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Sample records for extinguishment

  1. Fire extinguishant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Ling, A. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Fire extinguishant composition comprising a mixture of a finely divided aluminum compound and alkali metal, stannous or plumbous halide is provided. Aluminum compound may be aluminum hydroxide, alumina or boehmite but preferably it is an alkali metal dawsonite. The metal halide may be an alkali metal, e.g. potassium iodide, bromide or chloride or stannous or plumbous iodide, bromide or chloride. Potassium iodide is preferred.

  2. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Table 169.567(a) Space protected Total number extinguishers required Type extinguishers permitted Medium... type. (d) Portable fire extinguishers must be stowed in a location convenient to the space...

  3. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Table 169.567(a) Space protected Total number extinguishers required Type extinguishers permitted Medium... type. (d) Portable fire extinguishers must be stowed in a location convenient to the space...

  4. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  6. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  7. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  8. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  9. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  10. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  11. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  12. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  13. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  14. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  15. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  16. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  17. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  18. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  19. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  20. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  1. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  2. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  3. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  4. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  5. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  6. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  7. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  8. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... chemical, stored pressure, fire extinguishers not fitted with pressure gauges or indicating devices... approved extinguisher. (h) The dry chemical, stored pressure, fire extinguishers without pressure gauges...

  9. Fire extinguishers for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.

  10. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  11. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  12. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  13. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  14. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  15. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  16. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  17. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  18. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  19. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  20. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... “This extinguisher meets all requirements of 49 CFR 173.306” may be displayed on fire extinguishers... the Department of Labor, 29 CFR 1910.157. (4) Specification 2P or 2Q (§§ 178.33 and 178.33a of this... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishers. 173.309 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... “This extinguisher meets all requirements of 49 CFR 173.306” may be displayed on fire extinguishers... the Department of Labor, 29 CFR 1910.157. (4) Specification 2P or 2Q (§§ 178.33 and 178.33a of this... extinguishers charged with a limited quantity of compressed gas to not more than 1660 kPa (241 psig) at 21...

  2. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  3. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  4. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...

  5. 46 CFR 108.496 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extinguisher required by Table 108.495(a), except a wheeled size V extinguisher provided for a helicopter... rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions: (1) Each size V extinguisher required for a...

  6. 46 CFR 108.496 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extinguisher required by Table 108.495(a), except a wheeled size V extinguisher provided for a helicopter... rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions: (1) Each size V extinguisher required for a...

  7. 46 CFR 108.496 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extinguisher required by Table 108.495(a), except a wheeled size V extinguisher provided for a helicopter... rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions: (1) Each size V extinguisher required for a...

  8. 46 CFR 108.496 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extinguisher required by Table 108.495(a), except a wheeled size V extinguisher provided for a helicopter... rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions: (1) Each size V extinguisher required for a...

  9. 46 CFR 108.496 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extinguisher required by Table 108.495(a), except a wheeled size V extinguisher provided for a helicopter... rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions: (1) Each size V extinguisher required for a...

  10. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable extinguishers. 169.567 Section 169.567 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.567 Portable extinguishers. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable extinguishers. 169.567 Section 169.567 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.567 Portable extinguishers. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable extinguishers. 169.567 Section 169.567 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.567 Portable extinguishers. (a)...

  13. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  14. Coal fire extinguishing and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.S.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

  15. 14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that has been shown to provide equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing agent. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...

  16. 14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that has been shown to provide equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing agent. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...

  17. 14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that has been shown to provide equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing agent. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...

  18. 14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that has been shown to provide equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing agent. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...

  19. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 95.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of each size...

  20. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 95.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of each size...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures... extinguishing agents. (a) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures... extinguishing agents. (a) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures... extinguishing agents. (a) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures... extinguishing agents. (a) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures... extinguishing agents. (a) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating...

  6. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  7. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... “This extinguisher meets all requirements of 49 CFR 173.306” may be displayed on fire extinguishers... the Department of Labor, 29 CFR 1910.157. (4) Specification 2P or 2Q (§§ 178.33 and 178.33a of this... one and one-half times the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130 °F); and (iii)...

  8. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    DOEpatents

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  9. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be...

  10. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be...

  11. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must...

  12. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must...

  13. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must...

  14. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be...

  15. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must...

  16. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be...

  17. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be...

  18. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must...

  19. 46 CFR 169.733 - Fire extinguishing branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing branch lines. 169.733 Section 169.733... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.733 Fire extinguishing branch lines. Each branch line valve of every fire extinguishing system must be plainly and permanently...

  20. 46 CFR 169.733 - Fire extinguishing branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing branch lines. 169.733 Section 169.733... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.733 Fire extinguishing branch lines. Each branch line valve of every fire extinguishing system must be plainly and permanently...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 29.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discharge line from a pressure relief connection must be located so that discharge of the fire extinguishing... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discharge line from a pressure relief connection must be located so that discharge of the fire extinguishing... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discharge line from a pressure relief connection must be located so that discharge of the fire extinguishing... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure...

  5. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  6. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  7. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  8. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  9. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  10. 46 CFR 76.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 76.50-20 Section 76.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  11. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  12. 14 CFR 121.271 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 121....271 Fire-extinguishing system materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each component of a fire-extinguishing system that is in a designated fire zone must be made of...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  15. 46 CFR 169.733 - Fire extinguishing branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing branch lines. 169.733 Section 169.733... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.733 Fire extinguishing branch lines. Each branch line valve of every fire extinguishing system must be plainly and permanently...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed shall be marked...

  17. 14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing agents. 121.265 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.265 Fire... equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing agent. If methyl bromide or any...

  18. 46 CFR 98.30-39 - Alternate fire extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate fire extinguishing system. 98.30-39 Section 98... Portable Tanks and Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-39 Alternate fire extinguishing system. An alternative to the fire extinguishing system required in § 98.30-37(c) may be approved in accordance...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection § 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... extinguishing system; and (2) Have thermal stability over the temperature range likely to be experienced in the... personnel compartment, even though a defect may exist in the extinguishing system. This must be shown...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Protection § 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... extinguishing system; and (2) Have thermal stability over the temperature range likely to be experienced in the... personnel compartment, even though a defect may exist in the extinguishing system. This must be shown...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing system; and (2) Have thermal stability over the... exist in the extinguishing system. This must be shown by test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. Link to an...

  3. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 28.320 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.320 Fixed gas fire extinguishing...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following...

  4. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 28.320 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.320 Fixed gas fire extinguishing...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following...

  5. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) Fixed carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing systems must be installed to protect...

  6. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 193.05-10 Section 193... Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in those locations delineated in this section. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or other approved system shall be...

  7. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed...

  8. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 193.05-10 Section 193... Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in those locations delineated in this section. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or other approved system shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 28.320 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.320 Fixed gas fire extinguishing...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following...

  10. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed...

  11. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) Fixed carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing systems must be installed to protect...

  12. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed...

  13. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 28.320 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.320 Fixed gas fire extinguishing...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following...

