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Sample records for external probes types

  1. Controlling microarray DNA hybridization efficiency by probe-surface distance and external surface electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamhieh, K.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2015-03-01

    DNA microarrays are analytical devices designed to determine the composition of multicomponent solutions of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA. These devices are promising technology for diverse applications, including sensing, diagnostics, and drug/gene delivery. Here, we modify a hybridization adsorption isotherm to study the effects of probe-surface distance and the external electrostatic fields, on the oligonucleotide hybridization in microarray and how these effects are varies depending on surface probe density and target concentration. This study helps in our understanding on-surface hybridization mechanisms, and from it we can observe a significant effect of the probe-surface distance, and the external electrostatic fields, on the hybridization yield. In addition we present a simple new criteria to control the oligonucleotide hybridization efficiency by providing a chart illustrating the effects of all factors on the DNA-hybridization efficiency.

  2. The aggregation behavior of native collagen in dilute solution studied by intrinsic fluorescence and external probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kun; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2013-02-01

    The aggregation behavior of type I collagen in acid solutions with the concentrations covering a range of 0.06-1.50 mg/mL was studied utilizing both of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the phenylalanine and tyrosine residues and the external probing of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate (ANS). FRET at 0.30 mg/mL showed the distance among collagen monomers was within 10 nm without the obvious aggregates formed. The predominance of tyrosine fluorescence in FRET in the range of 0.45-0.75 mg/mL identified the existence of collagen aggregates companied with the formation of hydrophobic microdomains revealed by the change of the fluorescence of ANS. The blue-shift of tyrosine fluorescence from 303 to 293 nm for 0.90-1.50 mg/mL dedicated the formation of high order aggregates. The results from the two-phase diagrams of the intrinsic fluorescence for the guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding of collagen confirmed these conclusions. By the two-dimensional correlation analysis for the intrinsic fluorescence of collagen solutions of 0.45, 0.75 and 1.05 mg/mL, the probable characteristic fluorescence peaks for the interactions of proline-aromatic (CH ˜ π) among the collagen molecules were found at 298 and 316 nm.

  3. External electro-optic probing of millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, J. F.; Valdmanis, J. A.; Jackson, T. A.; Bhasin, K. B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Mourou, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    An external, noncontact electro-optic measurement system, designed to operate at the wafer level with conventional wafer probing equipment and without any special circuit preparation, has been developed. Measurements have demonstrated the system's ability to probe continuous and pulsed signals on microwave integrated circuits on arbitrary substrates with excellent spatial resolution. Experimental measurements on a variety of digital and analog circuits, including a GaAs selectively-doped heterostructure transistor prescaler, an NMOS silicon multiplexer, and a GaAs power amplifier MMIC are reported.

  4. Wireless wafer-type probe system for measurement of two-dimensional plasma parameters and spatial uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Cheol; Choi, Ik-Jin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-09-01

    A wireless wafer-type probe system was developed to measure two-dimensional plasma parameters and uniformity. The apparatus uses double probe theory with a harmonic detection method. The plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature, ion density and ion flux, are derived by using the amplitudes of the first and third harmonic currents. The experiment was conducted in an inductively coupled plasma. The measurements of the wireless wafer-type probe were compared with a floating-type Langmuir probe and a similar trend was observed. As the inner and outer antenna current ratio changes, the wireless wafer-type probe was able to measure the evolution of the two-dimensional ion density profiles. Since the wireless wafer-type probe system was electrically isolated and designed to operate stand-alone in the chamber, it can be installed in plasma chambers without any external controllers. This plasma diagnostic system shows promise for processing plasmas.

  5. A set of external reference controls/probes that enable quality assurance between different microarray platforms.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hideo; Ueda, Yoji; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Ooshima, Hiroyuki; Ishizawa, Yohei; Kitahiro, Koji; Miyagawa, Isao; Watanabe, Kazufumi; Nakamura, Takazumi; Tanaka, Ritsuka; Yamamoto, Nobuko; Nakae, Hiroki; Kawase, Mitsuo; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Matoba, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    RNA external standards, although important to ensure equivalence across many microarray platforms, have yet to be fully implemented in the research community. In this article, a set of unique RNA external standards (or RNA standards) and probe pairs that were added to total RNA in the samples before amplification and labeling are described. Concentration-response curves of RNA external standards were used across multiple commercial DNA microarray platforms and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and next-generation sequencing to identify problematic assays and potential sources of variation in the analytical process. A variety of standards can be added in a range of concentrations spanning high and low abundances, thereby enabling the evaluation of assay performance across the expected range of concentrations found in a clinical sample. Using this approach, we show that we are able to confirm the dynamic range and the limit of detection for each DNA microarray platform, RT-PCR protocol, and next-generation sequencer. In addition, the combination of a series of standards and their probes was investigated on each platform, demonstrating that multiplatform calibration and validation is possible.

  6. A set of external reference controls/probes that enable quality assurance between different microarray platforms.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hideo; Ueda, Yoji; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Ooshima, Hiroyuki; Ishizawa, Yohei; Kitahiro, Koji; Miyagawa, Isao; Watanabe, Kazufumi; Nakamura, Takazumi; Tanaka, Ritsuka; Yamamoto, Nobuko; Nakae, Hiroki; Kawase, Mitsuo; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Matoba, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    RNA external standards, although important to ensure equivalence across many microarray platforms, have yet to be fully implemented in the research community. In this article, a set of unique RNA external standards (or RNA standards) and probe pairs that were added to total RNA in the samples before amplification and labeling are described. Concentration-response curves of RNA external standards were used across multiple commercial DNA microarray platforms and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and next-generation sequencing to identify problematic assays and potential sources of variation in the analytical process. A variety of standards can be added in a range of concentrations spanning high and low abundances, thereby enabling the evaluation of assay performance across the expected range of concentrations found in a clinical sample. Using this approach, we show that we are able to confirm the dynamic range and the limit of detection for each DNA microarray platform, RT-PCR protocol, and next-generation sequencer. In addition, the combination of a series of standards and their probes was investigated on each platform, demonstrating that multiplatform calibration and validation is possible. PMID:25481737

  7. Stiffness of modified Type 1a linear external skeletal fixators.

    PubMed

    Reaugh, H F; Rochat, M C; Bruce, C W; Galloway, D S; Payton, M E

    2007-01-01

    Modifications of a Type 1a external skeletal fixator (ESF) frame were evaluated by alternately placing transfixation pins on opposite sides of the connecting rod (Type 1a-MOD) or by placing additional connecting rods on either of the two inside (Type 1a-INSIDE) or two outside (Type 1a-OUTSIDE) transfixation pins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stiffness of these modifications in terms of axial compression (AC), cranial-caudal bending (CCB), and medial-lateral bending (MLB). We hypothesized that these designs would allow significant increase in unilateral frame stiffness, over Type 1a, without proportional increase in frame complexity or technical difficulty of application. All of the ESF frames were constructed using large IMEX SKtrade mark clamps, 3.2 mm threaded fixation pins, 9.5 mm carbon fibre connecting rods and Delrin rods as bone models. Nine, eight pin frames of each design were constructed, and subjected to repetitive non-destructive loading forces (AC, CCB, MLB) using a materials testing machine. Frame construct stiffness for each force (AC, CCB, MLB) was derived from load-deformation curve analysis and displayed in N/mm. Data revealed the 1a-MOD and 1a-OUTSIDE constructs had significantly increased stiffness in CCB and AC as compared to the Type 1a constructs while all of the modified constructs were significantly stiffer in MLB than the Type 1a constructs. PMID:18038001

  8. Monthly optimum inclination of glass cover and external reflector of a basin type solar still with internal and external reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    In this report, we present a theoretical analysis of a basin type solar still with internal and external reflectors. The external reflector is a flat plate that extends from the back wall of the still, and can presumably be inclined forwards or backwards according to the month. We have theoretically predicted the daily amount of distillate produced by the still throughout the year, which varies according to the inclination angle of both the glass cover and the external reflector, at 30 N latitude. We found the optimum external reflector inclination for each month for a still with a glass cover inclination of 10-50 deg. The increase in the average daily amount of distillate throughout the year of a still with inclined external reflector with optimum inclination in addition to an internal reflector, compared to a conventional basin type still was predicted to be 29%, 43% or 67% when the glass cover inclination is 10 deg, 30 deg or 50 deg and the length of external reflector is half the still's length. (author)

  9. Externally triggered imaging technique for microbolometer-type terahertz imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Sudou, Takayuki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Okubo, Syuichi; Isoyama, Goro; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo; Kato, Ryukou

    2016-04-01

    The authors developed terahertz (THz) imager which incorporates 320x240 focal plane array (FPA) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region (ca. 0.5 THz). The imager includes functions such as external-trigger imaging, lock-in imaging, beam profiling and so on. The function of the external-trigger imaging is mainly described in this paper, which was verified in combination of the THz imager with the pulsed THz free electron laser (THz-FEL) developed by Osaka University. The THz-FEL emits THz radiation in a wavelength range of 25 - 150 μm at repetition rates of 2.5, 3.3, 5.0 and 10 pulses per second. The external trigger pulse for the THz imager was generated with a pulse generator, using brightening pulse for THz-FEL. A series of pulses emitted by the THz-FEL at 86 μm were introduced to the THz imager and Joule meter via beam splitter, so that the output signal of THz imager was normalized with the output of the Joule meter and the stability of the THz radiation from FEL was also monitored. The normalized output signals of THz imager (digits/μJ) obtained at the repetition rates mentioned above were found consistent with one another. The timing-relation of the external trigger pulse to the brightening pulse was varied and the influence of the timing-relation on beam pattern is presented. These experimental results verify that the external trigger imaging function operates correctly.

  10. Probe hybridization array typing: a binary typing method for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, U; Zhang, L; France, A M; Ghosh, D; Shalaby, W; Xie, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between Escherichia coli strains is critical for outbreak investigations. Binary typing, based on the presence or absence of genetic material, provides a high-throughput alternative to gel- and PCR-based typing techniques that generate complex banding patterns and lack uniform interpretation criteria. We developed, validated, and determined the discriminatory power of an E. coli binary typing method, probe hybridization array typing (PHAT). In PHAT, the absence or presence of genetic material is identified by using DNA hybridization to produce a reproducible and portable fingerprint for each genome. PHAT probes were generated from genome subtractive hybridization experiments. We PHAT typed the ECOR collection of strains from a variety of geographical locations, and 33 rectal E. coli strains selected from college-aged women with urinary tract infection. In the set of 33 human rectal strains, the discriminatory power of PHAT (98%) equaled that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, for ECOR strains, which include nonhuman strains, the current set of PHAT probes was less discriminating than MLST, ribotyping, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (80% versus 97, 92, and 97%, respectively). When we limited the analysis to ECOR strains of B2 and D lineage, which are associated with human infection, current PHAT probes were highly discriminatory (94%). PHAT can be applied in a high-throughput format (i.e., "library on a slide"), the discriminatory ability can be varied based on the probe set, and PHAT is readily adapted to other bacterial species with high variation in genetic content.

  11. Regulation of oxygen vacancy types on SnO2 (110) surface by external strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. H.; Min, Y. M.; Liu, X. X.; Ding, J. Q.; Guo, J. H.; Hu, F. R.; Liu, L. Z.

    2016-05-01

    In tin dioxide nanostructures, oxygen vacancies (OVs) play an important role in their optical properties and thus regulation of both OV concentration and type via external strain is crucial to exploration of more applications. First-principle calculations of SnO2 (110) surface disclose that asymmetric deformations induced by external strain not only lead to its intrinsic surface elastic changes, but also result in different OV formation energy. In the absence of external strain, the energetically favorable oxygen vacancies(EFOV) appear in the bridging site of second layer. When -3.5% external strain is applied along y direction, the EFOV moves into plane site. This can be ascribed that the compressed deformation gives rise to redistribution of electronic wave function near OVs, therefore, formation of newly bond structures. Our results suggest that different type OVs in SnO2 surface can be controlled by strain engineering.

  12. Heme protein dynamics studied by phosphorescence of an external phosphorescent probe molecule.

    PubMed

    Beckham, S; Cook, M P; Karki, L; Luchsinger, M M; Whitlock, V R; Wu, Y; Zhang, Q; Schuh, M D

    1994-05-01

    The rate constant for quenching, kq, of the phosphorescence of 6-bromo-2-naphthyl sulfate (BNS) by cytochromes c, cytochrome c peroxidase, catalase, and myoglobin has been measured as a function of temperature and solvent viscosity. In aqueous solution at pH 7.0 for cytochromes c and myoglobin the value of kq is nearly equal to the rate constant for diffusional intermolecular contact, which is estimated from the value of kq for microperoxidase-11. For cytochrome c peroxidase and catalase kq is at least 350 times smaller than the rate of diffusional quenching, which shows that quenching of BNS phosphorescence occurs predominantly over the short distance between donor and acceptor. The mechanism for cytochrome c and myoglobin is found not to involve static quenching, deep penetration of BNS into the globin, or unfolding of the protein to allow contact between heme and BNS. It is concluded that quenching occurs by interaction of BNS with the exposed heme edge and by surface insertion of BNS into the protein to a depth sufficient for quenching by the unexposed heme. The effect of rapid-diffusional enhancement on kq is small. From a comparison of the results for the heme proteins, a model emerges that describes cytochrome c and myoglobin as having dynamic surfaces. Sufficient fluctuations persist to allow penetration of polyatomic probe molecules into the protein matrix, but the dynamics and/or interior microenvironment acts to increase resistance with increasing depth of penetration. PMID:8179330

  13. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-08

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a separate White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties leads to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. With early R&D funding, we have achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction. Pre-JDEM AO R&D support will further reduce technical and cost risk. Specific details on the SNAP mission can be found in Aldering et al. (2004, 2005). The primary goal of the SNAP supernova program is to provide a dataset which gives tight constraints on parameters which characterize the dark-energy, e.g. w{sub 0} and w{sub a} where w(a) = w{sub 0} + w{sub a}(1-a). SNAP data can also be used to directly test and discriminate among specific dark energy models. We will do so by building the Hubble diagram of high-redshift supernovae, the same methodology used in the original discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe that established the existence of dark energy (Perlmutter et al. 1998; Garnavich et al. 1998; Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999). The SNAP SN Ia program focuses on minimizing the systematic floor of the supernova method through the use of characterized supernovae that can be sorted into subsets based on subtle signatures of heterogeneity. Subsets may be defined based on host-galaxy morphology, spectral-feature strength and velocity, early-time behavior, inter alia. Independent cosmological analysis of each subset of ''like'' supernovae can be

  14. Research on mutual influence of Cherenkov-type probes within the ISTTOK tokamak chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Plyusnin, V. V.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Figueiredo, H.; Jakubowski, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The paper describes an influence of a Cherenkov-type probe, which is used for measurements of fast electron streams inside the ISTTOK chamber, on other probes and behaviour of a plasma ring. The reported study shows that such a probe situated near the plasma column has a strong influence on signals from another Cherenkov probe, and can cause a considerable reduction of electron-induced signals. This effect does not depend on positions of the probes in relation to the limiter. Measurements of hard X-ray (HXR) emission show that the deeply immersed Cherenkov probe can also influence on the limiter . Under specific experimental conditions such a Cherenkov probe can play the role of a new limiter and change the plasma configuration.

  15. Finite element analysis of three commonly used external fixation devices for treating Type III pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, Muhammad Hanif; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-10-01

    Pilon fractures are commonly caused by high energy trauma and can result in long-term immobilization of patients. The use of an external fixator i.e. the (1) Delta, (2) Mitkovic or (3) Unilateral frame for treating type III pilon fractures is generally recommended by many experts owing to the stability provided by these constructs. This allows this type of fracture to heal quickly whilst permitting early mobilization. However, the stability of one fixator over the other has not been previously demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine the biomechanical stability of these external fixators in type III pilon fractures using finite element modelling. Three-dimensional models of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, three cuneiforms and five metatarsal bones were reconstructed from previously obtained CT datasets. Bones were assigned with isotropic material properties, while the cartilage was assigned as hyperelastic springs with Mooney-Rivlin properties. Axial loads of 350 N and 70 N were applied at the tibia to simulate the stance and the swing phase of a gait cycle. To prevent rigid body motion, the calcaneus and metatarsals were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. The results indicate that the model with the Delta frame produced the lowest relative micromovement (0.03 mm) compared to the Mitkovic (0.05 mm) and Unilateral (0.42 mm) fixators during the stance phase. The highest stress concentrations were found at the pin of the Unilateral external fixator (509.2 MPa) compared to the Mitkovic (286.0 MPa) and the Delta (266.7 MPa) frames. In conclusion, the Delta external fixator was found to be the most stable external fixator for treating type III pilon fractures.

  16. Probing the interstellar medium of external galaxies using quasar absortion lines: The 3C 232/NGC 3067 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocke, John T.; Case, James; Donahue, Megan; Shull, J. Michael; Snow, Theodore P.

    1990-07-01

    Quasar absorption lines offer unique opportunities to probe the interstellar medium of external galaxies. Researchers present new optical and UV absorption line spectroscopy of the quasar 3C232 (z=0.55) revealing new detail in the foreground absorption system due to the bright, spiral galaxy NGC 3067 (cz=1420 km/s). Specifically, the spectra show evidence for two and possibly three separate absorption components in CaII and Na I spanning approx. 150 km/s. The original HI detection of Haschick and Burke (1975) corresponds to the strongest of these metal systems which exhibits doublet ratios consistent with saturation in both CaII and Na I. Due to the recent detection in HI emission of a tidal tail or finger of HI extending from the western edge of NGC 3067 through the position of 3C 232 (Carilli, van Gorkom and Stocke, 1989), the morphology of the HI absorber is now known and is not either a warped disk nor a spherical halo as had been proposed. New deep continuum and H alpha imaging provides a sensitive upper limit on the the ionizing continuum impinging upon this cloud (and thus a limit on the intensity of the extragalactic ionizing radiation field). Together with the observed UV spectrum of 3C 232, the optical emission line ratios and the deep H alpha imaging set a minimum distance between the quasar and the HI cloud disregarding redshift information. This limit strains the non-cosmological redshift interpretation for 3C 232 -- and this quasar is one of the original 5 3C quasars found to be too close to NGC galaxies as if by chance (Burbidge, Burbidge, Solomon and Strittmatter, 1972).

  17. Probing the interstellar medium of external galaxies using quasar absortion lines: The 3C 232/NGC 3067 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.; Case, James; Donahue, Megan; Shull, J. Michael; Snow, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    Quasar absorption lines offer unique opportunities to probe the interstellar medium of external galaxies. Researchers present new optical and UV absorption line spectroscopy of the quasar 3C232 (z=0.55) revealing new detail in the foreground absorption system due to the bright, spiral galaxy NGC 3067 (cz=1420 km/s). Specifically, the spectra show evidence for two and possibly three separate absorption components in CaII and Na I spanning approx. 150 km/s. The original HI detection of Haschick and Burke (1975) corresponds to the strongest of these metal systems which exhibits doublet ratios consistent with saturation in both CaII and Na I. Due to the recent detection in HI emission of a tidal tail or finger of HI extending from the western edge of NGC 3067 through the position of 3C 232 (Carilli, van Gorkom and Stocke, 1989), the morphology of the HI absorber is now known and is not either a warped disk nor a spherical halo as had been proposed. New deep continuum and H alpha imaging provides a sensitive upper limit on the the ionizing continuum impinging upon this cloud (and thus a limit on the intensity of the extragalactic ionizing radiation field). Together with the observed UV spectrum of 3C 232, the optical emission line ratios and the deep H alpha imaging set a minimum distance between the quasar and the HI cloud disregarding redshift information. This limit strains the non-cosmological redshift interpretation for 3C 232 -- and this quasar is one of the original 5 3C quasars found to be too close to NGC galaxies as if by chance (Burbidge, Burbidge, Solomon and Strittmatter, 1972).

  18. Radioactive (131)Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-09-01

    Radioactive(131) iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071-0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008-0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016-0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8-8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44-286 MBq (1.2-7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1-27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083-0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057-0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069-0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059-0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in females-about 10% for

  19. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  20. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P < 0.001). The specific blood doses were 0.118 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq (range: 0.083–0.172) for the off-thyroxine group (females n = 23); 0.87 ± 0.028 mGy/MBq (range: 0.057–0.130) (females n = 13), 0.080 ± 0.013 mGy/MBq (range: 0.069–0.098) (males n = 5) and 0.080 ± 0.028 (range: 0.059–0.118 for rhTSH patients (males n = 4). The mean mGy/MBq for blood was higher in

  1. Light Echoes as Probes of Supernova Type Ia Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2009-07-01

    Environmental factors of Type Ia supernovae are key in understanding their nature, lightcurve evolution, and utility as cosmological standard candles. The progenitor ages {and many other properties} are bimodal, differing by roughly an order of magnitude. Is this reflected as well in the differences in their immediate surroundings in terms of gas and dust? The most powerful and direct way to address this issue is by imaging the reflected light from the dust itself via a light echo. In order for this approach to work, however, one must start imaging the vicinity of the supernova frequently and soon after the explosion is seen. We propose to maintain the imaging sequences crucial for understanding the three-dimensional dust distribution of two recent and key Type Ia supernovae, in a timely manner that will prevent otherwise significant holes in our knowledge. These observations are likely to be important in determining if the interstellar versus the circumstellar environments are more important in determining the appearance of Type Ia explosions, and thereby offer a clue as to the poorly-understood mass-loss history of SN Ia progenitors.JUSTIFICATION FOR VISIT TIME CONSTRAINTS:We have requested "Before" conditions

  2. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Zhen-jun; Guo, Lin; Deng, Chao; Chen, Ya-qi; Zhang, Hong-hai; Liu, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application.

  3. Probing biomembrane interfacial potential and pH profiles with a new type of float-like fluorophores positioned at varying distance from the membrane surface.

    PubMed

    Kraayenhof, R; Sterk, G J; Sang, H W

    1993-09-28

    Fluorophores of a new type were synthesized to probe the electrostatic potential or pH profiles in the external interface of biomembranes. The probes consist of the pH-sensitive fluorophore 7-hydroxycoumarin, coupled to a tetradecyl (myristyl) tail by a spacer group of varying length. A positively charged group is included between the tetradecyl and spacer groups to encourage a float-like alignment in the membrane head-group region. Three probes of this type were compared with 4-heptadecyl-7-hydroxycoumarin the fluorophore of which is embedded in the lipid head-group domain. Thus, a ruler-type positioning of the fluorophores was obtained at about 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.3 nm from the surface. The membrane-bound probes were tested in well-defined liposomes prepared by extrusion with different surface charge densities and size. The predicted positioning of the float-like probes is supported by their binding behavior in liposomes and by steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy, as well as by their accessibility to different quenchers. The interfacial electrostatic potential (psi d) and pH (pHd) values were derived from the observed apparent pKa shifts of the probes. The obtained psi d and pHd profiles as function of the surface potential (psi 0) and distance from the membrane surface are in good harmony with predictions from nonlinear Gouy-Chapman theory. The electrokinetic potentials (zeta) of the liposome series, measured by Doppler-electrophoretic frequency shift of laser light scattering, are in good proportion to the probe data. When bound to yeast cells, these probes monitor interfacial changes in parallel with glucose-induced medium acidification.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [A new type of emergency trauma fracture external fixator--the development of spraying dextran-based polyurethane external splints].

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianyun; Lian, Kejian; Liu, Hui; Lin, Kunshan; Ding, Zhenqi; Linbin; Zhai, Wenliang

    2012-01-01

    A new production method of spraying dextran-based polyurethane external splints is introduced in this paper. The main raw material components are polymethylene polyisocyanate (PAPI), mixed with surfactants, acetone, soluble starch, catalyst, and so on. The splint is used for temporary fixing after fracture, with small size, light weight, easy portability, fine air perviousness, completely transparent to the X-ray. It also needs a shorter fixed operating time. It can not only fix quickly and effectively the vertebral column and limbs, but also significantly shorten the time of pre-hospital care. PMID:22571158

  5. Lensed Type Ia supernovae as probes of cluster mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, J.; Rubin, D.; Richard, J.; Rykoff, E.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Atek, H.; Barbary, K.; Deustua, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Huang, X.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lidman, C.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Spadafora, A. L.; Suzuki, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2014-05-01

    Using three magnified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detected behind CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble) clusters, we perform a first pilot study to see whether standardizable candles can be used to calibrate cluster mass maps created from strong lensing observations. Such calibrations will be crucial when next-generation Hubble Space Telescope cluster surveys (e.g. Frontier) provide magnification maps that will, in turn, form the basis for the exploration of the high-redshift Universe. We classify SNe using combined photometric and spectroscopic observations, finding two of the three to be clearly of Type Ia and the third probable. The SNe exhibit significant amplification, up to a factor of 1.7 at ˜5σ significance (SN-L2). We conducted this as a blind study to avoid fine-tuning of parameters, finding a mean amplification difference between SNe and the cluster lensing models of 0.09 ± 0.09stat ± 0.05sys mag. This impressive agreement suggests no tension between cluster mass models and high-redshift-standardized SNe Ia. However, the measured statistical dispersion of σμ = 0.21 mag appeared large compared to the dispersion expected based on statistical uncertainties (0.14). Further work with the SN and cluster lensing models, post-unblinding, reduced the measured dispersion to σμ = 0.12. An explicit choice should thus be made as to whether SNe are used unblinded to improve the model, or blinded to test the model. As the lensed SN samples grow larger, this technique will allow improved constraints on assumptions regarding e.g. the structure of the dark matter halo.

  6. Long-term outcome after supination-external rotation type-4 fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Stufkens, S A S; Knupp, M; Lampert, C; van Dijk, C N; Hintermann, B

    2009-12-01

    We have compared the results at a mean follow-up of 13 years (11 to 14) of two groups of supination-external rotation type-4 fractures of the ankle, in one of which there was a fracture of the medial malleolus and in the other the medial deltoid ligament had been partially or completely ruptured. Of 66 patients treated operatively between 1993 and 1997, 36 were available for follow-up. Arthroscopy had been performed in all patients pre-operatively to assess the extent of the intra-articular lesions. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hind-foot score was used for clinical evaluation and showed a significant difference in both the total and the functional scores (p < 0.05), but not in those for pain or alignment, in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament (p < 0.05). The only significant difference between the groups on the short-form 36 quality-of-life score was for bodily pain, again in favour of the group with a damaged deltoid ligament. There was no significant difference between the groups in the subjective visual analogue scores or in the modified Kannus radiological score. Arthroscopically, there was a significant difference with an increased risk of loose bodies in the group with an intact deltoid ligament (p < 0.005), although there was no significant increased risk of deep cartilage lesions in the two groups. At a mean follow-up of 13 years after operative treatment of a supination-external rotation type-4 ankle fracture patients with partial or complete rupture of the medial deltoid ligament tended to have a better result than those with a medial malleolar fracture.

  7. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues

  8. Externally Sensitized Deprotection of PPG-Masked Carbonyls as a Spatial Proximity Probe in Photoamplified Detection of Binding Events

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Tiffany P.; Metzel, Greg A.

    2013-01-01

    Externally-sensitized electron-transfer fragmentation in dithiane PPG-protected carbonyls is adopted for detection and amplification of molecular recognition events. The new methodology allows for detection of as low as 50 attomoles of avidin utilizing an imager based on a low sensitivity mass-produced consumer CCD camera. Numeric modelling is carried out to demonstrate the intrinsic limitations of 2D amplification on surfaces and the advantages of unconstrained amplification in a compartmentalized volume of spatially addressable 3D solutions. PMID:22252455

  9. Probe classification of on-off type DNA microarray images with a nonlinear matching measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Munho; Kim, Jong Dae; Min, Byoung Goo; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Y. Y.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear matching measure, called counting measure, as a signal detection measure that is defined as the number of on pixels in the spot area. It is applied to classify probes for an on-off type DNA microarray, where each probe spot is classified as hybridized or not. The counting measure also incorporates the maximum response search method, where the expected signal is obtained by taking the maximum among the measured responses of the various positions and sizes of the spot template. The counting measure was compared to existing signal detection measures such as the normalized covariance and the median for 2390 patient samples tested on the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA chip. The counting measure performed the best regardless of whether or not the maximum response search method was used. The experimental results showed that the counting measure combined with the positional search was the most preferable.

  10. The external-internal loop of interference: Two types of attention and their influence on the learning abilities of mice

    PubMed Central

    Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Kwan, Stephanie; Matzel, Louis D.

    2016-01-01

    Attention is a component of the working memory system, and as such, is responsible for protecting task-relevant information from interference. Cognitive performance (particularly outside of the laboratory) is often plagued by interference, and the source of this interference, either external or internal, might influence the expression of individual differences in attentional ability. By definition, external attention (also described as “selective attention”) protects working memory against sensorial distractors of all kinds, while internal attention (also called “inhibition”) protects working memory against emotional impulses, irrelevant information from memory, and automatically-generated responses. At present, it is unclear if these two types of attention are expressed independently in non-human animals, and how they might differentially impact performance on other cognitive processes, such as learning. By using a diverse battery of four attention tests (with varying levels of internal and external sources of interference), here we aimed both to explore this issue, and to obtain a robust and general (less task-specific) measure of attention in mice. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two factors (external and internal attention) that in total, accounted for 73% of the variance in attentional performance. Confirmatory factor analyses found an excellent fit with the data of the model of attention that assumed an external and internal distinction (with a resulting correlation of 0.43). In contrast, a model of attention that assumed one source of variance (i.e., “general attention”) exhibited a poor fit with the data. Regarding the relationship between attention and learning, higher resistance against external sources of interference promoted better new learning, but tended to impair performance when cognitive flexibility was required, such as during the reversal of a previously instantiated response. The present results suggest that there can be (at

  11. The external-internal loop of interference: two types of attention and their influence on the learning abilities of mice.

    PubMed

    Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Kwan, Stephanie; Matzel, Louis D

    2014-12-01

    Attention is a component of the working memory system, and is responsible for protecting task-relevant information from interference. Cognitive performance (particularly outside of the laboratory) is often plagued by interference, and the source of this interference, either external or internal, might influence the expression of individual differences in attentional ability. By definition, external attention (also described as "selective attention") protects working memory against sensorial distractors of all kinds, while internal attention (also called "inhibition") protects working memory against emotional impulses, irrelevant information from memory, and automatically-generated responses. At present, it is unclear if these two types of attention are expressed independently in non-human animals, and how they might differentially impact performance on other cognitive processes, such as learning. By using a diverse battery of four attention tests (with varying levels of internal and external sources of interference), here we aimed both to explore this issue, and to obtain a robust and general (less task-specific) measure of attention in mice. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two factors (external and internal attention) that in total, accounted for 73% of the variance in attentional performance. Confirmatory factor analyses found an excellent fit with the data of the model of attention that assumed an external and internal distinction (with a resulting correlation of 0.43). In contrast, a model of attention that assumed one source of variance (i.e., "general attention") exhibited a poor fit with the data. Regarding the relationship between attention and learning, higher resistance against external sources of interference promoted better new learning, but tended to impair performance when cognitive flexibility was required, such as during the reversal of a previously instantiated response. The present results suggest that there can be (at least) two types of

  12. The external-internal loop of interference: two types of attention and their influence on the learning abilities of mice.

    PubMed

    Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Kwan, Stephanie; Matzel, Louis D

    2014-12-01

    Attention is a component of the working memory system, and is responsible for protecting task-relevant information from interference. Cognitive performance (particularly outside of the laboratory) is often plagued by interference, and the source of this interference, either external or internal, might influence the expression of individual differences in attentional ability. By definition, external attention (also described as "selective attention") protects working memory against sensorial distractors of all kinds, while internal attention (also called "inhibition") protects working memory against emotional impulses, irrelevant information from memory, and automatically-generated responses. At present, it is unclear if these two types of attention are expressed independently in non-human animals, and how they might differentially impact performance on other cognitive processes, such as learning. By using a diverse battery of four attention tests (with varying levels of internal and external sources of interference), here we aimed both to explore this issue, and to obtain a robust and general (less task-specific) measure of attention in mice. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two factors (external and internal attention) that in total, accounted for 73% of the variance in attentional performance. Confirmatory factor analyses found an excellent fit with the data of the model of attention that assumed an external and internal distinction (with a resulting correlation of 0.43). In contrast, a model of attention that assumed one source of variance (i.e., "general attention") exhibited a poor fit with the data. Regarding the relationship between attention and learning, higher resistance against external sources of interference promoted better new learning, but tended to impair performance when cognitive flexibility was required, such as during the reversal of a previously instantiated response. The present results suggest that there can be (at least) two types of

  13. Probing Spin-Orbit Misalignment Processes Around Early-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-10-01

    Planets in early-type systems seem to frequently misalign from their host star's spin axis. These spin-orbit misaligned systems challenge conventional planet-formation theories because planets probably do not form with initially misaligned orbits -- their angular momenta must be conserved with the stellar nursery in which they formed. In such a case, planets must migrate to their misaligned positions. However, very few transiting exoplanets have had their spin-orbit alignment angles measured. Our model constrains spin-orbit alignment angles via photometry and asteroseismology while accounting for the brightness effects of stellar variability and rapid rotation that commonly occur in early-type stars, making the analysis of hundreds of Kepler transit light curves possible for the first time. We will employ these techniques to probe spin-orbit misalignment theories by empirically testing the spin-orbit state of exoplanets orbiting early-type stars.

  14. Development of cDNA probes for typing group A bovine rotaviruses on the basis of VP4 specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Parwani, A V; Rosen, B I; McCrae, M A; Saif, L J

    1992-01-01

    Dot and Northern (RNA) blot hybridization assays were developed for the P typing of group A bovine rotaviruses (BRV) by using cDNA probes prepared from gene segment 4. The probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hyperdivergent regions (nucleotides 211 to 686) of BRV strain UK, IND, NCDV, and Cr VP4 cDNA by using specific oligonucleotide primers. The probes were P type specific (VP4) and exhibited little or no cross-reactivity with double-stranded RNA from heterologous rotavirus P types. Our studies indicate that at least three P types, as defined by polymerase chain reaction-derived VP4 gene probes from the UK, NCDV, and Cr strains, exist among the seven BRV isolates tested. Images PMID:1383267

  15. The role of spatial cues in the probe-type serial memory task.

    PubMed

    Berch, D B

    1978-09-01

    2 experiments were carried out with the aim of clarifying the role of spatial cues in the probe-type serial memory task devised by Atkinson, Hansen, and Bernbach. In experiment 1, preventing the formation of specific items-location associations drastically reduced performance at the early to intermediate serial positions for a group of second graders; yet these children still exhibited a primancy effect (position 1 greater than position2). In experiment 2, the stimulus items were spaced farther apart than usual in an attempt to reduce the contextual uniqueness of the first (far left) item. Children aged 4 and 5 years who were administered this task produced a serial-position function that was essentially flat. It was concluded that (a) spatial cues serve as functional stimuli in the standard probe-type task, and (b) the contextual uniqueness of the first item is probably responsible for the occurrence of primacy in young children. Implications of this research for interpreting age-related differences in the shape of the serial-position curve were also discussed.

  16. Cloning of a short HLA-DQ beta locus-specific cDNA probe: typing for DQw specificities.

    PubMed

    Sood, S K; McCusker, C T; Singal, D P

    1989-01-01

    A short HLA-DQ beta locus-specific (141 bp) probe was cloned from the full-length pII-beta-1 cDNA. Pst 1-digested genomic DNA from homozygous typing cell lines (HTC) was hybridized with this short DQ beta locus-specific, pDQ beta 141, probe. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns generated with this DQ beta locus-specific probe were compared with those obtained with the full-length (627 bp) DQ beta, pII-beta-1, probe. The results demonstrate that the RFLP patterns with the pDQ beta 141 probe were very simple, and no crossreacting DR beta and DX beta bands were observed. DQw1, 2, 3 and 4 specificities could each be identified by a single RFLP. PMID:2467193

  17. Design of encircling send-receive type pulsed eddy current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Kil

    2014-02-01

    An encircling send-receive type pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe is designed for use in the tube inspection. When bare receive coils, which are located away from the exciter, are used, the peak time of the signal does not change although the distance from the exciter increases. This is because the magnetic fields from exciter coil arrive directly at the receive coil without passing through the tube. Therefore, in this work, both exciter and sensor coils are shielded to reduce the influence of direct fields from the exciter coil. Numerical simulation with the designed shielded encircling PEC probe shows the corresponding increase of peak time as the sensor distance increases. Ferrite and carbon steel shields are compared and found that the ferrite shielding results in slightly stronger peak value and quicker peak time than the carbon steel shielding. Sensitivity of peak value to defect depth variation is also investigated and found that the normalized peak value is more sensitive when the sensor is located closer to the exciter for aluminum tube. In the case of magnetic tube, however, all the characteristics are opposite to those obtained from nonmagnetic aluminum tube.

