicability of DiaRem comparing the scores obtained preoperatively with remission of T2DM after surgery. Method : Preoperative parameters such as age, use of insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and glycated hemoglobin, were retrospectively evaluated in diabetic patients undergoing gastric bypass during the period between July 2012 to July 2013. Through these data the DiaRem score were applied. The results of fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were requested prospectively. Results : Were selected 70 patients; the remission of T2DM after surgery was found in 42 (60%) and no remission in 28 (40%). Checking the final score, it was observed that: from 0 to 2 points, 94.1% of patients remitted completely; between 3 and 7 had remission in 68.9%, of which 42.8% complete; from 8 to 12, 57.1% achieved complete remission; between 13 to 17, 87.5% did not achieve remission and was not seen this complete remission group; between 18 to 22, 88.9% were not remitted. Conclusion : The DiaRem score showed appropriate tool to assess remission of T2DM in obese patients who will undergo gastric bypass. PMID:26537267

  3. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  4. Water-Cooled Total-Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Reece, Garland D.

    1992-01-01

    Water-cooled supersonic total-pressure, static-pressure, and total-temperature probes developed to study high-temperature jet plumes. Total-temperature probe tested up to 2,000 degrees F incorporates annular cooling system up to thermocouple lead. Lead extends into test chamber to sense temperature of supersonic external flow. Design novel and significant. Applicable in development of jet engines and in research on fast flows of hot gases.

  5. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-15

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  6. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  7. Atmospheric Probe Model: Construction and Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Jerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The material contained in this document represents a summary of the results of a low speed wind tunnel test program to determine the performance of an atmospheric probe at low speed. The probe configuration tested consists of a 2/3 scale model constructed from a combination of hard maple wood and aluminum stock. The model design includes approximately 130 surface static pressure taps. Additional hardware incorporated in the baseline model provides a mechanism for simulating external and internal trailing edge split flaps for probe flow control. Test matrix parameters include probe side slip angle, external/internal split flap deflection angle, and trip strip applications. Test output database includes surface pressure distributions on both inner and outer annular wings and probe center line velocity distributions from forward probe to aft probe locations.

  8. A nucleic acid probe labeled with desmethyl thiazole orange: a new type of hybridization-sensitive fluorescent oligonucleotide for live-cell RNA imaging.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sugizaki, Kaori; Yuki, Mizue; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Shuji; Sueoka, Takuma; Hayashi, Gosuke; Wang, Dan Ohtan

    2013-01-14

    A new fluorescent nucleotide with desmethyl thiazole orange dyes, D'(505), has been developed for expansion of the function of fluorescent probes for live-cell RNA imaging. The nucleoside unit of D'(505) for DNA autosynthesis was soluble in organic solvents, which made the preparation of nucleoside units and the reactions in the cycles of DNA synthesis more efficient. The dyes of D'(505)-containing oligodeoxynucleotide were protonated below pH 7 and the oligodeoxynucleotide exhibited hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission through the control of excitonic interactions of the dyes of D'(505). The simplified procedure and effective hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission produced multicolored hybridization-sensitive fluorescent probes, which were useful for live-cell RNA imaging. The acceptor-bleaching method gave us information on RNA in a specific cell among many living cells.

  9. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi May; Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range.

  10. Demonstration of the physiological role of autolysis by a comparative study with a wild-type and its non-autolytic mutant of Micrococcus lysodeikticus (luteus) cultivated with externally added proteolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Monodane, T; Matsushima, Y; Kotani, S

    1978-01-01

    The log phase cells of autolytic Microccus lysodeikticus (luteus) IFO 3333 did not autolyze when grown in the presence of trypsin although the growth curve and morphology of the cells were not influenced. A non-autolytic mutant was obtained by subculture of the wild-type strain IFO 3333 on an agar slant containing 1% glucose. The mutant (strain MT) was wild-type IFO 3333 which occurred singly or in irregular masses. The mutant MT grown in a culture medium containing trypsin caused remarkable alteration in cell morphology: large cell packets consisting of a number of "unit tetrads" arranged regularly in three dimensions were formed by the addition of trypsin to the medium. The findings suggest that inhibition of the separation of divided cells is brought about by inactivation or suppression of a cell wall autolytic enzyme which plays an important role in the separation step and is accessible to externally added trypsin in the mutant cells but not in the wild-type cells. The possibility that there are two kinds or phases of autolytic enzymes "a physiological autolytic enzyme" and "a useless autolytic enzyme", is discussed.

  11. Molecular imaging of human tumor cells that naturally overexpress type 2 cannabinoid receptors using a quinolone-based near-infrared fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyuan; Shao, Pin; Zhang, Shaojuan; Ling, Xiaoxi; Bai, Mingfeng

    2014-07-01

    Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2R) hold promise as therapeutic targets for treating diverse diseases, such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders, addiction, and immune disorders. However, the fundamental role of CBR in the regulation of diseases remains unclear, largely due to a lack of reliable imaging tools for the receptors. The goal of this study was to develop a CBR-targeted molecular imaging probe and evaluate the specificity of the probe using human tumor cells that naturally overexpress CBR. To synthesize the CBR-targeted probe (NIR760-Q), a conjugable CBR ligand based on the quinolone structure was first prepared, followed by bioconjugation with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, NIR760. In vitro fluorescence imaging and competitive binding studies showed higher uptake of NIR760-Q than free NIR760 dye in Jurkat human acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In addition, the high uptake of NIR760-Q was significantly inhibited by the blocking agent, 4-quinolone-3-carboxamide, indicating specific binding of NIR760-Q to the target receptors. These results indicate that the NIR760-Q has potential in diagnostic imaging of CBR positive cancers and elucidating the role of CBR in the regulation of disease progression.

  12. Molecular imaging of human tumor cells that naturally overexpress type 2 cannabinoid receptors using a quinolone-based near-infrared fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiyuan; Shao, Pin; Zhang, Shaojuan; Ling, Xiaoxi; Bai, Mingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2R) hold promise as therapeutic targets for treating diverse diseases, such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders, addiction, and immune disorders. However, the fundamental role of CB2R in the regulation of diseases remains unclear, largely due to a lack of reliable imaging tools for the receptors. The goal of this study was to develop a CB2R-targeted molecular imaging probe and evaluate the specificity of the probe using human tumor cells that naturally overexpress CB2R. To synthesize the CB2R-targeted probe (NIR760-Q), a conjugable CB2R ligand based on the quinolone structure was first prepared, followed by bioconjugation with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, NIR760. In vitro fluorescence imaging and competitive binding studies showed higher uptake of NIR760-Q than free NIR760 dye in Jurkat human acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In addition, the high uptake of NIR760-Q was significantly inhibited by the blocking agent, 4-quinolone-3-carboxamide, indicating specific binding of NIR760-Q to the target receptors. These results indicate that the NIR760-Q has potential in diagnostic imaging of CB2R positive cancers and elucidating the role of CB2R in the regulation of disease progression.

  13. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  14. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian M; Taubman, Matthew S; Lea, A Scott; Phillips, Mark C; Josberger, Erik E; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-12-16

    Utilizing a broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), we measure infrared spectra of particles of explosives by probing characteristic nitro-group resonances in the 7.1-7.9 µm wavelength range. Measurements are presented with spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(-1), spatial resolution of 25 nm, sensitivity better than 100 attomoles, and at a rapid acquisition time of 90 s per spectrum. We demonstrate high reproducibility of the acquired s-SNOM spectra with very high signal-to-noise ratios and relative noise of <0.02 in self-homodyne detection.

  15. Multicusp ion source with external rf antenna for production of protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K. N.; Wilde, S.; Foley, E. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Levinton, F. M.

    2004-02-01

    Proton beams are needed in neutral-beam injection for diagnostic development of an internal magnetic field measurement. High proton fraction, low axial energy spread, current density in excess of 30 mA/cm2, and a parallel ion beam with cw operation are the requirements for the ion source/extraction system. A multicusp-type ion source with an external rf antenna was constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A proton fraction of 85% and proton current density of 32 mA/cm2 were achieved at 1.8 kW of rf power. Plasma parameters were measured with a rf compensated Langmuir probe.

  16. Histochemical staining using lectin probes.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato

    2014-01-01

    In histochemistry and cytochemistry, lectins are often used as probes for the localization of carbohydrates in cells and tissues. With lectins, cells and tissues can be identified as a particular type or a group in situ. Various lectins have been used for mapping of normal cells and tissues, pathological diagnosis such as malignant transformation, and identification of cell lineages during development. This chapter describes light and electron microscopic methods using lectin probes for determining carbohydrate localization in cells and tissues.

  17. Further capacitive imaging experiments using modified probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Yan, An; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, capacitive imaging (CI) is growing in popularity within the NDE communities, as it has the potential to test materials and structures for defects that are not easily tested by other techniques. In previous work, The CI technique has been successfully used on a various types of materials, including concrete, glass/carbon fibre composite, steel, etc. In such CI experiments, the probes are normally with symmetric or concentric electrodes etched onto PCBs. In addition to these conventional coplanar PCB probes, modified geometries can be made and they can lead to different applications. A brief overview of these modified probes, including high resolution surface imaging probe, combined CI/eddy current probe, and CI probe using an oscilloscope probe as the sensing electrode, is presented in this work. The potential applications brought by these probes are also discussed.

  18. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  19. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  20. Borderline Personality and Externalized Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder are diagnostically and clinically characterized by self-harm behavior, as indicated by the criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, “recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior.” However, individuals with borderline personality disorder can display externalized aggressive behavior, as well. In an area characterized by considerably less research, empirical evidence indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder may exhibit physical violence toward partners, physical violence toward known but nonintimate individuals, criminal behaviors that embody externalized violence (e.g., property damage), and, on very rare occasion, murderous behavior (either of family members or anonymous others through serial killing). Given this under-researched area, there are probably other types of externalized aggressive behaviors that have not been empirically revealed. However, externalized aggressive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder clearly exist and need to be assessed in both psychiatric and primary care settings in an effort to promote safety of medical personnel and effective patient management. PMID:22567607

  1. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  2. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  3. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement <50%, and 4) No improvement. Intra and postoperative complications were also recorded. Fifty-two patients, 14 male and 38 female, were included in the study, with 2 patients having bilateral surgery. The average age of the patients was 55.8 years. The average length of follow up was 221 days. Surgical outcomes showed 72% of patients with complete resolution of epiphora and 21% with >50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  4. A Simple Method for Decreasing the Liquid Junction Potential in a Flow-through-Type Differential pH Sensor Probe Consisting of pH-FETs by Exerting Spatiotemporal Control of the Liquid Junction

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Akira; Mohri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiro; Naruse, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The liquid junction potential (LJP), the phenomenon that occurs when two electrolyte solutions of different composition come into contact, prevents accurate measurements in potentiometry. The effect of the LJP is usually remarkable in measurements of diluted solutions with low buffering capacities or low ion concentrations. Our group has constructed a simple method to eliminate the LJP by exerting spatiotemporal control of a liquid junction (LJ) formed between two solutions, a sample solution and a baseline solution (BLS), in a flow-through-type differential pH sensor probe. The method was contrived based on microfluidics. The sensor probe is a differential measurement system composed of two ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) and one Ag/AgCl electrode. With our new method, the border region of the sample solution and BLS is vibrated in order to mix solutions and suppress the overshoot after the sample solution is suctioned into the sensor probe. Compared to the conventional method without vibration, our method shortened the settling time from over two min to 15 s and reduced the measurement error by 86% to within 0.060 pH. This new method will be useful for improving the response characteristics and decreasing the measurement error of many apparatuses that use LJs. PMID:25835300

  5. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  6. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  7. True Limits to Precision via Unique Quantum Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Quantum instruments derived from composite systems allow greater measurement precision than their classical counterparts due to coherences maintained between N components; spins, atoms or photons. Decoherence that plagues real-world devices can be particle loss, or thermal excitation and relaxation, or dephasing due to external noise sources (and also due to prior parameter uncertainty). All these adversely affect precision estimation of time, phase or frequency. We develop a novel technique uncovering the uniquely optimal probe states of the N ``qubits'' alongside new tight bounds on precision under local and collective mechanisms of these noise types above. For large quantum ensembles where numerical techniques fail, the problem reduces by analogy to finding the ground state of a 1-D particle in a potential well; the shape of the well is dictated by the type and strength of decoherence. The formalism is applied to prototypical Mach-Zehnder and Ramsey interferometers to discover the ultimate performance of real-world instruments.

  8. Master external pressure charts

    SciTech Connect

    Michalopoulos, E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

  9. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  10. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  11. Microscopic studies of the fate of charges in organic semiconductors: Scanning Kelvin probe measurements of charge trapping, transport, and electric fields in p- and n-type devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smieska, Louisa Marion

    Organic semiconductors could have wide-ranging applications in lightweight, efficient electronic circuits. However, several fundamental questions regarding organic electronic device behavior have not yet been fully addressed, including the nature of chemical charge traps, and robust models for injection and transport. Many studies focus on engineering devices through bulk transport measurements, but it is not always possible to infer the microscopic behavior leading to the observed measurements. In this thesis, we present scanning-probe microscope studies of organic semiconductor devices in an effort to connect local properties with local device behavior. First, we study the chemistry of charge trapping in pentacene transistors. Working devices are doped with known pentacene impurities and the extent of charge trap formation is mapped across the transistor channel. Trap-clearing spectroscopy is employed to measure an excitation of the pentacene charge trap species, enabling identification of the degradationrelated chemical trap in pentacene. Second, we examine transport and trapping in peryelene diimide (PDI) transistors. Local mobilities are extracted from surface potential profiles across a transistor channel, and charge injection kinetics are found to be highly sensitive to electrode cleanliness. Trap-clearing spectra generally resemble PDI absorption spectra, but one derivative yields evidence indicating variation in trap-clearing mechanisms for different surface chemistries. Trap formation rates are measured and found to be independent of surface chemistry, contradicting a proposed silanol trapping mechanism. Finally, we develop a variation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy that enables measurement of electric fields through a position modulation. This method avoids taking a numeric derivative of potential, which can introduce high-frequency noise into the electric field signal. Preliminary data is presented, and the theoretical basis for electric field

  12. The Key Search Subtest of the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome in Children (BADS-C) Instrument Reveals Impaired Planning Without External Constraints in Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Riva, Daria; Vago, Chiara; Erbetta, Alessandra; Saletti, Veronica; Esposito, Silvia; Micheli, Roberto; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Studies of executive function and its relationship with brain T2-weighted hyperintensities in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have yielded inconsistent results. We examined 16 children with NF1 aged 8 to 15 years, of normal intelligence, and compared their findings to those of 16 siblings and 16 typically developing children using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome in Children (BADS-C). NF1 patients had an adequate overall score at BADS-C, but showed significantly lower performance than typical peers in the Key Search subtest. This is a task that must be solved without any given rules, in which subjects must devise a strategy and an efficient search pattern transferable to other similar real situations. The Key Search scores were not correlated with number and signal characteristics of T2-weighted hyperintensities. Planning without external indications is impaired in children with NF1 because they have to rely entirely on self-organization and monitoring; this study provides information for remediation programs designed to improve functioning in daily life.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  14. Comparison of Modifications in Flap Anastomosis Patterns and Skin Incision Types for External Dacryocystorhinostomy: Anterior-Only Flap Anastomosis with W Skin Incision versus Anterior and Posterior Flap Anastomosis with Linear Skin Incision.