  14. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures...) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating from any burning...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... test except for built-in carbon dioxide fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems for which— (1) Five pounds or less of carbon dioxide will be discharged, under established fire control procedures...) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames emanating from any burning...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  2. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  3. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  4. 46 CFR 76.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 76.50-20 Section 76.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  5. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  7. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  9. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  10. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  13. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  14. 46 CFR 76.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 76.50-20 Section 76.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  15. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  17. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  18. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  19. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  20. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  1. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. 118.425 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.425 Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  2. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. 118.425 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.425 Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  3. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by suitable corrosion-resisting coating. (5) Specification 3E and 4BA cylinders must be packed in... meets all requirements of 49 CFR 173.306” may be displayed on fire extinguishers manufactured prior to... Safety and Health Administration Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR 1910.157. (d)...

  4. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by suitable corrosion-resisting coating. (5) Specification 3E and 4BA cylinders must be packed in... meets all requirements of 49 CFR 173.306” may be displayed on fire extinguishers manufactured prior to... Safety and Health Administration Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR 1910.157. (d)...

  5. Preventing the recovery of extinguished ethanol tolerance.

    PubMed

    González, Valeria V; Navarro, Víctor; Miguez, Gonzalo; Betancourt, Ronald; Laborda, Mario A

    2016-03-01

    There is substantial evidence that drug-paired cues become associated with drug effects. From a Pavlovian perspective, these cues act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned compensatory responses that contribute to drug tolerance. Here we report two experiments with rats in which we studied the extinction of the associative tolerance to the ataxic effect of ethanol. Experiment 1 evaluated whether changes in the temporal and physical contexts after extinction training provoke recovery of the extinguished tolerance. The results showed successful extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal of the extinguished tolerance, but no summation of renewal and spontaneous recovery. Experiment 2 evaluated whether using massive extinction trials and delivering extinction in multiple contexts attenuates the renewal effect. The results showed that both manipulations reduced renewal of the extinguished tolerance to the ataxic effect of ethanol; however, these manipulations used in combination did not appear to be more effective in reducing recovery than each by itself. The present results may help guide further research that evaluates behavioral ploys to prevent the recovery of extinguished responses. PMID:26772781

  6. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding,...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding,...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding,...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....4600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding,...

  16. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 107.235 Section 107.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION...

  17. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 107.235 Section 107.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION...

  18. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  19. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  20. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  1. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  4. Fire extinguishment and inhibition in spacecraft environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deris, John

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that it is essential that NASA develop a comprehensive approach to fire extinguishment and inerting in spacecraft environments. Electronic equipment might be easily protected through use of an onboard inert gas generating system. The use of Halon 1301 presents serious technological challenges for agent cleanup and removal of the toxic and corrosive products of combustion. Nitrogen pressurization, while effective, probably presents a serious weight penality. The use of liquid water sprays appears to be the most effective approach to general purpose spacecraft fire protection.

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97.37-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or...

  6. 46 CFR 169.734 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 169.734 Section 169.734 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.734 Fire extinguishing system controls. Each control cabinet or...

  7. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631 Section 108.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 196.37-13 Section 196.37-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-17 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 78.47-17 Section 78.47-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-17 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing...

  10. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... B. H. P. of the main engines or fraction thereof. However, not more than 6 such extinguishers need... pushed by a motorboat, motor vessel, or steam vessel shall be fitted with hand portable fire... steam vessel shall be fitted with hand portable fire extinguishers as required by Table...

  11. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... B. H. P. of the main engines or fraction thereof. However, not more than 6 such extinguishers need... pushed by a motorboat, motor vessel, or steam vessel shall be fitted with hand portable fire... steam vessel shall be fitted with hand portable fire extinguishers as required by Table...

  12. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... B. H. P. of the main engines or fraction thereof. However, not more than 6 such extinguishers need... pushed by a motorboat, motor vessel, or steam vessel shall be fitted with hand portable fire... steam vessel shall be fitted with hand portable fire extinguishers as required by Table...

  13. 46 CFR 169.734 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 169.734 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.734 Fire extinguishing system controls. Each control cabinet or space containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  14. 46 CFR 98.30-39 - Alternate fire extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate fire extinguishing system. 98.30-39 Section 98.30-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Portable Tanks § 98.30-39 Alternate fire extinguishing system. An alternative to the fire...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) embedded in the fuselage, where a “two shot” system is required. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems. 23.1195 Section... Protection § 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75759, December...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or in pylons on the aft fuselage the following applies: (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or in pylons on the aft fuselage the following applies: (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 76.05-20 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 76.05-20 Section 76.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-20 Fixed...

  1. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extinguishing system complying with 46 CFR subparts 95.15 and 95.16 must be installed for: (1) Internal... dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing system complying with 46 CFR subparts 95.15 and 95.16 or a foam system complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.17 must be installed for any space containing main or...

  2. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed...

  3. 46 CFR 76.05-20 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 76.05-20 Section 76.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-20 Fixed...

  4. 46 CFR 76.05-20 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 76.05-20 Section 76.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-20 Fixed...

  5. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10 Fixed... barges with sleeping accommodations for more than 12 persons. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or...

  6. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gross tons and greater, a fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in 46 CFR subpart 95... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10...

  7. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gross tons and greater, a fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in 46 CFR subpart 95... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10...

  8. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extinguishing system complying with 46 CFR subparts 95.15 and 95.16 must be installed for: (1) Internal... dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing system complying with 46 CFR subparts 95.15 and 95.16 or a foam system complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.17 must be installed for any space containing main or...

  9. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extinguishing system complying with 46 CFR subparts 95.15 and 95.16 must be installed for: (1) Internal... dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing system complying with 46 CFR subparts 95.15 and 95.16 or a foam system complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.17 must be installed for any space containing main or...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. (a) Scope and...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. (a) Scope and...

  12. 46 CFR 76.05-20 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 76.05-20 Section 76.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-20 Fixed...

  13. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed...

  14. 46 CFR 76.05-20 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 76.05-20 Section 76.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-20 Fixed...

  15. 46 CFR 131.825 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 131.825 Section 131.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.825 Fixed fire extinguishing...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. (a) Scope and...

  17. 46 CFR 131.825 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 131.825 Section 131.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.825 Fixed fire extinguishing...

  18. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.631 Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed...

  19. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10 Fixed... barges with sleeping accommodations for more than 12 persons. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or...

  20. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  1. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  2. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  3. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  4. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  5. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  6. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  7. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  8. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  9. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  10. Reinstatement of an Extinguished Fear Conditioned Response in Infant Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revillo, Damian A.; Trebucq, Gastón; Paglini, Maria G.; Arias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently accepted that the extinction effect reflects new context-dependent learning, this is not so clear during infancy, because some studies did not find recovery of the extinguished conditioned response (CR) in rodents during this ontogenetic stage. However, recent studies have shown the return of an extinguished CR in infant…

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  12. 46 CFR 193.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 193.50-20 Section 193.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  16. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling. (b) When substances are produced that meet... hazard “Dangerous gas formed when used to extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling... user to the likelihood of electrical shock shall be conspicuously labeled “Caution: Do not use...