  18. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  19. Fluorescent Trimethoprim Conjugate Probes To Assess Drug Accumulation in Wild Type and Mutant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Novel fluorescent TMP probes inhibited eDHFR activity with comparable potency to TMP, but did not kill or inhibit growth of wild type Escherichia coli. However, bactericidal activity was observed against an efflux pump deficient E. coli mutant strain (ΔtolC). A simple and quick fluorescence assay was developed to measure cellular accumulation of the TMP probe using either fluorescence spectroscopy or flow cytometry, with validation by LC-MS/MS. This fluorescence assay may provide a simple method to assess efflux pump activity with standard laboratory equipment. PMID:27737551

  20. Quantitative detection of the tumor-associated antigen large external antigen in colorectal cancer tissues and cells using quantum dot probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Wanming; Yuan, Dezheng; Song, Jindan; Fang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The large external antigen (LEA) is a cell surface glycoprotein that has been proven to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) as a tumor-associated antigen. To evaluate and validate the relationship between LEA expression and clinical characteristics of CRC with high efficiency, LEA expression levels were detected in 85 tissue blocks from CRC patients by quantum dot-based immunohistochemistry (QD-IHC) combined with imaging quantitative analysis using quantum dots with a 605 nm emission wavelength (QD605) conjugated to an ND-1 monoclonal antibody against LEA as a probe. Conventional IHC was performed in parallel for comparison. Both QD-IHC and conventional IHC showed that LEA was specifically expressed in CRC, but not in non-CRC tissues, and high LEA expression was significantly associated with a more advanced T-stage (P<0.05), indicating that LEA is likely to serve as a CRC prognostic marker. Compared with conventional IHC, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that QD-IHC possessed higher sensitivity, resulting in an increased positive detection rate of CRC, from 70.1% to 89.6%. In addition, a simpler operation, objective analysis of results, and excellent repeatability make QD-IHC an attractive alternative to conventional IHC in clinical practice. Furthermore, to explore whether the QD probes can be utilized to quantitatively detect living cells or single cells, quantum dot-based immunocytochemistry (QD-ICC) combined with imaging quantitative analysis was developed to evaluate LEA expression in several CRC cell lines. It was demonstrated that QD-ICC could also predict the correlation between LEA expression and the T-stage characteristics of the cell lines, which was confirmed by flow cytometry. The results of this study indicate that QD-ICC has the potential to noninvasively detect rare circulating tumor cells in clinical samples in real clinical applications.

  1. Mg II Spectra of Late Type Stars Used to Probe the LISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. E.; Crivellari, L.; Franco, M.; Molaro, P.; Vladilo, G.

    1984-01-01

    IUE spectra of Mg II h and k in late type dwarfs and giants were used to detect and measure absorption components due to the LISM. This technique gives a method of probing the awkward range from d = 3 pc to d = 80 pc from the Sun. In spite of interpretational uncertainties the HI component of the LISM can be plotted well enough to confirm it as a cloud some 20 to 30 pc in extent, peaking sharply in density towards l(II)-25 deg., moving towards the Sun from l(II)-25 deg, b(II) = + 10 deg., at 28 Km/sec. The hole towards l(II) = 150 deg is confirmed, suggesting a solar position close to the cloud's edge in this direction.

  2. Diagnostics of Fast Electrons within Castor Tokamak by Means of a Modified Cherenkov-Type Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Malinowski, K.; Jakubowski, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Stockel, J.; Peterka, M.

    2008-03-19

    The paper reports on experimental studies performed within the CASTOR tokamak, which was operated at IPP in Prague, Czech Republic, during the last experimental campaign carried out in autumn 2006. The main aim was to implement a new diagnostic technique for measurements of energetic (>80 keV) electrons within the tokamak edge plasma region. The technique was based on the use of a Cherenkov-type probe similar to the first prototype detector, which was tested during the previous experiments with the CASTOR device. In particular, the distributions of fast electrons in a standard scenario at different values of plasma current I{sub p}, and toroidal magnetic field B{sub T} are determined.

  3. Simple electronics for inertial and Pan-type piezoelectric positioners used in scanning probe microscopes.

    PubMed

    Chen, LeuJen; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Alfred K H; de Lozanne, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new type of circuit designed for driving piezoelectric positioners that rely on the stick-slip phenomenon. The circuit can be used for inertial positioners that have only one piezoelectric element (or multiple elements that are moved simultaneously) or for designs using a sequential movement of independent piezoelectric elements. A relay switches the piezoelectric elements between a high voltage source and ground, thus creating a fast voltage step followed by a slow ramp produced by the exponential discharging of the piezoelectric elements through a series resistor. A timing cascade is generated by having each relay power the next relay in the sequence. This design is simple and inexpensive. While it was developed for scanning probe microscopes, it may be useful for any piezoelectric motor based on a fast jump followed by a slow relaxation.

  4. Sex typing of forensic DNA samples using male- and female-specific probes.

    PubMed

    Naito, E; Dewa, K; Yamanouchi, H; Kominami, R

    1994-07-01

    Forensic DNA samples have been examined to ascertain the feasibility of a sex-typing procedure that we have recently developed. This uses two sets of primers complementary to the DXZ4 and SRY genes for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR target in the DXZ4, an 80-bp sequence within the 130-bp fragment specific to females, is generated from inactive chromosome X by the DNA digestion with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, HpaII. Therefore, the DXZ4 amplification and subsequent agarose gel electrophoresis detect the 80-bp fragment from female DNA. On the other hand, the SRY probe identifies a male-specific sequence on chromosome Y. Testing DNAs from fresh Turner's blood and from postmortem tissues exhibited band-signals confirming the sex identification. Degraded DNAs isolated from severely decomposed specimens were also identifiable when high-molecular-weight DNA was isolated before the assay. This demonstrates the usefulness of this method in forensic identification.

  5. Fizeau-type interferometric probe to measure geometrical thickness of silicon wafers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jonghan; Maeng, Saerom; Park, Jungjae; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan

    2014-09-22

    We developed an optical interferometric probe for measuring the geometrical thickness and refractive index of silicon wafers based on a Fizeau-type spectral-domain interferometer, as realized by adopting the optical fiber components of a circulator and a sheet-type beam splitter. The proposed method enables us to achieve a much simpler optical composition and higher immunity to air fluctuations owing to the use of fiber components and a common-path configuration as compared to a bulk-type optical configuration. A femtosecond pulse laser having a spectral bandwidth of 80 nm at a center wavelength of 1.55 µm and an optical spectrum analyzer having a wavelength uncertainty of 0.02 nm were used to acquire multiple interference signals in the frequency domain without a mechanical phase-shifting process. Among the many peaks in the Fourier-transformed signals of the measured interferograms, only three interference signals representing three different optical path differences were selected to extract both the geometrical thickness and group refractive index of a silicon wafer simultaneously. A single point on a double-sided polished silicon wafer was measured 90 times repetitively every two seconds. The geometrical thickness and group refractive index were found to be 476.89 µm and 3.6084, respectively. The measured thickness is in good agreement with that of a contact type method within the expanded uncertainty of contact-type instruments. Through an uncertainty evaluation of the proposed method, the expanded uncertainty of the geometrical thickness was estimated to be 0.12 µm (k = 2).

  6. Littrow-type external-cavity blue laser for holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tomiji; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sako, Kageyasu; Kasegawa, Ryo; Toishi, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Samuels, David; Takeya, Motonobu

    2007-06-01

    An external-cavity laser with a wavelength of 405 nm and an output of 80 mW has been developed for holographic data storage. The laser has three states: the first is a perfect single mode, whose coherent length is 14 m; the second is a three-mode state with a coherent length of 3 mm; and the third is a six-mode state with a coherent length of 0.3 mm. The first and second states are available for angular-multiplexing recording; all states are available for coaxial multiplexing recording. Due to its short wavelength, the recording density is higher than that of a 532 nm laser.

  7. Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

  8. Enhanced external quantum efficiency in GaN-based vertical-type light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yung-Chi; Hwang, Jung-Min; Yang, Zu-Po; Haung, Jing-Yu; Lin, Chia-Ching; Shen, Wei-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yang; Wang, Mei-Tan; Huang, Chun-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Tzu-Neng; Shen, Ji-Lin; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a GaN-based vertical-type light emitting diode (VLED) through the coupling of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance with the wave-guided mode light is studied. To achieve this experimentally, Ag nanoparticles (NPs), as the LSP resonant source, are drop-casted on the most top layer of waveguide channel, which is composed of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods capped on the top of GaN-based VLED. Enhanced light-output power and external quantum efficiency are observed, and the amount of enhancement remains steady with the increase of the injected currents. To understand the observations theoretically, the absorption spectra and the electric field distributions of the VLED with and without Ag NPs decorated on ZnO NRs are determined using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results prove that the observation of enhancement of the external quantum efficiency can be attributed to the creation of an extra escape channel for trapped light due to the coupling of the LSP with wave-guided mode light, by which the energy of wave-guided mode light can be transferred to the efficient light scattering center of the LSP. PMID:26935648

  9. Enhanced external quantum efficiency in GaN-based vertical-type light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yung-Chi; Hwang, Jung-Min; Yang, Zu-Po; Haung, Jing-Yu; Lin, Chia-Ching; Shen, Wei-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yang; Wang, Mei-Tan; Huang, Chun-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Tzu-Neng; Shen, Ji-Lin; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Enhancement of the external quantum efficiency of a GaN-based vertical-type light emitting diode (VLED) through the coupling of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance with the wave-guided mode light is studied. To achieve this experimentally, Ag nanoparticles (NPs), as the LSP resonant source, are drop-casted on the most top layer of waveguide channel, which is composed of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods capped on the top of GaN-based VLED. Enhanced light-output power and external quantum efficiency are observed, and the amount of enhancement remains steady with the increase of the injected currents. To understand the observations theoretically, the absorption spectra and the electric field distributions of the VLED with and without Ag NPs decorated on ZnO NRs are determined using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results prove that the observation of enhancement of the external quantum efficiency can be attributed to the creation of an extra escape channel for trapped light due to the coupling of the LSP with wave-guided mode light, by which the energy of wave-guided mode light can be transferred to the efficient light scattering center of the LSP.

  10. New type of adhesive specificity revealed by oligosaccharide probes in Escherichia coli from patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, I J; Stoll, M S; Mizuochi, T; Childs, R A; Hounsell, E F; Feizi, T

    1988-12-10

    A series of oligosaccharides derived from glycoproteins or from human milk were coupled to lipid and used as probes of the binding specificities of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infections. Selective binding to the glycoprotein oligosaccharide probes rich in mannose residues (high-mannose type) was demonstrated with fimbriated E coli that give mannose-inhibitable haemagglutination. This observation is in accordance with predictions from inhibition studies. Binding studies with the human milk oligosaccharide probes, which resemble structures found on host-cell membranes, revealed adhesive specificity unrelated to the presence of fimbriae. This new type of host oligosaccharide receptor is affected by the presence of the blood group genetic markers. It involves the disaccharide sequence linked to the membrane-associated lipid moiety of host-cell glycolipids, and may have a role in initiation of infection on damaged epithelial cell membranes.

  11. Effects of fluoride and other halogen ions on the external stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Whorlow, K.M.; Hutto, F.B. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The drip procedure from the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal Insulation on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASTM C 692-95a) was used to research the effect of halogens and inhibitors on the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) of Type 304 stainless steel as it applies to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.36, Nonmetallic Thermal Insulation for Austenitic Stainless Steel. The solutions used in this research were prepared using pure chemical reagents to simulate the halogens and inhibitors found in insulation extraction solutions. The results indicated that sodium silicate compounds that were higher in sodium were more effective for preventing chloride-induced ESCC in Type 304 austenitic stainless steel. Potassium silicate (all-silicate inhibitor) was not as effective as sodium silicate. Limited testing with sodium hydroxide (all-sodium inhibitor) indicated that it may be effective as an inhibitor. Fluoride, bromide, and iodide caused minimal ESCC which could be effectively inhibited by sodium silicate. The addition of fluoride to the chloride/sodium silicate systems at the threshold of ESCC appeared to have no synergistic effect on ESCC. The mass ratio of sodium + silicate (mg/kg) to chloride (mg/kg) at the lower end of the NRC RG 1.36 Acceptability Curve was not sufficient to prevent ESCC using the methods of this research.

  12. Design and synthesis of a FlAsH-type Mg2+ fluorescent probe for specific protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomohiko; Shindo, Yutaka; Hotta, Kohji; Citterio, Daniel; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Suzuki, Koji; Oka, Kotaro

    2014-02-12

    Although the magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) is one of the most abundant divalent cations in cells and is known to play critical roles in many physiological processes, its mobilization and underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we describe a novel fluorescent Mg(2+) probe, "KMG-104-AsH", composed of a highly selective fluorescent Mg(2+) probe, "KMG-104", and a fluorescence-recoverable probe, "FlAsH", bound specifically to a tetracysteine peptide tag (TCtag), which can be genetically incorporated into any protein. This probe was developed for molecular imaging of local changes in intracellular Mg(2+) concentration. KMG-104-AsH was synthesized, and its optical properties were investigated in solution. The fluorescence intensity of KMG-104-AsH (at λ(em/max) = 540 nm) increases by more than 10-fold by binding to both the TCtag peptide and Mg(2+), and the probe is highly selective for Mg(2+) (K(d/Mg) = 1.7 mM, K(d/Ca) ≫ 100 mM). Application of the probe for imaging of Mg(2+) in HeLa cells showed that this FlAsH-type Mg(2+) sensing probe is membrane-permeable and binds specifically to tagged proteins, such as TCtag-actin and mKeima-TCtag targeted to the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. KMG-104-AsH bound to TCtag responded to an increase in intracellular Mg(2+) concentration caused by the release of Mg(2+) from mitochondria induced by FCCP, a protonophore that eliminates the inner membrane potential of mitochondria. This probe is expected to be a strong tool for elucidating the dynamics and mechanisms of intracellular localization of Mg(2+).

  13. Probing flagellar promoter occupancy in wild-type and mutant Caulobacter crescentus by chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicole J; Viollier, Patrick H

    2011-06-01

    In the asymmetric predivisional cell of Caulobacter crescentus, TipF and TipN mark the cellular pole for future flagellar development. TipF is essential for motility and contains a cyclic-di-GMP phosphodiesterase-like (EAL) domain that is necessary for proper function. TipN is localized to the flagellar pole before TipF and is essential for the proper placement of the flagellum in C. crescentus. Using β-galactosidase promoter-probe assays and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation, we investigated the influence of the C. crescentus flagellar assembly regulator TipF on flagellar gene transcription. We compared the transcriptional activity of class II-fliF-lacZ, class III-flgE-lacZ, and class IV-fljL-lacZ fusions in a ΔtipF mutant with that of other flagellar mutants and the wild-type strain. We subsequently verified the in vivo occupancy of the fliF, flgE, and fljL flagellar promoters by the flagellar regulators CtrA, FlbD, and FliX in addition to RNA polymerase. We deduce that TipF contributes to proper expression of flagellar genes in C. crescentus by acting both within and outside of the canonical flagellar gene expression hierarchy.

  14. Initial dynamics of the Norrish Type I reaction in acetone: probing wave packet motion.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Sølling, Theis I; Møller, Klaus B

    2011-02-10

    The Norrish Type I reaction in the S(1) (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels toward the S(1) minimum in less than 30 fs and stays there for more than 100 picoseconds [Chem. Phys. Lett.2008, 461, 193]. In this work we present simulated TRMS and TRPES signals based on ab initio multiple spawning simulations of the dynamics during the first 200 fs after excitation, getting quite good agreement with the experimental signals. We can explain the ultrafast decay of the experimental signals in the following manner: the wave packet simply travels, mainly along the deplanarization coordinate, out of the detection window of the ionizing probe. This window is so narrow that subsequent revival of the signal due to the coherent deplanarization vibration is not observed, meaning that from the point of view of the experiment the wave packets travels directly to the S(1) minimum. This result stresses the importance of pursuing a closer link to the experimental signal when using molecular dynamics simulations in interpreting experimental results.

  15. Probing the Final Stages of Massive Star Evolution With Type IIn Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ori

    2013-06-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn), defined by their dense circumstellar medium (CSM), have gained considerable attention over the past decade given their association with massive star progenitors. Due to the nature of the dense CSM, many SNe IIn have been linked to the eruptive state of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), but the identification of a single progenitor class remains ambiguous. The pre-SN mass-loss history of SNe IIn must be better understood since it is the progenitors smoking gun, serving as a direct probe of the late stages of massive star evolution. Differences in wind speeds, densities, compositions, and asymmetries result in distinguishable observational behaviors. Many SNe IIn observations have been obtained at relatively early epochs (<100 days), which provides only an instantaneous snapshot of the CSM characteristics at small radii. Shock interaction and dust formation in the dense CSM, however, often result in significant emission ranging from X-ray to radio for many years post-explosion. Here I will present recent observations of the diverse late-time (>100 days) multi-wavelength evolution of SNe IIn, tracing the complete mass-loss history of the progenitors out to larger radii.

  16. Immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe surface for molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Nishishita, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki

    2007-04-01

    adsorption reaction between ɛ-polylysine and endotoxin. ɛ-polylysine has the structure of straight chain molecule composed by 25-30 residues made by lysine, and it is used as an antimicrobial agent, moreover, cellulose beads with immobilized ɛ-polylysine is used as the barrier filter for endotoxin removal. Therefore, it is expected that the endotoxin be adsorbed to the immobilized ɛ-polylysine onto the probe. As the result of this reaction, the mass of the probe is increased, and endotoxin can be detected by using of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). In our previous research, we have already acquired the proteins immobilization technique onto Au and Si surface. In this report, the proposal of molecular adsorption type endotoxin detection system, and the immobilization of ɛ-polylysine onto the probe are described. We use X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the ɛ-polylysine immobilization, and the adsorptive activity of immobilized ɛ-polylysine is measured by XPS and AFM. The purpose of this study is to bring about the realization of "Real-time endotoxin detection system".

  17. Use of near infrared spectra to probe the chemical structure of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, George Howard

    2006-08-01

    Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are intrinsically interesting as very large explosions involving extreme and exotic physics. SNe Ia have become important cosmologically because their relative uniformity and high luminosity make them effective "standard candles" for distance estimates at large redshifts. We identified the near infrared (NIR; 0.8--2.5 mum) as a nearly unexplored and potentially very productive region for SNe Ia research. The NIR is a rich source of information about many explosion products that are obscured or blended at other wavelengths. We designed and implemented a systematic program to obtain NIR spectra from SNe Ia. We developed new tools and techniques to acquire, process, and interpret the data. We used synthetic models of SNe Ia explosions to aid the interpretation of results, and we used the observations to constrain the models. We obtained a large data set of NIR spectra that permits us to make important deductions about the chemical structure of SNe Ia. We show that NIR spectra have a uniform spectral evolution for normal SNe Ia. Thus our sample of forty-one spectra can be arranged in a time series to probe the chemical structure from the outer layers to deep inside the SN. We show that the burning products reside in distinct layers with no large scale mixing. We use multiple methods to demonstrate that burning consumes nearly the entire progenitor, making the amount of fuel the same for all SNe Ia explosions. That helps explain the homogeneity of SNe Ia. The two most popular explosion models produce different results that are detectable in the NIR. Our discoveries about the physical structure of SNe Ia agree well with the predictions of delayed detonation (DD) explosion models. Pure deflagration models are directly contradicted by our results and merger models are disfavored. Our results open the NIR window for SNe Ia research and we propose future directions for this field.

  18. External stress-corrosion cracking of a 1.22-m-diameter type 316 stainless steel air valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Telesman, Jack; Moore, Allan S.; Johnson, Dereck F.; Kuivinen, David E.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure of a massive AISI Type 316 stainless steel valve which controlled combustion air to a jet engine test facility. Several through-the-wall cracks were present near welded joints in the valve skirt. The valve had been in outdoor service for 18 years. Samples were taken in the cracked regions for metallographic and chemical analyses. Insulating material and sources of water mist in the vicinity of the failed valve were analyzed for chlorides. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine whether foreign elements were present in a crack. On the basis of the information generated, the failure was characterized as external stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking resulted from a combination of residual tensile stress from welding and the presence of aqueous chlorides. Recommended countermeasures are included.

  19. Acid-Activatable Michael-Type Fluorescent Probes for Thiols and for Labeling Lysosomes in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun-Guang; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Song, Qin-Hua

    2015-12-18

    A Michael addition is usually taken as a base-catalyzed reaction. Most fluorescent probes have been designed to detect thiols in slightly alkaline solutions (pH 7-9). The sensing reactions of almost all Michael-type fluorescent probes for thiols are faster in a high pH solution than in a low pH solution. In this work, we synthesized a series of 7-substituted 2-(quinolin-2-ylmethylene)malonic acids (QMAs, substituents: NEt2, OH, H, Cl, or NO2) and their ethyl esters (QMEs) as Michael-type fluorescent probes for thiols. The sensing reactions of QMAs and QMEs occur in distinct pH ranges, pH < 7 for QMAs and pH > 7 for QMEs. On the basis of experimental and theoretic studies, we have clarified the distinct pH effects on the sensing reactivity between QMAs and QMEs and demonstrated that two QMAs (NEt2, OH) are highly sensitive and selective fluorescent probes for thiols in acidic solutions (pH < 7) and promising dyes that can label lysosomes in live cells.

  20. Payload charging events in the mesosphere and their impact on Langmuir type electric probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkeng, T. A.; Barjatya, A.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Pedersen, A.; Moen, J. I.; Friedrich, M.; Rapp, M.

    2013-02-01

    Three sounding rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range in the ECOMA campaign in December 2010. The aim was to study the evolution of meteoric smoke particles during a major meteor shower. Of the various instruments onboard the rocket payload, this paper presents the data from a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP) and a charged dust detector. The payload floating potential, as observed using the m-NLP instrument, shows charging events on two of the three flights. These charging events cannot be explained using a simple charging model, and have implications towards the use of fixed bias Langmuir probes on sounding rockets investigating mesospheric altitudes. We show that for a reliable use of a single fixed bias Langmuir probe as a high spatial resolution relative density measurement, each payload should also carry an additional instrument to measure payload floating potential, and an instrument that is immune to spacecraft charging and measures absolute plasma density.

  1. A Fluorescent Molecular Probe for the Detection of Hydrogen Based on Oxidative Addition Reactions with Crabtree-Type Hydrogenation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kos, Pavlo; Plenio, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    A Crabtree-type Ir(I) complex tagged with a fluorescent dye (bodipy) was synthesized. The oxidative addition of H2 converts the weakly fluorescent Ir(I) complex (Φ=0.038) into a highly fluorescent Ir(III) species (Φ=0.51). This fluorogenic reaction can be utilized for the detection of H2 and to probe the oxidative addition step in the catalytic hydrogenation of olefins.

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes targeting members of the phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria falsely target Eikelboom type 1851 filaments and other Chloroflexi members.

    PubMed

    Nittami, Tadashi; Speirs, Lachlan B M; Fukuda, Junji; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Seviour, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The FISH probe TM7-305 is thought to target the filamentous Eikelboom morphotype 0041 as a member of the Candidatus ‘Saccharibacteria’ (formerly TM7) phylum. However, with activated sludge samples in both Japan and Australia, this probe hybridized consistently with filamentous bacteria fitting the description of the morphotype 1851, which also responded positively to the CHL1851 FISH probe designed to target Chloroflexi members of this morphotype. 16S rRNA clone libraries from samples containing type 1851 TM7-305-positive filaments yielded Chloroflexi clones with high sequence similarity to Kouleothrix aurantiaca. These contained a variant TM7-305 probe target site possessing weakly destabilizing mismatches insufficient to prevent probe hybridization. Furthermore, the TM7-905 FISH probe, designed to target members of the entire Candidatus ‘Saccharibacteria’ phylum, also hybridized with the filament morphotypes 0041/0675, which responded also to the phylum level Chloroflexi probes. Many Chloroflexi sequences have only a single base mismatch to the TM7-905 probe target sequence. When competitor probes for both the TM7-305 and TM7-905 Chloroflexi non-target sites were applied, no fluorescent signal was seen in any of the filamentous organisms also hybridizing with the aforementioned Chloroflexi probes. These data indicate that these competitor probes must be included in hybridizations when both the TM7-905 and TM7-305 FISH probes are applied, to minimize potential false positive FISH results.

  3. Study of alternative probe technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

  4. Phase control of probe response in a Doppler-broadened N-type four-level system

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Xijun; Liu Zhongbo; Liang Ying; Jia Kening; Tong Dianmin

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate theoretically the effect of the relative phase ({phi}) between the probe and driving fields on gain (absorption) and dispersion of the probe field in a Doppler-broadened N-type four-level system with spontaneously generated coherence from different respects. It is shown that gain (absorption) and dispersion are very sensitive to variations in the relative phase, and changing the Doppler width also has an obvious effect on the phase-dependent gain (absorption) and dispersion. When the probe and driving fields have the same propagation directions (copropagating), for the same Doppler width, the dispersion curve with {phi}={alpha} is the same as the gain (absorption) curve with {phi}={alpha}+{pi}/2; however, when the probe and driving fields have opposite propagation directions (counterpropagating), the dispersion curve and gain (absorption) curve are different and the difference becomes more considerable with an increase in Doppler width. In the co- and counterpropagating cases, gain (absorption) and dispersion always vary periodically with varying {phi}, and the period is 2{pi}. By adjusting the value of {phi}, the largest gain (absorption) and dispersion can be obtained, and a large index of refraction without absorption can be realized. Generally speaking, gain decreases with an increase in Doppler width, but by adjusting value of {phi}, at some special values of Doppler width, a larger gain than that without Doppler broadening can be obtained. Our study also shows that gain in the copropagating case is much larger than that in the counterpropagating case.

  5. Role of incoherent pumping field on absorption-dispersion properties of probe pulse in a graphene nanostructure under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Hamedi, H. R.; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of weak probe light based on quantum coherence and interference in Landau-quantized graphene nanostructure driven by two coherent fields and incoherent pumping field is investigated. The linear dynamical properties of the graphene by means of density matrix method and perturbation theory are discussed. It is found that under certain condition and for appropriate choosing the parameters of the medium, the absorption, dispersion, group index of the weak probe light can be controlled. Moreover, it is shown that by means of incoherent pumping field the superluminal light propagation in the system is accompanied by amplification to make sure that the probe field is amplified as it passes through the system. Moreover, it is observed that the probe amplification can be obtained in the presence or absence of population inversion by properly choosing of system's parameters. We hope that these results may have useful in the future quantum communicational system and networks.

  6. Molecular probes and the polymerase chain reaction for detection and typing of Leishmania species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Ostria, Amalia; Sanchez-Tejeda, Gustavo

    2002-04-01

    Leishmaniasis in Mexico is a public health problem because all the clinical forms have been recorded in most Mexican states. We studied patients showing clinical symptoms of any form of leishmaniasis, from several endemic areas. Bone marrow samples, aspirates or skin biopsies were taken and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers AJS1 and DeB8, specific for the Leishmania subgenus Leishmania. The PCR products were then hybridized by dot- or Southern blotting and probed with probe 9.2, specific for the L. mexicana complex. If hybridization did not occur, the DNA was amplified with primers D1 and D2, specific for members of the L. donovani complex, and PCR products were hybridized with probe B4Rsa, also specific for the L. donovani complex. DNA was also amplified with primers B1 and B2, specific for the subgenus Viannia, and the PCR products were hybridized with probe B18, specific for the L. braziliensis complex. It was found that in Tabasco and Veracruz, Mexico, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is caused by infection with members of the L. mexicana complex, whereas in the states of Nayarit and Campeche it was due to infection with the L. mexicana and/or L. braziliensis complexes. Visceral leishmaniasis was caused by L. (L.) chagasi, mainly in the states of Chiapas and Guerrero, and by L. (L.) mexicana in one immunocompromised patient from Tabasco.

  7. Rapid sensitive analysis of IDH1 mutation in lower-grade gliomas by automated genetic typing involving a quenching probe.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Michihiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Aoki, Kosuke; Ohka, Fumiharu; Kondo, Goro; Motomura, Kazuya; Iijima, Kentaro; Yamamichi, Akane; Ranjit, Melissa; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Kimura, Shinya; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The authors recently found that 80% of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) harbored a mutation in IDH1. Intraoperative detection of the mutated IDH1 helps not only differentiate LGGs from other type of brain tumors, but determine the resection border. In the current study, the authors have applied an automated genetic typing involving a quenching probe to detect the mutated IDH1. If tumor cells with the mutated IDH1 contained 10% or more in the mixture of normal and tumor cells, the device could detect it sensitively. The intraoperative assessment of IDH1 mutation is useful in brain tumor surgeries.

  8. Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing Using a Knowledge Base Coupled with a High-Throughput Oligonucleotide Probe Array Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B.; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Lin, Hong Huang; DeLuca, David S.; Leppanen, Scott; Milford, Edgar L.; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are important biomarkers because multiple diseases, drug toxicity, and vaccine responses reveal strong HLA associations. Current clinical HLA typing is an elimination process requiring serial testing. We present an alternative in situ synthesized DNA-based microarray method that contains hundreds of thousands of probes representing a complete overlapping set covering 1,610 clinically relevant HLA class I alleles accompanied by computational tools for assigning HLA type to 4-digit resolution. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 21 blood samples, 18 cell lines, and multiple controls. The method is accurate, robust, and amenable to automation. Typing errors were restricted to homozygous samples or those with very closely related alleles from the same locus, but readily resolved by targeted DNA sequencing validation of flagged samples. High-throughput HLA typing technologies that are effective, yet inexpensive, can be used to analyze the world’s populations, benefiting both global public health and personalized health care. PMID:25505899

  9. Young's type interference for probing the mode symmetry in photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Intonti, F; Riboli, F; Caselli, N; Abbarchi, M; Vignolini, S; Wiersma, D S; Vinattieri, A; Gerace, D; Balet, L; Li, L H; Francardi, M; Gerardino, A; Fiore, A; Gurioli, M

    2011-04-01

    A revisited realization of the Young's double slit experiment is introduced to directly probe the photonic mode symmetry by photoluminescence experiments. We experimentally measure the far field angular emission pattern of quantum dots embedded in photonic molecules. The experimental data well agree with predictions from Young's interference and numerical simulations. Moreover, the vectorial nature of photonic eigenmodes results in a rather complicated parity property for different polarizations, a feature which has no counterpart in quantum mechanics.

  10. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Data is given in graphical and tabular form.

  11. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Additional information is given in tabular form.

  12. The effects of physical contact type on the internal and external demands during a rugby league match simulation protocol.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jonathan P; Highton, Jamie; Hughes, Stephen F; Twist, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the type of contact influences physiological, perceptual and locomotive load during a simulated rugby league match. Eleven male university rugby league players performed two trials of the rugby league movement simulation protocol for interchange forwards with a traditional soft tackle bag and a weighted tackle sled to replicate contact demands. The interchange forward-specific simulation was chosen given the contact frequency is higher for this group of players compared to whole match players. Locomotive rate, sprint speed, tackle intensity, heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion were analysed during the first and second bouts that replicated two ~23 min on-field passages. Countermovement jump (CMJ) was measured before and immediately after each trial. More time was spent in heart rate zone between 91 and 100% HRpeak during the first (effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 0.44 ± 0.49) and second bouts (0.44 ± 0.43), and larger (0.6 ± 0.69) decrements in CMJ performance were observed during the sled trial (5.9, s = 4.9%) compared to the bag trial (2.6, s = 5.4%). Changing the type of contact during the match simulation subtly altered both the internal and external loads on participants. Using a standard tackle bag results in faster sprint speed to contact, but lower overall high-intensity running. Conversely, a heavier tackle object increases the internal load and results in greater lower limb neuromuscular fatigue as reflected by the decrease in CMJ performance.

  13. Scanning Probe Microscope Imaging with Principal Component Analysis of Cell Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, V. M.; Goolsby, B.; Salam, F.; Yu, M.-M.; Xi, Ning; Wang, D.

    2002-03-01

    Scanning Probe Microscopy provides high resolution imaging of specimens, including biological specimens. Scanning Probe Microscope-based nanomanipulation is a newly emerging area that offers an orders-of-magnitude improvement over current manipulation capabilities. Together, the two offer the possibility of site-specific direct investigations of biological events. We present our research toward the development of a landmark recognition scheme for use within an adaptive nonlinear neural network controller, for high end control of the X-Y motion of an SPM tip. Our goal is sensing/landmark recognition within an overall feedback control formulation that will ultimately be used to accurately steer the probes tip along a prescribed trajectory to a designated biological site. In a different approach than haptic feedback-based nanomanipulation, the human operator is eliminated except for high end control and a training algorithm is substituted instead. Principal Component Analysis is used for landmark recognition of specific biological features. Principal Component Analysis is a pattern recognition technique that selects/extracts key features from a data set. The feature selection process transforms the data space into the feature space by reducing the dimensionality of the data set. The reduced data set is comprised of the most effective features that contain the intrinsic information of the data. In this work, Principal Component Analysis is applied to recognition of leukocytes (white blood cells) and erythrocytes (red blood cells), and further distinguishing between neutrophilic and lymphocytic leukocyte varieties. We find that that information from an initial 512x512 (xyz) SPM data set can be effectively represented by eight eigenvectors.

  14. Synthesis of new molecular probes for investigation of steroid biosynthesis induced by selective interaction with peripheral type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR).

    PubMed

    Campiani, Giuseppe; Ramunno, Anna; Fiorini, Isabella; Nacci, Vito; Morelli, Elena; Novellino, Ettore; Goegan, Mara; Mennini, Tiziana; Sullivan, Stephen; Zisterer, Daniela M; Williams, Clive D

    2002-09-12

    In the present study, we have synthesized and tested novel pyridopyrrolo- and pyrrolobenzoxazepine derivatives, as novel and selective peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligands, and their ability to modulate steroid biosynthesis has been investigated. A subset of new ligands bind the PBR (rat brain and testis) with picomolar affinity, representing the most potent ligands that have been identified to date, and elicited effects on endogenous rate of steroidogenesis in MA10 Leydig cells, having similar potency and effect as PK11195. Several compounds, differently substituted at C-7, were used as molecular yardsticks to probe the spatial dimension of the lipophilic pocket L4 in the receptor binding site.

  15. Evaluation of three types of reference image data for external beam radiotherapy target localization using digital tomosynthesis (DTS).

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Devon J; Ren, Lei; Yan, Hui; Wu, Q; Yoo, Sua; Oldham, M; Yin, Fang Fang

    2007-08-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a fast, low-dose three-dimensional (3D) imaging approach which yields slice images with excellent in-plane resolution, though low plane-to-plane resolution. A stack of DTS slices can be reconstructed from a single limited-angle scan, with typical scan angles ranging from 10 degrees to 40 degrees and acquisition times of less than 10 s. The resulting DTS slices show soft tissue contrast approaching that of full cone-beam CT. External beam radiotherapy target localization using DTS requires the registration of on-board DTS images with corresponding reference image data. This study evaluates three types of reference volume: original reference CT, exact reference DTS (RDTS), and a more computationally efficient approximate reference DTS (RDTSapprox), as well as three different DTS scan angles (22 degrees, 44 degrees, and 65 degrees) for the DTS target localization task. Three-dimensional mutual information (MI) shared between reference and onboard DTS volumes was computed in a region surrounding the spine of a chest phantom, as translations spanning +/-5 mm and rotations spanning +/-5 degrees were simulated along each dimension in the reference volumes. The locations of the MI maxima were used as surrogates for registration accuracy, and the width of the MI peaks were used to characterize the registration robustness. The results show that conventional treatment planning CT volumes are inadequate reference volumes for direct registration with on-board DTS data. The efficient RDTSapprox method also appears insufficient for MI-based registration without further refinement of the technique, though it may be suitable for manual registration performed by a human observer. The exact RDTS volumes, on the other hand, delivered a 3D DTS localization accuracy of 0.5 mm and 0.50 along each axis, using only a single 44 degrees coronal on-board DTS scan of the chest phantom.

  16. Species specificities among primates probed with commercially available fluorescence-based multiplex PCR typing kits.