    PubMed

    Dirim, Burcu; Sendul, Selam Yekta; Demir, Mehmet; Ergen, Erdem; Acar, Zeynep; Olgun, Ali; Tiryaki, Semra; Sensoz, Hakan; Guven, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy (E-DCR) by using two different flap anastomosis patterns and skin incision types. This study included 79 patients (88 eyes) with lacrimal drainage system disorders who underwent E-DCR surgery. Fifty eyes of 44 patients (group A) underwent E-DCR by suturing anterior and posterior flaps (H-flap) of the lacrimal sac with curvilinear skin incision whereas in 38 eyes of 35 patients (group B) DCR was performed by suturing only anterior flaps (U-flap) with W skin incision. The success rate was evaluated according to lacrimal patency and scar assessment scores. Patency was achieved in 78 patients (88.6%). In terms of groups, patency was 44 eyes (88.0%) in group A and 34 eyes (89.5%) in group B. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates of lacrimal patency between the two groups. Further, there was no statistically significant difference concerning cutaneous scar scores. Our study suggests that anastomoses of only anterior flaps or both anterior and posterior flaps have similar success rates; suturing only anterior flaps is easier to perform and shortens the operative time. In addition, W skin incision is a reasonable alternative to curvilinear incision for reducing scar formation.

  15. [Treatment of type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients of qi-yin deficiency complicated phlegm-dampness blocking collaterals syndrome by internal application of qigui mixture and external application of qigui huoxue lotion: a clinical study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Bing; Ban, Bo; Zhang, Mei; Sun, Hai-Ling; Li, Ping; Li, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yan-Hong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of internal application of Qigui Mixture (QM) and external application of Qigui Huoxue Lotion (QHL) in treating type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP) patients of qi-yin deficiency complicated phlegm-dampness blocking collaterals syndrome (QYD-PDBCS), and to primarily discuss its mechanism. Totally 62 DPN patients of QYD-PDBCS were randomly assigned to the treatment group (31 cases) and the control group (31 cases). All patients received routine comprehensive therapy. Patients in the control group took Mecobalamine Tablet, 500 microg each time, 3 times per day. Patients in the treatment group additionally took QM, 200 mL per day, twice daily. Besides, they had foot bath in QHL 10 - 15 min every evening for 3 months. The efficacy was assessed by Chinese medical symptom integrals and Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) before treatment, 2 and 3 months after treatment. The nerve conduction velocity was determined; the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (T- AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected 2 and 3 months after treatment. The total effective rates of Chinese medical symptom integrals and TCSS score were obviously higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The nerve conduction velocity was significantly improved in the treatment group, when compared with before treatment (P < 0.01). There was statistical difference in the nerve conduction velocity difference of right median nerve motor branch, bilateral tibial nerve motor branches, bilateral common peroneal nerve motor branches, bilateral ulnar nerve sensory branches, and left tibial nerve sensory branch (P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, serum levels of T-AOC and SOD significantly increased, and the level of MDA decreased significantly in the treatment group after 2 and 3 months of treatment (P < 0.01). But only the SOD level increased significantly in the control group (P < 0.01). There was no statistical

  16. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  17. Probing the location of the substrate binding site of ascorbate oxidase near type 1 copper: an investigation through spectroscopic, inhibition and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Santagostini, Laura; Gullotti, Michele; De Gioia, Luca; Fantucci, Piercarlo; Franzini, Elena; Marchesini, Augusto; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi

    2004-05-01

    The present investigation addresses the problem of the binding mode of phenolic inhibitors and the substrate ascorbate to the active site of ascorbate oxidase. The results from both types of compounds indicate that the binding site is located in a pocket near the type 1 copper center. This information is of general interest for blue multicopper oxidases. Docking calculations performed on the ascorbate oxidase-ascorbate complex show that binding of the substrate occurs in a pocket near type 1 Cu, and is stabilized by at least five hydrogen bonding interactions with protein residues, one of which involves the His512 Cu ligand. Similar docking studies show that the isomeric fluorophenols, which act as competitive inhibitors toward ascorbate, bind to the enzyme in a manner similar to ascorbate. The docking calculations are supported by 19F NMR relaxation measurements performed on fluorophenols in the presence of the enzyme, which show that the bound inhibitors undergo enhanced relaxation by the paramagnetic effect of a nearby Cu center. Unambiguous support to the location of the inhibitor close to type 1 Cu was obtained by comparative relaxation measurements of the fluorophenols in the presence of the ascorbate oxidase derivative where a Zn atom selectively replaces the paramagnetic type 2 Cu. The latter experiments show that contribution to relaxation of the bound inhibitors by the type 2 Cu site is negligible.

  18. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  19. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  20. Diagnostic applications of DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A

    1991-02-01

    This review has described several of the most common molecular biologic techniques that are, or will be, employed in the diagnostic laboratory. The potential advantages of these DNA probe assays in the diagnosis of infectious diseases include: rapid detection and identification of infectious agents; the ability to screen selected specimens using batteries of probes; and the detection of nonviable or difficult-to-culture organisms. The potential disadvantages of DNA probe assays include: the use of isotopic detection methods for optimum sensitivity; limited diagnostic sensitivity of current assays; slow turna-round time for some assay formats; expense of current reagents; limited availability of many probes; lack of technical expertise in most diagnostic laboratories; and the requirement for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (requires culture). Given the above advantages and disadvantages, there are several key issues that must be considered before adopting DNA probe technology in the diagnostic laboratory; the cost of performing routine culture and identification versus the cost of screening with probes--both the number and type of specimens and the time savings that may be realized by eliminating routine cultures; the prevalence of the infectious agent--even the best DNA probe assay may not be useful or practical in a low-prevalence situation; the need for additional equipment and space; and the interpretation of false-positive and false-negative results--additional research is needed in this area. However, laboratories must consider these issues when using a test other than the current gold standard (i.e., culture). DNA probe technology is with us and expanding rapidly. The intelligent application of this new technology will require communication between laboratorians and clinicians and careful consideration of the many advantages and disadvantages discussed above.

  1. Predicting and managing heat dissipation from a neural probe.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew N; Christian, Matthew P; Firebaugh, Samara L; Cooper, Garret W; Jamieson, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Light stimulating neural probes are rapidly increasing our understanding of neural pathways. Relocating the externally coupled light source to the probe tip has the potential to dramatically improve the flexibility of the technique. However, this approach would generate heat within the embedded probe where even minor temperature excursions could easily damage tissues under study. A COMSOL model was used to study the thermal effects of these heated probes in the brain including blood perfusion and metabolic heating, and to investigate the effect of passive methods for improving heat dissipation. The probe temperature initially decreases with insertion depth, and then becomes steady. Extending the probe beyond the heated region has a similar effect, while increasing the size of the heated region steadily decreases the probe temperature. Increasing the thermal conductivity of the probe promotes spreading, decreasing the probe temperature. The effects of insertion depth and probe power dissipation were experimentally tested with a microfabricated, heated mock neural probe. The heated probe was tested in 0.65 % agarose gel at room temperature and in ex vivo cow brain at body temperature. The thermal resistance between the probe and the neural tissue or agarose gel was determined at a range of insertion depths and compared to the COMSOL model.

  2. Remote Adjustable focus Raman Spectroscopy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1998-07-28

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external to the probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes along working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translate the probe body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  3. Pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy: Principle of operation and resolution limits

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, J.; Graupner, T.; Milde, P. Raupach, R.; Zerweck-Trogisch, U.; Eng, L. M.

    2015-10-21

    Knowledge on surface potential dynamics is crucial for understanding the performance of modern-type nanoscale devices. We describe an electrical pump-probe approach in Kelvin-probe force microscopy that enables a quantitative measurement of dynamic surface potentials at nanosecond-time and nanometer-length scales. Also, we investigate the performance of pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy with respect to the relevant experimental parameters. We exemplify a measurement on an organic field effect transistor that verifies the undisturbed functionality of our pump-probe approach in terms of simultaneous and quantitative mapping of topographic and electronic information at a high lateral and temporal resolution.

  4. Stochasticity from external magnetic field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, G.G.; Wootton, A.J. . Fusion Research Center)

    1994-08-01

    To determine whether or not magnetic field lines inside a tokamak plasma are stochastic the authors need the Fourier coefficients of any perturbing radial field inside the plasma. Usually what is measured with magnetic pick-up coils is the root mean square poloidal field outside the plasma. Although no unique transformation is available, they present a model which allows an interpretation of the measured (external) root mean square field in terms of the internal Fourier harmonics. The results are applied to particular TEXT discharges, and suggest a link between magnetic stochasticity and in increasing (more positive) radial electric field, as measured with a heavy ion beam probe.

  5. Annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Piedra, Daniel; Palacios, Tomás; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne

    2014-08-04

    Vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for Ti-deposited GaN showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were introduced below the Ti/GaN interface after annealing at 800 °C. Charge transition of those defects due to electron capture was observed and was found to correlate with a yellow band in the photoluminescence spectrum. The major defect species was identified as vacancy clusters such as three to five Ga-vacancies coupled with multiple nitrogen-vacancies. The annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects in Ti-, Ni-, and Pt-deposited GaN were also examined.

  6. Multiple external root resorption.

    PubMed

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  7. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  8. Working with External Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…

  9. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  10. Working with External Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…

  11. External College Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…

  12. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  13. Functional Scanning Probe Imaging of Nanostructured Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Cox, Phillip A; Ginger, David S

    2016-09-20

    From hybrid perovskites to semiconducting polymer/fullerene blends for organic photovoltaics, many new materials being explored for energy harvesting and storage exhibit performance characteristics that depend sensitively on their nanoscale morphology. At the same time, rapid advances in the capability and accessibility of scanning probe microscopy methods over the past decade have made it possible to study processing/structure/function relationships ranging from photocurrent collection to photocarrier lifetimes with resolutions on the scale of tens of nanometers or better. Importantly, such scanning probe methods offer the potential to combine measurements of local structure with local function, and they can be implemented to study materials in situ or devices in operando to better understand how materials evolve in time in response to an external stimulus or environmental perturbation. This Account highlights recent advances in the development and application of scanning probe microscopy methods that can help address such questions while filling key gaps between the capabilities of conventional electron microscopy and newer super-resolution optical methods. Focusing on semiconductor materials for solar energy applications, we highlight a range of electrical and optoelectronic scanning probe microscopy methods that exploit the local dynamics of an atomic force microscope tip to probe key properties of the solar cell material or device structure. We discuss how it is possible to extract relevant device properties using noncontact scanning probe methods as well as how these properties guide materials development. Specifically, we discuss intensity-modulated scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (IM-SKPM), time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM), frequency-modulated electrostatic force microscopy (FM-EFM), and cantilever ringdown imaging. We explain these developments in the context of classic atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods that exploit the physics of

  14. Étude expérimentale du comportement cyclique d'un acier du type 316 L sous chargement multiaxial complexe en traction-torsion-pressions interne et externe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, L.; Delobelle, P.

    1997-09-01

    are very rich in informations and lead to classify the different types of loading, with two or three cyclic components, with respect to the observed supplementary hardening. This classification was established as follows: i) The in-phase tests with two or three components (δ = \\varphi = 0^circ); no supplementary hardening is observed. ii) The tension-pressure tests such as r_1 = 1, \\varphi = 90^circ and r_1 = - 1, \\varphi = 60^circ, the hardening is slightly inferior to that of tension-torsion tests. iii) The tension-torsion tests such as r_2 = 1 and δ = 90^circ, where a substantial additionnal hardening takes place. iv) The tension-torsion-pressure tests where the three components are strongly shifted, namely: r_1 = r_2 = 1, δ = 90^circ and \\varphi = 60^circ, and r_2 = 1, r_1 = -1, δ = 41.4^circ and \\varphi = 82.8^circ. The hardening is slightly superior to the one recorded in tension-torsion. A more thorough study is in preparation which considers all the possible combinations in tension-torsion-pressures, and will be performed on the same material. The early results tend to validate the observations presented in this article. Cette étude réside dans la détermination expérimentale du comportement à la température ambiante de l'acier inoxydable 316 L sous chargement cyclique non proportionnel en traction-torsion-pressions interne et externe. Les deux ou trois déformations sinusoïdales appliquées sont soit en phase, soit hors-phase et l'on étudie l'amplitude du durcissement supplémentaire en fonction du degré de multiaxialité. On présente quelques boucles stabilisées typiques. Par rapport au durcissement supplémentaire maximal, les différents essais peuvent être classés comme suit: essais en phase (pas de durcissement supplémentaire), essais de traction-pressions hors-phase, essais de traction-torsion hors phase et essais de traction-torsion-pressions avec déphasages conséquents.