  17. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling. (b) When substances are produced that meet... hazard “Dangerous gas formed when used to extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling... user to the likelihood of electrical shock shall be conspicuously labeled “Caution: Do not use...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling. (b) When substances are produced that meet... hazard “Dangerous gas formed when used to extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling... user to the likelihood of electrical shock shall be conspicuously labeled “Caution: Do not use...

  19. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling. (b) When substances are produced that meet... hazard “Dangerous gas formed when used to extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling... user to the likelihood of electrical shock shall be conspicuously labeled “Caution: Do not use...

  20. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling. (b) When substances are produced that meet... hazard “Dangerous gas formed when used to extinguish flame or on contact with heat” are required labeling... user to the likelihood of electrical shock shall be conspicuously labeled “Caution: Do not use...

  1. Generalization of Extinguished Skin Conductance Responding in Human Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a human fear conditioning paradigm using the skin conductance response (SCR), participants were assigned to two groups. Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS). At test, presenting the CS in group ABA…

  2. 46 CFR 193.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 193.50-20 Section 193.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire...

  3. Spacecraft Fire Detection and Extinguishment: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1988-01-01

    Pertinent fire detection and extinguishment references have been identified to further the knowledge of spacecraft fire safety. To broaden the scope of the bibliography, other unusual environments, e.g., aircraft, submarine, ship, have been included. In addition, for a more comprehensive view of the spacecraft fire safety problem, selected subjects are included, e.g., materials flammability, smoke, human behavior. The references will provide the researcher with access to state-of-the-art and historic works. Selected references from the 1960's have been included, but the emphasis is on references published from 1975 to 1987. The references are arranged by very broad categories. Often a paper will cover more than one topic, but for the purposes of this bibliography it will be cited only once.

  4. Oil well fire extinguisher having upper and lower external flame retardant-dispersing rings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.S.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes an extinguisher system for extinguishing flames from combustible fluid exiting from a pipe. It comprises an elongated tubular extinguisher body disposable over the combustible fluid emitting pipe; valve means mounted in the extinguisher body adjacent the upper outlet end for eliminating the flow of the combustion.

  5. 46 CFR 25.30-15 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 25.30-15 Section 25.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-15 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. (a) When a fixed fire-extinguishing...

  6. 46 CFR 25.30-15 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 25.30-15 Section 25.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-15 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. (a) When a fixed fire-extinguishing...

  7. 46 CFR 25.30-15 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 25.30-15 Section 25.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-15 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. When a fixed fire-extinguishing system...

  8. 46 CFR 25.30-15 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 25.30-15 Section 25.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-15 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. When a fixed fire-extinguishing system...

  9. 46 CFR 25.30-15 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. 25.30-15 Section 25.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-15 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. When a fixed fire-extinguishing system...

  10. Use of copper powder extinguishers on lithium fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Joseph T.; Burns, R.; Beither, J.; Ouelette, R.; Darwin, R.

    1994-07-01

    The suitability of using copper powder extinguishers for controlling lithium fires resulting from a damaged Mark 50 Torpedo boiler assembly was evaluated. The results indicated that under ideal conditions, i.e., unobstructed access to the fire, copper powder will extinguish burning lithium when applied at the recommended rate of 4.5 kg (10 lb) of copper per 0.45 kg (1 lb) of lithium. However, the presence of obstructions or of high spots on the surface of the burning lithium increases the quantity of copper powder required for extinguishment.

  11. Fire Extinguisher Control System Provides Reliable Cold Weather Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Fast acting, pneumatically and centrally controlled, fire extinguisher /firex/ system is effective in freezing climates. The easy-to-operate system provides a fail-dry function which is activated by an electrical power failure.

  12. 10. Helicopter pad, fire extinguisher at center, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Helicopter pad, fire extinguisher at center, looking southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. 14 CFR 23.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection § 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. (a) For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the... may be used, except for engine(s) embedded in the fuselage, where a “two shot” system is required....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Protection § 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. (a) For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the... may be used, except for engine(s) embedded in the fuselage, where a “two shot” system is required....

  15. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discharge. (e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  16. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discharge. (e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  17. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discharge. (e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  18. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discharge. (e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  19. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discharge. (e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to discharge the extinguishing agent, each container must be installed so that temperature conditions will not cause hazardous deterioration of the pyrotechnic capsule....

  20. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  1. Extinguished operant responding shows stimulus specificity.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Frances K; Murphy, Eric S; Kowal, Benjamin P

    2004-03-31

    The experiment tested for stimulus specificity in extinguished operant responding. Eight pigeons pecked keys for food reinforcers delivered by a variable interval (VI) 60-s schedule. The key was illuminated with red light during some sessions and white light during others. Then, responding was placed on extinction. During some sessions of extinction, the color of the key light remained constant throughout the session (red or white). During other sessions the color changed at 30 min into the session (red to white or white to red). Response rate increased after the change of key color in extinction. If it is assumed that key color is part of the stimulus to which subjects habituate, then these results are consistent with McSweeney and Swindell's [J. Gen. Psychol. 129 (2002) 364] suggestion that responding declines in extinction partly because subjects habituate to the stimuli that support conditioned responding. Habituation is relatively specific to the exact nature of the stimulus presented. Therefore, changes in the stimulus violate stimulus specificity and restore habituated responding. The results are also consistent with other theories that attribute extinction to a reduction of stimulus control [e.g., Psychol. Bull. 114 (1993) 80; J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Process. 16 (1990) 235], but considerations such as parsimony and testability favor the habituation hypothesis over these theories.

  2. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  3. Calculation of fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenyu

    2010-12-01

    The fire extinguishment time is a major factor to evaluate the efficiency of fire extinguishment with water mist. In this paper the fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room is calculated. Before adding water mist, the chemical kinetics plays the role in combustion, where a dimensionless math model is established by using the Semenov theory. After adding water mist, the diffusion plays the role instead. Then another math model containing water mist and dominated by oxygen concentration is established. The fire temperature is integrated from Tm to extinguishment temperature TB and the extinguishment time can be obtained. The calculated values are compared with the experimental data under different conditions. The results show that this model can predict the fire extinguishment time accurately. Besides, this model also can be used to determine the critical water mist flux and evaluate which fire extinguishment mechanisms dominate the extinguishment.

  4. Adsorption of Halogenated Fire-Extinguishing Agents on Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barduhn, Allen J.; Patel, Bhailal S.; Meyer, Walter; Smura, Bronislaw B.

    1960-01-01

    The amounts of four different Freons adsorbed by carbon, silica gel, alumina, and molecular sieves were determined at pressures up to 225 lb/sq in. The carbon adsorbed 50 to 100 percent and the silica gels, 30 to 50 percent of their own weight of Freon. Several adsorbed systems were tested in a standard dry-powder extinguisher on a 5-sq-ft gasoline fire for their effectiveness in putting out a fire. One of the Freons (bromotrifluoromethane) and carbon extinguished fires about as well as bicarbonate powder and nitrogen.