    PubMed

    Hiroshige, Yuuji; Ohtaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Ogawa, Hisae; Ishii, Akira; Yamamoto, Toshimichi

    2015-09-01

    To assess species specificities among primates of signals from short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in two commercially available kits, mainly the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit and additionally the GenePrint PowerPlex 16 system, we analyzed 69 DNA samples from 22 nonhuman primate species representing apes, Old World Monkeys (OWMs), New World Monkeys (NWMs), and prosimians. Each prosimian species and the NWM cotton-top tamarin apparently lacked all STR loci probed. Only one peak, the amelogenin-X peak, was evident in samples from all other NWMs, except the owl monkey. In contrast, several loci, including the amelogenin-X peak, was evident in samples from each OWM species. Notably, for each ape sample, the amelogenin peaks were concordant with morphological gender of the individual. Among the primates, especially in apes, the numbers of alleles for STR loci were increasing according to their phylogenetic order: prosimians

  17. Evaluation of Geno Type MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay for Early Detection of Drug Resistance in Tuberculous Meningitis Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Renu; Thakur, Rajeev; Gupta, Prerna; Jalan, Nupur; Kushwaha, Suman; Gupta, Meena; Gupta, Piyush; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Manchanda, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Molecular methods which allow for rapid and reliable detection of drug resistance have yet not been sufficiently evaluated for timely management of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Aims: We aimed to evaluate Geno Type MTBDRplus line probe assay for early detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and CSF samples of confirmed tuberculous meningitis patients. Settings and Design: This was a multicentric prospective study carried out from July 2011 to December 2013 in tertiary care hospitals of Delhi. Materials and Methods: The assay was performed on 89 M. tuberculosis isolates and 31 direct CSF samples from microbiologically confirmed tuberculous meningitis patients. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was calculated in comparison to drug susceptibility testing by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Results: The sensitivity, specificity for detection of resistance to Isoniazid was 93%, 97% and to Rifampicin was 80%, 98.8%, respectively by this assay in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The line probe assay could detect M. tuberculosis in 55% of CSF samples from patients with microbiologically confirmed tuberculous meningitis. Only 5/89 isolates (5.6%) were resistant to both Isoniazid and Rifampicin while 9/89 (10%) isolates were additionally resistant to Isoniazid. Resistance to any of the drugs, namely Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Streptomycin or Ethambutol, was seen in 24.7% of strains. Conclusion: The line probe assay has a good sensitivity and specificity for detection of drug resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin in M. tuberculosis culture isolates. However, this assay has limited role in detection of M. tuberculosis and drug resistance from direct samples with confirmed diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. PMID:25722613

  18. Assessment of photon migration for subsurface probing in selected types of bone using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Churchwell, John H.; Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Goodship, Allen E.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Bone diseases and disorders are a growing challenge in aging populations; so effective diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are now essential to manage the demands of healthcare sectors effectively. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for chemically specific sub-surface probing and has a great potential to become an in vivo tool for early non-invasive detection of bone conditions. Bone is a complex hierarchical material and the volume probed by SORS is dependent on its optical properties. Understanding and taking into account the variations in diffuse scattering properties of light in various bone types is essential for the effective development and optimization of SORS as a diagnostic in vivo tool for characterizing bone disease. This study presents SORS investigations at 830 nm excitation on two specific types of bone with differing mineralization levels. Thin slices of bone from horse metacarpal cortex (0.6 mm thick) and whale bulla (1.0 mm thick) were cut and stacked on top of each other (4-7 layers with a total thickness of 4.1 mm). To investigate the depth origin of the detected Raman signal inside the bone a 0.38 mm thin Teflon slice was used as test sample and inserted in between the layers of stacked bone slices. For both types of bone it could be demonstrated that chemically specific Raman signatures different from those of normal bone can be retrieved through 3.8-4.0 mm of overlying bone material with a spatial offset of 7-8 mm. The determined penetration depths can be correlated with the mechanical and optical properties of the specimens. The findings of this study increase our understanding of SORS analysis of bone and thus have impact for medical diagnostic applications e.g. enabling the non-invasive detection of spectral changes caused by degeneration, infection or cancer deep inside the bone matrix.

  19. Development of Beetle-Type Robot with Sub-Micropipette Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Tomohide; Deng, Xiao Long; Son, Jong Wan; Park, Bae Ho; Kawai, Tomoji

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a motion system with tripod piezo tube legs, which is called the beetle-type or Besocke-type system, in order to control the position of a sub-micropipette. The stick-slip lateral motion of the beetle-type robot achieved a minimum step size of 600±200 nm by applying a sawtooth pulse at a voltage of 30 V and a pulse width of 10 ms. The sliding motion for the insertion and extraction of the sub-micropipette was controlled by a piezoactuator, and inverse sawtooth pulses were applied to the actuator to have more precise step motion than the specifications of the actuator, and a minimum step size of 480±80 nm at a pulse width of 0.17 ms was achieved. Nonlinear responses of the step size with sawtooth pulse widths were observed in both lateral motion and pipette insertion/extraction motion.

  20. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. PMID:27329353

  1. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; Dinerstein, H.; Thronson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  2. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  3. Study of surface potential variation in p-/n-type 4H-SiC using scanning kelvin probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Yu, Liangchun; Koo, Sang-Mo; Kopanski, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    We report surface potential images of p-n junctions in 4H-SiC measured using scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and relate them to the local dopant concentration. SKPM has been demonstrated on various semiconductor materials to examine crystalline defects and doping profiles. SKPM measured surface potential depends on the local dopant concentration and clearly differentiates between n-type and p-type materials. As opposed to scanning capacitance microscopy, which requires a good quality surface insulating layer, SKPM requires a clean surface and the lack of a screening oxide might result in higher spatial resolution. For the measurement, partially de-processed SiC high power LMOSFETS were used. The p-n junctions were formed from 4H-SiC wafers having a p-epilayer on p-substrate that was ion-implanted with nitrogen and annealed to build a shallow n-type region. The samples were observed in plan-view and in cross-section. Amplitude modulated, double pass SKPM was implemented with a commercial AFM. We conducted a detailed study of various data acquisition parameters and it seems that the lateral resolution of the potential difference can be enhanced by applying higher ac modulation amplitude and small tip-sample scanning height.

  4. Octreotide used for probing the type-II' β-turn CD and Raman markers.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Belén; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Kruglik, Sergei G; Carelli, Claude; Cohen, Régis; Ghomi, Mahmoud

    2012-08-01

    Octreotide, a potent somatostatin (SST) analogue, is used as an antiproliferative drug in numerous endocrine tumors. Previous NMR investigations, basically performed in DMSO, had evidenced a type-II' β-turn structure for this cyclic peptide. However, apart a few incomplete studies by circular dichroism, a systematic analysis of the structural behavior of octreotide in aqueous solution as a function of concentration and ionic strength was still lacking. Here, we report the chemical synthesis and purification of octreotide for optical spectroscopic purposes accompanied by its structural analysis. Furthermore, we have used octreotide as a short size, well-defined model compound for analyzing the CD and Raman markers of a type-II' β-turn. CD data collected in the 25-250 μM range revealed the general trend of octreotide to undergo a disordered toward ordered structural transition upon increasing concentration. Especially, the β-turn CD markers could be characterized above 50 μM by a negative band at ~202 nm flanked by a shoulder at ~218 nm. On the basis of Raman spectra recorded as a function of concentration (1-20 mM), we could assign the markers at ~1678 and ~1650 cm(-1) in the amide I region, and at ~1303, ~1288, and ~1251 cm(-1) in the amide III region, to the type-II' β-turn structure. The stability of the intermolecular antiparallel β-sheet formed in octreotide could be confirmed by the rigidity of the disulfide bridge which adopts a preferential gauche-gauche-gauche rotamer along the -Cβ-S-S-Cβ- moiety of the linked cysteines. The present analysis permits a better understanding of the differences between the structural features of SST-14 and its routinely used analogue, octreotide.

  5. Effect of a p-type ZnO insertion layer on the external quantum efficiency of GaInN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guan-Bo; Pandit, Bhishma; Park, Yongjo; Kim, Jong Kyu; Ryel Ryu, Yung; Schubert, E. Fred; Cho, Jaehee

    2015-09-01

    The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of a GaInN green light-emitting diode (LED) is improved by inserting a p-type ZnO layer between the indium tin oxide electrode and the p-type GaN layer. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain the EQE improvement in the LED with the ZnO layer. It is concluded that higher hole injection efficiency and better electron confinement explain the EQE improvement, which is supported by the results of device simulations showing that the EQE is sensitive to the polarization sheet charge density at the interface between the last quantum barrier and electron-blocking layer.

  6. Multiplex single-nucleotide polymorphism typing of the human Y chromosome using TaqMan probes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The analysis of human Y-chromosome variation in the context of population genetics and forensics requires the genotyping of dozens to hundreds of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study, we developed a 121-plex (121 SNPs in a single array) TaqMan array capable of distinguishing most haplogroups and subhaplogroups on the Y-chromosome human phylogeny in Europe. Results We present data from 264 samples from several European areas and ethnic groups. The array developed in this study shows >99% accuracy of assignation to the Y human phylogeny (with an average call rate of genotypes >96%). Conclusions We have created and evaluated a robust and accurate Y-chromosome multiplex which minimises the possible errors due to mixup when typing the same sample in several independent reactions. PMID:21627798

  7. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE PEARS SURVEY: PROBING THE STELLAR POPULATIONS AT MODERATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Pirzkal, Nor; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Panagia, Nino; Lisker, Thorsten; Daddi, Emanuele; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2009-11-20

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) slitless grism spectra from the PEARS program, we study the stellar populations of morphologically selected early-type galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. The sample-extracted from a visual classification of the (v2.0) HST/ACS images and restricted to redshifts z > 0.4-comprises 228 galaxies (i {sub F775W} < 24 mag, AB) out to z approx< 1.3 over 320 arcmin{sup 2}, with a median redshift z {sub M} = 0.75. This work significantly increases our previous sample from the GRAPES survey in the HUDF (18 galaxies over approx11 arcmin{sup 2}). The grism data allow us to separate the sample into 'red' and 'blue' spectra, with the latter comprising 15% of the total. Three different grids of models parameterizing the star formation history are used to fit the low-resolution spectra. Over the redshift range of the sample-corresponding to a cosmic age between 5 and 10 Gyr-we find a strong correlation between stellar mass and average age, whereas the spread of ages (defined by the root mean square of the distribution) is roughly approx1 Gyr and independent of stellar mass. The best-fit parameters suggest that it is the formation epoch and not the formation timescale that best correlates with mass in early-type galaxies. This result-along with the recently observed lack of evolution of the number density of massive galaxies-motivates the need for a channel of (massive) galaxy formation bypassing any phase in the blue cloud, as suggested by the simulations of Dekel et al.

  8. Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes for Clinical and Environmental Detection of Acanthamoeba and the T4 18S rRNA Gene Sequence Type

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, Diane R.; Hay, John; Schroeder-Diedrich, Jill M.; Seal, David V.; Byers, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The first genus- and subgenus-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for in situ staining of Acanthamoeba are described. Sequences of these phylogeny-based probes complement the 18S rRNA and the gene encoding it (18S rDNA). The genus-specific probe (GSP) is a fluorescein-labeled 22-mer specific for Acanthamoeba as shown here by its hybridization to growing trophozoites of all 12 known Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA sequence types and by its failure to hybridize with amoebae of two other genera (Hartmannella vermiformis and Balamuthia mandrillaris), two human cell lines, and two bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli). The sequence type T4-specific probe (ST4P) is a rhodamine-labeled 30-mer specific for Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA sequence type T4, as shown here in hybridization tests with trophozoites of all 12 sequence types. T4 is the subgenus group associated most closely with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). GSP also was tested with corneal scrapings from 17 patients with a high index of clinical suspicion of AK plus 5 patient controls. GSP stained both trophozoites and cysts, although nonspecific cyst wall autofluorescence also was observed. Results could be obtained with GSP in 1 to 2 days, and based on results from cell culture tests, the probe correctly detected the presence or absence of Acanthamoeba in 21 of 24 specimens from the 22 patients. The use of GSP with cultured trophozoites and cysts from corneal scrapings has illustrated the suitability of using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for identification of the genus Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples. In addition, the use of ST4P with cultured amoebae has indicated the potential of oligonucleotide probes for use in subgenus classification. PMID:10405422

  9. Highly sensitive detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA using time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue F.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Wodnicki, Pawel; Siadat-Pajouh, M.; Herman, Brian

    1995-04-01

    We have been interested in the role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and its diagnosis; to that end we have been developing microscopic imaging and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to genotype and quantitate the amount of HPV present at a single cell level in cervical PAP smears. However, we have found that low levels of HPV DNA are difficult to detect accurately because theoretically obtainable sensitivity is never achieved due to nonspecific autofluorescence, fixative induced fluorescence of cells and tissues, and autofluorescence of the optical components in the microscopic system. In addition, the absorption stains used for PAP smears are intensely autofluorescent. Autofluorescence is a rapidly decaying process with lifetimes in the range of 1-100 nsec, whereas phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence have lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) ec-10 msec. The ability to discriminate between specific fluorescence and autofluorescence in the time-domain has improved the sensitivity of diagnostic test such that they perform comparably to, or even more sensitive than radioisotopic assays. We have developed a novel time-resolved fluorescence microscope to improve the sensitivity of detection of specific molecules of interest in slide based specimens. This time-resolved fluorescence microscope is based on our recently developed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FILM) in conjunction with the use of long lifetime fluorescent labels. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the long lifetime probe (europium), we have demonstrated the utility of this technique for detection of HPV DNA in cervicovaginal cells. Our results indicate that the use of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and long lifetime probes increases the sensitivity of detection by removing autofluorescence and will thus lead to improved early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Since the highly sensitive detection of DNA in clinical samples using

  10. V-band Photometry Of By Draconis-type Variables; Probing Long-term Activity Cycles In Three Pleiades Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milingo, Jackie; Thomson, A. D.; Truong, P. N.; Marschall, L. A.; Backman, D. E.

    2007-05-01

    Through the collaborative efforts of undergraduates and faculty at Gettysburg and Franklin & Marshall Colleges, we present the compilation of 10 years of differential photometry for three K-type stars in the Pleiades. These young stars have rotational light curves with V-band amplitudes of a few percent (10% in the most active) due to BY Draconis-type behavior (modulation due to rotation of a star with non-uniform surface brightness). With 10 years of photometry reduced, measured, and compiled we are now in a position to probe the V-band variations in these stars for indications of the extent of brightness asymmetry in the photosphere, and characteristics of the long-term activity of these stars. These observations were acquired at the National Undergraduate Research Observatory, operated by Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University. This work is supported by Gettysburg College, the Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium, Arizona Space Grant, NSF grant AST-0354056, and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  11. The V471 Tauri System: A Multi-data-type Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, T. R.; Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.; Terrell, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    V471 Tauri, a white dwarf-red dwarf eclipsing binary (EB) in the Hyades, is well known for stimulating development of common envelope theory, whereby novae and other cataclysmic variables form from much wider binaries by catastrophic orbit shrinkage. Our evaluation of a recent imaging search that reported negative results for a much postulated third body shows that the object could have escaped detection or may have actually been seen. The balance of evidence continues to favor a brown dwarf companion about 12 AU from the EB. A recently developed algorithm finds unified solutions from three data types. New radial velocities (RVs) of the red dwarf and {{BVR}}C{I}C light curves are solved simultaneously along with white dwarf and red dwarf RVs from the literature, uvby data, the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars mission light curve, and 40 years of eclipse timings. Precision-based weighting is the key to proper information balance among the various data sets. Timewise variation of modeled starspots allows unified solution of multiple data eras. Light-curve amplitudes strongly suggest decreasing spottedness from 1976 to about 1980, followed by approximately constant spot coverage from 1981 to 2005. An explanation is proposed for lack of noticeable variation in 1981 light curves, in terms of competition between spot and tidal variations. Photometric-spectroscopic distance is estimated. The red dwarf mass comes out larger than normal for a K2 V star, and even larger than adopted in several structure and evolution papers. An identified cause for this result is that much improved red dwarf RV curves now exist.

  12. Probing the Isotropy of Cosmic Acceleration Traced By Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanmardi, B.; Porciani, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method to test the isotropy of the magnitude-redshift relation of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and single out the most discrepant direction (in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio) with respect to the all-sky data. Our technique accounts for possible directional variations of the corrections for SNe Ia and yields all-sky maps of the best-fit cosmological parameters with arbitrary angular resolution. To show its potential, we apply our method to the high-redshift SNe Ia from the recent Union2.1 compilation, building maps with three different angular resolutions. We use a Monte Carlo method to estimate the statistical significance with which we could reject the null hypothesis that the magnitude-redshift relation is isotropic based on the properties of the observed most discrepant directions. We find that, based on pure signal-to-noise arguments, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at any meaningful confidence level. However, if we also consider that the strongest deviations in the Union2.1 sample closely align with the dipole temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, we find that the null hypothesis should be rejected at the 95%-99% confidence level, slightly depending on the angular resolution of the study. If this result is not due to a statistical fluke, it might either indicate that the SN data have not been cleaned from all possible systematics or even point toward new physics. We finally discuss future perspectives in the field for achieving larger and more uniform data sets that will vastly improve the quality of the results and optimally exploit our method.

  13. PROBING THE ISOTROPY OF COSMIC ACCELERATION TRACED BY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Javanmardi, B.; Porciani, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method to test the isotropy of the magnitude–redshift relation of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and single out the most discrepant direction (in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio) with respect to the all-sky data. Our technique accounts for possible directional variations of the corrections for SNe Ia and yields all-sky maps of the best-fit cosmological parameters with arbitrary angular resolution. To show its potential, we apply our method to the high-redshift SNe Ia from the recent Union2.1 compilation, building maps with three different angular resolutions. We use a Monte Carlo method to estimate the statistical significance with which we could reject the null hypothesis that the magnitude–redshift relation is isotropic based on the properties of the observed most discrepant directions. We find that, based on pure signal-to-noise arguments, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at any meaningful confidence level. However, if we also consider that the strongest deviations in the Union2.1 sample closely align with the dipole temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, we find that the null hypothesis should be rejected at the 95%–99% confidence level, slightly depending on the angular resolution of the study. If this result is not due to a statistical fluke, it might either indicate that the SN data have not been cleaned from all possible systematics or even point toward new physics. We finally discuss future perspectives in the field for achieving larger and more uniform data sets that will vastly improve the quality of the results and optimally exploit our method.

  14. Steered Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Type IV Pilus Probe Initial Stages of a Force-Induced Conformational Transition

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph L.; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon stretching. PMID

  15. Fluctuation-induced first-order phase transitions in type-1.5 superconductors in zero external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Hannes; Babaev, Egor; Wallin, Mats

    2015-03-01

    In a single-component Ginzburg-Landau model which possesses thermodynamically stable vortex excitations, the zero-field superconducting phase transition is second order even when fluctuations are included. Beyond the mean-field approximation the transition is described in terms of proliferation of vortex loops. Here we determine the order of the superconducting transition in an effective 3D vortex-loop model for the recently proposed multiband type-1.5 superconductors. The vortex interaction is nonmonotonic, i.e., exponentially screened and attractive at large separations, and short-range repulsive. We show that the details of the vortex interaction, despite its short-range nature, can lead to very different properties of the superconducting transition than found in type-1 and type-2 systems. Namely, the type-1.5 regime with nonmonotonic intervortex interaction can have a first-order vortex-driven phase transition not found in the single-band case.

  16. Charge carrier photogeneration and recombination in ladder-type poly(para-phenylene): Interplay between impurities and external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbinas, V.; Hertel, D.; Yartsev, A.; Sundström, V.

    2007-12-01

    Charge carrier generation and decay in m -LPPP polymer films were examined by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the time window of 100fs-15ns . Two modes of polaron formation with distinct behavior were identified, impurity induced in the absence of an external electric field and electric field induced in pristine film. While field induced charge generation is relatively slow, occurring throughout the excited state lifetime, the rate of impurity induced charge generation is much faster and depends on excitation wavelength; it occurs on the several hundred femtosecond time scale under excitation within the main absorption band, but excitation into the red wing of the absorption band results in charge generation within less than 100fs . Polaron decay through geminate electron-hole recombination occurs with widely distributed lifetimes, from ˜0.8ns to microseconds; the polarons characterized by the shortest decay time have a redshifted absorption spectrum (as compared to more long-lived polarons) and are attributed to tightly bound polaron pairs.

  17. Spatially resolved variations of the IMF mass normalisation in early-type galaxies as probed by molecular gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Timothy A.; McDermid, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    We here present the first spatially-resolved study of the IMF in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio. We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine mass-to-light ratio (M/L) gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar initial mass function function (IMF) mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massive ETGs. We find good agreement between our IMF normalisations derived using molecular gas kinematics and those derived using other techniques. Despite this, we do not see find any correlation between the IMF normalisation and galaxy dynamical properties or stellar population parameters, either locally or globally. In the future larger studies which use molecules as tracers of galaxy dynamics can be used to help us disentangle the root cause of IMF variation.

  18. The Shaft of the Type 1 Fimbriae Regulates an External Force to Match the FimH Catch Bond

    PubMed Central

    Zakrisson, Johan; Wiklund, Krister; Axner, Ove; Andersson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae mediate adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to host cells. It has been hypothesized that due to their ability to uncoil under exposure to force, fimbriae can reduce fluid shear stress on the adhesin-receptor interaction by which the bacterium adheres to the surface. In this work, we develop a model that describes how the force on the adhesin-receptor interaction of a type 1 fimbria varies as a bacterium is affected by a time-dependent fluid flow mimicking in vivo conditions. The model combines in vivo hydrodynamic conditions with previously assessed biomechanical properties of the fimbriae. Numerical methods are used to solve for the motion and adhesion force under the presence of time-dependent fluid profiles. It is found that a bacterium tethered with a type 1 pilus will experience significantly reduced shear stress for moderate to high flow velocities and that the maximum stress the adhesin will experience is limited to ∼120 pN, which is sufficient to activate the conformational change of the FimH adhesin into its stronger state but also lower than the force required for breaking it under rapid loading. Our model thus supports the assumption that the type 1 fimbria shaft and the FimH adhesin-receptor interaction are optimized to each other, and that they give piliated bacteria significant advantages in rapidly changing fluidic environments. PMID:23708354

  19. Type-II vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with Watt level output powers at 1.2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Berger, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Koch, M.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.; Stolz, W.

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor laser characteristics based on type-II band-aligned quantum well heterostructures for the emission at 1.2 μm are presented. Ten "W"-quantum wells consisting of GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs are arranged as resonant periodic gain in a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser. Its structure is analyzed by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and reflectance measurements. The laser's power curves and spectra are investigated. Output powers at Watt level are achieved, with a maximum output power of 4 W. It is confirmed that laser operation only involves the type-II transition. A blue shift of the material gain is observed while the modal gain exhibits a red shift.

  20. Target-induced reconfiguration of DNA probes for recycling amplification and signal-on electrochemical detection of hereditary tyrosinemia type I gene.

    PubMed

    Dou, Baoting; Yang, Cuiyun; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2015-09-01

    By coupling target DNA-induced reconfiguration of the dsDNA probes with enzyme-assisted target recycling amplification, we describe the development of a signal-on electrochemical sensing approach for sensitive detection of hereditary tyrosinemia type I gene. The dsDNA probes are self-assembled on the sensing electrode, and the addition of the target DNA reconfigures and switches the dsDNA probes into active substrates for exonuclease III, which catalytically digests the probes and leads to cyclic reuse of the target DNA. The target DNA recycling and the removal of one of the ssDNA from the dsDNA probes by exonuclease III result in the formation of many hairpin structures on the sensor surface, which brings the electroactive methylene blue labels into proximity with the electrode and produces a significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of the target gene down to 0.24 pM. This method is also selective to discriminate single-base mismatch and can be employed to detect the target gene in human serum samples. With the demonstration for the detection of the target gene, we expect the developed method to be a universal sensitive sensing platform for the detection of different nucleic acid sequences.

  1. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  2. External quality assessment of enterovirus detection and typing. European Union Concerted Action on Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, A. M.; Cleator, G. C.; Ras, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of an enterovirus proficiency panel for use in isolation and serotyping and/or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) carried out by 12 laboratories in nine European countries. Eleven laboratories reported results of virus isolation and serotyping. In addition, four laboratories reported results of a PCR for enterovirus detection. Correct virus isolation results were obtained for 105 of 110 samples (95.5%, four false-negatives, one false-positive), and correct PCR results for 39 of 40 (97.5%, one false-negative). The highest isolation rate (87.5%) was observed in primary and tertiary monkey kidney cells; on monkey kidney cell lines, human diploid fibroblasts or human heteroploid cells the isolation rate varied between 64% and 71.4%. Serotyping results were less satisfactory. Only 63 of 106 (59.4%) isolated viruses were typed correctly. Major problems were seen with samples containing mixtures of enteroviruses and with enterovirus 71 or echovirus 4, with 9%, 50%, and 55% correct results, respectively. These results underline the need for improvement of enterovirus typing, especially in view of the poliomyelitis eradication initiative. PMID:10212511

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical signs in cases of isolated supination-external rotation-type lateral malleolar fractures.

    PubMed

    Nortunen, S; Flinkkilä, T; Lantto, I; Kortekangas, T; Niinimäki, J; Ohtonen, P; Pakarinen, H

    2015-08-01

    We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical findings to evaluate the stability of the ankle mortise in patients with supination-external rotation-type fractures of the lateral malleolus without widening of the medial clear space. The cohort included 79 patients with a mean age of 44 years (16 to 82). Two surgeons assessed medial tenderness, swelling and ecchymosis and performed the external rotation (ER) stress test (a reference standard). A diagnostic radiographer performed the gravity stress test. For the gravity stress test, the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 5.80 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.75 to 12.27, and the negative LR was 0.15 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.35), suggesting a moderate change from the pre-test probability. Medial tenderness, both alone and in combination with swelling and/or ecchymosis, indicated a small change (positive LR, 2.74 to 3.25; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47), whereas swelling and ecchymosis indicated only minimal changes (positive LR, 1.41 to 1.65; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47). In conclusion, when gravity stress test results are in agreement with clinical findings, the result is likely to predict stability of the ankle mortise with an accuracy equivalent to ER stress test results. When clinical examination suggests a medial-side injury, however, the gravity stress test may give a false negative result.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical signs in cases of isolated supination-external rotation-type lateral malleolar fractures.

    PubMed

    Nortunen, S; Flinkkilä, T; Lantto, I; Kortekangas, T; Niinimäki, J; Ohtonen, P; Pakarinen, H

    2015-08-01

    We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical findings to evaluate the stability of the ankle mortise in patients with supination-external rotation-type fractures of the lateral malleolus without widening of the medial clear space. The cohort included 79 patients with a mean age of 44 years (16 to 82). Two surgeons assessed medial tenderness, swelling and ecchymosis and performed the external rotation (ER) stress test (a reference standard). A diagnostic radiographer performed the gravity stress test. For the gravity stress test, the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 5.80 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.75 to 12.27, and the negative LR was 0.15 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.35), suggesting a moderate change from the pre-test probability. Medial tenderness, both alone and in combination with swelling and/or ecchymosis, indicated a small change (positive LR, 2.74 to 3.25; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47), whereas swelling and ecchymosis indicated only minimal changes (positive LR, 1.41 to 1.65; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47). In conclusion, when gravity stress test results are in agreement with clinical findings, the result is likely to predict stability of the ankle mortise with an accuracy equivalent to ER stress test results. When clinical examination suggests a medial-side injury, however, the gravity stress test may give a false negative result. PMID:26224832

  5. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  6. Comparative Study of Two Methods for RNA Extraction Prior to Detection of Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 with the Line Probe Assay

    PubMed Central

    Eiros, Jose María; Labayru, Cristina; Hernández, Beatriz; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez Torres, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated two methods from Roche and Promega for RNA extraction prior to the genotypic detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance by line probe assay (LiPA). Fifty plasma RNA extracts were processed in parallel by LiPA. Results obtained by the Roche method were superior in the proportion of amplified samples, the percentage of mutated samples, and band intensity. PMID:12037103

  7. A Type of Non-cable Self-Posioning Seismograph Served For SinoProbe Project In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, L.; Huaizhu, Z.; Zheng, F.; Seismic Instrument Design Team

    2011-12-01

    A type of cableless self-positioning telemetry seismograph designed for deep exploration is introduced in this article. The seismograph adopts 24-bit ADC and the analog circuits are designed carefully to attain a low noise level of 300nV RMS. It also uses 24-bit DAC and FPGA circuits to perform self-test including noise level, trace crosstalk, CMRR, harmonic distortion, geophone resitor testing, pulse testing, gain calibration and etc. As the testing result shows, the analog acquisition performances are similar to the most popular seismograph 428XL system from Sercel. However, the seismograph has a different structure with 428XL. It gets rid of cables and stores seismic data in mass non-volatile memory, and meanwhile it employs GPS combined with Compass global navigation satellite system to implement synchronous data aquisiton and self-positioning. In addition, the seismograph has a built-in WiFi module and can communicate with a cental server in Ad-hoc mode or AP mode depending on the distance between the seismograph and the central server. The working status and seismic data quality can be monitored through the WiFi network and some seismic data can be transmitted back on demand. When the distance between adjacent seismographs exceed 500 metres, the Compass global navigation satellite system which supports global communication can be used to send necessary data. At last, dynamic power management is emplyed and the system working voltage and frequency will be changed as the system runs into different status, and also all circuit modules can be switched off when not needed. Because of all the benefits listed above, the seismograph can be used in a variety of ways as needed, such as seismic network, deep seismic reflection exploration, wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction exploration, ore zone seismic exploration and etc. To sum up, the cable-less self-positioning seismograph employs mass non-volatile storage technology, global navigation satellite sytem, Wi

  8. Specific identification of human papillomavirus type in cervical smears and paraffin sections by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes: a preliminary communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.; Gendelman, H.E.; Naghashfar, Z.; Gupta, P.; Rosenshein, N.; Sawada, E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Shah, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears and paraffin sections of biopsy specimens obtained from women attending dysplasia clinics were examined for viral DNA sequences by in situ hybridization technique using TVS-labeled cloned recombinant DNA probes of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, and 16. These and one unrelated DNA probe complementary to measles virus RNA were labeled by nick translation using either one or two TVS-labeled nucleotides. Paraffin sections and cervical smears were collected on pretreated slides, hybridized with the probes under stringent or nonstringent conditions for 50 h, and autoradiographed. Additional cervical specimens from the same women were examined for the presence of genus-specific papillomavirus capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase technique. Preliminary results may be summarized as follows. The infecting virus could be identified in smears as well as in sections. Viral DNA sequences were detected only when there were condylomatous cells in the specimen and in only a proportion of the condylomatous cells. Even under stringent conditions, some specimens reacted with both HPV-6 and HPV-11. In some instances, the cells did not hybridize with any of the three probes even when duplicate specimens contained frankly condylomatous, capsid antigen-positive cells. In situ hybridization of Papanicolaou smears or of tissue sections is a practical method for diagnosis and follow-up of specific papillomavirus infection using routinely collected material.

  9. A study of local crankshaft-type mobility in vitreous polyvinyl chloride and polyacrylonitrile by the method of conformational probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalova, D. I.; Kolyadko, I. M.; Remizov, A. B.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary relaxation transitions and local conformational dynamics in polyacrylonitrile and polyvinyl chloride were studied by the method of conformational probes. Relaxation transitions at 210 and 260 K (polyvinyl chloride) and 165 K (polyacrylonitrile) were explained by freezing of “crankshaft-type” motions.

  10. Singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in the songbird basal ganglia: comparison to the primate internal and external pallidal segments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Adler, Avital; Bergman, Hagai; Fee, Michale S.

    2010-01-01

    The songbird area X is a basal ganglia homologue that contains two pallidal cell types—local neurons that project within the basal ganglia and output neurons that project to the thalamus. Based on these projections, it has been proposed that these classes are structurally homologous to the primate external (GPe) and internal (GPi) pallidal segments. To test the hypothesis that the two area X pallidal types are functionally homologous to GPe and GPi neurons, we recorded from neurons in area X of singing juvenile male zebra finches, and directly compare their firing patterns to neurons recorded in the primate pallidus. In area X, we find two cell classes that exhibited high firing (HF) rates (>60Hz) characteristic of pallidal neurons. HF-1 neurons, like most GPe neurons we examined, exhibited large firing rate modulations, including bursts and long pauses. In contrast, HF-2 neurons, like GPi neurons, discharged continuously without bursts or long pauses. To test if HF-2 neurons were the output neurons that project to the thalamus, we next recorded directly from pallidal axon terminals in thalamic nucleus DLM, and found that all terminals exhibited singing-related firing patterns indistinguishable from HF-2 neurons. Our data show that singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in area X: thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPi, and non-thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPe. These results suggest that song learning in birds and motor learning in mammals employ conserved basal ganglia signaling strategies. PMID:20484651

  11. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  12. Line probe assay for rapid detection of drug-selected mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase gene.

    PubMed

    Stuyver, L; Wyseur, A; Rombout, A; Louwagie, J; Scarcez, T; Verhofstede, C; Rimland, D; Schinazi, R F; Rossau, R

    1997-02-01

    Upon prolonged treatment with various antiretroviral nucleoside analogs such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, (-)- beta-L-2', 3'dideoxy-3'thiacytidine and 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine, selection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains with mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene has been reported. We designed a reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA) for the rapid and simultaneous characterization of the following variations in the RT gene: M41 or L41; T69, N69, A69, or D69; K70 or R70; L74 or V74; V75 or T75; M184, I184, or V184; T215, Y215, or F215; and K219, Q219, or E219. Nucleotide polymorphisms for codon L41 (TTG or CTG), T69 (ACT or ACA), V75 (GTA or GTG), T215 (ACC or ACT), and Y215 (TAC or TAT) could be detected. In addition to the codons mentioned above, several third-letter polymorphisms in the direct vicinity of the target codons (E40, E42, K43, K73, D76, Q182, Y183, D185, G213, F214, and L214) were found, and specific probes were selected. In total, 48 probes were designed and applied to the LiPA test strips and optimized with a well-characterized and representative reference panel. Plasma samples from 358 HIV-infected patients were analyzed with all 48 probes. The amino acid profiles could be deduced by LiPA hybridization in an average of 92.7% of the samples for each individual codon. When combined with changes in viral load and CD4+ T-cell count, this LiPA approach proved to be useful in studying genetic resistance in follow-up samples from antiretroviral agent-treated HIV-1-infected individuals.

  13. The use of waveguide acoustic probes for void fraction measurement in the evaporator of BN-350-Type reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, V.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I.

    1995-09-01

    The present paper deals with some results of the experimental studies which have been carried out to investigate the steam generation dynamics in the Field tubes of sodium-water evaporators used in the BN-350 reactors. The void fraction measurements have been taken with the aid of waveguide acoustic transducers manufactured in accordance with a specially designed technology (waveguide acoustic transducers-WAT technology). Presented in this paper also the transducer design and calibration methods, as well as the diagram showing transducers arrengment in the evaporator. The transducers under test featured a waveguide of about 4 m in length and a 200-mm long sensitive element (probe). Besides, this paper specifies the void fraction data obtained through measurements in diverse points of the evaporator. The studies revealed that the period of observed fluctuations in the void fraction amounted to few seconds and was largely dependent on the level of water in the evaporator.

  14. A Tale of Two Methods: Comparing Regression and Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Effects of Preschool Child Care Type on the Subsequent Externalizing Behavior of Children in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Danielle A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Huston, Aletha C.

    2010-01-01

    We apply instrumental variables (IV) techniques to a pooled data set of employment-focused experiments to examine the relation between type of preschool childcare and subsequent externalizing problem behavior for a large sample of low-income children. To assess the potential usefulness of this approach for addressing biases that can confound…

  15. The Mechanics of External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2006-01-01

    External fixation has evolved from being used primarily as a last resort fixation method to becoming a main stream technique used to treat a myriad of bone and soft tissue pathologies. Techniques in limb reconstruction continue to advance largely as a result of the use of these external devices. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles of external fixation is useful for all orthopedic surgeons as most will have to occasionally mount a fixator throughout their career. In this review, various types of external fixators and their common clinical applications are described with a focus on unilateral and circular frames. The biomechanical principles that govern bony and fixator stability are reviewed as well as the recommended techniques for applying external fixators to maximize stability. Additionally, we have illustrated methods for managing patients while they are in the external frames to facilitate function and shorten treatment duration. PMID:18751766

  16. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  17. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  18. Comparison of currents predicted by NASCAP/LEO model simulations with elementary Langmuir-type bare probe models for an insulated cable containing a single pinhole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.

    1990-01-01

    The behavior of a defect in the insulation of a short biased section of cable in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment was examined. Such studies are of the utmost importance for large space power systems where great quantities of cabling will be deployed. An insulated probe containing a pinhole was placed into a hypothetical high speed LEO plasma. The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO) was used to explore sheath growth about the probe as a function of applied voltage and to predict I-V behavior. A set of independent current calculations using Langmuir's formulations for concentric spheres and coaxial cylinders were also performed. The case of concentric spheres was here extended to include the case of concentric hemispheres. Several simple Langmuir-type models were then constructed to bracket the current collected by the cable. The space-charge sheath radius and impact parameters were used to determine the proper current regime. I-V curves were plotted for the models and comparisons were made with NASCAP/LEO results. Finally, NASCAP/LEO potential contours and surface cell potential plots were examined to explain interesting features in the NASCAP/LEO I-V curve.