  15. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-08-15

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  16. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow

    SciTech Connect

    Weyant, Anja; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Allen, Lori; Joyce, Richard; Matheson, Thomas; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2014-04-01

    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09 with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. With only one to three points per light curve and a prior on the time of maximum from the spectrum used to type the object, we measure an H-band dispersion of spectroscopically normal SNe Ia of 0.164 mag. These observations continue to demonstrate the improved standard brightness of SNe Ia in an H band, even with limited data. Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z ∼ 0.09, which represent the most distant rest-frame NIR H-band observations published to date. This modest sample of 13 NIR SNe Ia represent the pilot sample for {sup S}weetSpot{sup —}a 3 yr NOAO Survey program that will observe 144 SNe Ia in the smooth Hubble flow. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of z ∼ 0.05%-1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the rest-frame NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift.

  17. The nature of terrains of different types on the surface of Venus and selection of potential landing sites for a descent probe of the Venera-D Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Zasova, L. V.; Gerasimov, M. V.; Korablev, O. I.; Marov, M. Ya.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Ignat'ev, N. I.; Tuchin, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss a change in the resurfacing regimes of Venus and probable ways of forming the terrain types that make up the surface of the planet. The interpretation of the nature of the terrain types and their morphologic features allows us to characterize their scientific priority and the risk of landing on their surface to be estimated. From the scientific point of view, two terrain types are of special interest and represent easily achievable targets: the lower unit of regional plains and the smooth plains associated with impact craters. Regional plains are probably a melting from the upper fertile mantle. The material of smooth plains of impact origin is a well-mixed and representative sample of the Venusian crust. The lower unit of regional plains is the most widespread one on the surface of Venus, and it occurs within the boundaries of all of the precalculated approach trajectories of the lander. Smooth plains of impact origin are crossed by the approach trajectories precalculated for 2018 and 2026.

  18. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  19. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  20. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer ismore » severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.« less

  1. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  2. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  3. Probing the core-shell-shell structure of CdSe/CdTe/CdS type II quantum dots for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. A.; Page, R. C.; Binks, D. J.; Pennycook, T. J.; O'Brien, P.; Haigh, S. J.

    2014-06-01

    A greater understanding of multiple exciton generation in heterostructured colloidal quantum dots can be achieved through detailed modelling, and used to optimise their design for solar cell applications. However, such modelling requires an accurate knowledge of the physical structure of the quantum dots. Here we report the use of high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging to study the size and shape of CdSe/CdTe/CdS type II quantum dots at each of the three stages of their synthesis.

  4. The infrared echo of Type II supernovae with circumstellar dust shells. II - A probe into the presupernova evolution of the progenitor star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the spectral appearance and evolution of the infrared light curve, also referred to as the infrared echo, of Type II supernovae embedded in carbon- or oxygen-rich circumstellar dust shells. The distinct spectral signature of the echo and its temporal evolution can be used to estimate the mass of the shell and identify the composition of the dust. Since the shell mass and dust composition are determined by the combined effect of stellar mass loss and the dredging of newly synthesized heavy elements to the stellar surface, observations of the infrared echo may provide useful clues to the presupernova evolution of the progenitor star.

  5. Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Hydroxycyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Hydrides as Benchmarks to Probe Ligand and Metal Effects on the Reactivity of Shvo Type Complexes.

    PubMed

    Casey, Charles P; Guan, Hairong

    2012-01-01

    The bis(trimethylsilyl)-substituted hydroxycyclopentadienyl ruthenium hydride [2,5-(SiMe(3))(2)-3,4-(CH(2)OCH(2))(η(5)-C(4)COH)]Ru(CO)(2)H (10) is an efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones. Because 10 transfers hydrogen rapidly to aldehydes and ketones and because it does not form an inactive bridging hydride during reaction, hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones can be performed at room temperature under relatively low hydrogen pressure (3 atm); this is a significant improvement compared with previously developed Shvo type catalysts. Kinetic and (2)H NMR spectroscopic studies of the stoichiometric reduction of aldehydes and ketones by 10 established a two-step process for the hydrogen transfer: (1) rapid and reversible hydrogen bond formation between OH of 10 and the oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone, (2) followed by slow transfer of both proton and hydride from 10 to the aldehyde or ketone. The stoichiometric and catalytic activities of complex 10 are compared to those of other Shvo type ruthenium hydrides and related iron hydrides.

  6. Probing structural homogeneity of La1-xGdxPO4 monazite-type solid solutions by combined spectroscopic and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huittinen, N.; Arinicheva, Y.; Kowalski, P. M.; Vinograd, V. L.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D.

    2017-04-01

    Here we study the homogeneity of Eu3+-doped La1-xGdxPO4 (x = 0, 0.11, 0.33, 0.55, 0.75, 0.92, 1) monazite-type solid solutions by a combination of Raman and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS) with complementary quasi-random structure-based atomistic modeling studies. For the intermediate La0.45Gd0.55PO4 composition we detected a significant broadening of the Raman bands corresponding to the lattice vibrations of the LnO9 polyhedron, indicating much stronger distortion of the lanthanide cation site than the PO4 tetrahedron. A distortion of the crystal lattice around the dopant site was also confirmed in our TRLFS measurements of Eu3+ doped samples, where both the half width (FWHM) of the excitation peaks and the 7F2/7F1 ratio derived from the emission spectra increase for intermediate solid-solution compositions. The observed variation in FWHM correlates well with the simulated distribution of Eu···O bond distances within the investigated monazites. The combined results imply that homogenous Eu3+-doped La1-xGdxPO4 monazite-type solid solutions are formed over the entire composition range, which is of importance in the context of using these ceramics for immobilization of radionuclides.

  7. Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Hydroxycyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Hydrides as Benchmarks to Probe Ligand and Metal Effects on the Reactivity of Shvo Type Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hairong

    2011-01-01

    The bis(trimethylsilyl)-substituted hydroxycyclopentadienyl ruthenium hydride [2,5-(SiMe3)2-3,4-(CH2OCH2)(η5-C4COH)]Ru(CO)2H (10) is an efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones. Because 10 transfers hydrogen rapidly to aldehydes and ketones and because it does not form an inactive bridging hydride during reaction, hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones can be performed at room temperature under relatively low hydrogen pressure (3 atm); this is a significant improvement compared with previously developed Shvo type catalysts. Kinetic and 2H NMR spectroscopic studies of the stoichiometric reduction of aldehydes and ketones by 10 established a two-step process for the hydrogen transfer: (1) rapid and reversible hydrogen bond formation between OH of 10 and the oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone, (2) followed by slow transfer of both proton and hydride from 10 to the aldehyde or ketone. The stoichiometric and catalytic activities of complex 10 are compared to those of other Shvo type ruthenium hydrides and related iron hydrides. PMID:23087535

  8. Probing the folding and unfolding of wild-type and mutant forms of bacteriorhodopsin in micellar solutions: evaluation of reversible unfolding conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, G Q; Gouaux, E

    1999-11-16

    Wild-type and mutant forms of bacteriorhodopsin (sbR) from Halobacterium salinarium, produced by Escherichia coli overexpression of a synthetic gene, were reversibly unfolded in 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylamino]-2-hydroxyl-1-propane (CHAPSO), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mixed micelles. To study the effect on protein stability by substitutions on the hydrophobic surface with polar residues, the unfolding behavior of a G113Q, G116Q mutant [sbR(Q2)] was compared to the wild-type sbR [sbR(WT)]. sbR(Q2) was more sensitive to SDS-induced unfolding than sbR(WT) under equilibrium conditions, and kinetic experiments showed that sbR(Q2) was more sensitive to acid-induced denaturation and thermal unfolding than sbR(WT). Since the mutations in sbR(Q2) were on the detergent-embedded hydrophobic surface of sbR, protein destabilization by these mutations supports the concept that the membrane-embedded segments are important for the stability of sbR. Our experiments provide the basis for studying the thermodynamic stability of sbR by evaluating reversible folding and unfolding conditions in DMPC/CHAPSO/SDS mixed micelles.

  9. Hot-wire probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulla, V.

    1976-01-01

    High-temperature platinum probe measures turbulence and Reynolds shear stresses in high-temperature compressible flows. Probe does not vibrate at high velocities and does not react like strain gage on warmup.

  10. Phosphorus and boron diffusion paths in polycrystalline silicon gate of a trench-type three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor investigated by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bin Takamizawa, Hisashi Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Fumiko; Kunimune, Yorinobu; Inoue, Masao; Nishida, Akio

    2015-07-13

    The dopant (P and B) diffusion path in n- and p-types polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type three-dimensional (3D) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated using atom probe tomography, based on the annealing time dependence of the dopant distribution at 900 °C. Remarkable differences were observed between P and B diffusion behavior. In the initial stage of diffusion, P atoms diffuse into deeper regions from the implanted region along grain boundaries in the n-type polycrystalline-Si gate. With longer annealing times, segregation of P on the grain boundaries was observed; however, few P atoms were observed within the large grains or on the gate/gate oxide interface distant from grain boundaries. These results indicate that P atoms diffuse along grain boundaries much faster than through the bulk or along the gate/gate oxide interface. On the other hand, in the p-type polycrystalline-Si gate, segregation of B was observed only at the initial stage of diffusion. After further annealing, the B atoms became uniformly distributed, and no clear segregation of B was observed. Therefore, B atoms diffuse not only along the grain boundary but also through the bulk. Furthermore, B atoms diffused deeper than P atoms along the grain boundaries under the same annealing conditions. This information on the diffusion behavior of P and B is essential for optimizing annealing conditions in order to control the P and B distributions in the polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type 3D MOSFETs.

  11. Phosphorus and boron diffusion paths in polycrystalline silicon gate of a trench-type three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor investigated by atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bin; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Fumiko; Kunimune, Yorinobu; Inoue, Masao; Nishida, Akio

    2015-07-01

    The dopant (P and B) diffusion path in n- and p-types polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type three-dimensional (3D) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated using atom probe tomography, based on the annealing time dependence of the dopant distribution at 900 °C. Remarkable differences were observed between P and B diffusion behavior. In the initial stage of diffusion, P atoms diffuse into deeper regions from the implanted region along grain boundaries in the n-type polycrystalline-Si gate. With longer annealing times, segregation of P on the grain boundaries was observed; however, few P atoms were observed within the large grains or on the gate/gate oxide interface distant from grain boundaries. These results indicate that P atoms diffuse along grain boundaries much faster than through the bulk or along the gate/gate oxide interface. On the other hand, in the p-type polycrystalline-Si gate, segregation of B was observed only at the initial stage of diffusion. After further annealing, the B atoms became uniformly distributed, and no clear segregation of B was observed. Therefore, B atoms diffuse not only along the grain boundary but also through the bulk. Furthermore, B atoms diffused deeper than P atoms along the grain boundaries under the same annealing conditions. This information on the diffusion behavior of P and B is essential for optimizing annealing conditions in order to control the P and B distributions in the polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type 3D MOSFETs.

  12. Neural correlates of sound externalization.

    PubMed

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel E; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    When we listen to sounds through headphones without utilizing special transforms, sound sources seem to be located inside our heads. The sound sources are said to be lateralized to one side or the other to varying degree. This internal lateralization is different than sound source localization in the natural environment in which the sound is localized distal to the head. We used fMRI to investigate difference in neural responses between lateralization and localization. Individualized binaural recordings were used as externalized auditory stimuli and stereo recordings were used as internalized auditory stimuli. Brain activity was measured while 14 participants performed an active auditory localization task and while 12 participants performed a stimulus type identification task. Irrespective of the task condition, we observed enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior temporal gyri (pSTG) for the externalized stimuli relative to the internalized stimuli. Region of interest analysis indicated that both left and right pSTG were more sensitive to sound sources in contra- than ipsilateral hemifields. Moreover, greater back than front activity was also found in the left pSTG. Compared to impoverished spatial auditory stimuli, realistic spatial auditory stimuli enhance neural responses in the pSTG. This may be why we could observe contralateral hemifield preference in bilateral pSTG that many previous studies have failed to observe. Overall, the results indicate the importance of using ecologically valid stimuli for investigating neural processes in human cortex.

  13. A Magnetoresistance Measuring Probe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The in line four point probe, commonly used for measuring the sheet resistance in a conductor, cannot measure the anisotropic ferromagnetic magnetoresistance. However, the addition of two contact points that are not collinear with the current contacts give the probe the ability to non-destructively measure the anistropic magnetoresistance. Keywords: Magnetoresistance; Anisotropic; Thin-Film; Permalloy; Four Point Probe; Anisotropic Resistance.

  14. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  15. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  16. Anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament anatomical repair and augmentation versus trans-syndesmosis screw fixation for the syndesmotic instability in external-rotation type ankle fracture with posterior malleolus involvement: A prospective and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Xia, Ronggang; Cheng, Tao; Luo, Congfeng

    2016-07-01

    Syndesmosis injury is common in external-rotation type ankle fractures (ERAF). Trans-syndesmosis screw fixation, the gold-standard treatment, is currently controversial for its complications and biomechanical disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of anatomically repairing the anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) and augmentation with anchor rope system to treat the syndesmotic instability in ERAF with posterior malleolus involvement and to compare its clinical outcomes with that of trans-syndesmosis screw fixation. 53 ERAFs with posterior malleolus involvement received surgery, and the syndesmosis was still unstable after fracture fixation. They were randomised into screw fixation group and AITFL anatomical repair with augmentation group. Reduction quality, syndesmosis diastasis recurrence, pain (VAS score), time back to work, Olerud-Molander ankle score and range of motion (ROM) of ankle were investigated. Olerud-Molander score in AITFL repair group and screw group was 90.4 and 85.8 at 12-month follow-up (P>0.05). Plantar flexion was 31.2° and 34.3° in repair and screw groups (P=0.04). Mal-reduction happened in 5 cases (19.2%) in screw group while 2 cases (7.4%) in repair group. Postoperative syndesmosis re-diastasis occurred in 3 cases in screw group while zero in repair group (P>0.05). Pain score was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Overall complication rate and back to work time were 26.9% and 3.7% (P=0.04), 7.15 months and 5.26 months (P=0.02) in screw group and repair group, respectively. For syndesmotic instability in ERAF with posterior malleolus involvement, the method of AITFL anatomical repair and augmentation with anchor rope system had an equivalent functional outcome and reduction, earlier rehabilitation and less complication compared with screw fixation. It can be selected as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) decreases advanced glycation end products and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus for up to 6 months following treatment.