  5. Self-Extinguishing Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Internally Embedded Fire-Extinguishing Microcapsules with Temperature-Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Yim, Taeeun; Park, Min-Sik; Woo, Sang-Gil; Kwon, Hyuk-Kwon; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2015-08-12

    User safety is one of the most critical issues for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles and their further expansion in large-scale energy storage systems. Herein, we propose a novel approach to realize self-extinguishing capability of LIBs for effective safety improvement by integrating temperature-responsive microcapsules containing a fire-extinguishing agent. The microcapsules are designed to release an extinguisher agent upon increased internal temperature of an LIB, resulting in rapid heat absorption through an in situ endothermic reaction and suppression of further temperature rise and undesirable thermal runaway. In a standard nail penetration test, the temperature rise is reduced by 74% without compromising electrochemical performances. It is anticipated that on the strengths of excellent scalability, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness, this novel strategy can be extensively applied to various high energy-density devices to ensure human safety. PMID:26177284

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall...

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as...

  11. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  12. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  13. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  14. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  15. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  16. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162 Section 1910.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed...

  2. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  3. Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus - Flame Extinguishment Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Forman A.; Nayagam, Vedha; Choi, Mun Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus Flame Extinguishment Experiment (MDCA-FLEX) will assess the effectiveness of fire suppressants in microgravity and quantify the effect of different possible crew exploration atmospheres on fire suppression. The goal of this research is to provide definition and direction for large scale fire suppression tests and selection of the fire suppressant for next generation crew exploration vehicles.

  4. Reinstatement of an extinguished fear conditioned response in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Revillo, Damian A; Trebucq, Gastón; Paglini, Maria G; Arias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently accepted that the extinction effect reflects new context-dependent learning, this is not so clear during infancy, because some studies did not find recovery of the extinguished conditioned response (CR) in rodents during this ontogenetic stage. However, recent studies have shown the return of an extinguished CR in infant rats. The present study analyzes the possibility of recovering an extinguished CR with a reinstatement procedure in a fear conditioning paradigm, on PD17 (Experiments 1-4) and on PD24 (Experiment 5), while exploring the role of the olfactory content of the context upon the reinstatement effect during the preweanling period. Preweanling rats expressed a previously extinguished CR after a single experience with an unsignaled US. Furthermore, this result was only found when subjects were trained and tested in contexts that included an explicit odor, but not in standard experimental cages. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated the reinstatement effect on PD24 in a standard context. These results support the notion that extinction during infancy has the same characteristics as those described for extinction that occurs in adulthood. Instead of postulating a different mechanism for extinction during infancy, we propose that it may be more accurate to view the problem in terms of the variables that may differentially modulate the extinction effect according to the stages of ontogeny. PMID:26670181

  5. 1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PIPES AND VALVES AT LEFT. Looking southeast from entrance to terminal room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. For all airplanes with engine(s... agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of each discharge line from a pressure relief connection must be located...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. For all airplanes with engine(s... agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of each discharge line from a pressure relief connection must be located...

  8. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... one space. The quantity of extinguishing agent must be at least sufficient for the space requiring the... outside the space protected by the system; and (ii) Not located in a space that might be inaccessible in the event of fire in the space protected by the system. (2) Except for a normally unoccupied space...

  9. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... one space. The quantity of extinguishing agent must be at least sufficient for the space requiring the... outside the space protected by the system; and (ii) Not located in a space that might be inaccessible in the event of fire in the space protected by the system. (2) Except for a normally unoccupied space...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and foam extinguishers are tested at 350 psi (2,410 kPa). (13) Air or gas pressure may not be used for... that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, then only the... plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR...

  11. 46 CFR 147.67 - Halocarbon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conforming to the requirements of 49 CFR 180.209(g) may be given the complete external visual inspection in... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Halocarbon fire extinguishing systems. 147.67 Section... SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.67 Halocarbon...

  12. 14 CFR 121.263 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing systems. 121.263 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.263 Fire... the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials in the nacelle and...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196.37-23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... stowed shall be marked with a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and...

  14. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... each inspection for certification, periodic inspection, and at such other times as considered necessary... conducted. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the... and semiportable fire-extinguishing systems shall be checked as noted in Table 189.25-20(a)(1)....

  15. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each inspection for certification, periodic inspection, and at such other times as considered necessary... conducted. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the... and semiportable fire-extinguishing systems shall be checked as noted in Table 189.25-20(a)(1)....

  16. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each inspection for certification, periodic inspection, and at such other times as considered necessary... conducted. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the... and semiportable fire-extinguishing systems shall be checked as noted in Table 189.25-20(a)(1)....

  17. 46 CFR 91.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each inspection for certification, periodic inspection and at other times necessary, the inspector will... certification and periodic inspection, the inspector will check fire-extinguishing equipment with the following... systems shall be checked as noted in Table 91.25-20(a)(1). In addition, the hand portable...

  18. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  19. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  20. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....05(c)—Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gallons Foam, gallons Carbon dioxide, pounds Dry chemical, pounds A II 21/2 21/2 B II 21/2 15 10 C II 15 10 B...

  1. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....05(c)—Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gallons Foam, gallons Carbon dioxide, pounds Dry chemical, pounds A II 21/2 21/2 B II 21/2 15 10 C II 15 10 B...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to... that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, then only the... plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to... that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, then only the... plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to... that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, then only the... plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to... that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39 respectively, then only the... plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR...

  6. 46 CFR 95.16-20 - Extinguishing agent: Cylinder storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-20... in 46 CFR 72.05-10. (b) The cylinders may be stored inside the protected space, if: (1) The space... room doors must open outward....

  7. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  8. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  9. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section 1910.161 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section 1910.161 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910.160 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section 1910.161 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section 1910.161 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910.160 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910.160 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910.160 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910.160 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section 1910.161 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  20. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  1. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percentages of water, are of primary importance; (2) “B” for fires of flammable liquids, greases, or other... equipment where the use of a non-conducting extinguishing agent is of primary importance. (c) The number... Classification type-size Foam liters(gallons) Carbon dioxidekilograms (pounds) Dry chemical kilograms(pounds)...

  2. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR...

  3. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Galley hood fire extinguishing systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by 46 CFR 181.400 must meet UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR...