  19. Putative membrane lytic sites of P-type and S-type cardiotoxins from snake venoms as probed by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Biswajit; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-10-01

    Cardiotoxins (CTXs) belonging to the three-finger toxin superfamily of snake venoms are one of principal toxic components and the protein toxins exhibit membrane lytic activities when the venoms are injected into victims. In the present study, complex formations between CTX VI (a P-type CTX from Naja atra) and CTX1 (an S-type CTX from Naja naja) on zwitterionic POPC bilayers (a major lipid component of cell membranes) have been studied in near physiological conditions for a total dynamic time scale of 1.35 μs using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Comprehensive analyses of the MD data revealed that residues such as Leu1, Lys2, Tyr11, Lys31, Asp57 and Arg58 of CTX VI, and Ala16, Lys30 and Arg58 of CTX1 were crucial for establishing interactions with the POPC bilayer. Moreover, loop I, along with globular head and loop II of CTX VI, and loop II of CTX1 were found to be the structural regions chiefly governing complex formation of the respective proteins with POPC. Rationalizations for the differential binding modes of CTXs and implications of the findings for designing small molecular inhibitors to the toxins are also discussed. Graphical Abstract Binding modes of a P-type CTX and an S-type CTX towards the POPC bilayer. PMID:27628673

  20. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  1. Variant c-type cytochromes as probes of the substrate specificity of the E. coli cytochrome c maturation (Ccm) apparatus.

    PubMed

    Allen, James W A; Sawyer, Elizabeth B; Ginger, Michael L; Barker, Paul D; Ferguson, Stuart J

    2009-04-01

    c-type cytochromes are normally characterized by covalent attachment of the iron cofactor haem to protein through two thioether bonds between the vinyl groups of the haem and the thiol groups of a CXXCH (Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys-His) motif. In cells, the haem attachment is an enzyme-catalysed post-translational modification. We have previously shown that co-expression of a variant of Escherichia coli cytochrome b(562) containing a CXXCH haem-binding motif with the E. coli Ccm (cytochrome c maturation) proteins resulted in homogeneous maturation of a correctly formed c-type cytochrome. In contrast, in the absence of the Ccm apparatus, the product holocytochrome was heterogeneous, the main species having haem inverted and attached through only one thioether bond. In the present study we use further variants of cytochrome b(562) to investigate the substrate specificity of the E. coli Ccm apparatus. The system can mature c-type cytochromes with CCXXCH, CCXCH, CXCCH and CXXCHC motifs, even though these are not found naturally and the extra cysteine residue might, in principle, disrupt the biogenesis proteins which must interact intricately with disulfide-bond oxidizing and reducing proteins in the E. coli periplasm. The Ccm proteins can also attach haem to motifs of the type CX(n)CH where n ranges from 2 to 6. For n=3 and 4, the haem attachment was correct and homogeneous, but for higher values of n the holocytochromes displayed oxidative addition of sulfur and/or oxygen atoms associated with the covalent haem-attachment process. The implications of our observations for the haem-attachment reaction, for genome analyses and for the substrate specificity of the Ccm system, are discussed.

  2. Germanium-doped carbon dots as a new type of fluorescent probe for visualizing the dynamic invasions of mercury(II) ions into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yun Huan; Li, Rong Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Zhu Lian; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-10-28

    Carbon dots doped with germanium (GeCDs) were firstly prepared by a new simple 15 min carbonation synthesis route, exhibiting excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL), which could avoid autofluorescence in bioimaging applications. The as-prepared GeCDs have low cell toxicity, good biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, stability and could be applied for detection of mercury(II) ions with excellent selectivity in complicated medium. It is to be noted that the as-prepared GeCDs used as a new type of probe for visualization of dynamic invasions of mercury(II) ions into Hep-2 cells display greatly different properties from most of the previously reported CDs which are regularly responsive to iron ions. All the results suggest that the GeCDs can be employed for visualization and monitoring of the significant physiological changes of living cells induced by Hg(2+).

  3. Probing roles of lipopolysaccharide, type 1 fimbria, and colanic acid in the attachment of Escherichia coli strains on inert surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-09-20

    The roles of bacterial surface polymers in reversible (phase I) and irreversible (phase II) attachment (i.e., lipopolysaccharides (LPS), type 1 fimbria, and capsular colanic acid (CA)) were investigated in situ by combining fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the phase I attachment by counting the total number of cells on the substrata, and AFM was applied to image the phase II cells and measure the lateral detachment force to characterize phase II attachment. Also, by comparing the number of cells in phases I and II, the transformation ratio was calculated and used as an index to evaluate the roles of different polymers in the attachment process. Escherichia coli K-12 and its six mutants, which had different surface polymers in terms of LPS structures, CA contents, and type 1 fimbriae, were used as the test strains. Six different materials were applied as substrata, including glass, two metals (aluminum and stainless steel), and three plastics (polyvinyl chloride, polycarbonate, and polyethylene). The results indicated that LPS significantly enhanced phases I and II attachment as well as the transformation ratio from phase I to II. Like LPS, type 1 fimbriae largely increased the phase I attachment and the transformation ratio; however, they did not significantly influence the adhesion strength in phase II. CA had a negative effect on attachment in phases I and II by decreasing the adhered number of cells and the lateral detachment force, respectively, but had no influence on the transformation ratio. PMID:21842859

  4. Investigation of Intrinsic Electrical Characteristics and Contact Effects in p-Type Tin Monoxide Thin-Film Transistors Using Gated-Four-Probe Measurements.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Joon; Choi, Yong-Jin; Jeong, Hoon; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the intrinsic electrical characteristics and source/drain parasitic resistance in p-type SnO TFTs fabricated using Ni electrodes based on the gated-four-probe method. Because of the relatively high work function and inexpensive price, Ni has been most frequently used as the source/drain electrode materials in p-type SnO TFTs. However, our experimental data shows that the width normalized parasitic resistances of SnO TFT with Ni electrodes are around one to three orders of magnitude higher than those in the representative n-type oxide TFT, amorphous indium- gallium-zinc oxide TFT, and are comparable with those in amorphous silicon TFTs with Mo electrodes. This result implies that the electrical performance of the short channel SnO TFT can be dominated by the source/drain parasitic resistances. The intrinsic field-effect mobility extracted without being influenced by source/drain parasitic resistance was ~2.0 cm2/Vs, which is around twice the extrinsic field-effect mobility obtained from the conventional transconductance method. The large contact resistance is believed to be mainly caused from the heterogeneous electronic energy-level mismatch between the SnO and Ni electrodes. PMID:26726376

  5. The X-ray emission from Type IIn Supernovae as a Probe of the Stellar Environment and Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are divided into different subclasses, depending mainly on their optical spectra or light curve. Type IIn supernovae (SNe) form one of the more recent subclasses, having been first identified in 1990. They are characterized by narrow lines on a broad base in the optical spectrum, and comprise 1 to 4% of the total core collapse SN population. There exists a wide diversity in SNe that exhibit IIn features, which has greatly complicated the task of identifying their progenitors.IIns are observed to have the highest X-ray luminosity of all the SN classes, with luminosities generally exceeding 1038 ergs/s after several thousand days. Thus they are observable in X-rays even at late times, hundreds to thousands of days after explosion. They also exhibit the most diversity in their light curves. Many of the lightcurves tend to fall off rather steeply at late times, although one interesting case displayed a rising light curve for several thousand days. These characteristics, along with their high luminosities at other wavelengths, imply initial expansion in a very dense medium, with the densities decreasing rapidly a few years after explosion. Their X-ray spectra generally show distinct lines, suggesting that the emission is thermal in origin. The X-ray spectra can provide insight into the density structure, composition and metallicity of the surrounding medium, and the ionization level, through the spectra themselves as well as the X-ray absorption.In this presentation we will show the lightcurves of almost all IIns that have been observed in the X-ray band, and compare and contrast them to the X-ray lightcurves of other types of SNe. We summarize the known properties of the X-ray emission from Type IIn SNe, and explore the implications for the SN environment, progenitor mass-loss and the identity of the progenitors.

  6. Probing physical and chemical changes in cortical bone due to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Donghua; Taylor, Amanda; Rendina, Beth; Smith, Brenda; Department of Physics Collaboration; Department of Nutritional Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species. The authors appreciate financial support for this project from the College of Human Sciences and the College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University.

  7. Indium hydroxide to bixbyite-type indium oxide transition probed in situ by time resolved synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schlicker, L; Riedel, R; Gurlo, A

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of the transformation mechanism involved in the dehydroxylation reactions in the In-O-H system exhibits large controversy and discrepancy; it holds especially for the formation of the metastable nanosized intermediates as well as for the structural relation between corresponding phases. It was recently reported that indium oxohydroxide (InOOH) appears as an intermediate phase in the thermal dehydroxylation of nanoscaled In(OH)(3). Our in situ time resolved high energy synchrotron radiation experiments showed unambiguously that no intermediate crystalline or amorphous phases have been observed during the phase transition (dehydroxylation) from nanosized indium hydroxide to indium oxide. Under our experimental conditions, the c-In(OH)(3) to bixbyite-type In(2)O(3) transition was observed between 280 and 305 degrees C and the conversion completed around 305 degrees C without any observable intermediates. The formation of InOOH during the phase transition In(OH)(3)-->bixbyite-type In(2)O(3) can be ruled out. This finding is of high relevance and importance for the controllable synthesis of nanocrystalline In(2)O(3)-based materials.

  8. Topology of electron charge density for chemical bonds from valence bond theory: a probe of bonding types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixian; Ying, Fuming; Wu, Wei; Hiberty, Philippe C; Shaik, Sason

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the nature of bonding we derive the topological properties of the electron charge density of a variety of bonds based on ab initio valence bond methods. The electron density and its associated Laplacian are partitioned into covalent, ionic, and resonance components in the valence bond spirit. The analysis provides a density-based signature of bonding types and reveals, along with the classical covalent and ionic bonds, the existence of two-electron bonds in which most of the bonding arises from the covalent-ionic resonance energy, so-called charge-shift bonds. As expected, the covalent component of the Laplacian at the bond critical point is found to be largely negative for classical covalent bonds. In contrast, for charge-shift bonds, the covalent part of the Laplacian is small or positive, in agreement with the weakly attractive or repulsive character of the covalent interaction in these bonds. On the other hand, the resonance component of the Laplacian is always negative or nearly zero, and it increases in absolute value with the charge-shift character of the bond, in agreement with the decrease of kinetic energy associated with covalent-ionic mixing. A new interpretation of the topology of the total density at the bond critical point is proposed to characterize covalent, ionic, and charge-shift bonding from the density point of view.

  9. Förster-type energy transfer as a probe for changes in local fluctuations of the protein matrix.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, B; Matkó, J; Papp, S; Hevessy, J; Welch, G R; Damjanovich, S

    1984-07-17

    Much evidence, on both theoretical and experimental sides, indicates the importance of local fluctuations (in energy levels, conformational substates, etc.) of the macromolecular matrix in the biological activity of proteins. We describe here a novel application of the Förster-type energy-transfer process capable of monitoring changes both in local fluctuations and in conformational states of macromolecules. A new energy-transfer parameter, f, is defined as an average transfer efficiency, [E], normalized by the actual average quantum efficiency of the donor fluorescence, [phi D]. A simple oscillator model (for a one donor-one acceptor system) is presented to show the sensitivity of this parameter to changes in amplitudes of local fluctuations. The different modes of averaging (static, dynamic, and intermediate cases) occurring for a given value of the average transfer rate, [kt], and the experimental requirements as well as limitations of the method are also discussed. The experimental tests were performed on the ribonuclease T1-pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate conjugate (a one donor-one acceptor system) by studying the change of the f parameter with temperature, an environmental parameter expectedly perturbing local fluctuations of proteins. The parameter f increased with increasing temperature as expected on the basis of the oscillator model, suggesting that it really reflects changes of fluctuation amplitudes (significant changes in the orientation factor, k2, as well as in the spectral properties of the fluorophores can be excluded by anisotropy measurements and spectral investigations). Possibilities of the general applicability of the method are also discussed. PMID:6432042

  10. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  11. Experimental estimation of tungsten impurity sputtering due to Type I ELMs in JET-ITER-like wall using pedestal electron cyclotron emission and target Langmuir probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemaut, C.; Jardin, A.; Horacek, J.; Borodkina, I.; Autricque, A.; Arnoux, G.; Boom, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; De La Luna, E.; Devaux, S.; Eich, T.; Harting, D.; Kirschner, A.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Meigs, A.; Moulton, D.; O'Mullane, M.; Stamp, M.; contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline scenario, with 500 MW of DT fusion power and Q = 10, will rely on a Type I ELMy H-mode and will be achieved with a tungsten (W) divertor. W atoms sputtered from divertor targets during mitigated ELMs are expected to be the dominant source in ITER. W impurity concentration in the plasma core can dramatically degrade its performance and lead to potentially damaging disruptions. Understanding the physics of the target W source due to sputtering during ELMs and inter-ELMs is important and can be helped by experimental measurements with improved precision. It has been established that the ELMy target ion impact energy has a simple linear dependence with the pedestal electron temperature measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE). It has also been shown that Langmuir Probes (LP) ion flux measurements are reliable during ELMs due to the surprisingly low electron temperature. Therefore, in this paper, LP and ECE measurements in JET-ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) unseeded Type I ELMy H-mode experiments have been used to estimate the W sputtering flux from divertor targets in ELM and inter-ELM conditions. Comparison with similar estimates using W I spectroscopy measurements shows a reasonable agreement for the ELM and inter-ELM W source. The main advantage of the method involving LP measurements is the very high time resolution of the diagnostic (˜10 μs) allowing very precise description of the W sputtering source during ELMs.

  12. A novel multiplex RT-qPCR method based on dual-labelled probes suitable for typing all known genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, D; López-Vázquez, C; Skall, H F; Mikkelsen, S S; Olesen, N J; Dopazo, C P

    2016-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a notifiable fish disease, whose causative agent is a rhabdovirus isolated from a wide range of fish species, not only in fresh but also in marine and brackish waters. Phylogenetic studies have identified four major genotypes, with a strong geographical relationship. In this study, we have designed and validated a new procedure--named binary multiplex RT-qPCR (bmRT-qPCR)--for simultaneous detection and typing of all four genotypes of VHSV by real-time RT-PCR based on dual-labelled probes and composed by two multiplex systems designed for European and American/Asiatic isolates, respectively, using a combination of three different fluorophores. The specificity of the procedure was assessed by including a panel of 81 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes of the virus, and tissue material from experimentally infected rainbow trout, resulting in a correct detection and typing of all strains. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated in a comparative assay with titration in cell culture, observing that both methods provided similar limits of detection. The proposed method can be a powerful tool for epidemiological analysis of VHSV by genotyping unknown samples within a few hours.

  13. Local pharmacokinetic analysis of a stable spin probe in mice by in vivo L-band ESR with surface-coil-type resonators.

    PubMed

    Kamataria, Masayuki; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Tateaki; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2002-10-01

    In vivo ESR spectroscopy using a low frequency microwave of approximately 1 GHz has been developed to measure non-invasive ESR spectra in animals given paramagnetic compounds, in which a loop-gap-type resonator was used and ESR spectra were measured at the animal's head or abdomen. Therefore, the concentrations of paramagnetic species in both the blood and organs were compositely contributed to the spectra. When we understand the kinetics of paramagnetic species in detail, it is essentially important to know how these kinetics are expressed in each organ. For this purpose, a surface-coil-type resonator, which enabled local ESR measurement in specific organs, has been developed. By using this method, we studied the real-time pharmacokinetics of spin clearance curves detected in the organs of mice given 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (4-hydroxy-TEMPO) intravenously (i.v.), by monitoring the inferior vena cava, liver and kidney. Quantified dearance curves in the organs were analyzed on the basis of a two-compartment model, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated based on the curve-fitting. The obtained pharmacokinetic parameters were found to depend on the measurement site, and the distribution and elimination processes of the spin probe were successfully separated between the blood and organs of mice.

  14. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  15. Flexible Cryogenic Temperature and Liquid-Level Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberbusch, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible probes have been developed for measuring temperatures at multiple locations in tanks that contain possibly pressurized cryogenic fluids. If the fluid in a given tank is subcritical (that is, if it consists of a liquid and its vapor), then in one of two modes of operation, the temperature measurements made by a probe of this type can be used to deduce the approximate level of the liquid. The temperature sensors are silicon diodes located at intervals along a probe. If the probe is to be used to measure a temperature gradient along a given axis in the tank, then the probe must be mounted along that axis. In the temperature-measurement mode, a constant small electric current is applied to each diode and the voltage across the diode a known function of the current and temperature is measured as an indication of its temperature. For the purpose of this measurement, small electric current signifies a current that is not large enough to cause a significant increase in the measured temperature. More specifically, the probe design calls for a current of 10 A, which, in the cryogenic temperature range of interest, generates heat at a rate of only about 0.01 mW per diode. In the liquid-level-sensing mode, one applies a larger current (30 mA) to each diode so as to heat each diode appreciably (with a power of about 36 mW in the temperature range of interest). Because the liquid cools the diode faster than does the vapor, the temperature of the diode is less when the diode is immersed in the liquid than when it is above the surface of the liquid. Thus, the temperature (voltage) reading from each diode can be used to determine whether the liquid level is above or below the diode, and one can deduce that the liquid level lies between two adjacent diodes, the lower one of which reads a significantly lower temperature. The aforementioned techniques for measuring temperature and deducing liquid level are not new. What is new here are the designs of the probes

  16. Flexible Cryogenic Temperature and Liquid-Level Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberbusch, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible probes have been developed for measuring temperatures at multiple locations in tanks that contain possibly pressurized cryogenic fluids. If the fluid in a given tank is subcritical (that is, if it consists of a liquid and its vapor), then in one of two modes of operation, the temperature measurements made by a probe of this type can be used to deduce the approximate level of the liquid. The temperature sensors are silicon diodes located at intervals along a probe. If the probe is to be used to measure a temperature gradient along a given axis in the tank, then the probe must be mounted along that axis. In the non-liquid-level-sensing temperature-measurement mode, a constant small electric current is applied to each diode and the voltage across the diode . a known function of the current and temperature . is measured as an indication of its temperature. For the purpose of this measurement, "small electric current" signifies a current that is not large enough to cause a significant increase in the measured temperature. More specifically, the probe design calls for a current of 10 A, which, in the cryogenic temperature range of interest, generates heat at a rate of only about 0.01 mW per diode. In the liquid-level-sensing mode, one applies a larger current (30 mA) to each diode so as to heat each diode appreciably (with a power of about 36 mW in the temperature range of interest). Because the liquid cools the diode faster than does the vapor, the temperature of the diode is less when diode is immersed in the liquid than when it is above the surface of the liquid. Thus, the temperature (voltage) reading from each diode can be used to determine whether the liquid level is above or below the diode, and one can deduce that the liquid level lies between two adjacent diodes, the lower one of which reads a significantly lower temperature. The aforementioned techniques for measuring temperature and deducing liquid level are not new. What is new here are

  17. Multicenter Noninferiority Evaluation of Hain GenoType MTBDRplus Version 2 and Nipro NTM+MDRTB Line Probe Assays for Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hillemann, Doris; Schumacher, Samuel G.; Schlueter, Birte; Ismail, Nazir; Omar, Shaheed Vally; Sikhondze, Welile; Havumaki, Joshua; Valli, Eloise; Boehme, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Less than 30% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are currently diagnosed, due to laboratory constraints. Molecular diagnostics enable rapid and simplified diagnosis. Newer-version line probe assays have not been evaluated against the WHO-endorsed Hain GenoType MTBDRplus (referred to as Hain version 1 [V1]) for the rapid detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. A two-phase noninferiority study was conducted in two supranational reference laboratories to allow head-to-head comparisons of two new tests, Hain Genotype MTBDRplus version 2 (referred to as Hain version 2 [V2]) and Nipro NTM+MDRTB detection kit 2 (referred to as Nipro), to Hain V1. In phase 1, the results for 379 test strains were compared to a composite reference standard that used phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) and targeted sequencing. In phase 2, the results for 644 sputum samples were compared to a phenotypic DST reference standard alone. Using a challenging set of strains in phase 1, the values for sensitivity and specificity for Hain V1, Hain V2, and Nipro, respectively, were 90.3%/98.5%, 90.3%/98.5%, and 92.0%/98.5% for RIF resistance detection and 89.1%/99.4%, 89.1%/99.4%, and 89.6%/100.0% for INH resistance detection. Testing of sputa in phase 2 yielded values for sensitivity and specificity of 97.1%/97.1%, 98.2%/97.8%, and 96.5%/97.5% for RIF and 94.4%/96.4%, 95.4%/98.8%, and 94.9%/97.6% for INH. Overall, the rates of indeterminate results were low, but there was a higher rate of indeterminate results with Nipro than with Hain V1 and V2 in samples with low smear grades. Noninferiority of Hain V2 and Nipro to Hain V1 was demonstrated for RIF and INH resistance detection in isolates and sputum specimens. These results serve as evidence for WHO policy recommendations on the use of line probe assays, including the Hain V2 and Nipro assays, for MDR-TB detection. PMID:27076658

  18. [Hidradenoma of the external acoustic meatus: ceruminoma].

    PubMed

    Gianotti, R

    1990-02-01

    Benign tumour originating from the ceruminous glands of the external auditory meatus are quite rare and present similar histological features to sweat gland tumours elsewhere. The paper reports the case of a nodule in the external auditory meatus diagnosed as a myoepitheliomatous-type hidradenoma . Three histological forms of benign ceruminous gland tumours are recognised: the myoepitheliomatous, cribriform and mixed salivary type. Currently, the term hidradenoma of the external ear is preferred.

  19. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  20. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  1. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  2. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller.

    PubMed

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions. PMID:25983065

  3. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller.

    PubMed

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions.

  4. Measured and predicted impingement noise for a model-scale under the wing externally blown flap configuration with a QCSEE type nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Jet/flap interaction noise was measured and predicted for a small-scale model two-flap, under-the-wing, externally blown flap configuration equipped with and without noise suppression devices. The devices consisted of short spanwise fairings centered in relationship to the jet axis and positioned in the slots between the wing and flaps. The nozzle approximated that of the Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Takeoff noise reductions of 6 dB in the flyover and 5 dB in the sideline plane were obtained over a wide range of radiation angles. Approach noise reductions of about 5 dB were obtained only in the forward quadrant of the flyover plane; no reductions were obtained in the sideline plane. Models of several noise sources were combined analytically to form an overall noise prediction, the results from which compared favorably with the measured data. The aerodynamic performance characteristics for these configurations were substantially the same in the takeoff attitude. However, in the approach attitude, the suppressed configuration produced a 6 percent reduction in the flow turning efficiency.

  5. PCR/oligonucleotide probe typing of HLA class II alleles in a Filipino population reveals an unusual distribution of HLA haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Bugawan, T.L.; Chang, J.D.; Erlich, H.A. ); Klitz, W. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors have analyzed the distribution of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in a Filipino population by PCR amplification of the DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 second-exon sequences from buccal swabs obtained from 124 family members and 53 unrelated individuals. The amplified DNA was typed by using nonradioactive sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Twenty-two different DRB1 alleles, including the novel Filipino *1105, and 46 different DRB1/DQB1 haplotypes, including the unusual DRB1*0405-DQB1*0503, were identified. An unusually high frequency (f = .383) of DPB1*0101, a rare allele in other Asian populations, was also observed. In addition, an unusual distribution of DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was seen in this population, with DR2 (f = .415) and DRB1*1502-DQB1*0502 (f = .233) present at high frequencies. This distribution of DRB1 alleles differs from the typical HLA population distribution, in which the allele frequencies are more evenly balanced. The distribution of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in this Filipino population is different from that of other Asian and Pacific groups: of those populations studied to date, the Indonesian population is the most similar. DRB1*1502-DQB1*0502 was in strong linkage disequilibrium (D[prime] = .41) with DPB 1*0101 (f = .126, for the extended haplotype), which is consistent with selection for this DR, DQ, DP haplotype being responsible for the high frequency of these three class II alleles in this populations. 30 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 infection with a combination of immunomagnetic beads, single-domain antibody, and fluorescent quantum dot probes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shunli; Shang, Youjun; Wang, Di; Yin, Shuanghui; Cai, Jianping; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-09-01

    The use of a specific antibody conjugated with nanobeads, forming immunomagnetic nanobeads (IMNBs), has been demonstrated to be useful for the capture and detection of viruses. In this study, IMNBs functionalized with a single-domain antibody against the capsid protein (Cap) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), hereafter denoted as psdAb, were evaluated and used to capture PCV2. Quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with psdAb were used as a fluorescence probe to visualize PCV2 captured by IMNBs. The specificity and sensitivity of this method were further evaluated using common pathogens of pig viral disease and PCV2. To assess its practicality, clinical samples were tested in this study. The results showed that 2.57 ± 0.13 mg Cap or 0.97 ± 0.064 × 10(6) copies of PCV2 particles could be captured by 1 mg of IMNBs in 30 min. This suggests that the IMNBs have the ability to efficiently capture PCV2 with good specificity, as there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens, and with strong sensitivity, with a detection limit as low as 10(3) copies/ml of PCV2 particles. Moreover, PCV2 in inguinal lymph node, lung, spleen, serum, and fecal samples was successfully detected by IMNBs. The results demonstrate that this method is promising for the rapid and effective detection of PCV2 in complex clinical samples.

  7. Neuromuscular symptoms in a patient with familial pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib diagnosed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Saitoh, Akihiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2013-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to imprinting defects in the maternally derived GNAS allele. Patients with PHP-Ib are usually identified by tetany, convulsions, and/or muscle cramps, whereas a substantial fraction of patients remain asymptomatic and are identified by familial studies. Although previous studies on patients with primary hypoparathyroidism have indicated that hypocalcemia can be associated with various neuromuscular abnormalities, such clinical features have been rarely described in patients with PHP-Ib. Here, we report a 12-year-old male patient with familial PHP-Ib and unique neuromuscular symptoms. The patient presented with general fatigue, steppage gait, and myalgia. Physical examinations revealed muscular weakness and atrophies in the lower legs, a shortening of the bilateral Achilles' tendons and absence of deep tendon reflexes. Laboratory tests showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated serum intact PTH level, and impaired responses of urinary phosphate and cyclic AMP in an Ellsworth-Howard test, in addition to an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Clinical features of the patient were significantly improved after 1 month of treatment with alfacalcidol and calcium. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) and subsequent PCR analyses identified a methylation defect at exon A/B of GNAS and a microdeletion involving exons 4-6 of the GNAS neighboring gene STX16 in the patient and in his asymptomatic brother. The results suggest that various neuromuscular features probably associated with hypocalcemia can be the first symptoms of PHP-Ib, and that MS-MLPA serves as a powerful tool for screening of GNAS abnormalities in patients with atypical manifestations.

  8. Neurochemistry and electroanalytical probes.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Kevin P; Heien, Michael L A V; Venton, B Jill; Wightman, R Mark

    2002-10-01

    Electroanalytical techniques have been applied to monitoring chemical events including neurotransmitter release during rodent behaviour and the release of zeptomoles of molecules from single cells. Transgenic mice models have been developed and studied to identify specific cell types in vitro. Characterization and surface modification of electroanalytical probes has enhanced the selectivity and sensitivity of measurements.

  9. Thermal protection system development, testing, and qualification for atmospheric probes and sample return missions. Examples for Saturn, Titan and Stardust-type sample return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.; Arnold, J. O.; Wright, M. J.; Allen, G. A.

    2009-07-01

    The science community has continued to be interested in planetary entry probes, aerocapture, and sample return missions to improve our understanding of the Solar System. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such missions are critical to the understanding not only of the individual planets, but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the Solar System. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient to provide the desired data on its atmospheric composition. An aerocapture mission would enable delivery of a satellite to provide insight into how gravitational forces cause dynamic changes in Saturn's ring structure that are akin to the evolution of protoplanetary accretion disks. Heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes, Saturn aerocapture, and sample Earth return missions with higher re-entry speeds (13-15 km/s) from Mars, Venus, comets, and asteroids are in the range of 1-6 KW/cm 2. New, mid-density thermal protection system (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission enabling for mass efficiency and also for use on smaller vehicles enabled by advancements in scientific instrumentation. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet arcjet facility that was used to qualify carbon phenolic for the Galileo probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technologies and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arcjet that can be used for TPS development, in test gases appropriate for future planetary probe and aerocapture applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include new versions of the Apollo Avcoat material and a densified variant of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA). Application of these and other TPS materials and the use of other facilities for development and qualification of TPS for Saturn, Titan, and Sample Return missions of the Stardust class with entry speeds from 6.0 to 28.6 km/s are discussed.

  10. Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air.

    The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air.

    The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Protective shield for an instrument probe

    DOEpatents

    Johnsen, Howard A.; Ross, James R.; Birtola, Sal R.

    2004-10-26

    A shield is disclosed that is particularly useful for protecting exposed optical elements at the end of optical probes used in the analysis of hazardous emissions in and around an industrial environment from the contaminating effects of those emissions. The instant invention provides a hood or cowl in the shape of a right circular cylinder that can be fitted over the end of such optical probes. The hood provides a clear aperture through which the probe can perform unobstructed analysis. The probe optical elements are protected from the external environment by passing a dry gas through the interior of the hood and out through the hood aperture in sufficient quantity and velocity to prevent any significant mixing between the internal and external environments. Additionally, the hood is provided with a cooling jacket to lessen the potential for damaging the probe due to temperature excursions.

  12. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  13. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  14. Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and GenoType MTBDRplus DNA Probes for Detection of Mutations Associated with Rifampicin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Arfatur; Sahrin, Mahfuza; Afrin, Sadia; Earley, Keith; Ahmed, Shahriar; Rahman, S. M. Mazidur; Banu, Sayera

    2016-01-01

    Background GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and Genotype MTBDRplus (DRplus) are two World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed probe based molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST) methods for rapid diagnosis of drug resistant tuberculosis. Both methods target the same 81 bp Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of bacterial RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) for detection of Rifampicin (RIF) resistance associated mutations using DNA probes. So there is a correspondence of the probes of each other and expected similarity of probe binding. Methods We analyzed 92 sputum specimens by Xpert, DRplus and LJ proportion method (LJ-DST). We compared molecular DSTs with gold standard LJ-DST. We wanted to see the agreement level of two molecular methods for detection of RIF resistance associated mutations. The 81bp RRDR region of rpoB gene of discrepant cases between the two molecular methods was sequenced by Sanger sequencing. Results The agreement of Xpert and DRplus with LJ-DST for detection of RIF susceptibility was found to be 93.5% and 92.4%, respectively. We also found 92.4% overall agreement of two molecular methods for the detection of RIF susceptibility. A total of 84 out of 92 samples (91.3%) had agreement on the molecular locus of RRDR mutation by DRplus and Xpert. Sanger sequencing of 81bp RRDR revealed that Xpert probes detected seven of eight discrepant cases correctly and DRplus was erroneous in all the eight cases. Conclusion Although the overall concordance with LJ-DST was similar for both Xpert and DRplus assay, Xpert demonstrated more accuracy in the detection of RIF susceptibility for discrepant isolates compared with DRplus. This observation would be helpful for the improvement of probe based detection of drug resistance associated mutations especially rpoB mutation in M. tuberculosis. PMID:27054344

  15. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  16. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  17. Pentagon chain in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György; Gulácsi, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    We consider a pentagon chain described by a Hubbard type of model considered under periodic boundary conditions. The system (i) is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the cells, and (ii) is in a site-selective manner under the action of an external electric potential. In these conditions, we show in an exact manner that the physical properties of the system can be qualitatively changed. The changes cause first strong modifications of the band structure of the system created by the one-particle part of the Hamiltonian, and second, produce marked changes of the phase diagram. We exemplify this by deducing ferromagnetic ground states in the presence of external fields in two different domains of the parameter space.

  18. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  19. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    PubMed

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown. PMID:23452501

  20. Anisotropy and optical gain improvement in type-II In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 nano-scale heterostructure under external uniaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Riyaj, Md.; Anjum, S. G.; Yadav, Nisha; Rathi, Amit; Siddiqui, M. J.; Alvi, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in optical transitions and distortions in wave symmetry in nano-scale QW (quantum well) heterostructures are seen due to external uniaxial strain under different polarizations. This paper reports the anisotropy phenomena and optical gain improvement realized in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 type-II QW-heterostructure (well width = 20 Å) under uniaxial strain in the SWIR (short wave infra red) region. The detailed study of the band structure, wave functions associated with the charge carriers in the respective bands and optical gain under electromagnetic field perturbation is reported. The 6 × 6 diagonal k → ·p → Hamiltonian matrix is evaluated and Luttinger-Kohn model is used for the band structure calculation. Optical gain spectrum in the QW-heterostructure under uniaxial strain along [110] for different polarizations of light is calculated. For a charge carrier injection of 5 × 1012/cm2 the optical gain is ∼1600/cm under input z-polarization, ∼14500/cm under x-polarization and ∼15700/cm under y-polarization without external uniaxial strain applied. A significant improvement in optical gain is observed under uniaxial strain along [110] direction under different input polarizations. Keeping in views its utilization in optoelectronics due its very high optical gain in near-infra-red region in x- or y-polarization mode, such structure can be considered as a novel structure.

  1. EXTERNAL VALIDATION OF THE DIAREM SCORE AS REMISSION PREDICTOR OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    SAMPAIO-NETO, José; NASSIF, Luís Sérgio; BRANCO-FILHO, Alcides José; BOLFARINI, Luciana Alves; LORO, Luiara Stefanelo; de SOUZA, Mayara Prudêncio; BIANCO, Thais

    2015-01-01

    Background : DiaRem score consists in preoperative model for predicting remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese patients who underwent gastric bypass. Aim : To evaluate the applicability of DiaRem comparing the scores obtained preoperatively with remission of T2DM after surgery. Method : Preoperative parameters such as age, use of insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and glycated hemoglobin, were retrospectively evaluated in diabetic patients undergoing gastric bypass during the period between July 2012 to July 2013. Through these data the DiaRem score were applied. The results of fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were requested prospectively. Results : Were selected 70 patients; the remission of T2DM after surgery was found in 42 (60%) and no remission in 28 (40%). Checking the final score, it was observed that: from 0 to 2 points, 94.1% of patients remitted completely; between 3 and 7 had remission in 68.9%, of which 42.8% complete; from 8 to 12, 57.1% achieved complete remission; between 13 to 17, 87.5% did not achieve remission and was not seen this complete remission group; between 18 to 22, 88.9% were not remitted. Conclusion : The DiaRem score showed appropriate tool to assess remission of T2DM in obese patients who will undergo gastric bypass. PMID:26537267

  2. High-resolution laser direct writing with a plasmonic contact probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Howon; Kim, Yongwoo; Kim, Seok; Jang, Jinhee; Hahn, Jae W.

    2012-03-01

    We developed a contact-probe-based laser direct writing technique with nanometer scale resolution. The probe uses a solid-immersion-lens (SIL) or a bowtie nano-aperture to enhance the resolution in laser direct writing method and scans sample surface in contact mode for high scan speed. The bowtie shaped nano-aperture is fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling on the metal film coated on cantilever type probe tip and dielectric material (Diamond-like carbon) is covered the probe for surface protection. Using a plasmonic contact probe, we obtained an optical spot beyond the diffraction limit and the size of spot was less than 30 nm at 405 nm wavelength. The proposed probe is integrated with a conventional laser direct writing system and by getting rid of external gap control unit for near-field writing, we achieved high scan speed (~10 mm/s). The raster scan mode for the arbitrary patterning was developed for practical applications. Furthermore, we designed developing a parallel maskless writing system for high throughput with an array of contact probes.

  3. Combined transesophageal echocardiography and transesophageal cardioversion probe: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Kronzon, Itzhak; Tunick, Paul A; Scholten, Marcoen F; Kerber, Richard E; Roelandt, J R T C

    2005-03-01

    A probe assembly for simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography and transesophageal cardioversion has been developed. This probe allows cardioversion with the delivery of much lower energy than the standard external approach. Details of the probe construction and its use are described, as is the prospect for future practice. The use of a combined probe may be the technique of choice for patients who require both cardioversion and transesophageal echocardiography. PMID:15746708

  4. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; Dial, R.E.; Finnell, W.F.R.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a gamma thermometer probe for detecting heat produced within the thermometer probe. It comprises: an outer elongate thermometer sheath; an elongate rod; annular recesses; a longitudinal bore; and an integrated thermocouple pack. The thermocouple pack comprises: a first type wire, and second type wires. The second type wires comprises: an outer section; and an inner segment.

  5. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi (May); Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range. PMID:26130848

  6. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi May; Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range.