    PubMed

    Sardina, Paloma D; Martin, Jeffrey S; Dzieza, Wojciech K; Braith, Randy W

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive, non-pharmacologic intervention proven to increase nitric oxide bioavailability in patients with coronary artery disease. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential clinical benefits of EECP on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty subjects (60.7 ± 1.9 years) with T2DM were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either 35 1-h sessions of EECP (n = 20) or time-matched standard care (n = 10). AGEs, receptors for AGEs (RAGEs), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1), and 8-iso-prostaglandin 2α (8-iso-PGF2α) were evaluated before and at 48 h, 2 weeks, 3, and 6 months following EECP treatment or time-matched control. EECP significantly decreased AGEs and RAGEs at all follow-up measurement time points. AGEs and RAGEs were decreased at 48 h (-75 and -16 %), 2 weeks (-87 and -28 %), 3 months (-89 and -29 %), and 6 months (-92 and -20 %) following EECP treatment, respectively. sVCAM-1 and 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly decreased at 48 h (-30 and -49 %) and 2 weeks (-22 and -27 %) following EECP, respectively. sVCAM-1 (-27 %) remained significantly reduced at 3 months following EECP. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was significantly increased at 48 h (+48.4 %) and 2 weeks (+51.9 %) following EECP treatment. Our findings provide novel evidence that EECP decreases AGE/RAGE concentrations, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM that persist for up to 6 months following treatment.

  18. Proxies and Other External Raters: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A Lynn; Cook, Karon F; Lin, Pay-Shin; Morgan, Robert O; Magaziner, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the measurement and subsequent analysis considerations involved when using externally rated data. We will define and describe two categories of externally rated data, recommend methodological approaches for analyzing and interpreting data in these two categories, and explore factors affecting agreement between self-rated and externally rated reports. We conclude with a discussion of needs for future research. Data Sources/Study Setting Data sources for this paper are previous published studies and reviews comparing self-rated with externally rated data. Study Design/Data Collection/Extraction Methods This is a psychometric conceptual paper. Principal Findings We define two types of externally rated data: proxy data and other-rated data. Proxy data refer to those collected from someone who speaks for a patient who cannot, will not, or is unavailable to speak for him or herself, whereas we use the term other-rater data to refer to situations in which the researcher collects ratings from a person other than the patient to gain multiple perspectives on the assessed construct. These two types of data differ in the way the measurement model is defined, the definition of the gold standard against which the measurements are validated, the analysis strategies appropriately used, and how the analyses are interpreted. There are many factors affecting the discrepancies between self- and external ratings, including characteristics of the patient, the proxy, and of the rated construct. Several psychological theories can be helpful in predicting such discrepancies. Conclusions Externally rated data have an important place in health services research, but use of such data requires careful consideration of the nature of the data and how it will be analyzed and interpreted. PMID:16179002

  19. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  20. Fusion of GFP to the M.EcoKI DNA methyltransferase produces a new probe of Type I DNA restriction and modification enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Roberts, Gareth A.; Stephanou, Augoustinos S.; Cooper, Laurie P.; White, John H.; Dryden, David T.F.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Successful fusion of GFP to M.EcoKI DNA methyltransferase. {yields} GFP located at C-terminal of sequence specificity subunit does not later enzyme activity. {yields} FRET confirms structural model of M.EcoKI bound to DNA. -- Abstract: We describe the fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein to the C-terminus of the HsdS DNA sequence-specificity subunit of the Type I DNA modification methyltransferase M.EcoKI. The fusion expresses well in vivo and assembles with the two HsdM modification subunits. The fusion protein functions as a sequence-specific DNA methyltransferase protecting DNA against digestion by the EcoKI restriction endonuclease. The purified enzyme shows Foerster resonance energy transfer to fluorescently-labelled DNA duplexes containing the target sequence and to fluorescently-labelled ocr protein, a DNA mimic that binds to the M.EcoKI enzyme. Distances determined from the energy transfer experiments corroborate the structural model of M.EcoKI.

  1. Vacancy-type defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N grown on GaN templates probed using monoenergetic positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira; Watanabe, Tomohito; Kimura, Shogo; Zhang, Yang; Lozac'h, Mickael; Sang, Liwen; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Oshima, Nagayasu; Suzuki, Ryoichi

    2013-11-14

    Native defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were studied using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons for a 200-nm-thick In{sub 0.13}Ga{sub 0.87}N layer showed that vacancy-type defects were introduced by InN alloying, and the major species of such defects was identified as complexes between a cation vacancy and nitrogen vacancies. The presence of the defects correlated with lattice relaxation of the In{sub 0.13}Ga{sub 0.87}N layer and the increase in photon emissions from donor-acceptor-pair recombination. The species of native defects in In{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N layers was the same but its concentration was decreased by decreasing the InN composition. With the layer thickness increased from 120 nm to 360 nm, a defect-rich region was introduced in the subsurface region (<160 nm), which can be associated with layer growth with the relaxation of compressive stress.

  2. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  3. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  4. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  5. Raman tags: Novel optical probes for intracellular sensing and imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuee; Wang, Zhong; Mu, Xijiao; Ma, Aning; Guo, Shu

    Optical labels are needed for probing specific target molecules in complex biological systems. As a newly emerging category of tags for molecular imaging in live cells, the Raman label attracts much attention because of the rich information obtained from targeted and untargeted molecules by detecting molecular vibrations. Here, we list three types of Raman probes based on different mechanisms: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) probes, bioorthogonal Raman probes, and Resonance Raman (RR) probes. We review how these Raman probes work for detecting and imaging proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules in vitro, within cells, or in vivo. We also summarize recent noteworthy studies, expound on the construction of every type of Raman probe and operating principle, sum up in tables typically targeting molecules for specific binding, and provide merits, drawbacks, and future prospects for the three Raman probes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electroencephalography and externalizing behavior: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudo-Hutt, Anna S

    2015-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to examine the possibility of dysfunctional brain activity in externalizing behavior, but findings across studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus other externalizing behaviors, such as disruptive behavior disorders or antisocial behavior, have developed parallel literatures. The purpose of the present study was to reconcile these two literatures. A meta-analysis of 62 studies of EEG power at rest in relationship to externalizing behaviors was performed. Results of the meta-analyses showed significantly higher delta (Hedges's g=0.25) and theta power (g=0.40) and lower beta power (g=-0.22) in externalizing participants compared to controls. Alpha (g=-0.26) and gamma power (g=-0.26) were marginally lower in externalizing samples. Results were not moderated by type of externalizing behavior. Overall, the results of the meta-analyses were consistent with the hypoarousal theory of externalizing behavior.

  7. Properties of electromagnetic field focusing probe.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, W S; Yassa, N A; Hill, D L; Patil, A A; Lester, P D

    1988-11-01

    The electromagnetic field focusing (EFF) apparatus consists of a radio frequency generator, solenoidal coil, and a hand-held or catheter probe. Applications such as aneurysm treatment, angioplasty, and neurosurgery in various models have been reported. The probe is operated in the near field (within one wavelength of an electromagnetic field source) of a coil inducing eddy currents in biological tissues, producing maximal convergence of the induced current at the probe tip. The probe produces very high temperatures depending on the wattage selected for the given radio frequency of output power. The high temperature can be used in cutting, cauterizing, or vaporizing. The EFF probe is comparable to different types of lasers and to bipolar and monopolar cautery. The EFF probe can be used with catheters or endoscopes. Objectives of this study were to determine what the thermal properties of the EFF probe are and how instrument parameters can be varied to obtain different temperatures in the tissue near the probe tip. In this study an F2 catheter was used as an insulated sheath and the tip of the guide wire was used as the probe tip. Different powers, wave forms, coil-to-probe distances, and probe-tip lengths were tested on a phantom that simulates tissue electrical properties. Some of the experiments were conducted under normal saline to simulate treatment of tissue with body fluids such as blood vessels or brain tissue under normal physiologic conditions. It is concluded that the EFF probe has the advantages of easy manipulation, relative safety, cost effectiveness, and a high degree of spatial control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Type and location of fluorescent probes incorporated into the potent mu-opioid peptide [Dmt]DALDA affect potency, receptor selectivity and intrinsic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schiller, P W; Berezowska, I; Weltrowska, G; Chen, H; Lemieux, C; Chung, N N

    2005-06-01

    The dermorphin-derived tetrapeptide H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) (Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA) is a highly potent and selective mu-opioid agonist capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and producing a potent, centrally mediated analgesic effect when given systemically. For the purpose of biodistribution studies by fluorescence techniques, [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues containing various fluorescent labels [dansyl, anthraniloyl (atn), fluorescein, or 6-dimethylamino-2'-naphthoyl] in several different locations of the peptide were synthesized and characterized in vitro in the guinea-pig ileum and mouse vas deferens assays, and in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor-binding assays. The analogues showed various degrees of mu receptor-binding selectivity, but all of them were less mu-selective than the [Dmt(1)]DALDA parent peptide. Most analogues retained potent, full mu-agonist activity, except for one with fluorescein attached at the C-terminus (3a) (partial mu-agonist) and one containing beta-(6'-dimethylamino-2'-naphthoyl)alanine (aladan) in place of Phe(3) (4) (mu- and kappa-antagonist). The obtained data indicate that the receptor-binding affinity, receptor selectivity and intrinsic efficacy of the prepared analogues vary very significantly, depending on the type of fluorescent label used and on its location in the peptide. The results suggest that the biological activity profile of fluorescence-labeled peptide analogues should always be carefully determined prior to their use in biodistribution studies or other studies. One of the analogues containing the atn group (2a) proved highly useful in a study of cellular uptake and intracellular distribution by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  9. Probing the multidomain structure of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase using mutational analysis: role and environment of endogenous tryptophans.

    PubMed

    Leon, D A; Canaves, J M; Taylor, S S

    2000-05-16

    The regulatory R-subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) is a thermostable multidomain protein. It contains a dimerization domain at the N-terminus followed by an inhibitor site that binds the catalytic C-subunit and two tandem cAMP-binding domains (A and B). Two of the three tryptophans in the RIalpha subunit, Trp188 and Trp222, lie in cAMP-binding domain A while Trp260 lies at the junction between domains A and B. The unfolding of wild-type RIalpha (wt-RI), monitored by intrinsic fluorescence, was described previously [Leon, D. A., Dostmann, W. R. G., and Taylor, S. S. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 3035 (1)]. To determine the environment of each tryptophan and the role of the adjacent domain in folding and stabilization of domain A, three point mutations, W188Y, W222Y, and W260Y, were introduced. The secondary structure of wt-RI and the point mutants has been studied by far-UV circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD). The CD spectra of wt-RI and the three point mutants are practically identical, and the thermal unfolding behavior is very similar. Intrinsic fluorescence and iodide quenching in the presence of increasing urea established that: (a) Trp222 is the most buried, whereas Trp188 is the most exposed to solvent; (b) Trp260 accounts for the quenching of fluorescence when cAMP is bound; and (c) Trp222 contributes most to the intrinsic fluorescence of the wt-RI-subunit, while Trp188 contributes least. For wt-RI, rR(W188Y), and rR(W260Y), removal of cAMP causes a destabilization, while excess cAMP stabilizes these three proteins. In contrast, rR(W222Y) was not stabilized by excess cAMP.

  10. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  11. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  12. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  13. Swimming in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Microswimmers move autonomously but are subject to external fields, which influence their swimming path and their collective dynamics. With three concrete examples we illustrate swimming in external fields and explain the methodology to treat it. First, an active Brownian particle shows a conventional sedimentation profile in a gravitational field but with increased sedimentation length and some polar order along the vertical. Bottom-heavy swimmers are able to invert the sedimentation profile. Second, active Brownian particles interacting by hydrodynamic flow fields in a three-dimensional harmonic trap can spontaneously break the isotropic symmetry. They develop polar order, which one can describe by mean-field theory reminiscent to Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, and thereby pump fluid. Third, a single microswimmer shows interesting non-linear dynamics in Poiseuille flow including swinging and tumbling trajectories. For pushers, hydrodynamic interactions with bounding surfaces stabilize either straight swimming against the flow or tumbling close to the channel wall, while pushers always move on a swinging trajectory with a specific amplitude as limit cycle.

  14. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    PubMed

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    2017-01-01

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  15. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN'S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Meteyer, Karen B; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-07-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles were related to teacher-reported externalizing symptoms for boys but not for girls.

  16. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Kerry L.; Topolewski, John

    1989-05-23

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  17. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  18. Distance probes of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  19. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; ...

    2015-03-15

    We present the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). This document summarizes the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  20. Novel electronic ferroelectricity in an organic charge-order insulator investigated with terahertz-pump optical-probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Morimoto, T.; Yada, H.; Kinoshita, Y.; Sotome, M.; Kida, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Iwano, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Shimoi, Y.; Suda, M.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Mori, H.; Okamoto, H.