  4. Environmentally Safer, Less Toxic Fire-Extinguishing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2003-01-01

    Fire-extinguishing agents comprising microscopic drops of water microencapsulated in flame-retardant polymers have been proposed as effective, less toxic, non-ozone-depleting, non-globalwarming alternatives to prior fire-extinguishing agents. Among the prior fire-extinguishing agents are halons (various halocarbon fluids), which are toxic and contribute both to depletion of upperatmospheric ozone and to global warming. Other prior fire-extinguishing agents are less toxic and less environmentally harmful but, in comparison with halons, are significantly less effective in extinguishing fires. The proposal to formulate new waterbased agents is based on recent success in the use of water mist as a fire-suppression agent. Water suppresses a flame by reducing the flame temperature and the concentration of oxygen available for the combustion process. The temperature is reduced because the water droplets in the mist absorb latent heat of vaporization as they evaporate. The concentration of oxygen is reduced because the newly generated water vapor displaces air. Unfortunately, water mists are difficult to produce in confined spaces and can evaporate before they reach the bases of flames. The proposal addresses both of these issues: The proposed fire-extinguishing agents would be manufactured in microencapsulated form in advance, eliminating the problem of generating mists in confined spaces. Because of the microencapsulation, the droplets would not evaporate until exposed directly to the heat of flames. In addition, the proposal calls for the introduction of free radicals that would inhibit the propagation of the chemical reactions of the combustion reactions. Manufacturing of a fire-extinguishing agent according to the proposal would begin with the formulation of a suitable polymer (e.g., a polybromostyrene) that would contribute free radicals to the combustion process. The polymer would be dissolved in a suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g., toluene). Water would be

  5. Extinguishing in-flight engine fuel-leak fires with dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fire extinguishant storage temperature requirements were examined for several commercially available dry chemicals. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of dry powder extinguishant that, when discharged into a jet engine fuel leak fire, would stick to the hot surfaces. Moreover, after putting out the initial fire, these extinguishants would act as antireignition catalysts, even when the fuel continued to leak onto the heated surface.

  6. Radio frequency security system, method for a building facility or the like, and apparatus and methods for remotely monitoring the status of fire extinguishers

    DOEpatents

    Runyon, Larry; Gunter, Wayne M.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2006-07-25

    A system for remotely monitoring the status of one or more fire extinguishers includes means for sensing at least one parameter of each of the fire extinguishers; means for selectively transmitting the sensed parameters along with information identifying the fire extinguishers from which the parameters were sensed; and means for receiving the sensed parameters and identifying information for the fire extinguisher or extinguishers at a common location. Other systems and methods for remotely monitoring the status of multiple fire extinguishers are also provided.

  7. Next-generation fire extinguishing agent. Phase 2: Laboratory tests and scoping trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapscott, Robert E.; May, John H.; Moore, Joanne P.; Lee, Michael E.; Walker, Joseph L.

    1990-04-01

    Concepts were orginated for next-generation fire extinguishing agents. In Phase 2, laboratory tests and scoping trials were performed to initiate a program for replacement of halon fire extinguishants in Air Force fire protection and firefighter training. Facilities were also established to perform laser Raman spectroscopic investigations of flame suppression halon agents, and initial, baseline Raman studies were carried out.

  8. Material and methods for oil spill control and cleanup and extinguishing petroleum fires

    SciTech Connect

    States, J. B.

    1981-02-03

    A dispersal medium is described for cleaning of oil spills and the like and extinguishing petroleum fires. Its major quantitative part consists of a household liquid detergent and also contains eucalyptus oil, bovine urine, alfalfa and vitamin b-6. Methods of oil spill clean-up and fire extinguishing are also described.

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the spaces occupied by passengers and crew. (3) In all public spaces fire extinguishers shall be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  11. 46 CFR 131.825 - Controls of fire-extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controls of fire-extinguishing system. 131.825 Section 131.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.825 Controls of fire-extinguishing system. Each control cabinet or space...

  12. 46 CFR 34.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL 34.50-20 Section 34.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers—TB/ALL (a) The frame...

  13. 46 CFR 34.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL 34.50-20 Section 34.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers—TB/ALL (a) The frame...

  14. 46 CFR 34.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL 34.50-20 Section 34.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers—TB/ALL (a) The frame...

  15. 46 CFR 34.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL 34.50-20 Section 34.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers—TB/ALL (a) The frame...

  16. 46 CFR 34.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers-TB/ALL 34.50-20 Section 34.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers—TB/ALL (a) The frame...

  17. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23 normal... fire extinguishing system for the engine on the model SF50 is required. Regulations requiring...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.506 Hazards of fixed... must retest the atmosphere in accordance with § 1915.12 to ensure that the oxygen levels are safe for... extinguishing systems for fire protection. If fixed manual extinguishing systems are used to provide...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.506 Hazards of fixed... must retest the atmosphere in accordance with § 1915.12 to ensure that the oxygen levels are safe for... extinguishing systems for fire protection. If fixed manual extinguishing systems are used to provide...

  20. Development of the International Space Station Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Young, GIna

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segments, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational and compatibility concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. ISS emergency response breathing equipment does not filter carbon dioxide; therefore, crew members are required to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event since the carbon dioxide PFE creates an unsafe breathing environment. The ISS program recommended a nontoxic fire extinguisher to mitigate this operational risk. The FWM PFE can extinguish a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crewmembers. This paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, and discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  1. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  2. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  3. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  4. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing....45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) General requirements. (1...) At annual inspections, all carbon dioxide (CO2) cylinders, whether fixed or portable, shall...

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  8. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  9. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  10. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  12. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  13. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and...

  16. Portable Extinguishers. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-4-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on portable extinguishers is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 8-hour unit is to familiarize fire fighters with all types of extinguishers. An instructor's guide…

  17. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers shall be checked by weighing to determine contents and if found to be more than 10 percent under required contents of carbon dioxide shall be recharged. Pump tank fire... acid, used in charging soda-and-acid type of fire extinguishers, shall be packed in such manner...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers shall be checked by weighing to determine contents and if found to be more than 10 percent under required contents of carbon dioxide shall be recharged. Pump tank fire... acid, used in charging soda-and-acid type of fire extinguishers, shall be packed in such manner...

  19. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  20. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  1. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  7. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, V.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B. K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Sodium cooled Fast breeder Reactors (SFRs), accidental leakage of liquid sodium leads to sodium fire. Carbon microsphere is a promising and novel extinguishant for sodium fire since it possesses high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and excellent flow characteristics. Low density Carbon microsphere (CMS) with high thermal stability was successfully synthesized from functionalized styrene divinyl benzene copolymer by carbonization under inert atmosphere. Protocol for stepwise carbonization was developed by optimizing heating rate and time of heating. The synthesized CMS was characterized by Densimeter, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN spectroscopy. CMS thus obtained was spherical in shape having diameters ranging between 60 to 80μm with narrow size distribution. The smooth surface of CMS ensures its free flow characteristics. The yield of carbonization process was about 38%. The performance of CMS was tested on small scale sodium. This paper describes the development of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire and its characteristics.

  9. Study of toxicological evaluation of fire suppressants and extinguishers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The application of fluorocarbons as possible candidates for fire extinguishers and/or suppressants in confined spaces (such as spacecraft, aircraft, or submarines) was investigated, with special emphasis on their safety to man since they would be inhaled on an almost continuous basis. Short-term exposure experiments, using various animal species, were devised to look at specific parameters in order to determine which of the candidate compounds were sufficiently non-toxic to warrant long-term investigations. The following physiologic criteria were examined; tissue distribution, fluoride concentration, effect on mitochondria, microsomes, liposomes, and liver cell nuclei, erythrocyte fragility, clinical chemistry values, hematology, pathology, cardiac sensitization, behavioral effects. Various rodent species were used for initial investigations, with non-human primate exposures for Freon 116 which was warranted for negative results on rodents. Various types of exposure chambers were used, including closed dynamic chambers allowing for a recirculating atmosphere.