  7. A nucleic acid probe labeled with desmethyl thiazole orange: a new type of hybridization-sensitive fluorescent oligonucleotide for live-cell RNA imaging.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sugizaki, Kaori; Yuki, Mizue; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Shuji; Sueoka, Takuma; Hayashi, Gosuke; Wang, Dan Ohtan

    2013-01-14

    A new fluorescent nucleotide with desmethyl thiazole orange dyes, D'(505), has been developed for expansion of the function of fluorescent probes for live-cell RNA imaging. The nucleoside unit of D'(505) for DNA autosynthesis was soluble in organic solvents, which made the preparation of nucleoside units and the reactions in the cycles of DNA synthesis more efficient. The dyes of D'(505)-containing oligodeoxynucleotide were protonated below pH 7 and the oligodeoxynucleotide exhibited hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission through the control of excitonic interactions of the dyes of D'(505). The simplified procedure and effective hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission produced multicolored hybridization-sensitive fluorescent probes, which were useful for live-cell RNA imaging. The acceptor-bleaching method gave us information on RNA in a specific cell among many living cells.

  8. Molecular imaging of human tumor cells that naturally overexpress type 2 cannabinoid receptors using a quinolone-based near-infrared fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyuan; Shao, Pin; Zhang, Shaojuan; Ling, Xiaoxi; Bai, Mingfeng

    2014-07-01

    Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2R) hold promise as therapeutic targets for treating diverse diseases, such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders, addiction, and immune disorders. However, the fundamental role of CBR in the regulation of diseases remains unclear, largely due to a lack of reliable imaging tools for the receptors. The goal of this study was to develop a CBR-targeted molecular imaging probe and evaluate the specificity of the probe using human tumor cells that naturally overexpress CBR. To synthesize the CBR-targeted probe (NIR760-Q), a conjugable CBR ligand based on the quinolone structure was first prepared, followed by bioconjugation with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, NIR760. In vitro fluorescence imaging and competitive binding studies showed higher uptake of NIR760-Q than free NIR760 dye in Jurkat human acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In addition, the high uptake of NIR760-Q was significantly inhibited by the blocking agent, 4-quinolone-3-carboxamide, indicating specific binding of NIR760-Q to the target receptors. These results indicate that the NIR760-Q has potential in diagnostic imaging of CBR positive cancers and elucidating the role of CBR in the regulation of disease progression.

  9. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  10. Development and application of multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Kubo, Osamu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Higuchi, Seiji; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Okuda, Taichi; Kuwahara, Yuji; Takami, Kazuhiro; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-04-01

    In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Development and Application of Multiple-Probe Scanning Probe Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Kubo, O.; Shingaya, Y.; Higuchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Jiang, C. S.; Okuda, T.; Kuwahara, Y.; Takami, K.; Aono, M.

    2012-04-03

    the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  12. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phil; Rackow, Kirk A.; Hohman, Ed

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  13. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian M; Taubman, Matthew S; Lea, A Scott; Phillips, Mark C; Josberger, Erik E; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-12-16

    Utilizing a broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), we measure infrared spectra of particles of explosives by probing characteristic nitro-group resonances in the 7.1-7.9 µm wavelength range. Measurements are presented with spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(-1), spatial resolution of 25 nm, sensitivity better than 100 attomoles, and at a rapid acquisition time of 90 s per spectrum. We demonstrate high reproducibility of the acquired s-SNOM spectra with very high signal-to-noise ratios and relative noise of <0.02 in self-homodyne detection.

  14. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Ian M.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Lea, Alan S.; Phillips, Mark C.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-12-16

    Utilizing a broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), we measure infrared spectra of explosives particles by probing characteristic nitro-group resonances in the 7.1-7.9 µm wavelength range. Measurements are presented with spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1, spatial resolution of 25 nm, <100 attomolar sensitivity, and at a rapid acquisition time of 90 s per spectrum. We demonstrate high reproducibility of the acquired s-SNOM spectra with very high signal-to-noise ratios and relative noise of <0.02 in self-homodyne detection.

  15. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-15

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  16. Water-Cooled Total-Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Reece, Garland D.

    1992-01-01

    Water-cooled supersonic total-pressure, static-pressure, and total-temperature probes developed to study high-temperature jet plumes. Total-temperature probe tested up to 2,000 degrees F incorporates annular cooling system up to thermocouple lead. Lead extends into test chamber to sense temperature of supersonic external flow. Design novel and significant. Applicable in development of jet engines and in research on fast flows of hot gases.

  17. Atmospheric Probe Model: Construction and Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Jerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The material contained in this document represents a summary of the results of a low speed wind tunnel test program to determine the performance of an atmospheric probe at low speed. The probe configuration tested consists of a 2/3 scale model constructed from a combination of hard maple wood and aluminum stock. The model design includes approximately 130 surface static pressure taps. Additional hardware incorporated in the baseline model provides a mechanism for simulating external and internal trailing edge split flaps for probe flow control. Test matrix parameters include probe side slip angle, external/internal split flap deflection angle, and trip strip applications. Test output database includes surface pressure distributions on both inner and outer annular wings and probe center line velocity distributions from forward probe to aft probe locations.

  18. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  19. External Cargo Integration Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gueera, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the system integration efforts for external cargo for the International Space Station (ISS). The role and responsibility of the External Carriers Ofice is reviewed. The presentation also reviews the application of the office to the Commercial Cargo Services contract.

  20. A simple method for decreasing the liquid junction potential in a flow-through-type differential pH sensor probe consisting of pH-FETs by exerting spatiotemporal control of the liquid junction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akira; Mohri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiro; Naruse, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The liquid junction potential (LJP), the phenomenon that occurs when two electrolyte solutions of different composition come into contact, prevents accurate measurements in potentiometry. The effect of the LJP is usually remarkable in measurements of diluted solutions with low buffering capacities or low ion concentrations. Our group has constructed a simple method to eliminate the LJP by exerting spatiotemporal control of a liquid junction (LJ) formed between two solutions, a sample solution and a baseline solution (BLS), in a flow-through-type differential pH sensor probe. The method was contrived based on microfluidics. The sensor probe is a differential measurement system composed of two ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) and one Ag/AgCl electrode. With our new method, the border region of the sample solution and BLS is vibrated in order to mix solutions and suppress the overshoot after the sample solution is suctioned into the sensor probe. Compared to the conventional method without vibration, our method shortened the settling time from over two min to 15 s and reduced the measurement error by 86% to within 0.060 pH. This new method will be useful for improving the response characteristics and decreasing the measurement error of many apparatuses that use LJs.

  1. Further capacitive imaging experiments using modified probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Yan, An; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, capacitive imaging (CI) is growing in popularity within the NDE communities, as it has the potential to test materials and structures for defects that are not easily tested by other techniques. In previous work, The CI technique has been successfully used on a various types of materials, including concrete, glass/carbon fibre composite, steel, etc. In such CI experiments, the probes are normally with symmetric or concentric electrodes etched onto PCBs. In addition to these conventional coplanar PCB probes, modified geometries can be made and they can lead to different applications. A brief overview of these modified probes, including high resolution surface imaging probe, combined CI/eddy current probe, and CI probe using an oscilloscope probe as the sensing electrode, is presented in this work. The potential applications brought by these probes are also discussed.

  2. Icing Sensor Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward; Kok, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    Aircraft icing is a serious safety problem for the general aviation and some commuter transport airplanes. There has been tremendous growth in the commuter aviation industry in the last few years, Since these type of aircraft generally operate at lower altitudes they consequently spend a far greater proportion of their time operating in icing conditions. For the past thirty years airborne and ground based facilities have relied primarily on two types of cloud physics instrumentation to measure the characteristics of icing clouds: hot wire liquid water content probes and laser based particle sizing probes for the measurement of water droplet size. The instrumentation is severely limited by the technology that was developed during the 1970's and is quite large in size. The goal of this research is to develop one instrument with a wide bandwidth, better response time, higher resolution, user selectability, and small and lightweight. NASA Glenn Research Center, Droplet Measurement Technology, and Meteorology Society of Canada have developed a collaborative effort to develop such an instrument. This paper describes the development and test results of the prototype Icing Sensor Probe.

  3. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  4. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  5. Interactions between a surface-active cationic 3H-indole molecular probe and β-cyclodextrin. Design of a novel type of rotaxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinghai; Belletête, Michel; Durocher, Gilles

    1999-02-01

    We report herein the interactions of a cationic surface-active molecular probe having long aliphatic chains, i.e., iodo-methyldioctadecyl 2-( p-hexylaminophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-carboethoxy-3H-indole ammonium, with β-CD investigated by spectral and photophysical characterizations. It is found through lifetime measurements that only two species exist within the whole range of β-CD concentrations. Both the steady-state and the time-resolved fluorescence results further show that the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1:3. It is also suggested that an interaction of the aliphatic chains of the cationic 3H-indole with β-CD takes place. Finally it is shown that a new rotaxane forms spontaneously in solution.

  6. Vacancy-type defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, A.; Watanabe, T.; Ishibashi, S.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, S. T.; Chen, G.; Shen, B.; Sang, L. W.; Sumiya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Native defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation were measured, and these were compared with results obtained using first-principles calculation. The defect concentration increased with increasing In composition x and reached the maximum at x = 0.44{approx}0.56. A clear correlation between the line-width of photoluminescence and the defect concentration was obtained. The major defect species detected by positron annihilation was identified as cation vacancies coupled with multiple nitrogen vacancies (V{sub N}s), and their introduction mechanism is discussed in terms of the strain energy due to bond-length/angle distortions and the suppression of the V{sub N} formation energy by neighboring In atoms.

  7. Microscopic studies of the fate of charges in organic semiconductors: Scanning Kelvin probe measurements of charge trapping, transport, and electric fields in p- and n-type devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smieska, Louisa Marion

    Organic semiconductors could have wide-ranging applications in lightweight, efficient electronic circuits. However, several fundamental questions regarding organic electronic device behavior have not yet been fully addressed, including the nature of chemical charge traps, and robust models for injection and transport. Many studies focus on engineering devices through bulk transport measurements, but it is not always possible to infer the microscopic behavior leading to the observed measurements. In this thesis, we present scanning-probe microscope studies of organic semiconductor devices in an effort to connect local properties with local device behavior. First, we study the chemistry of charge trapping in pentacene transistors. Working devices are doped with known pentacene impurities and the extent of charge trap formation is mapped across the transistor channel. Trap-clearing spectroscopy is employed to measure an excitation of the pentacene charge trap species, enabling identification of the degradationrelated chemical trap in pentacene. Second, we examine transport and trapping in peryelene diimide (PDI) transistors. Local mobilities are extracted from surface potential profiles across a transistor channel, and charge injection kinetics are found to be highly sensitive to electrode cleanliness. Trap-clearing spectra generally resemble PDI absorption spectra, but one derivative yields evidence indicating variation in trap-clearing mechanisms for different surface chemistries. Trap formation rates are measured and found to be independent of surface chemistry, contradicting a proposed silanol trapping mechanism. Finally, we develop a variation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy that enables measurement of electric fields through a position modulation. This method avoids taking a numeric derivative of potential, which can introduce high-frequency noise into the electric field signal. Preliminary data is presented, and the theoretical basis for electric field

  8. Behavior of Compact Toroid in the External Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ioroi, A.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated the possibility of refueling and density control of tokamak plasmas by the spheromak-type Compact Toroid (CT) injection in the JFT-2M tokamak in collaboration with JAERI. We demonstrated the CT injection into OH plasmas and observed the core penetration at B_T=0.8 T. The tokamak electron density increased ~0.2× 10^19m-3 at a rate of 2× 10^21m-3/s. We also observed the decrease of the CT velocity by the external magnetic field of the tokamak, which is applied across the CT acceleration region. We have examined the behavior of the CT translated in the external fields B_ext using the magnetic probes and the fast framing camera at Himeji Inst. of tech.. CT plasma in the acceleration region is deformed by the Lorentz force of Jg × B_ext, where Jg is the gun current for CT acceleration. The magnetic field structures of a long CT in the drift region has been revealed to be the mixed relaxed state of m=0 and m=1. Results from CT acceleration and injection in a transverse field will be presented.

  9. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  10. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  11. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  12. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  13. One-step, multiplex, real-time PCR assay with molecular beacon probes for simultaneous detection, differentiation, and quantification of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1, 2, and 3.

    PubMed

    Besson, Guillaume; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2009-04-01

    A single-tube, multiplex, real-time PCR assay with molecular beacons was established in which various probes were used for the simultaneous detection, differentiation, and quantification of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1, 2, and 3 (HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and HTLV-3, respectively) and of simian T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 3 (STLV-1 and STLV-3, respectively). The quantitative amplification of the standards with MT4 (HTLV-1) and C19 (HTLV-2) cell lines and a molecular clone of HTLV-3 was linear, with the simplex and multiplex methods having similar efficiencies. A maximum difference of 0.9 (mean, 0.4; range, 0.0 to 0.9) was found between threshold cycle values in single and multiplex reactions. The efficiency with each probe in the multiplex reaction was close to 100%, indicating strong linear amplification. The albumin gene was used to standardize the copy number. Comparable results for the detection and quantification of HTLV-1 were obtained with our new methods and with other real-time PCR methods described previously. With our new multiplex assay, however, we were able to detect and quantify HTLV-2 and -3 and STLV-1 and -3 in clinical specimens, with an excellent dynamic range of 10(6) to 10(0) copies per assay, which the other assays could not do. Thus, it will be possible to determine a wide range of HTLV types in both standard and clinical samples, with a detection of 1 to 10 HTLV copies in samples containing at least 100 cells. Furthermore, our system can provide evidence for multiple infections with the three HTLV types, with separate proviral load results. Our new method also could be used for epidemiological studies in Africa and in countries where HTLVs and STLVs are endemic.

  14. Molecular typing of Salmonella typhi strains from Dhaka (Bangladesh) and development of DNA probes identifying plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, P W; Saha, S K; van Leeuwen, W J; Verbrugh, H A; van Belkum, A; Goessens, W H

    1996-01-01

    Seventy-eight Salmonella typhi strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 from patients living in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were subjected to phage typing, ribotyping, IS200 fingerprinting, and PCR fingerprinting. The collection displayed a high degree of genetic homogeneity, because restricted numbers of phage types and DNA fingerprints were observed. A significant number of the S. typhi strains (67%) were demonstrated to be multiple drug resistant (MDR). The vast majority of the MDR strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type CATmSSuT), a resistance phenotype that has also frequently been observed in India. Only two strains displayed a distinct MDR phenotype, R type AT-mSSuT. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of large plasmids exclusively in the MDR strains of both R types. The plasmids present in the S. typhi strains of R type CATmSSuT could be conjugated to Escherichia coli and resulted in the complete transfer of the MDR phenotype. PCR fingerprinting allowed discrimination of MDR and susceptible strains. The DNA fragments enabling discrimination of MDR and susceptible S. typhi strains by PCR were useful genetic markers for identifying MDR encoded by large plasmids of the H1 incompatibility group. PMID:8735083

  15. Role of a GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay in early detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at a Brazilian reference center.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, C S; Nascimento, M M P; Anselmo, L M P; Pocente, R H C; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Bollela, V R

    2015-08-01

    Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a reality worldwide, and its diagnosis continues to be difficult and time consuming. To face this challenge, the World Health Organization has recommended the use of rapid molecular tests. We evaluated the routine use (once a week) of a line probe assay (Genotype MTBDRplus) for early diagnosis of resistance and for assessment of the main related risk factors over 2 years. A total of 170 samples were tested: 15 (8.8%) were resistant, and multidrug resistance was detected in 10 (5.9%). The sensitivity profile took 3 weeks (2 weeks for culture and 1 week for rapid testing). Previous treatment for tuberculosis and the persistence of positive acid-fast smears after 4 months of supervised treatment were the major risk factors observed. The use of molecular tests enabled early diagnosis of drug-resistant bacilli and led to appropriate treatment of the disease. This information has the potential to interrupt the transmission chain of resistant M. tuberculosis. PMID:26132094

  16. Autonomous Orbit Determination between a Lunar Satellite and a Distant Retrograde Orbit Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiyun; Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng

    Currently, orbit determination of lunar satellites heavily rely on ground stations on the Earth. The observation data suffers from problems such as low accuracy and bad visibility. An efficient way to release the burden of the ground stations and to enhance the observation accuracy is to use the inter-satellite range data between two lunar satellites. However, a well-known problem of only using this type of data is the overall rotation of the orbital plane (undetermined orbit inclination, ascending nod and perigee). Some external reference sources should be introduced into the system to avoid the overall rotation. Recently, an interesting idea is to use a probe around the Earth-Moon CLP (collinear libration point) as the reference source. The orbit of the CLP probe is unknown a priori. It is determined simultaneously with the lunar satellite’s orbit by using the inter-satellite range data between them. There are many advantages of this idea, but also some problems. One main problem is caused by the strong instability of the motions around the CLPs. Probes usually need a frequent orbit control, but the accuracy of the orbit determination of the CLP probes from a short arc between two maneuvers is usually unsatisfied. In this contribution, another kind of special probe other than the CLP probe is considered. It lies on a DRO (distant retrograde orbit) around the Moon. The DROs usually have much better stability property than the CLP orbits, so DRO probes don’t need a frequent orbit control. At the same time, our studies show that the OD accuracy is comparable to that of the CLP probe. The work is firstly done in the CRTBP (circular restricted three-body problem) model, by studying the OD results of different amplitude (both in plane and out of plane) for the DROs. Then, the study is generated to the real force model of the Earth-Moon system.

  17. Annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Piedra, Daniel; Palacios, Tomás; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne

    2014-08-04

    Vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for Ti-deposited GaN showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were introduced below the Ti/GaN interface after annealing at 800 °C. Charge transition of those defects due to electron capture was observed and was found to correlate with a yellow band in the photoluminescence spectrum. The major defect species was identified as vacancy clusters such as three to five Ga-vacancies coupled with multiple nitrogen-vacancies. The annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects in Ti-, Ni-, and Pt-deposited GaN were also examined.

  18. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  19. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  20. Étude expérimentale du comportement cyclique d'un acier du type 316 L sous chargement multiaxial complexe en traction-torsion-pressions interne et externe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, L.; Delobelle, P.

    1997-09-01

    are very rich in informations and lead to classify the different types of loading, with two or three cyclic components, with respect to the observed supplementary hardening. This classification was established as follows: i) The in-phase tests with two or three components (δ = \\varphi = 0^circ); no supplementary hardening is observed. ii) The tension-pressure tests such as r_1 = 1, \\varphi = 90^circ and r_1 = - 1, \\varphi = 60^circ, the hardening is slightly inferior to that of tension-torsion tests. iii) The tension-torsion tests such as r_2 = 1 and δ = 90^circ, where a substantial additionnal hardening takes place. iv) The tension-torsion-pressure tests where the three components are strongly shifted, namely: r_1 = r_2 = 1, δ = 90^circ and \\varphi = 60^circ, and r_2 = 1, r_1 = -1, δ = 41.4^circ and \\varphi = 82.8^circ. The hardening is slightly superior to the one recorded in tension-torsion. A more thorough study is in preparation which considers all the possible combinations in tension-torsion-pressures, and will be performed on the same material. The early results tend to validate the observations presented in this article. Cette étude réside dans la détermination expérimentale du comportement à la température ambiante de l'acier inoxydable 316 L sous chargement cyclique non proportionnel en traction-torsion-pressions interne et externe. Les deux ou trois déformations sinusoïdales appliquées sont soit en phase, soit hors-phase et l'on étudie l'amplitude du durcissement supplémentaire en fonction du degré de multiaxialité. On présente quelques boucles stabilisées typiques. Par rapport au durcissement supplémentaire maximal, les différents essais peuvent être classés comme suit: essais en phase (pas de durcissement supplémentaire), essais de traction-pressions hors-phase, essais de traction-torsion hors phase et essais de traction-torsion-pressions avec déphasages conséquents.

  1. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  2. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  3. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  4. Morphology and orientational behavior of silica-coated spindle-type hematite particles in a magnetic field probed by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Reufer, Mathias; Dietsch, Hervé; Gasser, Urs; Hirt, Ann; Menzel, Andreas; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2010-04-15

    Form factor and magnetic properties of silica-coated spindle-type hematite nanoparticles are determined from SAXS measurements with applied magnetic field and magnetometry measurements. The particle size, polydispersity and porosity are determined using a core-shell model for the form factor. The particles are found to align with their long axis perpendicular to the applied field. The orientational order is determined from the SAXS data and compared to the orientational order obtained from magnetometry. The direct access to both, the orientational order of the particles, and the magnetic moments allow one to determine the magnetic properties of the individual spindle-type hematite particles. We study the influence of the silica coating on the magnetic properties and find a fundamentally different behavior of silica-coated particles. The silica coating reduces the effective magnetic moment of the particles. This effect is enhanced with field strength and can be explained by superparamagnetic relaxation in the highly porous particles.

  5. Interactions of Sn2+ dopant ions located on surface sites of anatase-type TiO2 with adsorbed H2S molecules studied using 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabritchnyi, P. B.; Afanasov, M. I.; Astashkin, R. A.; Wattiaux, A.; Labrugère, C.

    2014-11-01

    Information provided by 119Sn2+ Mössbauer probe ions, located on surface sites of anatase-type TiO2 microcrystals exposed, at room temperature, to a H2S/H2 mixture, has permitted to conclude that the interaction of H2S molecules with the substrate surface leads to the dissociation of a fraction of the absorbate molecules. This gives rise to the formation of elemental sulfur which oxidizes the neighboring Sn2+ ions, the produced Sn4+ ions being found coordinated only by S2- anions. Subsequent exposure to ambient air is shown to result in the oxidation of S2- ions, yielding both S0 and SO42--like species, with concomitant stabilization of Sn4+ ions in coordination polyhedra where they are surrounded by only oxygen anions.

  6. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow

    SciTech Connect

    Weyant, Anja; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Allen, Lori; Joyce, Richard; Matheson, Thomas; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2014-04-01

    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09 with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. With only one to three points per light curve and a prior on the time of maximum from the spectrum used to type the object, we measure an H-band dispersion of spectroscopically normal SNe Ia of 0.164 mag. These observations continue to demonstrate the improved standard brightness of SNe Ia in an H band, even with limited data. Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z ∼ 0.09, which represent the most distant rest-frame NIR H-band observations published to date. This modest sample of 13 NIR SNe Ia represent the pilot sample for {sup S}weetSpot{sup —}a 3 yr NOAO Survey program that will observe 144 SNe Ia in the smooth Hubble flow. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of z ∼ 0.05%-1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the rest-frame NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift.

  7. Predicting and managing heat dissipation from a neural probe.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew N; Christian, Matthew P; Firebaugh, Samara L; Cooper, Garret W; Jamieson, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Light stimulating neural probes are rapidly increasing our understanding of neural pathways. Relocating the externally coupled light source to the probe tip has the potential to dramatically improve the flexibility of the technique. However, this approach would generate heat within the embedded probe where even minor temperature excursions could easily damage tissues under study. A COMSOL model was used to study the thermal effects of these heated probes in the brain including blood perfusion and metabolic heating, and to investigate the effect of passive methods for improving heat dissipation. The probe temperature initially decreases with insertion depth, and then becomes steady. Extending the probe beyond the heated region has a similar effect, while increasing the size of the heated region steadily decreases the probe temperature. Increasing the thermal conductivity of the probe promotes spreading, decreasing the probe temperature. The effects of insertion depth and probe power dissipation were experimentally tested with a microfabricated, heated mock neural probe. The heated probe was tested in 0.65 % agarose gel at room temperature and in ex vivo cow brain at body temperature. The thermal resistance between the probe and the neural tissue or agarose gel was determined at a range of insertion depths and compared to the COMSOL model.

  8. Predicting and managing heat dissipation from a neural probe.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew N; Christian, Matthew P; Firebaugh, Samara L; Cooper, Garret W; Jamieson, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Light stimulating neural probes are rapidly increasing our understanding of neural pathways. Relocating the externally coupled light source to the probe tip has the potential to dramatically improve the flexibility of the technique. However, this approach would generate heat within the embedded probe where even minor temperature excursions could easily damage tissues under study. A COMSOL model was used to study the thermal effects of these heated probes in the brain including blood perfusion and metabolic heating, and to investigate the effect of passive methods for improving heat dissipation. The probe temperature initially decreases with insertion depth, and then becomes steady. Extending the probe beyond the heated region has a similar effect, while increasing the size of the heated region steadily decreases the probe temperature. Increasing the thermal conductivity of the probe promotes spreading, decreasing the probe temperature. The effects of insertion depth and probe power dissipation were experimentally tested with a microfabricated, heated mock neural probe. The heated probe was tested in 0.65 % agarose gel at room temperature and in ex vivo cow brain at body temperature. The thermal resistance between the probe and the neural tissue or agarose gel was determined at a range of insertion depths and compared to the COMSOL model. PMID:26223563

  9. Pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy: Principle of operation and resolution limits

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, J.; Graupner, T.; Milde, P. Raupach, R.; Zerweck-Trogisch, U.; Eng, L. M.

    2015-10-21

    Knowledge on surface potential dynamics is crucial for understanding the performance of modern-type nanoscale devices. We describe an electrical pump-probe approach in Kelvin-probe force microscopy that enables a quantitative measurement of dynamic surface potentials at nanosecond-time and nanometer-length scales. Also, we investigate the performance of pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy with respect to the relevant experimental parameters. We exemplify a measurement on an organic field effect transistor that verifies the undisturbed functionality of our pump-probe approach in terms of simultaneous and quantitative mapping of topographic and electronic information at a high lateral and temporal resolution.

  10. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  11. Remote Adjustable focus Raman Spectroscopy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1998-07-28

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external to the probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes along working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translate the probe body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  12. Functional Scanning Probe Imaging of Nanostructured Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Cox, Phillip A; Ginger, David S

    2016-09-20

    From hybrid perovskites to semiconducting polymer/fullerene blends for organic photovoltaics, many new materials being explored for energy harvesting and storage exhibit performance characteristics that depend sensitively on their nanoscale morphology. At the same time, rapid advances in the capability and accessibility of scanning probe microscopy methods over the past decade have made it possible to study processing/structure/function relationships ranging from photocurrent collection to photocarrier lifetimes with resolutions on the scale of tens of nanometers or better. Importantly, such scanning probe methods offer the potential to combine measurements of local structure with local function, and they can be implemented to study materials in situ or devices in operando to better understand how materials evolve in time in response to an external stimulus or environmental perturbation. This Account highlights recent advances in the development and application of scanning probe microscopy methods that can help address such questions while filling key gaps between the capabilities of conventional electron microscopy and newer super-resolution optical methods. Focusing on semiconductor materials for solar energy applications, we highlight a range of electrical and optoelectronic scanning probe microscopy methods that exploit the local dynamics of an atomic force microscope tip to probe key properties of the solar cell material or device structure. We discuss how it is possible to extract relevant device properties using noncontact scanning probe methods as well as how these properties guide materials development. Specifically, we discuss intensity-modulated scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (IM-SKPM), time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM), frequency-modulated electrostatic force microscopy (FM-EFM), and cantilever ringdown imaging. We explain these developments in the context of classic atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods that exploit the physics of

  13. Functional Scanning Probe Imaging of Nanostructured Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Cox, Phillip A; Ginger, David S

    2016-09-20

    From hybrid perovskites to semiconducting polymer/fullerene blends for organic photovoltaics, many new materials being explored for energy harvesting and storage exhibit performance characteristics that depend sensitively on their nanoscale morphology. At the same time, rapid advances in the capability and accessibility of scanning probe microscopy methods over the past decade have made it possible to study processing/structure/function relationships ranging from photocurrent collection to photocarrier lifetimes with resolutions on the scale of tens of nanometers or better. Importantly, such scanning probe methods offer the potential to combine measurements of local structure with local function, and they can be implemented to study materials in situ or devices in operando to better understand how materials evolve in time in response to an external stimulus or environmental perturbation. This Account highlights recent advances in the development and application of scanning probe microscopy methods that can help address such questions while filling key gaps between the capabilities of conventional electron microscopy and newer super-resolution optical methods. Focusing on semiconductor materials for solar energy applications, we highlight a range of electrical and optoelectronic scanning probe microscopy methods that exploit the local dynamics of an atomic force microscope tip to probe key properties of the solar cell material or device structure. We discuss how it is possible to extract relevant device properties using noncontact scanning probe methods as well as how these properties guide materials development. Specifically, we discuss intensity-modulated scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (IM-SKPM), time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM), frequency-modulated electrostatic force microscopy (FM-EFM), and cantilever ringdown imaging. We explain these developments in the context of classic atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods that exploit the physics of

  14. A novel DAD type and folic acid conjugated fluorescent monomer as a targeting probe for imaging of folate receptor overexpressed cells.

    PubMed

    Ekiz Kanik, Fulya; Ag, Didem; Seleci, Muharrem; Barlas, Firat Baris; Kesik, Melis; Hizalan, Gonul; Akpinar, Hava; Timur, Suna; Toppare, Levent

    2014-01-01

    We describe a modification and post-functionalization technique for a donor-acceptor-donor type monomer; 6-(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-2H-benzo[d][1,2, 3]triazol-2-yl)hexan-1-amine. Folic acid was attached to the fluorescent structure. The conjugation was confirmed via NMR and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Cytotoxicity was investigated and the comparison of association of targeted monomeric structures in tumor cells was monitored via fluorescence microscopy.

  15. Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Hydroxycyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Hydrides as Benchmarks to Probe Ligand and Metal Effects on the Reactivity of Shvo Type Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hairong

    2011-01-01

    The bis(trimethylsilyl)-substituted hydroxycyclopentadienyl ruthenium hydride [2,5-(SiMe3)2-3,4-(CH2OCH2)(η5-C4COH)]Ru(CO)2H (10) is an efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones. Because 10 transfers hydrogen rapidly to aldehydes and ketones and because it does not form an inactive bridging hydride during reaction, hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones can be performed at room temperature under relatively low hydrogen pressure (3 atm); this is a significant improvement compared with previously developed Shvo type catalysts. Kinetic and 2H NMR spectroscopic studies of the stoichiometric reduction of aldehydes and ketones by 10 established a two-step process for the hydrogen transfer: (1) rapid and reversible hydrogen bond formation between OH of 10 and the oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone, (2) followed by slow transfer of both proton and hydride from 10 to the aldehyde or ketone. The stoichiometric and catalytic activities of complex 10 are compared to those of other Shvo type ruthenium hydrides and related iron hydrides. PMID:23087535

  16. Trimethylsilyl-Substituted Hydroxycyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Hydrides as Benchmarks to Probe Ligand and Metal Effects on the Reactivity of Shvo Type Complexes.

    PubMed

    Casey, Charles P; Guan, Hairong

    2012-01-01

    The bis(trimethylsilyl)-substituted hydroxycyclopentadienyl ruthenium hydride [2,5-(SiMe(3))(2)-3,4-(CH(2)OCH(2))(η(5)-C(4)COH)]Ru(CO)(2)H (10) is an efficient catalyst for hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones. Because 10 transfers hydrogen rapidly to aldehydes and ketones and because it does not form an inactive bridging hydride during reaction, hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones can be performed at room temperature under relatively low hydrogen pressure (3 atm); this is a significant improvement compared with previously developed Shvo type catalysts. Kinetic and (2)H NMR spectroscopic studies of the stoichiometric reduction of aldehydes and ketones by 10 established a two-step process for the hydrogen transfer: (1) rapid and reversible hydrogen bond formation between OH of 10 and the oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone, (2) followed by slow transfer of both proton and hydride from 10 to the aldehyde or ketone. The stoichiometric and catalytic activities of complex 10 are compared to those of other Shvo type ruthenium hydrides and related iron hydrides. PMID:23087535

  17. Phosphorus and boron diffusion paths in polycrystalline silicon gate of a trench-type three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor investigated by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bin Takamizawa, Hisashi Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Fumiko; Kunimune, Yorinobu; Inoue, Masao; Nishida, Akio

    2015-07-13

    The dopant (P and B) diffusion path in n- and p-types polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type three-dimensional (3D) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated using atom probe tomography, based on the annealing time dependence of the dopant distribution at 900 °C. Remarkable differences were observed between P and B diffusion behavior. In the initial stage of diffusion, P atoms diffuse into deeper regions from the implanted region along grain boundaries in the n-type polycrystalline-Si gate. With longer annealing times, segregation of P on the grain boundaries was observed; however, few P atoms were observed within the large grains or on the gate/gate oxide interface distant from grain boundaries. These results indicate that P atoms diffuse along grain boundaries much faster than through the bulk or along the gate/gate oxide interface. On the other hand, in the p-type polycrystalline-Si gate, segregation of B was observed only at the initial stage of diffusion. After further annealing, the B atoms became uniformly distributed, and no clear segregation of B was observed. Therefore, B atoms diffuse not only along the grain boundary but also through the bulk. Furthermore, B atoms diffused deeper than P atoms along the grain boundaries under the same annealing conditions. This information on the diffusion behavior of P and B is essential for optimizing annealing conditions in order to control the P and B distributions in the polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type 3D MOSFETs.

  18. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  19. High-resolution imaging of young M-type stars of the solar neighbourhood: probing for companions down to the mass of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Lagrange, A. M.; Chauvin, G.; Bonavita, M.; Lacour, S.; Bonnefoy, M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Beust, H.

    2012-03-01

    Context. High-contrast imaging is a powerful technique when searching for gas giant planets and brown dwarfs orbiting at separations greater than several AU. Around solar-type stars, giant planets are expected to form by core accretion or by gravitational instability, but since core accretion is increasingly difficult as the primary star becomes lighter, gravitational instability would be a probable formation scenario for still-to-find distant giant planets around a low-mass star. A systematic survey for such planets around M dwarfs would therefore provide a direct test of the efficiency of gravitational instability. Aims: We search for gas giant planets orbiting late-type stars and brown dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood. Methods: We obtained deep high-resolution images of 16 targets with the adaptive optic system of VLT-NACO in the L' band, using direct imaging and angular differential imaging. This is currently the largest and deepest survey for Jupiter-mass planets around M-dwarfs. We developed and used an integrated reduction and analysis pipeline to reduce the images and derive our 2D detection limits for each target. The typical contrast achieved is about 9 mag at 0.5″ and 11 mag beyond 1″. For each target we also determine the probability of detecting a planet of a given mass at a given separation in our images. Results: We derived accurate detection probabilities for planetary companions, taking orbital projection effects into account, with in average more than 50% probability to detect a 3 MJup companion at 10 AU and a 1.5 MJup companion at 20 AU, bringing strong constraints on the existence of Jupiter-mass planets around this sample of young M-dwarfs. Based on observations made with the NACO at VLT UT-4 at the Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 084.C-0739, 085.C-0675(A), 087.C-0413(A) and 087.C-0450(B).

  20. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  1. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  2. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-08-15

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  3. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  4. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer ismore » severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.« less

  5. Fusion of GFP to the M.EcoKI DNA methyltransferase produces a new probe of Type I DNA restriction and modification enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Roberts, Gareth A.; Stephanou, Augoustinos S.; Cooper, Laurie P.; White, John H.; Dryden, David T.F.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Successful fusion of GFP to M.EcoKI DNA methyltransferase. {yields} GFP located at C-terminal of sequence specificity subunit does not later enzyme activity. {yields} FRET confirms structural model of M.EcoKI bound to DNA. -- Abstract: We describe the fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein to the C-terminus of the HsdS DNA sequence-specificity subunit of the Type I DNA modification methyltransferase M.EcoKI. The fusion expresses well in vivo and assembles with the two HsdM modification subunits. The fusion protein functions as a sequence-specific DNA methyltransferase protecting DNA against digestion by the EcoKI restriction endonuclease. The purified enzyme shows Foerster resonance energy transfer to fluorescently-labelled DNA duplexes containing the target sequence and to fluorescently-labelled ocr protein, a DNA mimic that binds to the M.EcoKI enzyme. Distances determined from the energy transfer experiments corroborate the structural model of M.EcoKI.

  6. Vacancy-type defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N grown on GaN templates probed using monoenergetic positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira; Watanabe, Tomohito; Kimura, Shogo; Zhang, Yang; Lozac'h, Mickael; Sang, Liwen; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Oshima, Nagayasu; Suzuki, Ryoichi

    2013-11-14

    Native defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were studied using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons for a 200-nm-thick In{sub 0.13}Ga{sub 0.87}N layer showed that vacancy-type defects were introduced by InN alloying, and the major species of such defects was identified as complexes between a cation vacancy and nitrogen vacancies. The presence of the defects correlated with lattice relaxation of the In{sub 0.13}Ga{sub 0.87}N layer and the increase in photon emissions from donor-acceptor-pair recombination. The species of native defects in In{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N layers was the same but its concentration was decreased by decreasing the InN composition. With the layer thickness increased from 120 nm to 360 nm, a defect-rich region was introduced in the subsurface region (<160 nm), which can be associated with layer growth with the relaxation of compressive stress.