    2016-02-01

    In electronic-type ferroelectrics, where dipole moments produced by the variations of electron configurations are aligned, the polarization is expected to be rapidly controlled by electric fields. Such a feature can be used for high-speed electric-switching and memory devices. Electronic-type ferroelectrics include charge degrees of freedom, so that they are sometimes conductive, complicating dielectric measurements. This makes difficult the exploration of electronic-type ferroelectrics and the understanding of their ferroelectric nature. Here, we show unambiguous evidence for electronic ferroelectricity in the charge-order (CO) phase of a prototypical ET-based molecular compound, α-(ET)2I3 (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), using a terahertz pulse as an external electric field. Terahertz-pump second-harmonic-generation(SHG)-probe and optical-reflectivity-probe spectroscopy reveal that the ferroelectric polarization originates from intermolecular charge transfers and is inclined 27° from the horizontal CO stripe. These features are qualitatively reproduced by the density-functional-theory calculation. After sub-picosecond polarization modulation by terahertz fields, prominent oscillations appear in the reflectivity but not in the SHG-probe results, suggesting that the CO is coupled with molecular displacements, while the ferroelectricity is electronic in nature. The results presented here demonstrate that terahertz-pump optical-probe spectroscopy is a powerful tool not only for rapidly controlling polarizations, but also for clarifying the mechanisms of ferroelectricity.

  1. Microfluidic probe: a new tool for integrating microfluidic environments and electronic wafer-probing.

    PubMed

    Routenberg, David A; Reed, Mark A

    2010-01-07

    We demonstrate a new tool for integrating microfluidic channels with commonly used electronic probing techniques. The "microfluidic probe" allows rapid and repeatable fluidic and electronic addressing of small die sites on a variety of substrate types without the need for permanent modification or dicing of the device wafers. We also use the probe to demonstrate locally patterned chemical modification of a substrate. The probes are easily fabricated using standard soft-lithography and basic machining making this a widely accessible technique for electronics and fluidics researchers.

  2. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  3. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  4. Influence of External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, M. R.; Hoffmann, A.

    The application of external fields provides a powerful tool to investigate a large variety of properties of excitons and exciton related processes. Within this chapter, we focus on the fundamental effects of static magnetic and strain fields on the optical properties of excitons in ZnO. The description is complemented by relevant examples. A general review of this topic can be found for constant fields in [Cho, Excitons, Topics in Current Physics, vol. 14 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979)] and Hönerlage et al. [Phys. Rep. 124:161, 1985] and for modulation techniques in [Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1969); Seraphin, Modulation Spectroscopy (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1973); Goldsmith, NATO Science Series II, Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy, vol. 168 (Springer Netherlands, 2005)]. Not much has been published on the influence of static electric fields on excitons. A few references are given at the end of Sect. 8.2.

  5. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  6. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

  7. Tapered optical fiber tip probes based on focused ion beam-milled Fabry-Perot microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with dynamic chemical etching to create microcavities in tapered optical fiber tips, resulting in fiber probes for temperature and refractive index sensing. Dynamic chemical etching uses hydrofluoric acid and a syringe pump to etch standard optical fibers into cone structures called tapered fiber tips where the length, shape, and cone angle can be precisely controlled. On these tips, focused ion beam is used to mill several different types of Fabry-Perot microcavities. Two main cavity types are initially compared and then combined to form a third, complex cavity structure. In the first case, a gap is milled on the tapered fiber tip which allows the external medium to penetrate the light guiding region and thus presents sensitivity to external refractive index changes. In the second, two slots that function as mirrors are milled on the tip creating a silica cavity that is only sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, both cavities are combined on a single tapered fiber tip, resulting in a multi-cavity structure capable of discriminating between temperature and refractive index variations. This dual characterization is performed with the aid of a fast Fourier transform method to separate the contributions of each cavity and thus of temperature and refractive index. Ultimately, a tapered optical fiber tip probe with sub-standard dimensions containing a multi-cavity structure is projected, fabricated, characterized and applied as a sensing element for simultaneous temperature and refractive index discrimination.

  8. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  9. Multipressure and Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    Aerodynamic probe is a small cylinder tube holding a network of tiny tubes leading to various ports. Six parameters are recorded simultaneously with little interference with aerodynamic flow. Two tubes connected by a hot-wire tungsten probe sense steady and fluctuating components of total and static pressures; the feedbacks from these tubes are input into differential-pressure sensors to measure fluctuating components of the pressures. Data are recorded by instruments at the back end of the probe.

  10. Miniature standoff Raman probe for neurosurgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Oliver A. C.; Hutchings, Joanne; Gray, William; Vincent, Rosa Louise; Day, John C.

    2016-08-01

    Removal of intrinsic brain tumors is a delicate process, where a high degree of specificity is required to remove all of the tumor tissue without damaging healthy brain. The accuracy of this process can be greatly enhanced by intraoperative guidance. Optical biopsies using Raman spectroscopy are a minimally invasive and lower-cost alternative to current guidance methods. A miniature Raman probe for performing optical biopsies of human brain tissue is presented. The probe allows sampling inside a conventional stereotactic brain biopsy system: a needle of length 200 mm and inner diameter of 1.8 mm. By employing a miniature stand-off Raman design, the probe removes the need for any additional components to be inserted into the brain. Additionally, the probe achieves a very low internal silica background while maintaining good collection of Raman signal. To illustrate this, the probe is compared with a Raman probe that uses a pair of optical fibers for collection. The miniature stand-off Raman probe is shown to collect a comparable number of Raman scattered photons, but the Raman signal to background ratio is improved by a factor of five at Raman shifts below ˜500 cm-1. The probe's suitability for use on tissue is demonstrated by discriminating between different types of healthy porcine brain tissue.

  11. Rotary probe traversing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokenson, Gustave J.

    1985-04-01

    A simple mechanical device is presented which allows a probe to scan a plane in space without translating the probe support. The mechanism relies on the rotation of two shafts, one of which rotates the probe through space and the other controls the probe offset from the axis of rotation. The characteristic width of the area swept out is four times the characteristic width of the device. A simple ratcheting gear allows adjacent planes to be scanned for the purpose of obtaining gradients. Computerized control of the shafts rotations also allows noncircular domains to be scanned.

  12. Transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1993-12-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas that are inaccessible with ordinary stationary probes. A small probe of magneto-optic (Verdet) material is fired through a plasma at speeds of several km/sec, illuminated by a laser beam. The beam's polarization is rotated in the probe by the local magnetic field and retroreflection back to a polarimetry detector allows determination of the B-field profile across the diameter of a plasma at a spatial resolution of better than 1-cm and an absolute B-field resolution of a few tens of Gauss. The principal components of a TIP diagnostic system were developed and tested. A two-stage light gas gun was constructed that accelerates 30-caliber projectiles to 3 km/sec, and methods were examined for stripping a lexan sabot from a probe prior to entry into a plasma. Probes of CdMnTe and FR-5 Verdet glass were fabricated, and a polarimetry system was constructed for resolving polarization to within 0.25 deg. The diagnostic was validated by measuring a static B-field with a moving (dropped) TIP probe, and finding agreement with Hall-probe measurements to within experimental accuracy (40 Gauss).

  13. Rocket exhaust probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a rocket exhaust probe for collecting particulates from a rocket exhaust plume. The probe comprises a tungsten nose tip, a tip holder, a probe body, and a tail section. Rocket exhaust gas enters the probe at the nose tip inlet and passes into a mixing chamber where the exhaust gas mixes with an inert cooling gas that cools and decelerates the exhaust gas. The mixture of exhaust gas and inert gas then passes into a diffusion chamber where it further cools and decelerates before passsing through a submicron particle collection filter.

  14. Probe for temperature logging of deep cold boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangirolami, M.; Cavagnero, G.; Rossi, A.

    2003-04-01

    A new probe has been developed for measuring some physical parameters in deep cold boreholes such as those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), which is targeted to drill two holes through the ice sheet down to the bedrock at DOME C and at Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The probe is operative in the temperature range 0 to -60^oC and for pressures up to 35 MPa, down to 3500 m depth and in the presence of aggressive fluid filling. The probe is equipped with : 1) a set of four thermometers. Three are fitted in the expandable arms of the probe, to log the temperature of the ice-wall. The fourth thermometer is fitted into a static arm in a central position, between the previous three, and logs the temperature of the borehole fluid, for comparison. Thermistor-type sensors have been selected, with a resolution of 2 mK in the interval near 0^oC. During laboratory tests a time constant of 2.7 s was obtained for the thermal sensors fitted in their protective case. After final assemblage of the probe the sensors were calibrated in the laboratory against a standard precision thermometer, over the range 0 to -60^oC; 2) a sensor for differential measurement of the pressure of the liquid column of the drill fluid, with a resolution of a few 10-6 MPa, sufficient to detect any convective cells, induced by the dishomogeneous composition of the mixing fluids; 3) a manometer (strain gauge) for measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the full range 0 to 35 MPa, from the surface to bottom hole, with a resolution better than 0.001 of the full range; 4) a vertical depth meter for direct measurement of depth on the wall of the borehole, to eliminate any uncertainties caused by variations in the length of the electro-mechanical drilling wire due to the fatigue and strain of drilling operations. The progressive depths are measured by a wheel counter and encoder on the upper arms of the probe, with an expected resolution better than 10-3; 5) a

  15. Generation and characterization of β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharide probes from Brucella abortus cyclic β-glucan and their recognition by C-type lectins of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Palma, Angelina S; Zhang, Yibing; Childs, Robert A; Liu, Yan; Mitchell, Daniel A; Guidolin, Leticia S; Weigel, Wilfried; Mulloy, Barbara; Ciocchini, Andrés E; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    The β1,2-glucans produced by bacteria are important in invasion, survival and immunomodulation in infected hosts be they mammals or plants. However, there has been a lack of information on proteins which recognize these molecules. This is partly due to the extremely limited availability of the sequence-defined oligosaccharides and derived probes for use in the study of their interactions. Here we have used the cyclic β1,2-glucan (CβG) of the bacterial pathogen Brucella abortus, after removal of succinyl side chains, to prepare linearized oligosaccharides which were used to generate microarrays. We describe optimized conditions for partial depolymerization of the cyclic glucan by acid hydrolysis and conversion of the β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharides, with degrees of polymerization 2–13, to neoglycolipids for the purpose of generating microarrays. By microarray analyses, we show that the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGNR, like the closely related DC-SIGN we investigated earlier, binds to the β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharides, as does the soluble immune effector serum mannose-binding protein. Exploratory studies with DC-SIGN are suggestive of the recognition also of the intact CβG by this receptor. These findings open the way to unravelling mechanisms of immunomodulation mediated by β1,2-glucans in mammalian systems. PMID:27053576

  16. Submonolayer Uniformity of Type II InAs/GaInSb W-shaped Quantum Wells Probed by Full-Wafer Photoluminescence Mapping in the Mid-infrared Spectral Range.

    PubMed

    Dyksik, Mateusz; Motyka, Marcin; Sęk, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dallner, Matthias; Weih, Robert; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2015-12-01

    The spatial uniformity of GaSb- and InAs substrate-based structures containing type II quantum wells was probed by means of large-scale photoluminescence (PL) mapping realized utilizing a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The active region was designed and grown in a form of a W-shaped structure with InAs and GaInSb layers for confinement of electrons and holes, respectively. The PL spectra were recorded over the entire 2-in. wafers, and the parameters extracted from each spectrum, such as PL peak energy position, its linewidth and integrated intensity, were collected in a form of two-dimensional spatial maps. Throughout the analysis of these maps, the wafers' homogeneity and precision of the growth procedure were investigated. A very small variation of PL peak energy over the wafer indicates InAs quantum well width fluctuation of only a fraction of a monolayer and hence extraordinary thickness accuracy, a conclusion further supported by high uniformity of both the emission intensity and PL linewidth.

  17. Gamma-Ray Imaging Probes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Walter James

    1988-12-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work. The central concept lies in the representation of the aperture shell by a sequence of binary digits. This, coupled with the mode of operation which is data encoding within an axial slice of space, leads to the fundamental imaging equation in which the coding operation is conveniently described by a circulant matrix operator. The coding/decoding process is a classic coded-aperture problem, and various estimators to achieve decoding are discussed. Some estimators require a priori information about the object (or object class) being imaged; the only unbiased estimator that does not impose this requirement is the simple inverse-matrix operator. The effects of noise on the estimate (or reconstruction) is discussed for general noise models and various codes/decoding operators. The choice of an optimal aperture for detector count times of clinical relevance is examined using a statistical class-separability formalism.

  18. [Detection of JAK2V617F mutation rate by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR using allele specific primer and TaqMan-MGB probe for dual inhibiting amplification of wild type alleles].

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo-Wei; Shao, Dong-Hua; He, Mei-Ling; Cao, Qing-Yun

    2012-12-01

    This study was purposed to develop a real-time PCR assay for sensitive quantification of JAK2V617F allele burden in peripheral blood and to evaluate the clinical value of this method. Both allele-specific mutant reverse primer and wild-type TaqMan-MGB probe were used for dual-inhibiting amplification of wild-type alleles in a real-time PCR, and then the JAK2V617F mutant alleles were amplified specially. The standard curve for quantification of JAK2V617F was established by percentages of JAK2V617F alleles with threshold cycle (Ct) values in a real-time PCR. Furthermore, 89 apparent healthy donors were tested by this method. The results showed that the quantitative lower limit of this method for JAK2V617F was 0.1%, and the intra- and inter-assay average variability for quantifying percentage of JAK2V617F in total DNA was 4.1% and 6.1%, respectively. Two JAK2V617F-positive individuals were identified (the percentage of JAK2V617F alleles were 0.64% and 0.98%, respectively) using this method in blood from 89 apparently healthy donors. It is concluded that the developed method with highly sensitive and reproducible quantification of JAK2V617F mutant burden can be used clinically for diagnosis and evaluation of disease prognosis and efficacy of therapy in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Moreover, this technique can be also used for quantitative detection of variety of single nucleotide mutation.

  19. Periodontal probing systems: a review of available equipment.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Baliga, Vidya; Amarnath, Janardhan

    2011-03-01

    The periodontal pocket, one of the definitive signs of periodontal disease, is the most common parameter to be assessed by dental clinicians. Periodontal probes have been the instruments most commonly used to locate and measure these pockets. Regular use of periodontal probes in routine dental practice facilitates and increases the accuracy of the process of diagnosing the condition, formulating the treatment, and predicting the outcome of therapy. Advances in the field of periodontal probing have led to the development of probes that may help reduce errors in determining this parameter used to define the state of active periodontal disease. One such advance is the emergence of probes that purportedly assess periodontal disease activity noninvasively. The selection of periodontal probe depends on the type of dental practice: a general dental practitioner would require first- or second-generation probes, while third- through fifth-generation probes generally are used in academic and research institutions as well as specialty practices.