  10. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Graf, John; Carlile, Christie; Young, GIna

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. The toxicity of the carbon dioxide requires the crew members to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event, therefore inherently creating an unsafe environment. The FWM PFE extinguishes a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crew members. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, as well as discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  11. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri with fire extinguisher during JSC exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, wearing leather gloves, directs fire extinguisher spray during fire fighting exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit. The crew learned about the various types of extinguishers and the kinds of fires for which they are best suited. The array of extinguishers were props for a lengthy training session designed to familiarize the crewmembers on proper means of fighting potential ground fires. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  12. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the temperature, or the heat

  13. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the

  14. 46 CFR 181.420 - Pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extinguishing system must: (1) Be approved by the Commandant; (2) Be capable of manual actuation from outside...) A light to indicate discharge; (2) An audible alarm that sounds upon discharge; and (3) A means...

  15. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acid, used in charging soda-and-acid type of fire extinguishers, shall be packed in such manner that... examined at each annual inspection to determine that it is still in good condition. Soda-and-acid and...

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acid, used in charging soda-and-acid type of fire extinguishers, shall be packed in such manner that... examined at each annual inspection to determine that it is still in good condition. Soda-and-acid and...

  17. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acid, used in charging soda-and-acid type of fire extinguishers, shall be packed in such manner that... examined at each annual inspection to determine that it is still in good condition. Soda-and-acid and...

  18. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher ICES Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Carlile, Christie; Graf, John; Young, Gina

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. FWM extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE. In addition, the NASA ISS specific fire standards will be described which were developed to establish acceptable extinguisher performance. The paper will also discuss the flight hardware design. The fin e water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface have been under development for several years. They have gone through several design iterations, and have been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The

  19. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. From a flight hardware design perspective, the fine water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface has been under development for several years. It has gone through several design iterations, and has been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The crew and vehicle interface aspects of the design will use the heritage of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher, to minimize the disruption to the crew and integration impacts to the ISS. The microgravity use environment of the system poses a set of unique design requirements

  20. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  1. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deep fat fryers. (c) Each enclosed space containing internal combustion or gas turbine machinery with... spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? 149.413 Section 149.413 Navigation and Navigable Waters... manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? The manned deepwater...

  2. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deep fat fryers. (c) Each enclosed space containing internal combustion or gas turbine machinery with... spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? 149.413 Section 149.413 Navigation and Navigable Waters... manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? The manned deepwater...

  3. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deep fat fryers. (c) Each enclosed space containing internal combustion or gas turbine machinery with... spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? 149.413 Section 149.413 Navigation and Navigable Waters... manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? The manned deepwater...

  4. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deep fat fryers. (c) Each enclosed space containing internal combustion or gas turbine machinery with... spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? 149.413 Section 149.413 Navigation and Navigable Waters... manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? The manned deepwater...

  5. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deep fat fryers. (c) Each enclosed space containing internal combustion or gas turbine machinery with... spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? 149.413 Section 149.413 Navigation and Navigable Waters... manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system? The manned deepwater...

  6. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Extinguishing of Cooking Related Fires to Individuals with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Gustafson, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach fire extinguishing behaviors to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three fire extinguishing behaviors and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based program. Results indicate that…

  7. Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in the Reinstatement and Extinction of Fear Responses to a Previously Extinguished Conditioned Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the reinstatement and extinction of fear responses (freezing) to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS). In Experiment 1, BLA inactivation before pairing the extinguished CS with the shock unconditioned stimulus (US) or before US-alone exposure impaired…

  8. Relapse of Extinguished Fear after Exposure to a Dangerous Context Is Mitigated by Testing in a Safe Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Travis D.; Kim, Janice J.; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events can trigger relapse of extinguished fear memories, presenting a major challenge to the long-term efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined factors regulating the relapse of extinguished fear after exposure of rats to a dangerous context. Rats received unsignaled shock in a distinct context ("dangerous"…

  9. Potential of fire extinguisher powder as a filler in bituminous mixes.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Filippo Giammaria; Moro, Antonino; Ammendola, Rachele

    2010-01-15

    Fire extinguishers must be maintained at regular intervals and many problems arise when fire-resistant dry powders need replacement. We analyze the potential of fire extinguisher powder (termed REP) as a filler in bituminous mixes. REP and REP-admixed bituminous mixes were subjected to chemical analysis, and the mechanical properties and environmental performances of the mixes were tested. Mixes with different REP contents were prepared. Mechanical performance was adequate and environmental compatibility was achieved. Practical applications and perspectives in rehabilitation, maintenance, and research are outlined.

  10. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the weight loss of net content exceeds... weight loss exceeds 10% of weight of charge. Test time delays, alarms, and ventilation shutdowns with.... Inspect hoses and nozzles to be sure they are clean. Halon Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight...

  11. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the weight loss of net content exceeds... cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of the weight of the charge. Test time delays, alarms, and... if weight loss exceeds 5 percent of the weight of the charge or if cylinder has a pressure...

  12. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the weight loss of net content exceeds... cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of the weight of the charge. Test time delays, alarms, and... if weight loss exceeds 5 percent of the weight of the charge or if cylinder has a pressure...

  13. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and halon portable fire extinguishers must be refilled when the weight loss of net content exceeds... weight loss exceeds 10% of weight of charge. Test time delays, alarms, and ventilation shutdowns with.... Inspect hoses and nozzles to be sure they are clean. Halon Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight...

  14. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10 Locations... the open so as to be readily seen. Table 145.10(a)—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers Space.... accommodations Sleeping accommodations A-II 1 in each sleeping accommodation space. (Where occupied by more...

  15. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10 Locations... the open so as to be readily seen. Table 145.10(a)—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers Space.... accommodations Sleeping accommodations A-II 1 in each sleeping accommodation space. (Where occupied by more...

  16. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10 Locations... the open so as to be readily seen. Table 145.10(a)—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers Space.... accommodations Sleeping accommodations A-II 1 in each sleeping accommodation space. (Where occupied by more...

  17. 46 CFR 34.05-10 - Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL. 34.05-10 Section 34.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Firefighting Equipment, Where Required § 34.05-10 Portable and semiportable extinguishers—TB/ALL. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 34.05-10 - Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL. 34.05-10 Section 34.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Firefighting Equipment, Where Required § 34.05-10 Portable and semiportable extinguishers—TB/ALL. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 34.05-10 - Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL. 34.05-10 Section 34.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Firefighting Equipment, Where Required § 34.05-10 Portable and semiportable extinguishers—TB/ALL. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 34.05-10 - Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL. 34.05-10 Section 34.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Firefighting Equipment, Where Required § 34.05-10 Portable and semiportable extinguishers—TB/ALL. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 34.05-10 - Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable and semiportable extinguishers-TB/ALL. 34.05-10 Section 34.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Firefighting Equipment, Where Required § 34.05-10 Portable and semiportable extinguishers—TB/ALL. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the open so as to be readily seen. Table 145.10(a)—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers Space.... accommodations Sleeping accommodations A-II 1 in each sleeping accommodation space. (Where occupied by more than 4 persons.) services spaces Galleys B-II or C-II 1 for each 2,500 square feet or fraction...