  7. Probing single-tumor cell interactions with different-age type I collagen networks by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Marie; Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Wehbe, Katia; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Yang, Ying; Cinque, Gianfelice; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2014-01-01

    We report here on a first study using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and imaging to investigate HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells grown onto different-aged type I collagen networks. Spectral images were analyzed with k-means and fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithms. K-means delineated tumor cells from their surrounding collagen networks and the latter as a function of age mainly due to specific changes in the sugar absorption region. The FCM analysis gave a better nuance of the spectral images. A progression of the biochemical information was observed upon going from the cellular compartments to the pericellular contact regions and to the intact collagens of the different age groups. Two spectral markers based on sugar and protein bands via the intensity ratio (I1032/I1655) and band area ratio (Asugar/Aamide II), showed an increase in advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) with age. A clear-separation of the three age groups was obtained for spectra originating from the peripheral contact areas mainly due to changes in protein band intensities. The above-described markers decreased to constant levels for the three conditions indicating a masking of the biochemical information. These results hold promises to better understand the impact of age on tumor progression processes while highlighting new markers of the tumor cell invasion front. PMID:25193972

  8. Fiber optic current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, G.; Fox, R.

    1984-02-01

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 research into a new type of Fiber Optic Current probe, suitable for high voltage, high current applications. The probe uses a stabilized two frequency HeNe laser to read the magnitude and sign of magnetic field induced circular birefringence in an optical fiber wound around a conductor. Measurements of both alternating and direct currents were demonstrated with a breadboard system. The system was tested at low voltages with currents of up to 4500 amperes peak and with up to 28 turns of optical fiber around the conductor. The response was found to increase linearly with the number of fiber turns. Experimental determinations of the system's frequency response and dynamic range were not possible due to our inability to generate large, fast current transients. The predicted frequency response is 100 kHz with an ability to read transient amplitudes of 300 times the nominal line current. Several single-mode fibers were used to form transducers, and the optimum fiber for further development was identified. The 2-frequency interrogation technique described worked entirely as predicted, and should be applicable to magnetic field measurements in general (i.e., charged particle beams, Tokamaks, antenna patterns, EMP testing, etc.).

  9. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  10. Type and location of fluorescent probes incorporated into the potent mu-opioid peptide [Dmt]DALDA affect potency, receptor selectivity and intrinsic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schiller, P W; Berezowska, I; Weltrowska, G; Chen, H; Lemieux, C; Chung, N N

    2005-06-01

    The dermorphin-derived tetrapeptide H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) (Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA) is a highly potent and selective mu-opioid agonist capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and producing a potent, centrally mediated analgesic effect when given systemically. For the purpose of biodistribution studies by fluorescence techniques, [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues containing various fluorescent labels [dansyl, anthraniloyl (atn), fluorescein, or 6-dimethylamino-2'-naphthoyl] in several different locations of the peptide were synthesized and characterized in vitro in the guinea-pig ileum and mouse vas deferens assays, and in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor-binding assays. The analogues showed various degrees of mu receptor-binding selectivity, but all of them were less mu-selective than the [Dmt(1)]DALDA parent peptide. Most analogues retained potent, full mu-agonist activity, except for one with fluorescein attached at the C-terminus (3a) (partial mu-agonist) and one containing beta-(6'-dimethylamino-2'-naphthoyl)alanine (aladan) in place of Phe(3) (4) (mu- and kappa-antagonist). The obtained data indicate that the receptor-binding affinity, receptor selectivity and intrinsic efficacy of the prepared analogues vary very significantly, depending on the type of fluorescent label used and on its location in the peptide. The results suggest that the biological activity profile of fluorescence-labeled peptide analogues should always be carefully determined prior to their use in biodistribution studies or other studies. One of the analogues containing the atn group (2a) proved highly useful in a study of cellular uptake and intracellular distribution by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  11. External Versus Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Campbell, Ashley; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Yoon, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    DCR is the treatment of choice for NLDO. External DCR has remained the standard approach since the 1890s. With advances in technique and technology, and more otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists performing endoscopic DCR, more studies have been conducted, some with equivalent success rates between the 2 approaches. Endoscopic endonasal DCR offers the advantages of avoiding a skin incision with similar success rates with experienced surgeons. However, the technique necessitates more surgical equipment, and has a steep learning curve. Both approaches have low complication rates and serious complications are very rare. The decision for the type of approach to use depends on the surgeon’s experience, the patient’s preference or concerns, and the resources available within a particular health system.

  12. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  13. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  14. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  15. Membranebioreactor with external membranes.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, C; Carrette, R; De Lathouwer, J; Thoeye, C

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of less expensive and more performant ultrafiltration membranes has generated a new concept in biological treatment known as membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the field of wastewater treatment, the MBR process is used as a modification of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, where the clarifier is replaced by a membrane module for the separation of the solid and the liquid phase. Membrane technology can, amongst others, be applied for the fast retrofit of relatively high loaded activated sludge systems to nutrient removal. In the last year Aquafin has built up extensive experience with submerged membrane systems. The research presented here was aimed at evaluating a particular external tubular membrane unit for MBR. More specifically it was evaluated whether higher stable flux levels could compensate the higher energy consumption, typical for external membrane systems. Both (1) treatment performance and (2) possible operational drawbacks were tested on a 5 m3/h activated sludge pilot-scale. The membrane bioreactor was tested in parallel with a conventional activated sludge system.

  16. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  17. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Kerry L.; Topolewski, John

    1989-05-23

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  18. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  19. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  20. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  1. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  2. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  4. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  5. The unique probe selector: a comprehensive web service for probe design and oligonucleotide arrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lo, Chen-Zen; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Hsiung, Chao A; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2008-01-01

    Background Nucleic acid hybridization, a fundamental technique in molecular biology, can be modified into very effective and sensitive methods for detecting particular targets mixed with millions of non-target sequences. Therefore, avoiding cross-hybridization is the most crucial issue for developing diagnostic methods based on hybridization. Results To develop a probe with a high discriminating power, this study constructed a web service, the Unique Probe Selector (UPS), for customized probe design. The UPS service integrates a probe design mechanism and a scoring system for evaluating the performance of probe annealing and the uniqueness of a probe in a user-defined genetic background. Starting from an intuitive web interface, the UPS accepts a query with single or multiple sequences in fasta format. The best probe(s) for each sequence can be downloaded from result pages in a fasta or .csv format with a summary of probe characteristics. The option "Unique probe within group" selects the most unique probe for each target sequence with low probability to hybridize to the other sequences in the same submitted query. The option "Unique probe in the specific organism" devises probes for each submitted sequence to identify its target among selected genetic backgrounds based on Unigene. Conclusion The UPS evaluates probe-to-target hybridization under a user-defined condition in silico to ensure high-performance hybridization and minimizes the possibility of non-specific reactions. UPS has been applied to design human arrays for gene expression studies and to develop several small arrays of gene families that were inferred as molecular signatures of cancer typing/staging or pathogen signatures. Notably, UPS is freely accessible at . PMID:18315861

  6. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  7. Submonolayer Uniformity of Type II InAs/GaInSb W-shaped Quantum Wells Probed by Full-Wafer Photoluminescence Mapping in the Mid-infrared Spectral Range.

    PubMed

    Dyksik, Mateusz; Motyka, Marcin; Sęk, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dallner, Matthias; Weih, Robert; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2015-12-01

    The spatial uniformity of GaSb- and InAs substrate-based structures containing type II quantum wells was probed by means of large-scale photoluminescence (PL) mapping realized utilizing a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The active region was designed and grown in a form of a W-shaped structure with InAs and GaInSb layers for confinement of electrons and holes, respectively. The PL spectra were recorded over the entire 2-in. wafers, and the parameters extracted from each spectrum, such as PL peak energy position, its linewidth and integrated intensity, were collected in a form of two-dimensional spatial maps. Throughout the analysis of these maps, the wafers' homogeneity and precision of the growth procedure were investigated. A very small variation of PL peak energy over the wafer indicates InAs quantum well width fluctuation of only a fraction of a monolayer and hence extraordinary thickness accuracy, a conclusion further supported by high uniformity of both the emission intensity and PL linewidth.

  8. Generation and characterization of β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharide probes from Brucella abortus cyclic β-glucan and their recognition by C-type lectins of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Palma, Angelina S; Zhang, Yibing; Childs, Robert A; Liu, Yan; Mitchell, Daniel A; Guidolin, Leticia S; Weigel, Wilfried; Mulloy, Barbara; Ciocchini, Andrés E; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    The β1,2-glucans produced by bacteria are important in invasion, survival and immunomodulation in infected hosts be they mammals or plants. However, there has been a lack of information on proteins which recognize these molecules. This is partly due to the extremely limited availability of the sequence-defined oligosaccharides and derived probes for use in the study of their interactions. Here we have used the cyclic β1,2-glucan (CβG) of the bacterial pathogen Brucella abortus, after removal of succinyl side chains, to prepare linearized oligosaccharides which were used to generate microarrays. We describe optimized conditions for partial depolymerization of the cyclic glucan by acid hydrolysis and conversion of the β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharides, with degrees of polymerization 2–13, to neoglycolipids for the purpose of generating microarrays. By microarray analyses, we show that the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGNR, like the closely related DC-SIGN we investigated earlier, binds to the β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharides, as does the soluble immune effector serum mannose-binding protein. Exploratory studies with DC-SIGN are suggestive of the recognition also of the intact CβG by this receptor. These findings open the way to unravelling mechanisms of immunomodulation mediated by β1,2-glucans in mammalian systems. PMID:27053576

  9. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmucker, J.E.; Blasi, R.J.; Archer, W.B.

    1999-12-28

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  10. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  11. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosely, S. E.

    2015-03-15

    We present the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). This document summarizes the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  12. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  13. [Detection of JAK2V617F mutation rate by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR using allele specific primer and TaqMan-MGB probe for dual inhibiting amplification of wild type alleles].

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo-Wei; Shao, Dong-Hua; He, Mei-Ling; Cao, Qing-Yun

    2012-12-01

    This study was purposed to develop a real-time PCR assay for sensitive quantification of JAK2V617F allele burden in peripheral blood and to evaluate the clinical value of this method. Both allele-specific mutant reverse primer and wild-type TaqMan-MGB probe were used for dual-inhibiting amplification of wild-type alleles in a real-time PCR, and then the JAK2V617F mutant alleles were amplified specially. The standard curve for quantification of JAK2V617F was established by percentages of JAK2V617F alleles with threshold cycle (Ct) values in a real-time PCR. Furthermore, 89 apparent healthy donors were tested by this method. The results showed that the quantitative lower limit of this method for JAK2V617F was 0.1%, and the intra- and inter-assay average variability for quantifying percentage of JAK2V617F in total DNA was 4.1% and 6.1%, respectively. Two JAK2V617F-positive individuals were identified (the percentage of JAK2V617F alleles were 0.64% and 0.98%, respectively) using this method in blood from 89 apparently healthy donors. It is concluded that the developed method with highly sensitive and reproducible quantification of JAK2V617F mutant burden can be used clinically for diagnosis and evaluation of disease prognosis and efficacy of therapy in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Moreover, this technique can be also used for quantitative detection of variety of single nucleotide mutation.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay with Solid Culture Method in Early Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj N.; Singh, Binit K.; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sharma, Rohini; Soneja, Manish; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Myneedu, Vithal P.; Hanif, Mahmud; Kumar, Ashok; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu N.; Vollepore, Balasangameshwra; Thakur, Rahul; Raizada, Neeraj; Arora, Suresh K.; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. PMID:24039735

  15. External Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Narrator: When the cancer is not completely contained in the prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used ... There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. ...

  16. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  17. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  18. External beam radiation therapy for orthopaedic pathology.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Frank, Rachel M; Hsu, Andrew R; Diaz, Aidnag; Gitelis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    External beam radiation therapy is essential in the management of a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions, both benign and malignant, including bony and soft-tissue sarcomas, metastatic tumors, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and heterotopic ossification. Radiation therapy, in combination with surgery, helps reduce the functional loss from cancer resections. Although the field of radiation therapy is firmly rooted in physics and radiation biology, its indications and delivery methods are rapidly evolving. External beam radiation therapy mainly comes in the form of four sources of radiotherapy: protons, photons, electrons, and neutrons. Each type of energy has a unique role in treating various pathologies; however, these energy types also have their own distinctive limitations and morbidities. PMID:25712073

  19. Hollow fiber-optic Raman probes for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Yuji; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2007-02-01

    Two types of hollow fiber-optic probes are developed to measure the in vivo Raman spectra of small animals. One is the minimized probe which is end-sealed with the micro-ball lens. The measured spectra reflect the information of the sample's sub-surface. This probe is used for the measurement of the esophagus and the stomach via an endoscope. The other probe is a confocal Raman probe which consists of a single fiber and a lens system. It is integrated into the handheld microscope. A simple and small multimodal probe is realized because the hollow optical fiber requires no optical filters. The performance of each probe is examined and the effectiveness of these probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy is shown by animal tests.

  20. An ultrafast reciprocating probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Tan, Yi; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2016-11-01

    For tokamak plasma diagnostics, an ultrafast reciprocating probe system driven by magnetic field coils, achieving a maximum velocity of 21 m/s, is introduced. The probes are attached with a driving hoop made of carbon steel and accelerated by three acceleration coils in series, then decelerated by two deceleration coils and buffer springs and return slowly. The coils with a current of about 1 kA generate a magnetic field of about 1 T. This probe system has been tested on the SUNIST (Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak) spherical tokamak. Radial profiles of the floating potential and other plasma parameters measured by this probe system are given.

  1. Atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Forbes, R.G.

    2009-06-15

    This introductory tutorial describes the technique of atom probe tomography for materials characterization at the atomic level. The evolution of the technique from the initial atom probe field ion microscope to today's state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is outlined. An introduction is presented on the basic physics behind the technique, the operation of the instrument, and the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data. The common methods for analyzing the three-dimensional atom probe data, including atom maps, isoconcentration surfaces, proximity histograms, maximum separation methods, and concentration frequency distributions, are described.

  2. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  3. Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-09-15

    A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas.

  4. Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-09-01

    A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas.

  5. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  6. The VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs at wide orbits . III. The frequency of brown dwarfs and giant planets as companions to solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, M.; Meyer, M. R.; Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Desidera, S.; Delorme, P.; Hagelberg, J.; Maire, A.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Buenzli, E.; Carson, J.; Covino, E.; Feldt, M.; Girard, J.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mesa, D.; Messina, S.; Montagnier, G.; Mordasini, C.; Mouillet, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Segransan, D.; Thalmann, C.; Zurlo, A.

    2016-02-01

    Context. In recent years there have been many attempts to characterize the occurrence and distribution of stellar, brown dwarf (BD), and planetary-mass companions to solar-type stars with the aim of constraining formation mechanisms. From radial velocity observations a dearth of companions with masses between 10-40 MJupiter has been noticed at close separations, suggesting the possibility of a distinct formation mechanism for objects above and below this range. Aims: We present a model for the substellar companion mass function (CMF). This model consists of the superposition of the planet and BD companion mass distributions, assuming that we can extrapolate the radial velocity measured CMF for planets to larger separations and the stellar companion mass-ratio distribution over all separations into the BD mass regime. By using both the results of the VLT/NaCo large program (NaCo-LP) and the complementary archive datasets, which probe the occurrence of planets and BDs on wide orbits around solar-type stars, we place some constraints on the planet and BD distributions. Methods: We developed a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the outcome of a given survey, depending on the shape of the orbital parameter distributions (mass, semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination). Comparing the predictions with the results of the observations, we calculate the likelihood of different models and which models can be ruled out. Results: Current observations are consistent with the proposed model for the CMF, as long as a sufficiently small outer truncation radius (≲100 AU) is introduced for the planet separation distribution. Some regions of parameter space can be excluded by the observations. Conclusions: We conclude that the results of the direct imaging surveys searching for substellar companions around Sun-like stars are consistent with a combined substellar mass spectrum of planets and BDs. This mass distribution has a minimum between 10 and 50 MJupiter, in agreement

  7. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  8. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  9. Changing Systems of External Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn; Brandt, Ellen; Solum, Nils Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and identify changes in systems of external examinations in Denmark, the UK and Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis of studies, reviews and documents concerning the purpose and functioning of systems of external examination in three selected countries. Findings: The paper…

  10. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  11. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  12. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  13. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  14. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  15. Floating probe for electron temperature and ion density measurement applicable to processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Hyong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2007-02-01

    A floating-type probe and its driving circuit using the nonlinear characteristics of the probe sheath was developed and the electron temperature and the plasma density which is found from the ion part of the probe characteristic (ion density) were measured in inductively coupled plasmas. The floating-type probe was compared with a single Langmuir probe and it turned out that the floating-type probe agrees closely with the single probe at various rf powers and pressures. The ion density and electron temperature by the floating-type probe were measured with a film on the probe tip coated in CF{sub 4} plasma. It is found that the ion density and electron temperature by the floating-type probe were almost the same regardless of the coating on the probe tip while a single Langmuir probe does not work. Because the floating-type probe is hardly affected by the deposition on the probe tip, it is expected to be applied to plasma diagnostics for plasma processing such as deposition or etching.

  16. Probe Project Status and Accomplishments - Year Two

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.

    2002-04-11

    The Probe project has established a facility for storage- and network-related research, development and testing. With sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Probe is investigating local-area or wide-area distributed storage issues ranging from data mining to optimizing retrieval operations from tape devices. Probe has completed its second full year of operation. In this document we will describe the status of the project as of December 31, 2001. This year we will structure this document by category of work, rather than by project status. We will present sections describing Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computation (SciDAC) projects, network research and research on data mining and distributed cluster analysis. Another section will describe data-transfer application development and testing and other types of hardware- and software-related testing and development activities. We will then describe the work undertaken for presentation at the SC2001 conference. The final section will summarize this year's publications. Individual projects described in this document have used some Probe resource--equipment, software, staff or funding. By describing these projects we do not imply that the work should be entirely credited to Probe, although we do assert that Probe's existence and assistance provided benefit to the work. The Probe project is funded by the Mathematical, Information, and Computer Sciences (MICS) department of the Advanced Scientific Computing Research office, Office of Science, Department of Energy.

  17. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  18. External combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describe a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, and a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body. It also includes a displacer element reciprocable in the chamber for displacing the working fluid between a hot space and a cold space of the working fluid chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a work piston. The improvement comprises outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining at atmosphere of the working fluid about the machine body at a pressure substantially lower than in the working fluid chamber.

  19. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  20. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content

  1. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  2. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  3. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  4. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  5. Transient enthalpy probe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Brian K.

    A reliable diagnostic probe has been developed to measure the local enthalpy in high-pressure, arc heated test streams that simulate atmospheric reentry conditions. The probe employs the double sonic-throat technique and is designed for the sweep (transient) mode to survive the severe heating environment. Tests in the high-pressure arc heater facilities show that, under certain conditions, the enthalpy probe measurements are in good agreement with enthalpy profiles inferred from heat flux measurements using the theory of Fay and Riddell (1958).

  6. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, George R.; Peter, Frank J.; Butler, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

  7. Chemical sensing flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-02-16

    A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

  8. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and

  9. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  10. [Diagnostic evaluation of tubeless methods in the study of external secretions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Zueva, E D

    1997-09-01

    Difficulties of examining the external secretion of the pancreas by direct secretin-pancreozymin test prompted us to try 4 probe-free methods for functional assessment of the pancreas in 33 patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis, 50 patients with reactive pancreatitis concomitant with duodenal ulcer, chronic duodenal obstruction, etc., and in 22 patients with primary chronic pancreatitis during a relapse. The Benda-Zheltvai method with assessment of the debit of uric excretion of alpha-amylase during three 30-min intervals before and after standard food loading and calculation of the pancreozymin induction coefficient, assessment of the ratio of alpha-amylase and creatinine clearance from their content in the urine, the proserine provocation urotest, and Lasus test for hyperaminoaciduria resultant from exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas were used. The Benda-Zheltvai method proved to be a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas; moreover, it can be used for assessing the treatment efficacy. The proserine test helps assess the type and severity of disorders of pancreatic external secretion. The ratio of alpha-amylase to creatinine clearance demonstrates just the most expressed disorders of pancreatic exocrine secretion during the relapse of primary chronic pancreatitis. Lasus test for hyperaminoaciduria detects pancreatic dyscrinia and provides valuable information about the function of the pancreas.

  11. Technology for Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Arnold, James; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul; Laub, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph describing technologies for entry probes is presented. The topics include: 1) Entry Phase; 2) Descent Phase; 3) Long duration atmospheric observations; 4) Survivability at high temperatures; and 5) Summary.

  12. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  13. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    PubMed

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  14. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  15. External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.

    2012-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR. PMID:23440476

  16. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  17. Investigation of the electrochemical reactions at a limited-contact La1-xSrxMnO3/Y-doped ZrO2 interface with a rod-type ionic-probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ho-Il; Hong, Jongsup; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-10-01

    A more quantitatively controllable triple phase boundary (TPB) of a lanthanum strontium manganite/yttria-stabilized zirconia (LSM/YSZ) interface was constructed by using an YSZ ionic probe with well-defined dimensions. A bar-shaped, dense YSZ sintered body was employed as an ionic probe and embedded in the pellet-shaped, dense LSM bulk. The TPB length of the LSM/YSZ interface can be simply determined from the circumference of the YSZ bars. To identify the reaction mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the TPB of the LSM/YSZ interface, limited-contact AC impedance spectroscopy was used; this distinguished the LSM/YSZ interface related polarization from other polarizations present in the Pt/LSM/YSZ/Pt electrochemical cell. By analyzing the electrode-related polarizations in the electrochemical cell with the geometrically quantified YSZ ionic probe, the rate determining step of the ORR was the diffusion of adsorbed oxygen along the LSM bulk surface. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the experimental versatility and the limitations of our designed electrochemical analysis with bar-shaped ionic probes.

  18. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems.

  19. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems. PMID:15271616

  20. Scalar-tensor theories with an external scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvineau, Bertrand; Rodrigues, Davi C.; Fabris, Júlio C.

    2016-06-01

    Scalar-tensor (ST) gravity is considered in the case where the scalar is an external field. We show that general relativity (GR) and usual ST gravity are particular cases of the external scalar-tensor (EST) gravity. It is shown with a particular cosmological example that it is possible to join a part of a GR solution to a part of a ST one such that the complete solution neither belongs to GR nor to ST, but fully satisfies the EST field equations. We argue that external fields may effectively work as a type of screening mechanism for ST theories.

  1. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  2. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  3. Surgical force detection probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

  4. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content

  5. Nanoscopic oxidation of p-type and un-doped Si (100) surfaces using un-externally biased atomic force microscope tips (AFM) in the presence of selected organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, Jeffrey; Withanage, Sajeevi; Mallik, Robert; Lyuksyutov, Sergei

    A conductive un-biased AFM tip oscillating above p-type or un-doped Si (100) treated with toluene, butan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol creates nanostructures ranging in height from 1-100 nm. The tip was oscillated in ambient conditions (30-70% Rel. Humidity) at frequencies in the 102 kHz range. It was repeatable with various concentrations of solvent in aqueous solution. It is suggested that mechanical oscillations of the AFM tip polarizes the solvent molecules deposited on the surface resulting in electron transfer from the tip to the surface followed by feature formation. This process effectively creates an electrochemical cell at the microscopic level and the miscibility of the solvents is the key to enabling the process. Species which ionize during the process may be consumed in irreversible reactions whereas the alcohols act as catalysts and are not consumed. The influence of boron defects in the Si substrates is also discussed. It appears that the observed oxidation is different from all other similar reported phenomena including local anodic oxidation, and chemo-mechanical lithographic techniques utilizing AFM.

  6. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  7. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  8. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  9. A miniature MOSFET radiation dosimeter probe.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, D J; Lu, X Q; Humm, J L; Bowman, H F; Chin, L M

    1994-11-01

    Prototype miniature dosimeter probes have been designed, built, and characterized employing a small, radiation sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) chip to measure, in vivo, the total accumulated dose and dose rate as a function of time after internal administration of long range beta particle radiolabeled antibodies and in external high energy photon and electron beams. The MOSFET detector is mounted on a long narrow alumina substrate to facilitate electrical connection. The MOSFET, alumina substrate, and lead wires are inserted into a 16 gauge flexineedle, which, in turn, may be inserted into tissue. The radiation dosimeter probe has overall dimensions of 1.6 mm diam and 3.5 cm length. The MOSFET probe signals are read, stored, and analyzed using an automated data collection and analysis system. Initially, we have characterized the probe's response to long range beta particle emission from 90Y sources in solution and to high energy photon and electron beams from linear accelerators. Since the prototype has a finite substrate thickness, the angular dependence has been studied using beta particle emission from a 90Sr source. Temperature dependence and signal drift have been characterized and may be corrected for. Measurements made in spherical volumes containing 90Y with diameters less than the maximum electron range, to simulate anticipated geometries in animal models, agree well with Berger point kernel and EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations. The results from the prototype probes lead to design requirements for detection of shorter range beta particles used in radioimmunotherapy and lower photon energies used in brachytherapy. PMID:7891632

  10. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  11. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  12. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, K.L.; Topolewski, J.

    1987-10-02

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probe includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe. 1 fig.

  13. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    third conference in a series that began in 2004 [2] and was continued in 2008 [3]. The CODEF meeting series is held in conjunction with the German Dutch Transregional Collaborative Research Centre SFB TR6 with the title Physics of Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields. Papers from scientists working within this network as well as those from further invited contributors are summarized in this issue. They are organized according to the type of field applied, namely: shear flow electric field laser-optical and magnetic field confinement other fields and active particles To summarize the highlights of this special issue as regards shear fields, the response of depletion-induced colloidal clusters to shear is explored in [4]. Soft particles deform under shear and their structural and dynamical behaviour is studied both by experiment [5] and theory [6]. Transient dynamics after switching on shear is described by a joint venture of theory, simulation and experiment in [7]. Colloids provide the fascinating possibility to drag single particles through the suspension, which gives access to microrheology (as opposed to macrorheology, where macroscopic boundaries are moved). Several theoretical aspects of microrheology are discussed in this issue [8-10]. Moreover, a microscopic theory for shear viscosity is presented [11]. Various aspects of colloids in electric fields are also included in this issue. Electrokinetic phenomena for charged suspensions couple flow and electric phenomena in an intricate way and are intensely discussed both by experiment and simulation in contributions [12-14]. Dielectric phenomena are also influenced by electric fields [15]. Electric fields can induce effective dipolar forces between colloids leading to string formation [16]. Finally, binary mixtures in an electric driving field exhibit laning [17]. Simulation [18] and theoretical [19] studies of this nonequilibrium phenomenon are also discussed in this issue. Laser-optical fields can be used to

  14. Pressure probe and hot-film probe rsponses to acoustic excitation in mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, T. L.; Jones, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the relative responses of a hot-film probe and a pressure probe positioned in a flow duct carrying mean flow and progressive acoustic waves. The response of each probe was compared with that of a condenser-type microphone flush mounted in the duct wall for flow Mach numbers up to about 0.5. The response of the pressure probe was less than that of the flush-mounted microphone by not more than about 2.1 dB at the highest centerline Mach number. This decreased response of the probe can likely be attributed to flow-induced impedance changes at the probe sensor orifices. The response of the hot-film probe, expressed in terms of fluctuating pressure, was greater than that of the flush-mounted microphone by as much as 6.0 dB at the two higher centerline Mach numbers. Removal of the contribution from fluctuating temperature in the hot-film analytical model greatly improved the agreement between the two transducer responses.

  15. A curved vitrectomy probe.

    PubMed

    Chalam, K V; Shah, Vinay A; Tripathi, Ramesh C

    2004-01-01

    A curved vitrectomy probe for better accessibility of the peripheral retina in phakic eyes is described. The specially designed curved vitrectomy probe has a 20-gauge pneumatic cutter. The radius of curvature at the shaft is 19.4 mm and it is 25 mm long. The ora serrata is accessed through a 3.0- or 4.0-mm sclerotomy in phakic eyes without touching the crystalline lens. Use of this instrument avoids inadvertent trauma to the clear lens in phakic eyes requiring vitreous base excision. This curved vitrectomy instrument complements wide-angle viewing systems and endoscopes for safe surgical treatment of peripheral retinal pathology in phakic eyes. PMID:15185799

  16. SNe Ia as a cosmological probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangcun; Gao, Yan; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-09-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) luminosities can be corrected in order to render them useful as standard candles that are able to probe the expansion history of the universe. This technique was successfully applied to discover the present acceleration of the universe. As the number of SNe Ia observed at high redshift increases and analysis techniques are perfected, people aim to use this technique to probe the equation-of-state of the dark energy (EOSDE). Nevertheless, the nature of SNe Ia progenitors remains controversial and concerns persist about possible evolution effects that may be larger and harder to characterize than the more obvious statistical uncertainties.

  17. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John; Woodruff, Steven

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  18. Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with ibuprofen and Gd(III) chelates: a new probe for potential theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Muñoz-Úbeda, Mónica; Tei, Lorenzo; Botta, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Organo-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles, loaded with ibuprofen into the pores and functionalized on the external surface with a stable Gd(iii)-DOTA-monoamide chelate, were prepared and explored as potential theranostic probes.

  19. Expanding sisterhood: Jewish lesbians and externalizations of Jewishness.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The body is a canvas that can be used to express a kaleidoscope of identities. For Jewish lesbians, who experience marginalization at the hands of both secular and religious society, externalizations of Jewishness can be empowering. For some women, this embodied Jewishness makes a political statement; for others, it gives voice to their Jewish spirituality. In both cases, this ethnographic study probes the ways in which Jewish lesbians experience queerness and Jewishness and how overlaps of these identities manifest in hair styling, yarmulkes, and the wearing of prayer shawls. PMID:25298102

  20. Expanding sisterhood: Jewish lesbians and externalizations of Jewishness.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The body is a canvas that can be used to express a kaleidoscope of identities. For Jewish lesbians, who experience marginalization at the hands of both secular and religious society, externalizations of Jewishness can be empowering. For some women, this embodied Jewishness makes a political statement; for others, it gives voice to their Jewish spirituality. In both cases, this ethnographic study probes the ways in which Jewish lesbians experience queerness and Jewishness and how overlaps of these identities manifest in hair styling, yarmulkes, and the wearing of prayer shawls.

  1. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  2. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  3. Case histories of external microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Pikas, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    External microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious dilemma in the pipeline industry. Even today, it has not been recognized as such because it has been primarily mistaken for galvanic corrosion. Due to the type of coating materials used in the past, the cleaning process or lack of it, and application methods used, all coating systems have the propensity to develop defects and pinholes where disbondment and this type of microbial corrosion could occur. In addition, the pipeline may or may not have had cathodic protection initially and/or consistently applied. Given these factors and the interaction of bacteria from the soil, moisture availability, degree of cathodic protection, and temperature of the pipeline, this paper will discuss the role that microbes play in the disbondment process, thus resulting in corrosion of an underground pipeline. Several case histories, laboratory testing results, and field findings will be presented.

  4. Response of biomembrane domains to external stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbancic, Iztok

    To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed

  5. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  6. The Phoenix Pluto Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, George R.; Spapperi, Jeff; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.; Eldred, Jim; Labij, Dennis; Strinni, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    A design proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto is presented. The topics covered include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion system; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  7. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  8. Experimenting with Temperature Probes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1989-01-01

    Presented are four activities which are designed to familiarize children with the multiple uses of computers and help them learn about heat and temperature using temperature probes. Included are the tempering effect of water, heat capacity, caloric content of foods, and weather. Hardware and software are discussed. (CW)

  9. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  10. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  11. Paper bioassay based on ceria nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    PubMed

    Ornatska, Maryna; Sharpe, Erica; Andreescu, Daniel; Andreescu, Silvana

    2011-06-01

    We report the first use of redox nanoparticles of cerium oxide as colorimetric probes in bioanalysis. The method is based on changes in the physicochemical properties of ceria nanoparticles, used here as chromogenic indicators, in response to the analyte. We show that these particles can be fully integrated in a paper-based bioassay. To construct the sensor, ceria nanoparticles and glucose oxidase were coimmobilized onto filter paper using a silanization procedure. In the presence of glucose, the enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide induces a visual color change of the ceria nanoparticles immobilized onto the bioactive sensing paper, from white-yellowish to dark orange, in a concentration-dependent manner. A detection limit of 0.5 mM glucose with a linear range up to 100 mM and a reproducibility of 4.3% for n = 11 ceria paper strips were obtained. The assay is fully reversible and can be reused for at least 10 consecutive measurement cycles, without significant loss of activity. Another unique feature is that it does not require external reagents, as all the sensing components are fixed onto the paper platform. The bioassay can be stored for at least 79 days at room temperature while maintaining the same analytical performance. An example of analytical application was demonstrated for the detection of glucose in human serum. The results demonstrate the potential of this type of nanoparticles as novel components in the development of robust colorimetric bioassays. PMID:21524141

  12. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-11-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content

  13. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  14. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  15. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  16. Method to characterize the vibrational response of a beetle type scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Behler, S.; Rose, M.K.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a method for analyzing the external vibrations and intrinsic mechanical resonances affecting scanning probe microscopes by using the microscope as an accelerometer. We show that clear correlations can be established between the frequencies of mechanical vibrational modes and the frequencies of peaks in the tunnel current noise power spectrum. When this method is applied to our {open_quotes}beetle{close_quotes} type scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we find unexpected low frequency {open_quotes}rattling resonances{close_quotes} in the 500{endash}1700 Hz range that depend on the exact lateral position of the STM, in addition to the expected mechanical resonances of the STM above 4 kHz which are in good agreement with theoretical estimates. We believe that these rattling resonances may be a general problem for scanning probe microscopes that use some type of kinetic motion for coarse positioning. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Probing Ring Currents in Mg-Porphyrins by Pump–Probe Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Justo J.

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Manz et al. have shown that upon excitation of a Mg-porphyrin molecule with a circularly polarized laser pulse, a ring current can be generated that is much stronger than what can be induced by means of an external magnetic field with present technology. We show that the circular dichroism signal of a Mg-porphyrin molecule that has been excited to a state with an inner ring current is proportional to the magnitude of the probability of this ring current and can be used for the detection of this current. In analogy to magnetic circular dichroism, it probes the symmetry of degenerate excited states. PMID:22881200

  18. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  19. External Fixation: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-11-01

    The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient. PMID:26306568

  20. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  1. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  2. Discovery External Tank Connection Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Ken Strite, NASA Quality Control, inspects the connection between Space Shuttle Discovery and the external tank that will be used to launch mission STS-103 in early December. This 10 day mission is designed to replace aging parts on the nine year old Hubble Space Telescope and to upgrade some of its functioning systems. During the flight, the astronaut crew will replace all six of the observatory's gyroscopes, a fine guidance sensor, its main computer, and other equipment.

  3. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  4. Modular Rake of Pitot Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

  5. Probing System Characteristics in Coordinate Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Salah H. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the effect of the dynamic errors on surface measurements using three different types of touch trigger probes attached to a bridge-type-CMM. Unforeseeable dynamic root errors of a ductile touch trigger probing system have been characterized theoretically and experimentally as well. The results were employed in validating a developed analytical two-dimensional-model (2DM) of stylus tip to be developed to demonstrate the capability of such approaches of emphasizing the root error concept, and to evaluate the accuracy of the CMM measurements. A set of experiments was conducted; the results were analyzed in order to investigate the effect of the dynamic root errors in the light of probe scanning speed at different stylus tip radii. Variations in the mass and geometry of the stylus have their consequent effects on its inherent intrinsic dynamic characteristics that in turn would cause relevant systematic root errors in the resulting measurements. 3D bore cylindrical surface form undulations were measured by employing a probe on the trajectory of internal surface diameter for the standard reference test gauge ring. Regression analysis was applied on the results of measurement density distribution; uncertainty of measurement repeatability was then evaluated and graphically presented. The results were investigated and optimum strategic measurement parameters could thus have been derived to ensure foreseeable accurate and precise results.

  6. Probing properties of cold radiofrequency plasma with polymer probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, E.; Chaniel, G.; Multanen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows the estimation of Debye length of cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

  7. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  8. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  9. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  10. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  11. Contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect

    Steigies, C. T.; Barjatya, A.

    2012-11-15

    Langmuir probes are standard instruments for plasma density measurements on many sounding rockets. These probes can be operated in swept-bias as well as in fixed-bias modes. In swept-bias Langmuir probes, contamination effects are frequently visible as a hysteresis between consecutive up and down voltage ramps. This hysteresis, if not corrected, leads to poorly determined plasma densities and temperatures. With a properly chosen sweep function, the contamination parameters can be determined from the measurements and correct plasma parameters can then be determined. In this paper, we study the contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes, where no hysteresis type effect is seen in the data. Even though the contamination is not evident from the measurements, it does affect the plasma density fluctuation spectrum as measured by the fixed-bias Langmuir probe. We model the contamination as a simple resistor-capacitor circuit between the probe surface and the plasma. We find that measurements of small scale plasma fluctuations (meter to sub-meter scale) along a rocket trajectory are not affected, but the measured amplitude of large scale plasma density variation (tens of meters or larger) is attenuated. From the model calculations, we determine amplitude and cross-over frequency of the contamination effect on fixed-bias probes for different contamination parameters. The model results also show that a fixed bias probe operating in the ion-saturation region is affected less by contamination as compared to a fixed bias probe operating in the electron saturation region.