  20. External fixators in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  1. 3D localization of ferromagnetic probes for small animal neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Maximilian; Schlaefer, Alexander; Schweikard, Achim

    2010-01-01

    We present the design, setup and results for a magnetic navigation system for small animal stereotactic neurosurgery. Our system tracks the position of thin (diameter 0.5 mm), magnetized ferromagnetic probes inserted into brains of small animals, e.g. rats, for electrophysiological recordings. It is used in combination with the spherical assistant for stereotactic surgery (SASSU) robot to obtain online feedback of the probe's position. Navigation is based only on the static magnetic field generated by the probes thus no external excitation or wires are needed.

  2. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  3. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  4. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  5. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  6. Summary of External-Store Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.; Kelly, T. C.

    1966-01-01

    The drag problems associated with the addition of external stores to airplanes are reviewed. Current analytic techniques for estimating drag penalties associated with the addition of stores in both subsonic and supersonic flight are discussed. In subsonic flight, the drag penalty caused by the addition of external stores is shown to be a function of the type of store installation. In supersonic flight, the drag is shown to be a function of the type of store installation and also of the location of the store installation with respect to the rest of the airplane components. Special store arrangements and attention to the design of the store itself can reduce the drag penalty of the store installation.

  7. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  8. Electron temperature probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-11-01

    The electron temperature probe (ETP) was invented in Japan in 1970's. The probe measures the electron temperature accurately and the measurement is not influenced by the electrode contamination. The instrument has low weight, low data transmission bit rate and low power consumption. The probe has been deployed in many sounding rockets, Earth orbiting scientific satellites, and Mars exploration spacecraft in Japan. The probe has also been deployed in sounding rockets in West Germany, India, Canada, USA, and Brazil. The probe has also been deployed in Brazilian satellites, Korean satellites, and recently as a Taiwan satellite payload. The manuscript describes the principle of the ETP instrument, the system configuration, the mechanical interface with respect to the sensor location, the control timing between data processing units; some useful information, the interference with other instruments, and future improvements and tasks. Some useful information for conducting performance check after the instrument fabrication and before the flight deployment is also presented in Appendix A.

  9. Circumferential pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor); Fantl, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A probe for measuring circumferential pressure inside a body cavity is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, a urodynamic pressure measurement probe for evaluating human urinary sphincter function is disclosed. Along the length of the probe are disposed a multiplicity of deformable wall sensors which typically comprise support tube sections with flexible side wall areas. These are arranged along the length of the probe in two areas, one just proximal to the tip for the sensing of fluid pressure inside the bladder, and five in the sensing section which is positioned within the urethra at the point at which the urinary sphincter constricts to control the flow of urine. The remainder of the length of the probe comprises multiple rigid support tube sections interspersed with flexible support tube sections in the form of bellows to provide flexibility.

  10. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  11. Characterization of probe contact effects on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Mayjonade, Mallory; Ahadi, Aylin; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid, non-invasive optical method widely adopted to gain diagnostic information of tissue. The most flexible approach to this method is a fiber-optic contact-probe used with a spectroscopy system. A challenge of this method is that the external pressure brought by the probe can significantly affect the tissue optical properties as well as the light coupling into the probe, and thus influence the collected DRS-spectrum. In this study we investigate and characterize the effect of probe pressure on DRS-spectra obtained with a calibrated loaded-spring system used with a fiber optic probe in the range (400 - 1600) nm. A multilayer FE-model of the indentation is developed to get a better insight of the distribution of pressure and stresses inside the skin under indentation.

  12. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  13. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by many different types of bacteria or fungi. It usually develops in ears that are exposed to moisture. People who get OE often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time. This can bring infectious bacteria directly into the ear canal. Swimmer's ear occurs ...

  14. Simulation of nuclear quadrupole resonance for sensor probe optimization.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Junichiro; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    A simulation method to estimate the detection efficiency of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) was proposed for optimizing a sensing probe operating at radio frequencies (RFs). It first calculates the transmitted magnetic field from the probe coil to the target sample. The nuclei make quadrupole resonance by it. We considered this nonlinear reaction to estimate NQR emission by the nuclei. Then the received NQR signal intensity from the sample at the probe coil. We calculated the efficiency by testing two different probe types (solenoid and gradiometer) and by changing the relative positions of the probe and sample. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Pioneer Jupiter orbiter probe mission 1980, probe description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The adaptation of the Saturn-Uranus Atmospheric Entry Probe (SUAEP) to a Jupiter entry probe is summarized. This report is extracted from a comprehensive study of Jovian missions, atmospheric model definitions and probe subsystem alternatives.

  16. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  17. External benefits of natural environments

    Treesearch

    Larry W. Tombaugh

    1971-01-01

    Existing methods of assessing economic benefits arising from certain physical environments left in a relatively natural condition do not include estimates of external benefits. Existence value is one such external benefit that accrues to individuals who have no intention of ever visiting the area in question. A partial measure of the existence value of National Parks...

  18. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  19. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  20. Probe Project Status and Accomplishments - Year Two

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.

    2002-04-11

    The Probe project has established a facility for storage- and network-related research, development and testing. With sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Probe is investigating local-area or wide-area distributed storage issues ranging from data mining to optimizing retrieval operations from tape devices. Probe has completed its second full year of operation. In this document we will describe the status of the project as of December 31, 2001. This year we will structure this document by category of work, rather than by project status. We will present sections describing Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computation (SciDAC) projects, network research and research on data mining and distributed cluster analysis. Another section will describe data-transfer application development and testing and other types of hardware- and software-related testing and development activities. We will then describe the work undertaken for presentation at the SC2001 conference. The final section will summarize this year's publications. Individual projects described in this document have used some Probe resource--equipment, software, staff or funding. By describing these projects we do not imply that the work should be entirely credited to Probe, although we do assert that Probe's existence and assistance provided benefit to the work. The Probe project is funded by the Mathematical, Information, and Computer Sciences (MICS) department of the Advanced Scientific Computing Research office, Office of Science, Department of Energy.

  1. Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells and their behaviors under external strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. L.; Chen, Y. H.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, C. Y.; Ma, H.; Zhu, L. P.

    2012-04-01

    Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation in symmetric GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum wells have been investigated at room temperature. The lineshape of Rashba and Dresselhaus-type CPGE spectra is similar, and the Rashba-type is about five times larger than that of Dresselhaus-type. The CPGE current for 1HH-1E (the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction) has the same sign with that of 1LH-1E, while the strain-induced Rashba-type CPGE has different sign for them, and no detectable strain-induced Dresselhaus-type CPGE is observed.

  2. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  3. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    PubMed

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  4. Effects of different manual periodontal probes on periodontal measurements

    PubMed Central

    Holtfreter, Birte; Alte, Dietrich; Schwahn, Christian; Desvarieux, Moïse; Kocher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim To quantify the digit preference effect for three manual periodontal probes and to calculate correction values to enable comparison of studies with equal recording protocols, but different periodontal probes. Material and Methods A prospective in vivo crossover study was conducted with a six-sequence three-period design. Six examiners assessed attachment loss (AL), probing pocket depth (PD) and gingiva height (GH) at four surfaces, full-mouth, in six generally healthy subjects using three manual probes: PCP11 (3-3-3-2 mm increments), PCP2 (2 mm increments), and PCPUNC15 (1 mm increments). Results Distributions of AL, PD and GH differed between probes (p < 0.001). Compared with PCPUNC15, periodontal measurements coinciding with probe markings of PCP11 and PCP2, respectively, were preferentially named by examiners. Digit preference was most pronounced for PD, but less for AL and GH. In multilevel models, PD differed significantly between all three probes (p < 0.05); probe- and examiner-related effects were also observed for AL and GH. Correction values for pairwise combinations of probes were determined. Conclusions We provided empirical evidence and quantified the effect of probe type on periodontal measurements. Differences in probe type should be considered when comparing periodontal data within and between epidemiological studies and appropriate corrections, provided here, should be applied. PMID:22924328

  5. Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    class I; 35% are in class II; 25%, class III; and 5%, class IV. Surveys (8) suggest that from 5% to 15% of patients with HF have persistent severe symptoms, and that the remainder of patients with HF is evenly divided between those with mild and moderately severe symptoms. To date, the diagnosis and management of chronic HF has concentrated on patients with the clinical syndrome of HF accompanied by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Major changes in treatment have resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and the results of large clinical trials. Treatment for chronic HF includes lifestyle management, drugs, cardiac surgery, or implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. Despite pharmacologic advances, which include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, spironolactone, and digoxin, many patients remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated doses. (6) The Technology Patients are typically treated by a trained technician in a medically supervised environment for 1 hour daily for a total of 35 hours over 7 weeks. The procedure involves sequential inflation and deflation of compressible cuffs wrapped around the patient’s calves, lower thighs and upper thighs. In addition to 3 sets of cuffs, the patient has finger plethysmogram and electrocardiogram (ECG) attachments that are connected to a control and display console. External counterpulsation was used in the United States to treat cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. (9;10) More recently, an enhanced version namely “enhanced external counterpulsation” (EECP) was introduced as a noninvasive procedure for outpatient treatment of patients with severe, uncontrollable cardiac ischemia. EECP is said to increase coronary perfusion pressure and reduce the myocardial oxygen demand. Currently, EECP is not applicable for all patients with refractory angina pectoris. For example, many patients are considered ineligible for therapy due to co

  6. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  7. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  8. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  9. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  10. Jupiter probe heatshield configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Binder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of initial probe heatshield shape on the total probe mass loss during Jovian entry is considered. Modification of the aerothermal environment and probe entry trajectory due to changing probe heatshield shape is included in a computerized technique designed for rapid assessment of the effect of probe initial shape on heatshield mass loss. Results obtained indicate the importance of trajectory and heating distribution coupling with probe shape and mass change.

  11. Technology for Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Arnold, James; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul; Laub, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph describing technologies for entry probes is presented. The topics include: 1) Entry Phase; 2) Descent Phase; 3) Long duration atmospheric observations; 4) Survivability at high temperatures; and 5) Summary.

  12. Geological assessment probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-04-01

    A probe is described which can be installed in a side hole that extends from a bore hole in the Earth, to assess the permeability of the strata surrounding the borehole. The probe is elongated and has a plurality of seals spaced therealong and sealed to the walls of the side hole to form a plurality of chambers sealed from one another. A tracer fluid injector on the probe can inject a tracer fluid into one of the chambers, while a tracer fluid detector located in another chamber can detect the tracer fluid, to thereby sense the permeability of the strata surrounding the side hole. The probe can include a train of modules, with each module having an inflatable packer which is inflated by the difference between the borehole pressure and the strata pressure.

  13. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  14. Isolation of human minisatellite loci detected by synthetic tandem repeat probes: direct comparison with cloned DNA fingerprinting probes.

    PubMed

    Armour, J A; Vergnaud, G; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-08-01

    As a direct comparison with cloned 'DNA fingerprinting' probes, we present the results of screening an ordered array Charomid library for hypervariable human loci using synthetic tandem repeat (STR) probes. By recording the coordinates of positive hybridization signals, the subset of clones within the library detected by each STR probe can be defined, and directly compared with the set of clones detected by naturally occurring (cloned) DNA fingerprinting probes. The STR probes vary in the efficiency of detection of polymorphic minisatellite loci; among the more efficient probes, there is a strong overlap with the sets of clones detected by the DNA fingerprinting probes. Four new polymorphic loci were detected by one or more of the STR probes but not by any of the naturally occurring repeats. Sequence comparisons with the probe(s) used to detect the locus suggest that a relatively poor match, for example 10 out of 14 bases in a limited region of each repeat, is sufficient for the positive detection of tandem repeats in a clone in this type of library screening by hybridization. These results not only provide a detailed evaluation of the usefulness of STR probes in the isolation of highly variable loci, but also suggest strategies for the use of these multi-locus probes in screening libraries for clones from hypervariable loci.

  15. Cryogenic Optoelectronic Probe Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    capability is very important for a few on- going projects under DOD support. Selected Examples of Research Using COPS Example 1: sheet resistance measurement...donor concentration of this thin film contact material, we need to know the sheet resistance . As shown in Fig. 1, four electric probes are landed...voltage of 62.4 mV across probe 2 and 3. Therefore we can determine the sheet resistance by using Eq: = ( ) . This gives the sheet

  16. Outer planets probe testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Grote, M. G.; Edwards, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    An atmospheric entry Probe is being developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to conduct in situ scientific investigations of the outer planets' atmospheres. A full scale engineering model of an MDAC-E Probe configuration, was fabricated by NASA ARC. Proof-of-concept test validation of the structural and thermal design is being obtained at NASA ARC. The model was successfully tested for shock and dynamic loading and is currently in thermal vacuum testing.

  17. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  18. External combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describe a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, and a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body. It also includes a displacer element reciprocable in the chamber for displacing the working fluid between a hot space and a cold space of the working fluid chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a work piston. The improvement comprises outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining at atmosphere of the working fluid about the machine body at a pressure substantially lower than in the working fluid chamber.

  19. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  20. Naphthoxazole-based singlet oxygen fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Rubén; Zanocco, Renzo; Gidi, Yasser; Zanocco, Antonio L; Nonell, Santi; Lemp, Else

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and photochemical behavior of a new family of photoactive compounds to assess its potential as singlet oxygen ((1)O2) probes. The candidate dyads are composed by a (1)O2 trap plus a naphthoxazole moiety linked directly or through an unsaturated bond to the oxazole ring. In the native state, the inherent great fluorescence of the naphthoxazole moiety is quenched; but in the presence of (1)O2, generated by the addition and appropriate irradiation of an external photosensitizer, a photooxidation reaction occurs leading to the formation of a new chemical entity whose fluorescence is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the initial compound, at the optimal selected wavelength. The presented dyads outperform the commonly used indirect fluorescent (1)O2 probes in terms of fluorescence enhancement maintaining the required specificity for (1)O2 detection in solution.