  3. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 149.409—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers, Minimum Quantity and Location Space Classification... exit. (b) Accommodation Spaces: (1) Sleeping quarters A-II One in each sleeping space that fits more than four persons. (c) Service Spaces: (1) Galleys B-II or CII One for each 2,500 square feet...

  4. 78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Corporation. DATES: This special condition published on April 20, 2010 at 75 FR 20518 is withdrawn, effective... model SF50 certification project was granted an extension on September 19, 2011. Amendment 23-62 (76 FR...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal...

  5. 76 FR 31798 - Airworthiness Directives; L'Hotellier Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections. 1915.506 Section 1915.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  7. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  8. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  9. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  10. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  11. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  12. Mechanisms of Resurgence II: Response-Contingent Reinforcers Can Reinstate a Second Extinguished Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with rat subjects examined resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response using the procedure introduced by Epstein (1983) with pigeons. There were three phases: (1) initial acquisition of pressing on a lever (L1) for pellet reward, (2) extinction of L1, and (3) a test session in which a second lever (L2) was inserted,…

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  17. A kinetic model for human blood concentrations of gaseous halocarbon fire-extinguishing agents.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Speitel, Louise C

    2010-12-01

    A simple kinetic model for calculating the blood concentration history of humans exposed to time-varying concentrations of gaseous, halocarbon fire-extinguishing agents is described. The kinetic model was developed to extend experimental physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for arterial blood concentration of halocarbons, obtained from constant concentration exposure of dogs to time-varying exposure conditions for humans. In the present work, the simplified kinetic model was calibrated using published PBPK-derived arterial concentration histories for constant concentration exposure to several common fire-extinguishing agents. The calibrated kinetic model was then used to predict the blood concentration histories of humans exposed to time-varying concentrations of these fire-extinguishing agents in ventilated compartments and the results were compared with PBPK-derived data for the agents. It was found that the properly calibrated kinetic model predicts human arterial blood concentration histories for time-varying exposures as well as the PBPK models. Consequently, the kinetic model represents an economical methodology for calculating safe human exposure limits for time-varying concentrations of gaseous halocarbon fire-extinguishing agents when only PBPK-derived human arterial blood concentration histories for constant exposure conditions are available.

  18. 25 CFR 138.5 - Assessments after the Indian title has been extinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assessments after the Indian title has been extinguished. 138.5 Section 138.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, AHTANUM UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON §...

  19. 25 CFR 139.5 - Assessments after the Indian title has been extinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assessments after the Indian title has been extinguished. 139.5 Section 139.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, WAPATO-SATUS UNIT, WAPATO INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, WASHINGTON §...

  20. Experimental investigation of foam spread and extinguishment of the large-scale methanol pool fire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Lu; Bi, Yixing; Xu, Dajun; Zhi, Huiqiang; Qiu, Peifang

    2015-04-28

    A steel channel with the size of 30m×2 m×1.2m has been made to simulate the full surface fire of a 50,000m(3) methanol tank. Several large-scale methanol fire extinguishment experiments have been conducted under different foam application rates and foam concentrations in order to investigate the flow length, flow velocity and fire extinguishing effectiveness of the alcohol-resistant foam. The result showed that the alcohol-resistant aqueous film forming foam (AFFF/AR) and alcohol-resistant fluoro-protein foam (FP/AR) could flow beyond 30m on the burning methanol surface and extinguish the fire successfully even with the foam application rate of 4Lmin(-1)m(-2). Under the same condition, the fire extinguishing performance of AFFF/AR was better than FP/AR, and the flow velocity of AFFF/AR on the burning methanol surface was 0.203ms(-1), while the value of FP/AR was 0.082ms(-1).

  1. Protection from Extinction by Concurrent Presentation of an Excitor or an Extensively Extinguished CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2007-01-01

    One conditioned taste aversion experiment with rats assessed the impact of extinguishing a target conditioned stimulus (CS), S, in compound with a second CS, A, upon conditioned responding elicited by CS S when presented alone at test. Following initial conditioning treatment with CSs A and S, the experiment manipulated number of extinction trials…

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. 75.1107-8 Section 75.1107-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-8 Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. 75.1107-8 Section 75.1107-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-8 Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163 Section 1910.163 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.163...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-10 - Fire extinguishing system branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system branch lines. 196.37-10 Section 196.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... permanently marked indicating the spaces served....

  6. 25 CFR 166.421 - If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Late Rental Payment Collections § 166.421 If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish...

  7. 25 CFR 166.421 - If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Late Rental Payment Collections § 166.421 If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish...

  8. 25 CFR 166.421 - If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Late Rental Payment Collections § 166.421 If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish...

  9. 25 CFR 166.421 - If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Late Rental Payment Collections § 166.421 If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish...

  10. 25 CFR 166.421 - If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Late Rental Payment Collections § 166.421 If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish...

  11. Differential activity of a tissue-specific extinguisher locus in hepatic and nonhepatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gourdeau, H; Peterson, T C; Fournier, R E

    1989-01-01

    Tissue-specific extinguisher 1 (Tse-1) is a genetic locus on mouse chromosome 11 that can repress expression of several liver genes in trans. This locus is clearly active in fibroblasts, as hepatoma cells retaining fibroblast chromosome 11 are extinguished for both tyrosine aminotransferase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. To assess the activity of Tse-1 in other tissues, we transferred mouse chromosome 11 from several different cell types into rat hepatoma recipients. Tse-1 was active in nonhepatic cell lines derived from each primary germ layer, but Tse-1 activity was not apparent in hybrids between hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. These differences in the genetic activity of murine Tse-1 were apparently heritable in cis. Images PMID:2568581

  12. Differential activity of a tissue-specific extinguisher locus in hepatic and nonhepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Gourdeau, H; Peterson, T C; Fournier, R E

    1989-05-01

    Tissue-specific extinguisher 1 (Tse-1) is a genetic locus on mouse chromosome 11 that can repress expression of several liver genes in trans. This locus is clearly active in fibroblasts, as hepatoma cells retaining fibroblast chromosome 11 are extinguished for both tyrosine aminotransferase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. To assess the activity of Tse-1 in other tissues, we transferred mouse chromosome 11 from several different cell types into rat hepatoma recipients. Tse-1 was active in nonhepatic cell lines derived from each primary germ layer, but Tse-1 activity was not apparent in hybrids between hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. These differences in the genetic activity of murine Tse-1 were apparently heritable in cis.