  12. Contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes.

    PubMed

    Steigies, C T; Barjatya, A

    2012-11-01

    Langmuir probes are standard instruments for plasma density measurements on many sounding rockets. These probes can be operated in swept-bias as well as in fixed-bias modes. In swept-bias Langmuir probes, contamination effects are frequently visible as a hysteresis between consecutive up and down voltage ramps. This hysteresis, if not corrected, leads to poorly determined plasma densities and temperatures. With a properly chosen sweep function, the contamination parameters can be determined from the measurements and correct plasma parameters can then be determined. In this paper, we study the contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes, where no hysteresis type effect is seen in the data. Even though the contamination is not evident from the measurements, it does affect the plasma density fluctuation spectrum as measured by the fixed-bias Langmuir probe. We model the contamination as a simple resistor-capacitor circuit between the probe surface and the plasma. We find that measurements of small scale plasma fluctuations (meter to sub-meter scale) along a rocket trajectory are not affected, but the measured amplitude of large scale plasma density variation (tens of meters or larger) is attenuated. From the model calculations, we determine amplitude and cross-over frequency of the contamination effect on fixed-bias probes for different contamination parameters. The model results also show that a fixed bias probe operating in the ion-saturation region is affected less by contamination as compared to a fixed bias probe operating in the electron saturation region.

  13. EvoOligo: oligonucleotide probe design with multiobjective evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, In-Hee; Cho, Young-Min; Yang, Kyung-Ae; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2009-12-01

    Probe design is one of the most important tasks in successful deoxyribonucleic acid microarray experiments. We propose a multiobjective evolutionary optimization method for oligonucleotide probe design based on the multiobjective nature of the probe design problem. The proposed multiobjective evolutionary approach has several distinguished features, compared with previous methods. First, the evolutionary approach can find better probe sets than existing simple filtering methods with fixed threshold values. Second, the multiobjective approach can easily incorporate the user's custom criteria or change the existing criteria. Third, our approach tries to optimize the combination of probes for the given set of genes, in contrast to other tools that independently search each gene for qualifying probes. Lastly, the multiobjective optimization method provides various sets of probe combinations, among which the user can choose, depending on the target application. The proposed method is implemented as a platform called EvoOligo and is available for service on the web. We test the performance of EvoOligo by designing probe sets for 19 types of Human Papillomavirus and 52 genes in the Arabidopsis Calmodulin multigene family. The design results from EvoOligo are proven to be superior to those from well-known existing probe design tools, such as OligoArray and OligoWiz.

  14. Thermomagnetism with external and internal magnetic field quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Gama, Sergio; Vuarnoz, Didier

    2015-07-01

    In magnetism literature, usually the applied or external field H0 is taken to present the results of an investigation. But for certain purposes, it is advantageous to work with the internal magnetic field H that occurs inside a magnetic body. It is well-known that the susceptibility of the material and the demagnetization effect, given by the geometry of a body, link the two usually different fields under consideration. If a probe is a long needle with the external magnetic field and the magnetization in the probe parallel to the axis of the slender body, the two fields are identical. But when building thermomagnetic machines, other demands may require also other shapes (porous materials, particle beds, wavy structures, etc.) of the magnetized material and then a correct distinction of these fields becomes important and in some cases also laborious if one of them must be theoretically determined from the other. This article shows how—from a theoretical point of view—the most important physical properties of thermomagnetism/magnetocalorics, namely, the adiabatic entropy change, the effective specific heat capacity, and the adiabatic temperature change must be transformed. Furthermore, this theory reveals the invariants of magnetocalorics, which are combinations of these three most important properties.

  15. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  16. External Video for the Macintosh. Microcomputing Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Microcomputing Program.

    This paper offers technical information on implementing external video capability on the Apple Macintosh Computer, which has no simple provisions for implementing this type of capability because it uses a non-standard horizontal line rate of 22.35KHz and lacks protection against the emission of RFI (radio frequency interference). The information…

  17. Furry representation for fermions interacting with an external gauge field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, S. P.; Gitman, D. M.

    1995-04-01

    We have obtained a Furry representation for the fermion sector (spin 1/2) of any gauge theory based on a semisimple compact group with an external field breaking down the stability of the vacuum. We have found expressions for the generating functionals of the matrix elements of the processes and averages, and have determined all the required types of propagators.

  18. Comparative evaluation of probing depth and clinical attachment level using a manual probe and Florida probe

    PubMed Central

    Kour, Amandeep; Kumar, Ashish; Puri, Komal; Khatri, Manish; Bansal, Mansi; Gupta, Geeti

    2016-01-01

    Background: To compare and evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner efficacy and reproducibility of the first-generation manual (Williams) probe and the third-generation Florida probe in terms of measuring pocket probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Forty subjects/4000 sites were included in this comparative, cross-sectional study. Group- and site-wise categorizations were done. Based on gingival index, PD, and CAL, patients were divided into four groups, i.e., periodontally healthy, gingivitis, mild to moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis. Further, based on these parameters, a total of 4000 sites, with 1000 sites in each category randomly selected from these 40 patients, were taken. Full mouth PD and CAL measurements were recorded with two probes, by Examiner 1 and on Ramfjord teeth by Examiner 2. Results: Full mouth and Ramfjord teeth group- and site-wise PD obtained with the manual probe by both the examiners were statistically significantly deeper than that obtained with the Florida probe. The full mouth and Ramfjord teeth mean CAL measurement by Florida probe was higher as compared to manual probe in mild to moderate periodontitis group and sites, whereas in severe periodontitis group and sites, manual probe recorded higher CAL as compared to Florida probe. Conclusion: Mean PD and CAL measurements were deeper with the manual probe as compared to the Florida probe in all the groups and sites, except for the mild-moderate periodontitis group and sites where the CAL measurements with the manual probe were less than the Florida probe. Manual probe was more reproducible and showed less interexaminer variability as compared to the Florida probe. PMID:27563204

  19. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  20. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-06-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 μW and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 μm and 8.1 μm, respectively. PMID:26114041

  1. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-06-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 μW and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 μm and 8.1 μm, respectively.

  2. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  3. Edge convection driven by externally applied potentials

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2000-08-01

    A theoretical model of convection in collisional tokamak edge and scrape-off-layer plasmas is described. In the linear theory, any mechanism for poloidal and toroidal symmetry breaking of the equilibrium will drive ExB flows; this result stems from the parallel thermal and pressure forces in Ohm's law. In the nonlinear theory, the quadratic coupling of the perturbations leads to quasilinear-type fluxes in the vorticity, density, and temperature equations. If the convection is strong enough, these fluxes lead to an ambipolarity constraint on the equilibrium electric field and to increased transport of particles and energy. The theory shows qualitative agreement with some tokamak experiments in which potential perturbations are externally driven by radio frequency antennas. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Planetary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Harbeck, D; Lloyd, J

    2005-07-06

    We describe a plan to study the radial velocity of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using a combination of interferometry and multichannel dispersive spectroscopy, Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI). The EDI technology allows implementation of precision velocimetry and spectroscopy on existing moderate-resolution echelle or linear grating spectrograph over their full and simultaneous bandwidth. We intend to add EDI to the new Cornell TripleSpec infrared simultaneous JHK-band spectrograph at the Palomar Observatory 200'' telescope for a science-demonstration program that will allow a unique Doppler-search for planets orbiting low mass faint M, L and T type stars. The throughput advantage of EDI with a moderate resolution spectrograph is critical to achieving the requisite sensitivity for the low luminosity late L and T dwarfs.

  5. Estimating Location without External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system. PMID:25356642

  6. Autonomic Functioning Moderates the Relations between Contextual Factors and Externalizing Behaviors among Inner-city Children

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jennifer L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Breiner, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has identified various child-specific and contextual risk factors associated with externalizing behaviors, there is a dearth of literature examining child × context interactions in the prospective prediction of externalizing behaviors. To address this gap, we examined autonomic functioning as a moderator of the relation between contextual factors (i.e., neighborhood cohesion and harsh parental behaviors) and externalizing behaviors. Participants were an ethnic minority, inner-city sample of first through fourth grade children (N = 57, 50% male) and their primary caregivers who participated in two assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results indicated that baseline sympathetic functioning moderated the relation between (a) neighborhood cohesion and externalizing behaviors and (b) harsh parental behaviors and externalizing behaviors. Post-hoc probing of these interactions revealed that higher levels of neighborhood cohesion prospectively predicted (a) higher levels of externalizing behaviors among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, and (b) lower levels of externalizing behaviors among children with attenuated baseline sympathetic functioning. In addition, among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, higher levels of harsh parental behaviors prospectively predicted higher levels of externalizing behaviors. PMID:19685985

  7. Optical probe using eccentric optics for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Iwaya, Mitsuharu; Watanabe, Yuuki; Sato, Manabu

    2007-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate an OCT optical probe using eccentric optics. This probe enabled both forward imaging and side imaging by dividing a circular scanning area into two semicircular scanning areas using an external motor to rotate the flexible tube. The outer diameter of the probe was 2.6 mm, and its rigid portion length was 10 mm. The lateral resolution was 23 μm, and the eccentric radius was 1.1 mm. The circumferential length in scanning was 6.9 mm, and the working distance was 5 mm. OCT images of 1.5 mm × 6.9 mm (in tissue, axial × circumference), including forward image and side image, were measured with the axial resolution of 19 μm in air and a frame rate of one frame per second. The epidermis, dermis, and sweat gland of in vivo human ventral finger tips were observed.

  8. Transmission strategies for atmospheric entry probes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butman, S.

    1972-01-01

    In this article we shall be concerned with the question of how to maximize the expected data return when the channel capacity cannot be predicted in advance. An example of this type is a planetary entry probe to Venus or Jupiter, whose atmospheric transmission characteristics are not yet fully known. And even if they were known, these transmission characteristics would be subject to unpredictable changes due to planet weather and/or entry trajectory.

  9. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  10. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  11. Maximizing Information on the Environment by Dynamically Controlled Qubit Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Analia; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    We explore the ability of a qubit probe to characterize unknown parameters of its environment. By resorting to the quantum estimation theory, we analytically find the ultimate bound on the precision of estimating key parameters of a broad class of ubiquitous environmental noises ("baths") which the qubit may probe. These include the probe-bath coupling strength, the correlation time of generic types of bath spectra, and the power laws governing these spectra, as well as their dephasing times T2. Our central result is that by optimizing the dynamical control on the probe under realistic constraints one may attain the maximal accuracy bound on the estimation of these parameters by the least number of measurements possible. Applications of this protocol that combines dynamical control and estimation theory tools to quantum sensing are illustrated for a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond used as a probe.

  12. A helium gas probe for use in cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bald, W B

    1984-10-01

    The design and testing of a prototype cryosurgical probe utilizing helium gas precooled with liquid nitrogen are described. An 8-mm-diameter probe produced an ice ball with a diameter of 28 mm after 10 min freezing using a helium gas flow rate of 42 liter/min. This indicated a surface heat transfer coefficient of 0.34 W/cm2 degrees K and temperature of -138 degrees C at the probe tip. Improved performance figures can be achieved using higher gas pressures and flow rates. A helium gas flow system schematic for use with this new type of cryoprobe is also presented. It is claimed that this system will overcome the problems of developing both multiple-tipped probes and small-diameter needle probes for use in cryoanalgesia. PMID:6499503

  13. Design strategies of fluorescent probes for selective detection among biothiols.

    PubMed

    Niu, Li-Ya; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Zheng, Hai-Rong; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Simple thiol derivatives, such as cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH), play key roles in biological processes, and the fluorescent probes to detect such thiols in vivo selectively with high sensitivity and fast response times are critical for understanding their numerous functions. However, the similar structures and reactivities of these thiols pose considerable challenges to the development of such probes. This review focuses on various strategies for the design of fluorescent probes for the selective detection of biothiols. We classify the fluorescent probes for discrimination among biothiols according to reaction types between the probes and thiols such as cyclization with aldehydes, conjugate addition-cyclization with acrylates, native chemical ligation, and aromatic substitution-rearrangement.

  14. Characterizing Water Quenching Systems with a Quench Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, B. Lynn; Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.

    2014-12-01

    Quench probes have been used effectively to characterize the quality of quenchants for many years. For this purpose, a variety of commercial probes, as well as the necessary data acquisition system for determining the time-temperature data for a set of standardized test conditions, are available for purchase. The type of information obtained from such probes provides a good basis for comparing media, characterizing general cooling capabilities, and checking media condition over time. However, these data do not adequately characterize the actual production quenching process in terms of heat transfer behavior in many cases, especially when high temperature gradients are present. Faced with the need to characterize water quenching practices, including conventional and intensive practices, a quench probe was developed. This paper describes that probe, the data collection system, the data gathered for both intensive quenching and conventional water quenching, and the heat transfer coefficients determined for these processes. Process sensitivities are investigated and highlight some intricacies of quenching.

  15. Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part I) I. Basic Principles of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Rutkis, M.; Busenberg, J.; Merkulov, D.

    2016-04-01

    Determination of electric potential difference using the Kelvin probe, i.e. vibrating capacitor technique, is one of the most sensitive measuring procedures in surface physics. Periodic modulation of distance between electrodes leads to changes in capacitance, thereby causing current to flow through the external circuit. The procedure of contactless, non-destructive determination of contact potential difference between an electrically conductive vibrating reference electrode and an electrically conductive sample is based on precise control measurement of Kelvin current flowing through a capacitor. The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system to determine potential difference in real time and at high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of a reference probe, the Kelvin method leads to both the indirect measurement of an electronic work function, or a contact potential of sample, and of a surface potential for insulator type samples. In the article, the first part of the research, i.e., the basic principles and prerequisites for establishment of such a measurement system are considered.

  16. Acidity characterization of heterogeneous catalysts by solid-state NMR spectroscopy using probe molecules.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Shang-Bin; Deng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the surface acidic properties of solid acid catalysts is a key issue in heterogeneous catalysis. Important acid features of solid acids, such as their type (Brønsted vs. Lewis acid), distribution and accessibility (internal vs. external sites), concentration (amount), and strength of acid sites are crucial factors dictating their reactivity and selectivity. This short review provides information on different solid-state NMR techniques used for acidity characterization of solid acid catalysts. In particular, different approaches using probe molecules containing a specific nucleus of interest, such as pyridine-d5, 2-(13)C-acetone, trimethylphosphine, and trimethylphosphine oxide, are compared. Incorporation of valuable information (such as the adsorption structure, deprotonation energy, and NMR parameters) from density functional theory (DFT) calculations can yield explicit correlations between the chemical shift of adsorbed probe molecules and the intrinsic acid strength of solid acids. Methods that combine experimental NMR data with DFT calculations can therefore provide both qualitative and quantitative information on acid sites.

  17. Metrological scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhovets, N.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Jäger, G.; Hofmann, N.

    2006-04-01

    Today's technological progress calls for metrologically accurate object measurement, positioning and scanning with nanometre precision and over large measuring ranges. In order to meet that requirement a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universitaet Ilmenau. This device is capable of highly exact long-range positioning and measurement of objects with a resolution of less than 0.1 nm. Due to the structure of the machine many different probe systems can be installed, including scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). A few SPMs have outstanding metrological characteristics and many commercial microscopes only perform as image acquisition tools. Commercial SPMs use piezoelectric actuators in order to move either the sample or the probe. The position measurement sometimes results from the applied voltage to the piezoelectric actuators or from the strain gauge or capacitive displacement sensor data. This means that they suffer from hysteresis, creep, nonlinear characteristics and Abbe offsets. For an accurate measurement the position of the cantilever must be measured in addition to the torsion and bending. The best solution is a combined detection system with a single laser beam. This system has been realized with a special interferometer system, in which the measuring beam is focused on the cantilever backside using a lens. The reflected beam is split with a part being detected by a quadrant photo-diode and the other part being fed back into the interferometer for position measurement. The quadrant photo-diode is used to detect the cantilever torsion and bending.

  18. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  19. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  20. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  1. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  2. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  3. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  4. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  5. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  6. Atom Probe Tomography 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas F.; Larson, David J.

    2012-08-01

    In the world of tomographic imaging, atom probe tomography (APT) occupies the high-spatial-resolution end of the spectrum. It is highly complementary to electron tomography and is applicable to a wide range of materials. The current state of APT is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications and data analysis as they apply to many fields of research and development including metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and organic materials. We also provide a brief review of the history and the instrumentation associated with APT and an assessment of the existing challenges in the field.

  7. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN’S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children’s externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles were related to teacher-reported externalizing symptoms for boys but not for girls. PMID:20221305

  8. Communication between public health agencies and their external stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort B; Rohrer, Wesley M

    2005-01-01

    Effective communication between public health agencies and their external stakeholders is vital to the agencies, as well as to those they serve. Agency leaders must obtain information from stakeholders and provide information to them. A process is described whereby agencies can systematically obtain necessary information from external stakeholders, and three of the most important forms of communications are described through which an agency provides information to stakeholders: promotion of the agency, advocacy, and social marketing. Barriers to effective communication of the interpersonal, personality, organizational, operational, skill/knowledge, attitude, and nature-of-information types are described, and guidelines are provided for minimizing the impact of these barriers.

  9. Collective electronic effects in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passian, Ali

    The surface plasmon dispersion relations are calculated for a metal coated dielectric probe above a dielectric half space with and without metal coating. Employing prolate spheroidal coordinate system this configuration was modeled as confocal single-sheeted hyperboloids of revolution superimposed on planar domains. The involved media are characterized by frequency dependent, spatially local dielectric functions. Due to subwavelength dimensions of the region of interest, nonretarded electrodynamics is utilized to derive exact analytical expressions describing the resonant surface modes. The dispersion relations are studied as functions of the parameter that defines the hyperboloidal boundaries of the tip and the corresponding coating, and as functions of the involved coating thicknesses. Both parallel and perpendicular polarizations are considered. The results are simulated numerically and limiting cases are discussed with comparison to the Cartesian thin foil case. Using this new type of probe-substrate configuration, the surface plasmon coupling mechanism is investigated experimentally utilizing a scanning probe microscope, and the signal strength acquired by the probe is measured as a function of the distance between the probe and the sample. This is repeated at three different wavelengths of the incident p-polarized photons used to stimulate surface plasmons in the thin metal foil. The results are compared with the theory. Utilizing the prolate spheroidal coordinate system, the related and relevant problem of the Coulomb interaction of a dielectric probe tip with a uniform field existing above a semiinfinite, homogeneous dielectric substrate was studied. This is of interest in atomic force microscopy when the sample surface is electrically charged. The induced polarization surface charge density and the field distribution at the bounding surface of the dielectric medium with the geometry of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution located above the dielectric

  10. External magnetic fields affect the biological impacts of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Ghavami, Mahdi; Azhdarzadeh, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized as one of the promising nanomaterials for applications in various field of nanomedicine such as targeted imaging/drug delivery, tissue engineering, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Besides their suitable biocompatibility, SPIONs' unique magnetic properties make them an outstanding candidate for theranostic nanomedicine. Very recent progress in the field revealed that the presence of external magnetic fields may cause considerable amount of SPIONs' agglomeration in their colloidal suspension. As variation of physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has strong effect on their biological outcomes, one can expect that the SPIONs' agglomeration in the presence of external magnetic fields could change their well-recognized biological impacts. In this case, here, we probed the cellular uptake and toxicity of the SPIONs before and after exposure to external magnetic fields. We found that the external magnetic fields can affect the biological outcome of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26613856

  11. Layer resolved capacitive probing of graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, Alexander; Parmentier, François; Li, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hunt, Benjamin; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Young, Andrea

    Compared to single layer graphene, graphene bilayers have an additional ``which-layer'' degree of freedom that can be controlled by an external electric field in a dual-gated device geometry. We describe capacitance measurements capable of directly probing this degree of freedom. By performing top gate, bottom gate, and penetration field capacitance measurements, we directly extract layer polarization of both Bernal and twisted bilayers. We will present measurements of hBN encapsulated bilayers at both zero and high magnetic field, focusing on the physics of the highly degenerate zero-energy Landau level in the high magnetic field limit where spin, valley, and layer degeneracy are all lifted by electronic interactions.

  12. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  13. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  14. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  15. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  16. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  17. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  18. Teaching Externally: Lecturers' Viewpoints. Occasional Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David, Ed.

    Perspectives of academic staff who have been involved in teaching externally are presented in three papers. In "Teaching Students Externally: The First Twelve Years," Frank Molloy examines three aspects of teaching by the external mode: preparing materials, making assignments, and providing educational experiences for students at the residential…

  19. Rapid calibration of seven-hole probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericksen, A. L.; Gallington, R. W.; Rao, B. M.; Barankiewicz, W. S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the major conclusions and some of the key supporting analyses resulting from the calibration and application of two small seven hole probes at NASA Lewis Research Center. These probes can produce reasonably accurate and rapid surveys of unknown steady flow fields which may include flow angles up to 70 degrees and Mach numbers up to 0.8. The probes were calibrated with both 'complete' and 'reduced' test matrices. Both types of test matrices produced similar results suggesting the the reduced matrices are adequate for most purposes. The average accuracy fo the calibration was about the same as that achieved in previous seven hole probe calibrations. At the higher Mach numbers, the calibration was sensitive to the diameter of the free jet in the calibration facility. Over a narrow angular range at the higher Mach numbers, the system had serious repeatability problems. This lack or repeatability apparently results from aliasing of high frequency (20 to 40 Hz) noise with the data acquisition system sampling frequency of 10 Hz. Analyses show that these noise frequencies are probably not related to airflow dynamics in the connecting tubing.

  20. An airborne icing characterization probe: nephelometer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, S.

    2007-10-01

    The aeronautical industry uses airborne probes to characterize icing conditions for flight certification purposes by counting and sizing cloud droplets. Existing probes have been developed for meteorologists in order to study cloud microphysics. They are used on specific aircraft, instrumented for this type of study, but are not adapted for an industrial flight test environment. The development by Airbus of a new probe giving a real time response for particle sizes between 10 and 500 µm, adapted to operational requirements, is in progress. An optical principle by coherent shadowgraphy with a low coherency point source is used for the application. The size of the droplets is measured from their shadows on a CCD. A pulsed laser coupled to a fast camera freezes the movement. Usually, image processing rejects out-of-focus objects. Here, particles far from the focal plane can be sized because of the large depth of field due to the point source. The technique used increases the depth of field and the sampled volume is enough to build a histogram even for low droplet concentrations. Image processing is done in real time and results are provided to the flight test engineer. All data and images are recorded in order to allow on-ground complementary analysis if necessary. A non-telescopic prototype has been tested in a wind tunnel and in flight. The definitive probe being retractable is designed to be easily installed through a dummy window. Retracted, it will allow the aircraft to fly at VMO (maximum operating limit speed).

  1. Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  2. Electromagnetic Probe Technique for Fluid Flow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.; Nguyen, T. X.

    1994-01-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constants of each fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow steam. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this industry, a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans and program to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type

    MedlinePlus

    ... for making a protein that forms type II collagen. This type of collagen is found mostly in the clear gel that ... in the nose and external ears. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones ...

  4. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  5. Design optimization of fiber optic probes for remote fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, G. K.; Gautam, Nutan; Gantayet, L. M.

    2009-07-01

    Fiber optic probes are designed, developed and fabricated in the laboratories for remote fluorescence spectroscopic studies in various fields such as investigation of tissues, environmental monitoring, and analysis of samples in hostile environment. Optimized probe design is very much important for efficient transport and collection of photons, which ultimately helps in quantifying resultant emission and understanding light-matter interaction. Instead of the conventional ray optics, Monte Carlo technique has been used to optimize the design of fiber optic probes, comprising only of flat tipped fibers with and without focusing lenses, for remote fluorescence measurement in three different types of target media having different optical properties. Typical probe geometry consists of one excitation fiber surrounded by a ring of collection fibers. The effects of fiber parameters like fiber diameter, numerical aperture, core-clad ratio, arrangement of collection fibers around the excitation fiber and dead space between them, and optical properties of the medium on the performance of probes have been analysed and compared with the results of previous observations, wherever the data are available. The results show a significant difference between the collected emission with and without consideration of dead space, which plays a very significant role in probe design and is dependent on the number of collection fibers in the geometry, relative dimension of collection and excitation fibers and separation between the two. Introduction of a convex lens in the probe increases the amount of fluorescence signal for a given probe arrangement.

  6. Elastic MEMS probe card based on the PDMS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiangmeng; Chen, Di; Huang, Chuang; Chen, Xiang; Miao, Jianmin; Liu, Jingquan; Zhu, Jun

    2010-05-01

    A novel type of MEMS probe card that uses polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an elastic substrate was designed and fabricated by MEMS technology. This proposed probe card structure has the advantages of good planarization, low resistance, higher probe density and a simplified fabrication process. To realize the probe card prototype, polyimide (PI) was employed as the interlayer to avoid micro cracks of the sputtered metal layer. Then oxygen plasma treatment was utilized to enhance the adhesion of chrome to PI. Also, silicon wet chemical etching was used to form the step adopted to compensate the height of the bonding wire. When the thickness of the PDMS and the PI layer was 150 µm and 50 µm respectively, the measured spring constant of the PI/PDMS substrate was 4582 N m-1, and that of the probe card structure was 7317 N m-1. The resistance from the probe tip to the end of the copper conductive line was as low as 1.4 Ω. In the RF range of 0-40 MHz, the characteristic impedance was above 20 kΩ, and the capacitance between the two adjacent probes was between 0.19 pF and 0.28 pF. It indicated that the designed probe card structure was suitable for testing of high-speed signal ICs.

  7. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  8. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    third conference in a series that began in 2004 [2] and was continued in 2008 [3]. The CODEF meeting series is held in conjunction with the German Dutch Transregional Collaborative Research Centre SFB TR6 with the title Physics of Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields. Papers from scientists working within this network as well as those from further invited contributors are summarized in this issue. They are organized according to the type of field applied, namely: shear flow electric field laser-optical and magnetic field confinement other fields and active particles To summarize the highlights of this special issue as regards shear fields, the response of depletion-induced colloidal clusters to shear is explored in [4]. Soft particles deform under shear and their structural and dynamical behaviour is studied both by experiment [5] and theory [6]. Transient dynamics after switching on shear is described by a joint venture of theory, simulation and experiment in [7]. Colloids provide the fascinating possibility to drag single particles through the suspension, which gives access to microrheology (as opposed to macrorheology, where macroscopic boundaries are moved). Several theoretical aspects of microrheology are discussed in this issue [8-10]. Moreover, a microscopic theory for shear viscosity is presented [11]. Various aspects of colloids in electric fields are also included in this issue. Electrokinetic phenomena for charged suspensions couple flow and electric phenomena in an intricate way and are intensely discussed both by experiment and simulation in contributions [12-14]. Dielectric phenomena are also influenced by electric fields [15]. Electric fields can induce effective dipolar forces between colloids leading to string formation [16]. Finally, binary mixtures in an electric driving field exhibit laning [17]. Simulation [18] and theoretical [19] studies of this nonequilibrium phenomenon are also discussed in this issue. Laser-optical fields can be used to

  9. Fixture For Calibrating Pressure Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Vasquez, Peter; Horsley, Lewis A.; Bowman, John T.; Zumbrun, Henry N.; Eves, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Fixture in form of specially designed clamshell housing enables in situ calibration of pressure transducer mounted in body of pressure probe in wind tunnel. Includes two metal half shells machined with necks and matching cavities, when put together, define larger neck and cavity accommodating probe. Probe secured to bottom half shell by use of clamp before installing top half shell: necessary to follow sequence to protect probe during assembly. Clamshell calibration fixture attached to pressure probe in few minutes, making it possible to calibrate pressure transducer at convenient times. Calibrations performed before and after wind-tunnel runs each day, between runs in event of delays or suspected malfunctions, and essentially any other time, without having to remove probe from wind tunnel.

  10. Nonbridging external fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Matthew D; Shin, Eon K

    2010-08-01

    Surgical management of distal radius fractures continues to evolve because of their high incidence in an increasingly active elderly population. Traditional radiocarpal external fixation relies on ligamentotaxis for fracture reduction but has several drawbacks. Nonbridging external fixation has evolved to provide early wrist mobility in the setting of anatomic fracture reduction. Several studies of the nonbridging technique have demonstrated satisfactory results in isolated nonbridging external fixation series and in comparison with traditional spanning external fixation. Nonbridging external fixation for surgical treatment of distal radius fractures can be technically demanding and requires at least 1 cm of intact volar cortex in the distal fracture fragment for successful implementation.

  11. Contributed Review: Quartz force sensing probes for micro-applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamians, Jean-Ochin; Pham Van, Laurent; Régnier, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    As self-sensing and self-exciting probes, quartz sensors present many advantages over silicon cantilevers for microscopy, micro-robotics, and other micro-applications. Their development and use is further bolstered by the fact that they can be manufactured from common quartz components. This paper therefore reviews applications of the increasingly popular quartz tuning fork probes as force sensors in the literature and examines the options for higher-frequency quartz probes using the other available types of flexional, thickness-shear or length-extensional resonators.

  12. Pump-Probe Noise Spectroscopy of Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Selzer, Yoram; Peskin, Uri; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The slow response of electronic components in junctions limits the direct applicability of pump-probe type spectroscopy in assessing the intramolecular dynamics. Recently the possibility of getting information on a sub-picosecond time scale from dc current measurements was proposed. We revisit the idea of picosecond resolution by pump-probe spectroscopy from dc measurements and show that any intramolecular dynamics not directly related to charge transfer in the current direction is missed by current measurements. We propose a pump-probe dc shot noise spectroscopy as a suitable alternative. Numerical examples of time-dependent and average responses of junctions are presented for generic models. PMID:26261965

  13. A new probe for on-line corrosion monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.J.; Quale, J.C.; Richardson, J.A.; Strutt, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A new design of corrosion probe, suitable for use with all types of electrochemical techniques, is described. Annular flush mounted electrodes have been used to avoid disadvantages inherent in other designs. Characteristic flow conditions were established readily at the electrode surface. In addition, corrosion rates in two phase flows may be more reliably monitored. The probe incorporated a reference electrode limb which allowed potential measurements to be made at typical plant operating temperatures and pressures. The techniques used for plant corrosion measurements are described, and the problem areas in probe manufacture are discussed.

  14. A subcutaneous channeling probe for implanting long leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Simmonds, R. C.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The channeling probe described in the present paper was designed to overcome surgical problems of the type that were encountered when a multichannel radio transmitter had to be implanted in a cow. The probe was made of a flexible but sufficiently stiff 9.5-mm-diam nylon rod, consisting of 46-cm sections for convenience in sterilization and surgical handling. Stainless steel sleaves reinforced the threaded connecting joints. At one end, arrowhead-shaped channeling heads could be attached to produce wide channels for large sensors. The other end was tapered for narrow channels. Postoperative problems were not encountered in the use of this probe in cows, sheep, and dogs.

  15. Contributed Review: Quartz force sensing probes for micro-applications.

    PubMed

    Abrahamians, Jean-Ochin; Pham Van, Laurent; Régnier, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    As self-sensing and self-exciting probes, quartz sensors present many advantages over silicon cantilevers for microscopy, micro-robotics, and other micro-applications. Their development and use is further bolstered by the fact that they can be manufactured from common quartz components. This paper therefore reviews applications of the increasingly popular quartz tuning fork probes as force sensors in the literature and examines the options for higher-frequency quartz probes using the other available types of flexional, thickness-shear or length-extensional resonators. PMID:27475541

  16. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  17. Experimental investigation of the interaction of a thrust reverser jet with an external subsonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, J.-M.; Deckers, K.; Wens, G.

    1993-11-01

    An experimental modelization of a door-type thrust reverser is conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel. The geometry of the model is defined in order to simulate both the internal and external flow of a real thrust reverser. Different door configurations are studied for a selected value of the mass flux injection ratio of three. Visualizations illustrate qualitatively the jet interaction, and extensive mean velocity and pressure measurements are conducted in sections perpendicular to the upstream flow direction with a five hole probe. The total pressure losses and the drag force produced by the thrust reverser are deduced from the measurements. As a result, it shows that the smaller opening angle of the door (56 deg), with a becquet deflection of 15 deg gives the larger drag force. In addition to the classical pair of counter rotating vortices observed in jet in cross flow interactions, a second pair of counter rotating vortices below the main pair is found. The vorticity field is described with good agreement by a simple vortex model simulating the two pairs of vortices.

  18. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  19. Probabilistic and Other Neural Nets in Multi-Hole Probe Calibration and Flow Angularity Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baskaran, Subbiah; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Noever, David

    1998-01-01

    The use of probabilistic (PNN) and multilayer feed forward (MLFNN) neural networks are investigated for calibration of multi-hole pressure probes and the prediction of associated flow angularity patterns in test flow fields. Both types of networks are studied in detail for their calibration and prediction characteristics. The current formalism can be applied to any multi-hole probe, however the test results for the most commonly used five-hole Cone and Prism probe types alone are reported in this article.

  20. Parental Knowledge is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Externalizing

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents’ characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents’ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. Method The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. Conclusions In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:24975929

  1. Labeling Cytosolic Targets in Live Cells with Blinking Probes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianmin; Chang, Jason; Yan, Qi; Dertinger, Thomas; Bruchez, Marcel; Weiss, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of superresolution imaging methods, fast dynamic imaging of biological processes in live cells remains a challenge. A subset of these methods requires the cellular targets to be labeled with spontaneously blinking probes. The delivery and specific targeting of cytosolic targets and the control of the probes’ blinking properties are reviewed for three types of blinking probes: quantum dots, synthetic dyes, and fluorescent proteins. PMID:23930154

  2. Probing Quantum Capacitance in a 3D Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, D. A.; Bauer, D.; Ziegler, J.; Fischer, R.; Savchenko, M. L.; Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Weiss, D.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the quantum capacitance and probe thus directly the electronic density of states of the high mobility, Dirac type two-dimensional electron system, which forms on the surface of strained HgTe. Here we show that observed magnetocapacitance oscillations probe—in contrast to magnetotransport—primarily the top surface. Capacitance measurements constitute thus a powerful tool to probe only one topological surface and to reconstruct its Landau level spectrum for different positions of the Fermi energy.

  3. Single-molecule interfacial electron transfer dynamics manipulated by an external electric current.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guofeng; Xiao, Liantuan; Chen, Ruiyun; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaobo; Jia, Suotang

    2011-08-14

    Interfacial electron transfer (IET) dynamics in a 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine (DiD) dye molecule/indium tin oxide (ITO) film system have been probed at the ensemble and single-molecule levels. By comparing the difference in the external electric current (EEC) dependence of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of the ensembles and single molecules, it is shown that the single-molecule probe can effectively demonstrate IET dynamics. The backward electron transfer and electron transfer from the ground state induce single-molecule fluorescence quenching when an EEC is applied to the DiD/ITO film system.

  4. Probing Massive Star Cluster Formation with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2015-08-01

    Observationally constraining the physical conditions that give rise to massive star clusters has been a long-standing challenge. Now with the ALMA Observatory coming on-line, we can finally begin to probe the birth environments of massive clusters in a variety of galaxies with sufficient angular resolution. In this talk I will give an overview of ALMA observations of galaxies in which candidate proto-super star cluster molecular clouds have been identified. These new data probe the physical conditions that give rise to super star clusters, providing information on their densities, pressures, and temperatures. In particular, the observations indicate that these clouds may be subject to external pressures of P/k > 108 K cm-3, which is consistent with the prevalence of optically observed adolescent super star clusters in interacting galaxy systems and other high pressure environments. ALMA observations also enable an assessement of the molecular cloud chemical abundances in the regions surrounding super star clusters. Molecular clouds associated with existing super star clusters are strongly correlated with HCO+ emission, but appear to have relatively low ratio of CO/HCO+ emission compared to other clouds, indicating that the super star clusters are impacting the molecular abundances in their vicinity.

  5. Biasing, Acquisition and Interpretation of a Dense Langmuir Probe Array in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R.; Ruzic, D.

    2010-09-22

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiments (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of elec- tronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer (SOL) current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful inter- pretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in comple- mentary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to mid-plane measurements is made. Work is supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CHI1466 and DE-PS02-07ER07-29.

  6. Biasing, acquisition, and interpretation of a dense Langmuir probe array in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of electronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe, and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer SOL current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful interpretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in complementary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to midplane measurements is made.

  7. Biasing, acquisition, and interpretation of a dense Langmuir probe array in NSTX.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, M A; Kallman, J; Kaita, R; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; Marsala, R; Ruzic, D N

    2010-10-01

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of electronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe, and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer SOL current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful interpretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in complementary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to midplane measurements is made.