  1. Gravity Probe B gyroscope readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.; Aljabreen, H.; Clarke, B.; Gutt, G.; Luo, M.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the Gravity Probe B London-moment readout system successfully used on-orbit to measure two gyroscope spin axis drift rates predicted by general relativity. The system couples the magnetic signal of a spinning niobium-coated rotor into a low noise superconducting quantum interference device. We describe the multi-layered magnetic shield needed to attenuate external fields that would otherwise degrade readout performance. We discuss the ∼35 nrad/yr drift rate sensitivity that was achieved on-orbit.

  2. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  3. Huygens probe on target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected

  4. ENSO variability and external impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.H.; Anderson, D.L.T. ); Davey, M.K. )

    1993-09-01

    Many features of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon have been successfully simulated by coupled models during the last decade. However, some fundamental differences in model behavior remain: the oscillation is self-sustained within the Pacific sector or some external impacts are needed to maintain the oscillation. The first, delayed oscillator scenario describes ENSO as an oscillation generated and maintained by the coupled instability and oceanic waves, without the need for any external impacts. In the second, the system has two steady states of equilibrium and an external forcing is needed to move the system from one state to another. Recent observational analyses suggest possible connections between external influences and ENSO variability. The effects of external impacts on ENSO variability are investigated by using a simple coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The impacts considered are wind-stress anomalies associated with the seasonal monsoonal cycle, and the tropospheric quasi-biennial oscillation in the Indian and western Pacific region. It was found that (1) the external impact plays an important role in triggering ENSO variability when the coupled system in the Pacific could not support the oscillation by itself; (2) the impact regulates the original self-sustained oscillation to a seasonally phase-locked time evolution; and (3) the periods of the resulting oscillations could be three times that of the external forcing, a result of the interaction between the external forcing and the coupled system in the Pacific. If the time-matching condition is satisfied, the oscillation period will be 3 times that of the forcing. Wind stress associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation could influence significantly the original self-sustained oscillation in the Pacific, making the amplitude and interval between two successive warm or cold phases variable, as observed in ENSO events. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Investigation of Systematic Effects in Atmospheric Microthermal Probe Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    MICROTHERMAL PROBE DATA by Daniel S. Roper December, 1992 Thesis Advisor. Donald L. Walters Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 93...EFFWS IN ATMOSP RIC MICROTHERMAL PROBE DATA 12. PERSONALAUTHOR(S) Da s. Roper 13s. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (year, moith, day...distribution is unlimited. Investigation of Systematic Effects in Atmospheric Microthermal Probe Data by Daniel S. Roper Captain, United States Army B.S

  6. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  7. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  8. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  9. Functionalized nanoparticle probes for protein detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Jae-Seung

    2015-05-01

    In this Review, we discuss representative studies of recent advances in the development of nanoparticle-based protein detection methods, with a focus on the properties and functionalization of nanoparticle probes, as well as their use in detection schemes. We have focused on functionalized nanoparticle probes because they offer a number of advantages over conventional assays and because their use for detecting protein targets for diagnostic purposed has been demonstrated. In this report, we discuss nanoparticle probes classified by material type (gold, silver, silica, semiconductor, carbon, and virus) and surface functionality (antibody, aptamer, and DNA), which play a critical role in enhancing the sensitivity, selectivity, and efficiency of the detection systems. In particular, the synergistic function of each component of the nanoparticle probe is emphasized in terms of specific chemical and physical properties. This research area is in its early stages with many milestones to reach before nanoparticle probes are successfully applied in the field; however, the substantial ongoing efforts of researchers underline the great promise offered by nanoparticlebased probes for future applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Integrated cosmological probes: Extended analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Andrina; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Recent progress in cosmology has relied on combining different cosmological probes. In an earlier work, we implemented an integrated approach to cosmology where the probes are combined into a common framework at the map level. This has the advantage of taking full account of the correlations between the different probes, to provide a stringent test of systematics and of the validity of the cosmological model. We extend this analysis to include not only cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature, galaxy clustering, and weak lensing from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) but also CMB lensing, weak lensing from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data, type Ia supernova, and H0 measurements. This yields 12 auto- and cross-power spectra which include the CMB temperature power spectrum, cosmic shear, galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing, CMB lensing cross-correlation along with other cross-correlations, as well as background probes. Furthermore, we extend the treatment of systematic uncertainties by studying the impact of intrinsic alignments, baryonic corrections, residual foregrounds in the CMB temperature, and calibration factors for the different power spectra. For Λ CDM , we find results that are consistent with our earlier work. Given our enlarged data set and systematics treatment, this confirms the robustness of our analysis and results. Furthermore, we find that our best-fit cosmological model gives a good fit to all the data we consider with no signs of tensions within our analysis. We also find our constraints to be consistent with those found by the joint analysis of the WMAP9, SPT, and ACT CMB experiments and the KiDS weak lensing survey. Comparing with the Planck Collaboration results, we see a broad agreement, but there are indications of a tension from the marginalized constraints in most pairs of cosmological parameters. Since our analysis includes CMB temperature Planck data at 10 <ℓ<610 , the tension appears to arise between

  11. Titan atmospheric probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, B. L.

    1984-08-01

    Increased scientific interest in the structure and composition of Titan's atmosphere, clouds and surface have led to the study of mission options to the Saturnian system with the main goal of placing a probe into the atmosphere of the satellite. Two probe concepts have been studied by NASA: the first concept, a slightly modified Galileo probe capable of withstanding approximately 50 earth G during atmospheric entry heating and deceleration, would consist of a blunted 53 degree, 136-cm-diameter half-angle cone with a hemispherical afterbody, and a descent module containing scientific instruments and a parachute; the second concept, a system designed to provide in situ atmospheric measurements of Titan's organic haze layer, would consist of a probe using a 165-cm deployable graphite fabric decelerator, a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical descent module containing five instruments and a 2.5 m-diameter parachute and a 50-cm-radius spherical nose cap. Although the modified Galileo probe is feasible, its scientific drawback includes its inability to obtain in situ measurements above approximately 100 km.

  12. Surgical force detection probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

  13. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems.

  14. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and

  15. The Rouen energy-compensated atom probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrau, J. M.; Danoix, F.; Deconihout, B.; Bouet, M.; Menand, A.; Blavette, D.

    1994-03-01

    The energy-compensated atom probe developed in Rouen is based on the original instrument built in 1978. Since, several improvements were added. Some extensions, among which a Poschenrieder-type energy compensator and a spatial resolution controlling diaphragm, have been adapted to it. The main characteristics of this instrument are presented.

  16. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  17. Typical values of the electric drift type="mathematics">E × B/B2 in the inner radiation belt and slot region as determined from Van Allen Probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The electric drift E × B/B2 plays a fundamental role for the description of plasma flow and particle acceleration. Yet it is not well-known in the inner belt and slot region because of a lack of reliable in situ measurements. In this article, we present an analysis of the electric drifts measured below L 3 by both Van Allen Probes A and B from September 2012 to December 2014. The objective is to determine the typical components of the equatorial electric drift in both radial and azimuthal directions. The dependences of the components on radial distance, magnetic local time, and geographic longitude are examined. The results from Van Allen Probe A agree with Van Allen Probe B. They show, among other things, a typical corotation lag of the order of 5 to 10% below L 2.6, as well as a slight radial transport of the order of 20 m s-1. The magnetic local time dependence of the electric drift is consistent with that of the ionosphere wind dynamo below L 2 and with that of a solar wind-driven convection electric field above L 2. A secondary longitudinal dependence of the electric field is also found. Therefore, this work also demonstrates that the instruments on board Van Allen Probes are able to perform accurate measurements of the electric drift below L 3.

  18. Investigation of the electrochemical reactions at a limited-contact La1-xSrxMnO3/Y-doped ZrO2 interface with a rod-type ionic-probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ho-Il; Hong, Jongsup; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-10-01

    A more quantitatively controllable triple phase boundary (TPB) of a lanthanum strontium manganite/yttria-stabilized zirconia (LSM/YSZ) interface was constructed by using an YSZ ionic probe with well-defined dimensions. A bar-shaped, dense YSZ sintered body was employed as an ionic probe and embedded in the pellet-shaped, dense LSM bulk. The TPB length of the LSM/YSZ interface can be simply determined from the circumference of the YSZ bars. To identify the reaction mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the TPB of the LSM/YSZ interface, limited-contact AC impedance spectroscopy was used; this distinguished the LSM/YSZ interface related polarization from other polarizations present in the Pt/LSM/YSZ/Pt electrochemical cell. By analyzing the electrode-related polarizations in the electrochemical cell with the geometrically quantified YSZ ionic probe, the rate determining step of the ORR was the diffusion of adsorbed oxygen along the LSM bulk surface. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the experimental versatility and the limitations of our designed electrochemical analysis with bar-shaped ionic probes.

  19. Pressure measuring probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a probe for measuring changes in pressure in a high velocity fluid stream over and adjacent to the surface of an object. The probe is formed of an exterior housing having a closed pressure chamber in which a piezoelectric pressure transducer is mounted. An open connector tube having a probe tip passes a portion of the fluid stream into the closed pressure chamber; any change of pressure within, which requires a settling-time to appear in the closed pressure chamber, is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the connector tube. A cooling chamber formed around the pressure chamber is connected to a source of cooling fluid by means of inlet and outlet tubes.

  20. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  1. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  2. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  3. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content

  4. Decoding Internally and Externally Driven Movement Plans.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Giacomo; Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-10-21

    During movement planning, brain activity within parietofrontal networks encodes information about upcoming actions that can be driven either externally (e.g., by a sensory cue) or internally (i.e., by a choice/decision). Here we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to distinguish between areas that represent (1) abstract movement plans that generalize across the way in which these were driven, (2) internally driven movement plans, or (3) externally driven movement plans. In a delayed-movement paradigm, human volunteers were asked to plan and execute three types of nonvisually guided right-handed reaching movements toward a central target object: using a precision grip, a power grip, or touching the object without hand preshaping. On separate blocks of trials, movements were either instructed via color cues (Instructed condition), or chosen by the participant (Free-Choice condition). Using ROI-based and whole-brain searchlight-based MVPA, we found abstract representations of planned movements that generalize across the way these movements are selected (internally vs externally driven) in parietal cortex, dorsal premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex contralateral to the acting hand. In addition, we revealed representations specific for internally driven movement plans in contralateral ventral premotor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus, and in ipsilateral posterior parietotemporal regions, suggesting that these regions are recruited during movement selection. Finally, we observed representations of externally driven movement plans in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and a similar trend in presupplementary motor cortex, suggesting a role in stimulus-response mapping. The way the human brain prepares the body for action constitutes an essential part of our ability to interact with our environment. Previous studies demonstrated that patterns of neuronal activity encode upcoming movements. Here we used multivariate

  5. Repairing the damage to Atlantis' External Tank

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-07

    In high bay 1 of the Vehicle Assembly Building, a technician marks off an area for inspection on Atlantis' external tank. A severe thunderstorm with golf ball-sized hail caused visible divots in the giant tank's foam insulation and minor surface damage to about 26 heat shield tiles on the shuttle's left wing. Further evaluation of the tank is necessary to get an accurate accounting of foam damage and determine the type of repair required and the time needed for that work. A new target launch date has not been determined, but teams will focus on preparing Atlantis for liftoff in late April on mission STS-117.

  6. Repairing the damage to Atlantis' External Tank

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-07

    Technicians in the Vehicle Assembly Building prepare materials that will be used during repair of the nose cone on Atlantis' external tank. A severe thunderstorm with golf ball-sized hail caused visible divots in the giant tank's foam insulation and minor surface damage to about 26 heat shield tiles on the shuttle's left wing. Further evaluation of the tank is necessary to get an accurate accounting of foam damage and determine the type of repair required and the time needed for that work. A new target launch date has not been determined, but teams will focus on preparing Atlantis for liftoff in late April on mission STS-117.

  7. Pressure probe and hot-film probe rsponses to acoustic excitation in mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, T. L.; Jones, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the relative responses of a hot-film probe and a pressure probe positioned in a flow duct carrying mean flow and progressive acoustic waves. The response of each probe was compared with that of a condenser-type microphone flush mounted in the duct wall for flow Mach numbers up to about 0.5. The response of the pressure probe was less than that of the flush-mounted microphone by not more than about 2.1 dB at the highest centerline Mach number. This decreased response of the probe can likely be attributed to flow-induced impedance changes at the probe sensor orifices. The response of the hot-film probe, expressed in terms of fluctuating pressure, was greater than that of the flush-mounted microphone by as much as 6.0 dB at the two higher centerline Mach numbers. Removal of the contribution from fluctuating temperature in the hot-film analytical model greatly improved the agreement between the two transducer responses.

  8. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, K.L.; Topolewski, J.

    1987-10-02

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probe includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe. 1 fig.