  8. Use of oligodeoxynucleotide signature probes for identification of physiological groups of methylotrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tsien, H.C.; Bratina, B.J.; Tsuji, K.; Hanson, R.S. )

    1990-09-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide sequences that uniquely complemented 16S rRNAs of each group of methylotrophs were synthesized and used as hybridization probes for the identification of methylotrophic bacteria possessing the serine and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathways for formaldehyde fixation. The specificity of the probes was determined by hybridizing radiolabeled probes with slot-blotted RNAs of methylotrophs and other eubacteria followed by autoradiography. The washing temperature was determined experimentally to be 50 and 52{degrees}C for 9-{alpha} (serine pathway) and 10-{gamma} (RuMP pathway) probes, respectively. RNAs isolated from serine pathway methylotrophs bound to probe 9-{alpha}, and RNAs from RuMP pathway methylotrophs bound to probe 10-{gamma}. Nonmethylotrophic eubacterial RNAs did not bind to either probe. The probes were also labeled with fluorescent dyes. Cells fixed to microscope slides were hybridized with these probes, washed, and examined in a fluorescence microscope equipped with appropriate filter sets. Cells of methylotrophic bacteria possessing the serine or RuMP pathway specifically bind probes designed for each group. Samples with a mixture of cells of type I and II methanotrophs were detected and differentiated with single probes or mixed probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes, which enabled the detection of both types of cells in the same microscopic field.

  9. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; McCarty, Jerry E.; Haggard, Ricky A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  10. Optomechanically induced transparency in the presence of an external time-harmonic-driving force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinyong; You, Cai; Si, Liu-Gang; Xiong, Hao; Li, Jiahua; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-06-01

    We propose a potentially valuable scheme to measure the properties of an external time-harmonic-driving force with frequency ω via investigating its interaction with the combination of a pump field and a probe field in a generic optomechanical system. We show that the spectra of both the cavity field and output field in the configuration of optomechanically induced transparency are greatly modified by such an external force, leading to many interesting linear and non-linear effects, such as the asymmetric structure of absorption in the frequency domain and the antisymmetry breaking of dispersion near ω = ωm. Furthermore, we find that our scheme can be used to measure the initial phase of the external force. More importantly, this setup may eliminate the negative impact of thermal noise on the measurement of the weak external force in virtue of the process of interference between the probe field and the external force. Finally, we show that our configuration can be employed to improve the measurement resolution of the radiation force produced by a weak ultrasonic wave.

  11. Optomechanically induced transparency in the presence of an external time-harmonic-driving force

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinyong; You, Cai; Si, Liu-Gang; Xiong, Hao; Li, Jiahua; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We propose a potentially valuable scheme to measure the properties of an external time-harmonic-driving force with frequency ω via investigating its interaction with the combination of a pump field and a probe field in a generic optomechanical system. We show that the spectra of both the cavity field and output field in the configuration of optomechanically induced transparency are greatly modified by such an external force, leading to many interesting linear and non-linear effects, such as the asymmetric structure of absorption in the frequency domain and the antisymmetry breaking of dispersion near ω = ωm. Furthermore, we find that our scheme can be used to measure the initial phase of the external force. More importantly, this setup may eliminate the negative impact of thermal noise on the measurement of the weak external force in virtue of the process of interference between the probe field and the external force. Finally, we show that our configuration can be employed to improve the measurement resolution of the radiation force produced by a weak ultrasonic wave. PMID:26062029

  12. [Cholesteatoma of the external and middle ear in the childhood].

    PubMed

    Mileshina, N A; Kurbatova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to enhance the effectiveness of diagnostics of cholesteatoma of the external and middle ear in the children. The study included 66 patients presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media and one child having cholesteatoma of the external auditory meatus. All the patients were examined with the use of otoendoscopy and CT of the temporal bones. It was shown that the frequent occurrence of acute suppurative otitis media, exudative suppurative otitis media, and adhesive otitis media is the risk factor of the development of cholesteatoma of the external and middle ear in the children. The following CT features of cholesteatoma of the external ear were revealed: the sclerotic or mixed type of the mastoid process, the presence of pathological contents in the epitympanic space, homogeneous character of pathological contents in the antrum, widened aditus, caries of antrum walls, the presence of soft tissues around the auditory ossicles, destruction of the long process of the anval bone, and a soft-tissue structure in the external auditory meatus.

  13. A comparison of the microbiologic profile of indwelling versus external urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Abers, Michael S; Kizilbash, Quratulain F; Petersen, Nancy J; Trautner, Barbara W

    2014-06-01

    We studied the microbiology reports of urine cultures collected from external (condom catheters) versus indwelling (Foley) catheters. The equal prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci in samples from both catheter types calls into question the practice of switching from indwelling to external catheters to decrease catheter-associated bacteriuria.

  14. The Relations of Regulation and Emotionality to Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Reiser, Mark; Murphy, Bridget C.; LoSaga, Sandra H.; Guthrie, Ivanna K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relation of different types of negative emotion and regulation and control to 55- to 97-month-olds' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Found that children with externalizing problems, compared to children with internalizing problems and nondisordered children, were more prone to anger, impulsivity, and low regulation.…

  15. A Latent Class Analysis of Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms in Nonreferred Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…

  16. Multimodal optical biopsy probe to improve the safety and diagnostic yield of brain needle biopsies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Joannie; Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée.; Jermyn, Michael; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Brain needle biopsy (BNB) is performed to collect tissue when precise neuropathological diagnosis is required to provide information about tumor type, grade, and growth patterns. The principal risks associated with this procedure are intracranial hemorrhage (due to clipping blood vessels during tissue extraction), incorrect tumor typing/grading due to non-representative or non-diagnostic samples (e.g. necrotic tissue), and missing the lesion. We present an innovative device using sub-diffuse optical tomography to detect blood vessels and Raman spectroscopy to detect molecular differences between tissue types, in order to reduce the risks of misdiagnosis, incorrect tumour grading, and non-diagnostic samples. The needle probe integrates optical fibers directly onto the external cannula of a commercial BNB needle, and can perform measurements for both optical techniques through the same fibers. This integrated optical spectroscopy system uses diffuse reflectance signals to perform a 360-degree reconstruction of the tissue adjacent to the biopsy needle, based on the optical contrast associated with hemoglobin light absorption, thereby localizing blood vessels. Raman spectra measurements are also performed interstitially for tissue characterization. A detailed sensitivity of the system is presented to demonstrate that it can detect absorbers with diameters <300 µm located up to ˜2 mm from the biopsy needle core, for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. Results from animal experiments are presented to validate blood vessel detection and Raman spectrum measurement without disruption of the surgical workflow. We also present phantom measurements of Raman spectra with the needle probe and a comparison with a clinically validated Raman spectroscopy probe.

  17. New probe of naturalness.

    PubMed

    Craig, Nathaniel; Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew

    2013-09-20

    Any new scalar fields that perturbatively solve the hierarchy problem by stabilizing the Higgs boson mass also generate new contributions to the Higgs boson field-strength renormalization, irrespective of their gauge representation. These new contributions are physical, and in explicit models their magnitude can be inferred from the requirement of quadratic divergence cancellation; hence, they are directly related to the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Upon canonically normalizing the Higgs field, these new contributions lead to modifications of Higgs couplings that are typically great enough that the hierarchy problem and the concept of electroweak naturalness can be probed thoroughly within a precision Higgs boson program. Specifically, at a lepton collider this can be achieved through precision measurements of the Higgs boson associated production cross section. This would lead to indirect constraints on perturbative solutions to the hierarchy problem in the broadest sense, even if the relevant new fields are gauge singlets.

  18. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  19. Advanced Langmuir Probe (LP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic response of the MK-2 version of the Langmuir probe amplifier was studied. The settling time of the step response is increased by: (1) stray node-to-ground capacitance at series connections between high value feedback resistors; and (2) input capacitance due to the input cable, FET switches, and input source follower. The stray node-to-ground capacitances can be reduced to tolerable levels by elevating the string of feedback resistors above the printing board. A new feedback network was considered, with promising results. The design uses resistances having much lower nominal values, thereby minimizing the effect of stray capacitances. Faster settling times can be achieved by using an operational amplifier having a higher gain-bandwidth product.

  20. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  1. Quantum ring conductance sensitivity to potential perturbation in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwiej, T.; Szafran, B.

    2014-05-01

    We study the sensitivity of quantum ring (QR) conductance to potential perturbation introduced by an external charged probe in the context of scanning gate microscopy experiments and analyze its correspondence to the local density of states at the Fermi level for up to four subbands participating in the transport. We find that the conductance of the QR can be weakly sensitive or almost insensitive to the perturbation potential due to magnetic deflection of the wave function. The conductance becomes very sensitive to external perturbations at localized resonances for which the local density of states can be extracted by conductance mapping.

  2. Small rocket tornado probe

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A (less than 1 lb.) paper rock tornado probe was developed and deployed in an attempt to measure the pressure, temperature, ionization, and electric field variations along a trajectory penetrating a tornado funnel. The requirements of weight and materials were set by federal regulations and a one-meter resolution at a penetration velocity of close to Mach 1 was desired. These requirements were achieved by telemetering a strain gage transducer for pressure, micro size thermister and electric field, and ionization sensors via a pulse time telemetry to a receiver on board an aircraft that digitizes a signal and presents it to a Z80 microcomputer for recording on mini-floppy disk. Recording rate was 2 ms for 8 channels of information that also includes telemetry rf field strength, magnetic field for orientation on the rocket, zero reference voltage for the sensor op amps as well as the previously mentioned items also. The absolute pressure was recorded. Tactically, over 120 h were flown in a Cessna 210 in April and May 1981, and one tornado was encountered. Four rockets were fired at this tornado, missed, and there were many equipment problems. The equipment needs to be hardened and engineered to a significant degree, but it is believed that the feasibility of the probe, tactics, and launch platform for future tornado work has been proven. The logistics of thunderstorm chasing from a remote base in New Mexico is a major difficulty and reliability of the equipment another. Over 50 dummy rockets have been fired to prove trajectories, stability, and photographic capability. Over 25 electronically equipped rockets have been fired to prove sensors transmission, breakaway connections, etc. The pressure recovery factor was calibrated in the Air Force Academy blow-down tunnel. There is a need for more refined engineering and more logistic support.

  3. PCR-derived ssDNA probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization to HIV-1 RNA.

    PubMed

    Knuchel, M C; Graf, B; Schlaepfer, E; Kuster, H; Fischer, M; Weber, R; Cone, R W

    2000-02-01

    We developed a simple and rapid technique to synthesize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization (ISH) to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA. The target HIV-1 regions were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were simultaneously labeled with dUTP. This product served as template for an optimized asymmetric PCR (one-primer PCR) that incorporated digoxigenin (dig)-labeled dUTP. The input DNA was subsequently digested by uracil DNA glycosylase, leaving intact, single-stranded, digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe. A cocktail of ssDNA probes representing 55% of the HIV-1 genome was hybridized to HIV-1-infected 8E5 T-cells and uninfected H9 T-cells. For comparison, parallel hybridizations were done with a plasmid-derived RNA probe mix covering 85% of the genome and a PCR-derived RNA probe mix covering 63% of the genome. All three probe types produced bright signals, but the best signal-to-noise ratios and the highest sensitivities were obtained with the ssDNA probe. In addition, the ssDNA probe syntheses generated large amounts of probe (0.5 to 1 microg ssDNA probe per synthesis) and were easier to perform than the RNA probe syntheses. These results suggest that ssDNA probes may be preferable to RNA probes for fluorescent ISH. (J Histochem Cytochem 48:285-293, 2000)

  4. Oligodeoxynucleotide Probes for Detecting Intact Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosson, Reinhardt A.; Maurina-Brunker, Julie; Langley, Kim; Pynnonen, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive test using chemiluminescent oligodeoxynucleotide probes has been developed for detecting, identifying, and enumerating intact cells. The test is intended especially for use in detecting and enumerating bacteria and yeasts in potable water. As in related tests that have been developed recently for similar purposes, the oligodeoxynucleotide probes used in this test are typically targeted at either singlecopy deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genes (such as virulence genes) or the multiple copies (10,000 to 50,000 copies per cell) of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs). Some of those tests involve radioisotope or fluorescent labeling of the probes for reporting hybridization of probes to target nucleic acids. Others of those tests involve labeling with enzymes plus the use of chemiluminescent or chromogenic substrates to report hybridization via color or the emission of light, respectively. The present test is of the last-mentioned type. The chemiluminescence in the present test can be detected easily with relatively simple instrumentation. In developing the present test, the hybridization approach was chosen because hybridization techniques are very specific. Hybridization detects stable, inheritable genetic targets within microorganisms. These targets are not dependent on products of gene expression that can vary with growth conditions or physiological states of organisms in test samples. Therefore, unique probes can be designed to detect and identify specific genera or species of bacteria or yeast (in terms of rRNA target sequences) or can be designed to detect and identify virulence genes (genomic target sequences). Because of the inherent specificity of this system, there are few problems of cross-reactivity. Hybridization tests are rapid, but hybridization tests now available commercially lack sensitivity; typically, between 10(exp 6) and 10(exp 7) cells of the target organism are needed to ensure a reliable test. Consequently, the numbers of

  5. An unmanned probe to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Now that Voyager II has completed its grand tour of the solar system, all the planets in the solar system, with the exception of Pluto, have been studied. Even now, missions to return to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, and Saturn are currently flying or are planned. However, a mission to explore Pluto is not, at the present time, being considered seriously. The design problem presented to the students was very general, i.e., design an unmanned mission to Pluto with a launch window constraint of the years 2000 to 2010. All other characteristics of the mission, such as mission type (flyby, orbiter, lander, penetrator), scientific objectives and payload, and the propulsion system were to be determined by the design teams. The design studies exposed several general problems to be solved. Due to the extreme distance to Pluto (and a corresponding travel time in the range of 10 to 25 years), the spacecraft had to be lighter and more robust than current spacecraft designs. In addition, advanced propulsion concepts had to be considered. These included the new generation of launch vehicles and upper stages and nuclear electric propulsion. The probe design offered an abundance of synthesis and analysis problems. These included sizing trade studies, selection of subsystem components, analysis of spacecraft dynamics, stability and control, structural design and material selection, trajectory design, and selection of scientific equipment. Since the characteristics of the mission, excluding the launch window, were to be determined by the design teams, the solutions varied widely.

  6. Improved dewpoint-probe calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Theodore, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Relatively-simple pressure-control apparatus calibrates dewpoint probes considerably faster than conventional methods, with no loss of accuracy. Technique requires only pressure measurement at each calibration point and single absolute-humidity measurement at beginning of run. Several probes can be calibrated simultaneously and points can be checked above room temperature.

  7. Bacteraemia caused by periodontal probing.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Mitchell, D; Grossberg, D; Highfield, J; Stewart, D

    1997-04-01

    Bacteraemia of oral origin may result in infective endocarditis in susceptible individuals. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the occurrence of bacteraemia due to periodontal probing. Thirty patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age 42.7 years) with untreated periodontitis were investigated. All were free of significant medical disorders and none had taken antibiotics in the previous month. Prior to and immediately following periodontal probing, 20 mL of venous blood were obtained from each patient and inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and incubated. Negative bottles were monitored continuously for three weeks before being discarded. Periodontal probing consisted of measuring pockets at six points around each tooth and recording the presence or absence of bleeding. A positive bacteraemia was recorded for three of the patients prior to probing. One patient exhibited Prevotella species whilst two exhibited skin commensals. Following probing, 13 patients (43 per cent) exhibited bacteraemia of oral origin. Viridans streptococci were the most common isolates (45 per cent). No significant correlations were found between bacteraemia and the severity of periodontitis or extent of bleeding on probing. The results indicate that periodontal probing can cause bacteraemia in patients with periodontitis. It would be advisable for patients considered at risk of developing infective endocarditis to receive antibiotic prophylaxis for periodontal probing if they have radiographic evidence of periodontitis.

  8. Externally fired combined cycle demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, N.J.; Young, S.; LaHaye, P.G.; Strom-Olsen, J.; Seger, J.L.; Pickup, H.

    1995-11-01

    Externally Fired Combined Cycles (EFCCs) can increase the amount of electricity produced from ash bearing fuels up to 40%, with overall powerplant efficiencies in excess of 45%. Achieving such high efficiencies requires high temperature-high pressure air heaters capable of driving modern gas turbines from gas streams containing the products of coal combustion. A pilot plant has been constructed in Kennebunk, Maine to provide proof of concept and evaluation of system components. Tests using pulverized Western Pennsylvania bituminous coal have been carried out since April, 1995. The ceramic air heater extracts energy from the products of coal combustion to power a gas turbine. This air heater has operated at gas inlet temperatures over 1,095 C and pressures over 7.0 atm without damage to the ceramic tube string components. Stable gas turbine operation has been achieved with energy input from the air heater and a supplementary gas fired combustor. Efforts are underway to fire the cycle on coal only, and to increase the duration of the test runs. Air heater improvements are being implemented and evaluated. These improvements include installation of a second pass of ceramic tubes and evaluation of corrosion resistant coatings on the ceramic tubes.

  9. Distance probes of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays. We note that these three elements together make a comprehensive DOE SN program, with a well- sequenced combination of R&D, construction, operations and analysis projects. The DOE SN researchers will be involved in several of these at any given time, since the precision SN cosmology measurement requires an in-depth understanding and use of SN data from all the redshift ranges simultaneously. A future Stage IV space-based SNe project would be the simplest way to match, at high redshift, these precision measurements of Type Ia supernovae at low redshift -measurements needed to provide the same systematics control over the entire redshift range from z ∼ 0.01 to z ∼ 2 . With modest investments in spectroscopic capabilities and a small fraction of mission time, WFIRST-AFTA could be upgraded [Editor's note: and has been upgraded in the current baseline; see Footnote2] to become this project, and would be complementary to the lensing programs of LSST/EUCLID. However, given the timescales and many difficulties of a space mission, there is now a need to explore vigorously a ground-based alternative to fill this important missing element in the DOE program. In particular, an R&D effort to explore the potential of novel ground-based techniques, combining near-IR technology with OH sky-line suppression, could make it possible to accomplish the precision measurements for SNe from SCP, DES, and LSST, complementing and strengthening these currently approved DOE projects.

  10. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  11. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  12. Thiol Reactive Probes and Chemosensors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hanjing; Chen, Weixuan; Cheng, Yunfeng; Hakuna, Lovemore; Strongin, Robert; Wang, Binghe

    2012-01-01

    Thiols are important molecules in the environment and in biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) play critical roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. The selective detection of thiols using reaction-based probes and sensors is very important in basic research and in disease diagnosis. This review focuses on the design of fluorescent and colorimetric probes and sensors for thiol detection. Thiol detection methods include probes and labeling agents based on nucleophilic addition and substitution, Michael addition, disulfide bond or Se-N bond cleavage, metal-sulfur interactions and more. Probes for H2S are based on nucleophilic cyclization, reduction and metal sulfide formation. Thiol probe and chemosensor design strategies and mechanism of action are discussed in this review. PMID:23202239

  13. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  14. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  15. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.

  16. Response of nucleons to external probes in hedgehog models. I. Electromagnetic polarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniowski, Wojciech; Cohen, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon are analyzed in a hedgehog model with quark and meson degrees of freedom. Semiclassical methods are used (linear response theory, quantization via cranking). It is found that in hedgehog models (Skyrmion, chiral quark models, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model), the average electric polarizability of the nucleon, αN, is of the order Nc, and the splitting of the neutron and proton electric (proper) polarizabilities, δα=αn-αp, is of the order 1/Nc. We present a general argument why one expects δα>0 in models with a pionic cloud. Our model prediction for the sign and magnitude of δα is in agreement with recent measurements. The obtained value for αN, however, is roughly a factor of 3 too large. This is because of two problems with our particular model: a too strong pion tail and the degeneracy of N and Δ states in the large-Nc limit. This degeneracy also results in a very strong Nc dependence of the paramagnetic part of the magnetic polarizability β, which is of the order N3c. We compare the large-Nc results to the one-loop chiral perturbation theory predictions, and show the importance of Δ effects in pionic loops. We also investigate the role of nonminimal substitution terms in the effective Lagrangian on the polarizabilities of the nucleon.

  17. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    SciTech Connect

    Gierga, David P. . E-mail: dgierga@partners.org; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of External Genitalia Development

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    External genitalia development occurs through a combination of hormone independent, hormone dependent, and endocrine pathways. Perturbation of these pathways can lead to abnormal external genitalia development. We review human and animal mechanisms of normal and abnormal external genitalia development, and we evaluate abnormal mechanisms that lead to hypospadias. We also discuss recent laboratory findings that further our understanding of animal models of hypospadias. PMID:22790208

  19. Effect of pin location on stability of pelvic external fixation.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Hearn, T C; Seleem, O; Mahalingam, E; Stephen, D; Tile, M

    1999-04-01

    Pelvic external fixators allow two locations of pin purchase: anterosuperior (into the iliac crest) and anteroinferior (into the supraacetabular dense bone, between the anterior superior and anterior inferior iliac spine). The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of these two methods of fixation on Tile Type B1 (open book) and C (unstable) pelvic injuries. Five unembalmed cadaveric pelves (mean age, 68 years; four males and one female) were loaded vertically in a servohydraulic testing machine in a standing posture. The AO tubular system and Orthofix were used. On each pelvis, a Type B1 injury was simulated. Each external fixator was applied in each location in random order. Cyclic loads were applied through the sacral body to a maximum of approximately 200 N while force and displacement of the pelvic ring were recorded digitally. Sacroiliac joint motion was quantified tridimensionally with displacement transducers, mounted on the sacrum and contacting a target fixed to the posterior superior iliac spine. A Type C injury was created and augmented with two iliosacral lag screws, and the tests were repeated. For the Type B1 injuries with anteroinferior pin purchase, the mean stiffness was 201.2 N/mm for the AO frame and 203.2 N/mm for the Orthofix. For the anterosuperior frames the mean stiffness was 143.9 N/mm for the AO frame and 163.3 N/mm for the Orthofix. For Type B1 and Type C injuries, the anteroinferior location of pin purchase resulted in significantly reduced sacroiliac joint separation. There were no significant differences between the frame types. Dissection of the preinserted anatomic specimen revealed no evidence of injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve after blunt dissection and drilling with protective drill sleeves. It is concluded that the anteroinferior location of external fixation pins is a safe technique with the potential for increased stability of fixation.

  20. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W W; Van Zeeland, M A; Kramer, G J; Pace, D C; Petty, C C; Austin, M E; Fisher, R K; Hanson, J M; Nazikian, R; Zeng, L

    2014-11-01

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  1. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Zeng, L.

    2014-11-15

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  2. Re-Annotator: Annotation Pipeline for Microarray Probe Sequences.

    PubMed

    Arloth, Janine; Bader, Daniel M; Röh, Simone; Altmann, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Microarray technologies are established approaches for high throughput gene expression, methylation and genotyping analysis. An accurate mapping of the array probes is essential to generate reliable biological findings. However, manufacturers of the microarray platforms typically provide incomplete and outdated annotation tables, which often rely on older genome and transcriptome versions that differ substantially from up-to-date sequence databases. Here, we present the Re-Annotator, a re-annotation pipeline for microarray probe sequences. It is primarily designed for gene expression microarrays but can also be adapted to other types of microarrays. The Re-Annotator uses a custom-built mRNA reference database to identify the positions of gene expression array probe sequences. We applied Re-Annotator to the Illumina Human-HT12 v4 microarray platform and found that about one quarter (25%) of the probes differed from the manufacturer's annotation. In further computational experiments on experimental gene expression data, we compared Re-Annotator to another probe re-annotation tool, ReMOAT, and found that Re-Annotator provided an improved re-annotation of microarray probes. A thorough re-annotation of probe information is crucial to any microarray analysis. The Re-Annotator pipeline is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/reannotator along with re-annotated files for Illumina microarrays HumanHT-12 v3/v4 and MouseRef-8 v2.

  3. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  4. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  5. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  6. Probing interfaces involving liquids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A L

    1987-04-10

    Last month in Washington, D.C., the National Academy of Sciences held the first of what it hopes will be a series of seminars in forefront fields of science, technology, and medicine. The idea is to bring the academy closer to the frontlines of research and to help spread the word to federal science policy-makers. The subject of the 23 and 24 March seminar was interfaces and thin films, and the talks, though tutorial in nature, contained a pleasantly large number of still unpublished results. Interfaces, such as the surface of a solid exposed to a liquid or gas, and thin films, whose properties are heavily influenced by interfaces, have long been of considerable technological importance and have always been so in biological processes, but researchers are now getting access to the experimental and theoretical tools needed to explore these complex physical systems that are neither ideally two-dimensional nor fully three-dimensional. The briefings that follow give a peek at three ways to probe interfaces involving liquids.

  7. Externality, migration, and urban crises.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The author analyzes a special aspect of the short-run dynamics of an urban area which arises when there is a contrast between different types of households. The possibility of cumulative or catastrophic processes because of migration by poor families and then by rich families in or out of an urban area is discussed

  8. Internal versus External Quality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Dijkstra, Nynke J.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into quality management in Dutch elementary schools using theories of school accountability and school improvement as fundamentals. The study is based on data gathered from almost 1000 school leaders. It attempts to determine whether different types of quality management exist in primary schools.…

  9. Control of External Kink Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  10. Hydrolysis of GTP by p21NRAS, the NRAS protooncogene product, is accompanied by a conformational change in the wild-type protein: use of a single fluorescent probe at the catalytic site.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, S E; Eccleston, J F; Webb, M R

    1990-01-01

    2'(3')-O-(N-Methyl)anthraniloylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (mantGTP) is a fluorescent analogue of GTP that has similar properties to the physiological substrate in terms of its binding constant and the kinetics of its interactions with p21NRAS, the NRAS protooncogene product. There is a 3-fold increase in fluorescence intensity when mantGTP binds to p21NRAS. The rate constant for the cleavage of mantGTP complexed with the protein is similar to that of GTP, and cleavage is accompanied by a fluorescence intensity change in the wild-type protein complex. A two-phase fluorescence change also occurs when the nonhydrolyzable analogue 2'(3')-O-(N-methyl)anthraniloylguanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (mantp[NH]ppG) binds to wild-type p21NRAS. The second phase occurs at the same rate as the second phase observed after mantGTP binding. Thus this second phase is probably a conformation change of the p21NRAS nucleotiside triphosphate complex and that the change controls the rate of GTP hydrolysis on the protein. With a transforming mutant, [Asp12]-p21NRAS, there is no second phase of the fluorescence change after mantGTP or mantp[NH]ppG binding, even though mantGTP is hydrolyzed. This shows that an equivalent conformational change does not occur and thus the mutant may stay in a "GTP-like" conformation throughout the GTPase cycle. These results are discussed in terms of the proposed role of p21NRAS in signal transduction and the transforming properties of the mutant. PMID:2185475

  11. Phase-sensitive optical coherence reflectometer with differential phase-shift keying of probe pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Vdovenko, V S; Sergachev, I A; Simikin, D E; Gorshkov, B G; Potapov, V T

    2014-10-31

    We report a new method for reconstructing the signal shape of the external dynamic perturbations along the entire length of the fibre of an optical coherence reflectometer. The method proposed is based on differential phase-shift keying of a probe pulse and demodulation of scattered light by the phase diversity technique. Possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally. (fibre-optic sensors)

  12. Multiple-measurement beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Grant, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Particle accelerators are becoming smaller and are producing more intense beams; therefore, it is critical that beam-diagnostic instrumentation provide accelerator operators and automated control systems with a complete set of beam information. Traditionally, these beam data were collected and processed using limited-bandwidth interceptive techniques. For the new-generation accelerators, we are developing a multiple-measurement microstrip probe to obtain broadband beam data from inside a drift tube without perturbing the beam. The cylindrical probe's dimensions are 6-cm OD by 1.0 m long, and the probe is mounted inside a drift tube. The probe (and its associated electronics) monitors bunched-beam current, energy, and transverse position by sensing the beam's electromagnetic fields through the annular opening in the drift tube. The electrical impedance is tightly controlled through the full length of the probe and transmission lines to maintain beam-induced signal fidelity. The probe's small, cylindrical structure is matched to beam-bunch characteristics at specific beamline locations so that signal-to-noise ratios are optimized. Surrounding the probe, a mechanical structure attaches to the drift-tube interior and the quadrupole magnets; thus, the entire assembly's mechanical and electrical centers can be aligned and calibrated with respect to the rest of the linac.

  13. Advances in the calibration of atom probe tomographic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gault, Baptiste; Moody, Michael P.; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Stephenson, Leigh T.; Haley, Daniel; Ringer, Simon P.; Geuser, Frederic de; Tsafnat, Guy

    2009-02-01

    Modern wide field-of-view atom probes permit observation of a wide range of crystallographic features that can be used to calibrate the tomographic reconstruction of the analyzed volume. In this study, methodologies to determine values of the geometric parameters involved in the tomographic reconstruction of atom probe data sets are presented and discussed. The influence of the tip to electrode distance and specimen temperature on these parameters is explored. Significantly, their influence is demonstrated to be very limited, indicating a relatively wide regime of experimental parameters space for sound atom probe tomography (APT) experiments. These methods have been used on several specimens and material types, and the results indicate that the reconstruction parameters are specific to each specimen. Finally, it is shown how an accurate calibration of the reconstruction enables improvements to the quality and reliability of the microscopy and microanalysis capabilities of the atom probe.

  14. Cleaved thin-film probes for scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siahaan, T; Kurnosikov, O; Barcones, B; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B

    2016-01-22

    We introduce an alternative type of probe for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Instead of using a needle-like tip made from a piece of metallic wire, a sharp-edged cleaved insulating substrate, which is initially covered by a thin conductive film, is used. The sharp tip is formed at the intersection of the two cleaved sides. Using this approach a variety of materials for STM probes can be used, and functionalization of STM probes is possible. The working principle of different probes made of metallic (Pt, Co, and CoB), indium-tin oxide, as well as Cu/Pt and Co/Pt multilayer films are demonstrated by STM imaging of clean Cu(001) and Cu(111) surfaces as well as the epitaxial Co clusters on Cu(111). PMID:26636763

  15. Dr. Harry Whelan With the Light Emitting Diode Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The red light from the Light Emitting Diode (LED) probe shines through the fingers of Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Whelan uses the long waves of light from the LED surgical probe to activate special drugs that kill brain tumors. Laser light previously has been used for this type of surgery, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of tumors that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. Also, it can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program grant. The program is part of NASA's Technology Transfer Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Probing dark energy inhomogeneities with supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Blomqvist, Michael; Moertsell, Edvard; Nobili, Serena E-mail: edvard@physto.se

    2008-06-15

    We discuss the possibility of identifying anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous cosmological models using type Ia supernova data. A search for correlations in current type Ia peak magnitudes over a large range of angular scales yields a null result. However, the same analysis limited to supernovae at low redshift shows a feeble anticorrelation at the 2{sigma} level at angular scales {theta} Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign . Upcoming data from, e.g., the SNLS (Supernova Legacy Survey) and the SDSS-II (SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey) supernova searches will improve our limits on the size of-or possibly detect-possible correlations also at high redshift at the per cent level in the near future. With data from the proposed SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) satellite, we will be able to detect the induced correlations from gravitational lensing on type Ia peak magnitudes on scales less than a degree.

  17. Bacteriophage based probes for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit; Arutyunov, Denis; Szymanski, Christine M; Evoy, Stephane

    2012-08-01

    Rapid and specific detection of pathogenic bacteria is important for the proper treatment, containment and prevention of human, animal and plant diseases. Identifying unique biological probes to achieve a high degree of specificity and minimize false positives has therefore garnered much interest in recent years. Bacteriophages are obligate intracellular parasites that subvert bacterial cell resources for their own multiplication and production of disseminative new virions, which repeat the cycle by binding specifically to the host surface receptors and injecting genetic material into the bacterial cells. The precision of host recognition in phages is imparted by the receptor binding proteins (RBPs) that are often located in the tail-spike or tail fiber protein assemblies of the virions. Phage host recognition specificity has been traditionally exploited for bacterial typing using laborious and time consuming bacterial growth assays. At the same time this feature makes phage virions or RBPs an excellent choice for the development of probes capable of selectively capturing bacteria on solid surfaces with subsequent quick and automatic detection of the binding event. This review focuses on the description of pathogen detection approaches based on immobilized phage virions as well as pure recombinant RBPs. Specific advantages of RBP-based molecular probes are also discussed.

  18. Ways of probing situated concepts.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J

    2010-02-01

    Two ways of eliciting conceptual content have been to instruct participants to list the intrinsic properties that concept exemplars possess or to report any thoughts that come to mind about the concept. It has been argued that the open, unconstrained probe is better able to elicit the situational information that concepts contain. We evaluated this proposal in two experiments comparing the two probes with regard to the content that they yield for object concepts at the superordinate and basic levels. The results showed that the open probe was better able to elicit situated conceptual knowledge and point out differences in the representations of superordinate and basic concepts.

  19. Saturn orbiter dual probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The described Saturn orbiter dual probe mission and spacecraft combines three systems into a multi-purpose Saturn exploration package. The spacecraft consists of: (1) Saturn orbiter; (2) Saturn probe; and (3) Titan probe or lander. This single spacecraft provides the capability to conduct in situ measurements of the Saturn and Titan atmospheres, and, possibly the Titan surface, as well as a variety of remote sensing measurements. The remote sensing capabilities will be used to study the surfaces, interiors and environments of Saturn's satellites, the rings of Saturn, Saturn's magnetosphere, and synoptic properties of Saturn's atmosphere.

  20. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  1. The Huygens Probe System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that

  2. Floating Potential Probe Langmuir Probe Data Reduction Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2002-01-01

    During its first five months of operations, the Langmuir Probe on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) obtained data on ionospheric electron densities and temperatures in the ISS orbit. In this paper, the algorithms for data reduction are presented, and comparisons are made of FPP data with ground-based ionosonde and Incoherent Scattering Radar (ISR) results. Implications for ISS operations are detailed, and the need for a permanent FPP on ISS is examined.

  3. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  4. Integrated microfluidic probe station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution—thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet—and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  5. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, S.; Young, J.P.

    1998-10-13

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 12 figs.

  6. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Young, Jack P.

    1998-01-01

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferrably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0.degree., an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head.

  7. Contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes.

    PubMed

    Steigies, C T; Barjatya, A

    2012-11-01

    Langmuir probes are standard instruments for plasma density measurements on many sounding rockets. These probes can be operated in swept-bias as well as in fixed-bias modes. In swept-bias Langmuir probes, contamination effects are frequently visible as a hysteresis between consecutive up and down voltage ramps. This hysteresis, if not corrected, leads to poorly determined plasma densities and temperatures. With a properly chosen sweep function, the contamination parameters can be determined from the measurements and correct plasma parameters can then be determined. In this paper, we study the contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes, where no hysteresis type effect is seen in the data. Even though the contamination is not evident from the measurements, it does affect the plasma density fluctuation spectrum as measured by the fixed-bias Langmuir probe. We model the contamination as a simple resistor-capacitor circuit between the probe surface and the plasma. We find that measurements of small scale plasma fluctuations (meter to sub-meter scale) along a rocket trajectory are not affected, but the measured amplitude of large scale plasma density variation (tens of meters or larger) is attenuated. From the model calculations, we determine amplitude and cross-over frequency of the contamination effect on fixed-bias probes for different contamination parameters. The model results also show that a fixed bias probe operating in the ion-saturation region is affected less by contamination as compared to a fixed bias probe operating in the electron saturation region. PMID:23206057

  8. Optical Excitation and Probing of Bottle Microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, G. Senthil; Wilkinson, J. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2010-11-01

    Fiber bottle microresonators supporting helical whispering gallery modes and exhibiting field maxima symmetrically located on either side of the neck of the bottle have been demonstrated. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this type of microresonator, using tapered excitation and probe fibers symmetrically placed on both sides of the bottle microresonator. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to symmetrically located turning points and power localization on both sides of the bottle, leading to the potential to construct add-drop filters.

  9. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis, and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is approximately 6 percent of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting than the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago.

  10. Current perspectives on RNA secondary structure probing.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Julia; Prestwood, Liam; Lever, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The range of roles played by structured RNAs in biological systems is vast. At the same time as we are learning more about the importance of RNA structure, recent advances in reagents, methods and technology mean that RNA secondary structural probing has become faster and more accurate. As a result, the capabilities of laboratories that already perform this type of structural analysis have increased greatly, and it has also become more widely accessible. The present review summarizes established and recently developed techniques. The information we can derive from secondary structural analysis is assessed, together with the areas in which we are likely to see exciting developments in the near future. PMID:25110033

  11. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-06-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is {approximately}6% of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting that the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago. 59 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  13. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  14. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  15. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  16. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  17. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  18. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  19. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  20. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...