  9. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John; Woodruff, Steven

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  10. Anesthetic concerns of external maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Granger B; Nargozian, Charles; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2004-01-01

    External maxillary distractions present additional anesthetic concerns to the existing complexity of the patient with craniofacial disorder. The distraction hardware is rigidly fixed to the cranium and projects in the frontofacial midline, thus limiting oronasal airway access. A review of 16 patients (10 male, 6 female) having external maxillary distraction was done. Patients with patent tracheostomies were excluded. In all cases, the same type of external distraction device was used (R.E.D., K.L.S. Martin, Jacksonville, FL, USA). Perioperative records were reviewed for medical history; operative diagnosis, presence of airway disease, tracheostomy, laryngoscopy grade, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, procedure, operative time, use of intraoperative steroid, day of postoperative extubation, and need for reintubation were documented. The study group was subdivided into two diagnostic categories: those with syndromic craniosynostosis (n = 9) and those with cleft lip/palate (CLP) (n = 7). Patients in the craniosynostotic group had grade 1 laryngoscopy views, with the exception of a single patient with Crouzon syndrome who had a grade 3 view. This was the only patient who required fiberoptic intubation. One patient with Apert syndrome required reintubation (48 hours after surgery); successful extubation was done 96 hours later. In the cleft lip/palate group, all patients had grade 1 laryngoscopic views, except one with a grade 3 view; no patient required fiberoptic intubation. Six of the seven patients were extubated immediately after surgery, with one patient extubated the next day. No patient experienced failure of extubation. External maxillary distraction minimally affects anesthetic management provided certain safeguards are observed. The vertical bar can be left attached to the cranial portion of the distractor, or it can be removed for extubation or reintubation. Removal of the vertical bar allows unobstructed direct laryngoscopy. This emphasizes the importance

  11. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  12. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  13. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  14. The Phoenix Pluto Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, George R.; Spapperi, Jeff; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.; Eldred, Jim; Labij, Dennis; Strinni, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    A design proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto is presented. The topics covered include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion system; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  15. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  16. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  17. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  18. Experimenting with Temperature Probes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1989-01-01

    Presented are four activities which are designed to familiarize children with the multiple uses of computers and help them learn about heat and temperature using temperature probes. Included are the tempering effect of water, heat capacity, caloric content of foods, and weather. Hardware and software are discussed. (CW)

  19. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  20. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  1. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  2. Mechanosensitive membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization contributes to various, usually more complex processes in nature. Examples include the color change of crabs or lobsters during cooking or the chemistry of vision, particularly color vision. The summary of lessons from nature is followed by an overview of mechanosensitive organic materials. Although often twisted and sometimes also polarized, their change of color under pressure usually originates from changes in their crystal packing. Intriguing exceptions include the planarization of several elegantly twisted phenylethynyl oligomers and polymers. Also mechanosensitive probes in plastics usually respond to stretching by disassembly. True ground-state planarization in response to molecular recognition is best exemplified with the binding of thoughtfully twisted cationic polythiophenes to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Molecular rotors, en vogue as viscosity sensors in cells, operate by deplanarization of the first excited state. Pertinent recent examples are described, focusing on λ-ratiometry and intracellular targeting. Complementary to planarization of the ground state with twisted push-pull probes, molecular rotors report on environmental changes with quenching or shifts in emission rather than absorption. The labeling of mechanosensitive channels is discussed as a bioengineering approach to bypass the challenge to create molecular mechanosensitivity and use biological systems instead to sense membrane tension. With planarizable push-pull probes, this challenge is met not with twistome screening, but with "fluorescent flippers," a new concept to insert large and bright monomers into oligomeric

  3. SU-8 free-standing microfluidic probes

    PubMed Central

    Kustanovich, K.; Ainla, A.; Shaali, M.; Jesorka, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a process for fabrication of free-standing SU-8 probes, with a dry, mechanical release of the final micro-devices. The process utilizes the thermal release tape, a commonly used cleanroom material, for facile heat-release from the sacrificial layer. For characterization of the SU-8 microfluidic probes, two liquid interfaces were designed: a disposable interface with integrated wells and an interface with external liquid reservoirs. The versatility of the fabrication and the release procedures was illustrated by further developing the process to functionalize the SU-8 probes for impedance sensing, by integrating metal thin-film electrodes. An additional interface scheme which contains electronic components for impedance measurements was developed. We investigated the possibilities of introducing perforations in the SU-8 device by photolithography, for solution sampling predominantly by diffusion. The SU-8 processes described here allow for a convenient batch production of versatile free-standing microfluidic devices with well-defined tip-geometry. PMID:28798844

  4. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  5. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  6. [Cohort study of cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes: record linkage of encrypted data from an external cohort with data from the epidemiological Cancer Registry of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    PubMed

    Kajüter, H; Geier, A S; Wellmann, I; Krieg, V; Fricke, R; Heidinger, O; Hense, H-W

    2014-01-01

    German epidemiologic cancer registries may store only encrypted personal identifiers. Thus, record linkage with secondary databases needs to be performed via procedures that are based on encrypted identifiers. In this paper, we describe the linkage of patient data from a statutory health insurance company (AOK NordWest) and from the Disease Management Program for diabetes mellitus type 2 with the database of the cancer registry. We report the cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Personal identifying variables of the patient cohort were encrypted before being sent electronically to the cancer registry and submitted to a probabilistic record linkage with registry data. The study included T2D patients who were residents of the Münster, Detmold, or Arnsberg districts and who were aged 40-79 years. Only primary cancers occurring between the date of enrolment and the censoring date (31 December 2010) were included. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated relative to the number of incident cases expected on the basis of the averaged incidence rates in the general population. The record linkage took about 3 weeks of processing time. A total of 67,447 T2D (49.2 % men) cases were included for analyses. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 2,086 men and 1,578 women. Cohort members showed an elevated risk for cancer of the liver (SIR =1.86; 95% CI =1.47-2.31), pancreas (SIR = 1.62; 95 % CI =1.36-1.91), lung (SIR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.11-1.32), and uterus (SIR = 1.34; 95 % CI 1.08-1.65), and they were less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer (SIR =0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.79). The findings of this study suggest that record linkage of secondary databases with cancer registry data for research purposes can be effectively carried out in compliance with strict data-protection regulations.

  7. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  8. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  9. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  10. 10 Core External Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This is an institutional report summarizing 10 core external environmental trends and their implications for El Camino College and the surrounding community. The report offers a brief description for the following trends: (1) there is more emphasis on colleges becoming learning institutions rather than teaching institutions; (2) the current and…

  11. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Haddad, E.; Schlumberger, M.; Hill, C.; Rougier, P.; Sarrazin, D.

    1985-05-01

    Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally, in those patients, the neoplastic tissue involves the larynx, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels or mediastinum. Of 539 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Villejuif, France, until 1976, 97 were treated by external radiotherapy after an incomplete surgical excision. Fifteen years after irradiation, the survival rate is 57% and is approximately 40% at 25 years. The relapse-free survival is lower (39% at 15 years). In patients irradiated with an adequate dose (greater than or equal to 50 Gy) to residual neoplastic tissue after incomplete surgery, the incidence of local recurrence is low (actuarial probability of local recurrence 11% at 15 years versus 23% for patients treated by surgery alone, although the irradiated patients had larger and more extensive tumors). This demonstrates the efficacy of external-beam radiotherapy. The effects of radiotherapy on a residual tumor can be monitored by a serum thyroglobulin assay. With regard to local control of tumors, the effectiveness of radioiodine administration is clearly lower. However, since radioiodine facilitates early detection of distant metastases, a combination of external RT and radioiodine is indicated and is well-tolerated.

  12. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy.

  13. External Communication. SPEC Kit 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    One section of a spring 1979 Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) survey on communication in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions examined how members exchange information with external groups including the university administration, faculty, users, support groups, other libraries, and the profession in general. According…

  14. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    PubMed

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  15. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  16. Externalities and Structure in PPB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Guy

    1971-01-01

    Current federal practice in PPBS comes closer to budgets with most meaning for administrators and little for interdepartmental coordination. By budgeting in a program-department/agency matrix that retains administrative relevance and appropriate output structure, cost and benefit implications external to an agency which are affected by its…

  17. Internal and external attention and the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, Hannah J; Bogler, Carsten; Gleich, Tobias; Haynes, John-Dylan; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing. Here, we employed a thought-probe paradigm to study the neural correlates of these different phases. Twenty healthy, meditation naïve participants were introduced to external (mindfulness of sound) and internal (mindfulness of breathing) attention meditation and then practiced the meditation at home for four consecutive days. They then performed the same focused attention meditations during fMRI scanning, in four runs alternating between internal and external attention. At pseudorandom intervals, participants were asked whether they had just been focused on the task (mindful attention) or had been distracted (mind-wandering). During mindful attention, brain regions typically associated with the DMN, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal junction showed significantly less neural activation compared to mind-wandering phases. Reduced activity of the DMN was found during both external and internal attention, with stronger deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex during internal attention compared to external attention. Moreover, refocusing after mind-wandering was associated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Our results support the theory that mindful attention is associated with reduced DMN activity compared to mind

  18. A Prototype External Event Broker for LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elan Alvarez, Gabriella; Stassun, Keivan; Burger, Dan; Siverd, Robert; Cox, Donald

    2015-01-01

    LSST plans to have an alerts system that will automatically identify various types of "events" appearing in the LSST data stream. These events will include things such as supernovae, moving objects, and many other types, and it is expected that there will be millions of events nightly. It is expected that there may be tens of millions of events each night. To help the LSST community parse and make full advantage of the LSST alerts stream, we are working to design an external "events alert broker" that will generate real-time notification of LSST events to users and/or robotic telescope facilities based on user-specified criteria. For example, users will be able to specify that they wish to be notified immediately via text message of urgent events, such as GRB counterparts, or notified only occasionally in digest form of less time-sensitive events, such as eclipsing binaries. This poster will summarize results from a survey of scientists for the most important features that such an alerts notification service needs to provide, and will present a preliminary design for our external event broker.

  19. Theory of probe measurements at the divertor plate

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.D.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    Probe measurements represent a technically simple and inexpensive approach to the characterization of plasma parameters in the divertor region. On the other hand, the interpretation of the probe signals is sometimes not straightforward, with discrepancies between the results of probe measurements and Thomson scattering measurements often arising. The difficulty of interpretation of probe measurements stems predominantly from the unknown influence of a strong magnetic field on the probe current-voltage characteristics (CVC). There have been many studies of this issue, among the most recent ones papers. In our paper, we present analysis of the physics issues which determine the performance of so called {open_quotes}flush mounted probes{close_quotes}. We note that, in case of an infinitely strong magnetic field, the flux-tube whose footprint coincides with the probe surface, is completely isolated from the rest of the plasma, and the probe CVC becomes more similar to the CVC of a double probe. As a next step in the analysis, we consider classical cross-field transport processes and conclude that, for the flux tubes with dimensions of a few ion gyroradii (as is the case for the probes of the type used in DMD) the cross-field currents are dominated by the ion viscosity. We derive the probe CVC for this case and find that it has a remarkable similarity with the aforementioned characteristics of the double probe. We consider possible effects of plasma turbulence on the cross field transport through a thin flux tube leaning on the probe. We conclude that the character of this effect strongly depends on the spatial and temporal scale of the plasma fluctuations: the influence of fast short-wavelength fluctuations can be described in terms of enhanced diffusion across the flux tube, while the influence of the slow ones can not. As the SOL turbulence is usually slow, we consider in more detail the effect of slow fluctuations.

  20. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  1. When attention wanders: Pupillometric signatures of fluctuations in external attention.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Mahiko; Brown, Kevin; Battaglini, Luca; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response. In the second experiment we found that unlike behavioural lapses, states of off-task thought, particularly those associated with a focus on the past and with an intrusive quality, were associated with reductions in the size of the pupil over the same window prior to the probe. These data show that both states of large and small baseline pupil size are linked to states when attention is not effectively focused on the external environment, although these states have different qualities. More generally, these findings illustrate that subjective and objective markers of task performance may not be equivalent and underscore the importance of developing objective indicators that can allow these different states to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Response of biomembrane domains to external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbancic, Iztok

    To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed

  3. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  4. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  5. Tunneling between chiral magnets: Spin current generation without external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2017-06-01

    Magnons can generate a spin current, and the standard generating mechanism requires at least one external field. Since this mechanism is often applied to a multilayer system including a magnet and a paramagnetic metal, the system can possess not only the charge current induced by the spin current but also the charge current induced by the external field. The latter is an unnecessary accompaniment. Here we show that the tunneling of a magnon pair between chiral magnets can generate a spin current even without external fields. This phenomenon originates from a phase difference between magnon pairs of separate, weakly coupled chiral magnets, and is essentially different from the mechanism using the angle degree of freedom of the magnon Bose-Einstein condensates. The pair's tunneling is possible in chiral magnets due to lack of the Goldstone type gapless excitations. This phenomenon opens the door to spintronics not requiring any external field and using the magnon pair tunneling.

  6. Experimental Probes of Spacetime Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, JoAnne

    2009-07-10

    A novel approach which exploits the geometry of extra spacetime dimensions has been recently proposed as a means to resolving the hierarchy problem, i.e., the large energy gap that separates the electroweak scale and the scale where gravity becomes strong. I will describe two models of this type: one where the apparent hierarchy is generated by a large volume for the extra dimensions, and a second where the observed hierarchy is created by an exponential warp factor which arises from a non-factorizable geometry. Both scenarios have concrete and distinctive phenomenological tests at the TeV scale. I will describe the classes of low-energy and collider signatures for both models, summarize the present constraints from experiment, and examine the ability of future accelerators to probe their parameter space.

  7. Experiments with probe masses

    PubMed Central

    Braginsky, V. B.

    2007-01-01

    It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational “charges” on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

  8. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  9. Experiments with probe masses.

    PubMed

    Braginsky, V B

    2007-03-06

    It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational "charges" on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented.

  10. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted from its transporter in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is lowered onto an assembly and test stand in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  12. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-13

    In the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers prepare to remove the soft shipping cover from the Gravity Probe B experiment. Immediate processing includes setting up mechanical and electrical ground support equipment, making necessary connections and conditioning the spacecraft battery. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-18

    In the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers conduct battery charge/discharge cycles as part of the battery conditioning process on Gravity Probe B. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment enters the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    A transporter carrying the Gravity Probe B experiment backs into the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    Enclosed in a canister, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft arrives on Vandenberg Air Force Base, headed for the spacecraft processing facility. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-11

    Workers in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base get ready to begin processing the Gravity Probe B experiment, including setting up mechanical and electrical ground support equipment, making necessary connections and conditioning the spacecraft battery. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment rests on an assembly and test stand in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    At Vandenberg AFB, the canister enclosing the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft is removed from the transporter. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-11

    Workers in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base get ready to begin processing the Gravity Probe B experiment. Mechanical and electrical ground support equipment will be set up and necessary connections made with the spacecraft. Spacecraft battery conditioning will also begin. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.