  13. Power packs: A passive approach to extinguishing fire in combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnerty, Anthony E.; Polyanski, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    Thin (12.7 and 6.4 mm) panels of fire extinguishing powder in a honeycomb matrix were tested for their ability to extinguish fires in the FAASV ammunition resupply vehicle. These powder packs were applied to the exterior of hydraulic fluid reservoirs and fuel cells for protection from hydrocarbon fires caused by shaped charge jets penetrating the fluid containers. It was found that a surround of 12.7-mm-thick panels was required to achieve a sub 250-ms fire-out time with no second-degree burns expected to personnel with hot hydraulic fluid reservoirs. Power packs as thin as 6.4 mm provided the same protection in the case of hot diesel fuel.

  14. Experimental Analysis of the Feasibility of Polydisperse Droplet Water Flow Using at Fire Extinguishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitkov, Ivan S.; Zabelin, Maxim V.; Zhdanova, Alena O.

    2016-02-01

    With use of modern diagnostic methods the experimental researches of the process of the sprayed water evaporation at its movement through a flame of the fixed height was conducted. The change ranges of the main integrated evaporation characteristics of the sprayed water droplets (rates, sizes, concentration in a flow) are established. It is shown that at the extinguishing of fires the most expedient decision is the use of polydisperse droplet flows.

  15. Prefrontal oscillations during recall of conditioned and extinguished fear in humans.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Erik M; Panitz, Christian; Hermann, Christiane; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2014-05-21

    Human neuroimaging studies indicate that the anterior midcingulate cortex (AMC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) play important roles in the expression and extinction of fear, respectively. Electrophysiological rodent studies further indicate that oscillatory neuronal activity in homolog regions (i.e., prelimbic and infralimbic cortices) changes during fear expression and fear extinction recall. Whether similar processes occur in humans remains largely unexplored. By assessing scalp surface EEG in conjunction with LORETA source estimation of CS-related theta and gamma activity, we tested whether a priori defined ROIs in the human AMC and vmPFC similarly modulate their oscillatory activity during fear expression and extinction recall, respectively. To this end, 42 healthy individuals underwent a differential conditioning/differential extinction protocol with a Recall Test on the next day. In the Recall Test, nonextinguished versus extinguished stimuli evoked an increased differential (CS(+) vs CS(-)) response with regard to skin conductance and AMC-localized theta power. Conversely, extinguished versus nonextinguished stimuli evoked an increased differential response with regard to vmPFC-localized gamma power. Finally, individuals who failed to show a suppressed skin conductance response to the extinguished versus nonextinguished CS(+) also failed to show the otherwise observed alterations in vmPFC gamma power to extinguished CS(+). These results indicate that fear expression is associated with AMC theta activity, whereas successful fear extinction recall relates to changes in vmPFC gamma activity. The present work thereby bridges findings from prior rodent electrophysiological research and human neuroimaging studies and indicates that EEG is a valuable tool for future fear extinction research.

  16. Extinguishment of a Methane Air Diffusion Flame by Using Blast Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, H.; Saito, S.; Ito, A.

    After the occurrence of a large-scale disaster such as the Great East Japan Earthquake, multiple simultaneous fires, consisting of diffusion flames, often break out. At the same time, infrastructure, such as water utilization for firefighting, roads and etc., is destroyed violently by the disaster impact. Therefore, it is difficult to use conventional firefighting techniques against the post-disaster fires. To mitigate and minimize the damages, the development of a new firefighting method which can extinguish each fire promptly is needed.

  17. Effects of scopolamine, physostigmine and chlordiazepoxide on punished and extinguished water consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Miczek, K A; Lau, P

    1975-06-19

    It has been postulated that behavioral inhibition due to punishment or extinction may be mediated by brain acetylcholine, and drugs which have disinhibitory action are thought to interact with this system. This notion was tested by comparing the effects of scopolamine, physostigmine and chlordiazepoxide on punished and extinguished water consumption. Scopolamine hydrobromide (0.3, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a centrally and peripherally acting antimuscarinic agent and physostigmine sulfate, (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), a centrally and peripherally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, lowered both non-punished and punishment suppressed water intake and lick rate, whereas their quaternary analogs which primarily act in the periphery, had no significant effect at comparable dose levels. Scopolamine and physostigmine suppressed punished water consumption at lower dose levels than nonpunished intake. In contrast, chlordiazepoxide (5.0, 10.0, 20.0 mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced punished as well as non-punished water intake. In a further experiment comparing punishment and extinction suppression, scopolamine and physostigmine did not affect punished or extinguished water intake; chlordiazepoxide (5.0, 10.0, 20.0 mg/kg) reliably increased punished, but not extinguished licking on the water nozzle. These results suggest (1) that scopolamine and chlordiazepoxide do not act via a common mechanism, and (2) that punishment and extinction suppression are not a pharmacological entity. PMID:1161984

  18. Detailed Results from the Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) March 2009 to December 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Nayagam, M. Vedha; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Choi, Mun Y.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) program is a continuing set of experiments on droplet combustion, performed employing the Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA), inside the chamber of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), which is located in the Destiny module of the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the experimental hardware, the diagnostic equipment, the experimental procedures, and the methods of data analysis for FLEX. It also presents the results of the first 284 tests performed. The intent is not to interpret the experimental results but rather to make them available to the entire scientific community for possible future interpretations.

  19. Experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of water mist automated fire extinguishing systems for oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Nyashina, G. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Volkov, R. S.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigation of regularities of carryover of water mist droplets (radius of 50 - 500 μm) by high temperature (500 - 1800 K) products of combustion of typical petroleum products (oil, gasoline, kerosene, etc.) was carried out. The panoramic optical methods and high-speed hardware and software systems were used. Speeds of droplets after mixing with oncoming high temperature gases were determined. Conditions of continuation of droplets movement through combustion products with preservation of initial trajectory in spite of intensive evaporation and braking were found. The predictive evaluation of effectiveness of water mist use for extinguishing of fires involving oil and typical petroleum products.

  20. 46 CFR 27.305 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for on or after... for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was...-V semi-portable fire-extinguishing system to protect the engine room. (b) You must have a fixed...

  1. Mechanisms of resurgence II: Response-contingent reinforcers can reinstate a second extinguished behavior

    PubMed Central

    Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with rat subjects examined resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response using the procedure introduced by Epstein (1983) with pigeons. There were three phases: (1) initial acquisition of pressing on a lever (L1) for pellet reward, (2) extinction of L1, and (3) a test session in which a second lever (L2) was inserted, briefly reinforced, and then extinguished. Experiment 1 confirmed that if pressing L2 delivered 20 pellets followed by extinction, rats would resume L1 responding in the final test. Experiment 2 compared the effects of response-contingent and non-contingent rewards delivered upon insertion of L2. Although insertion of L2 alone did not increase L1 responding, response-contingent and non-contingent rewards led to comparable increases in L1 responding. Experiment 3 found that the delivery of non-contingent pellets during extinction of L1, which would be expected to reduce the ability of pellets to set the occasion for the L1 response, also reduced the effects of both response-contingent and non-contingent rewards during the final test. The results indicate that in this method, the resurgence treatment leads to an increase in L1 pressing due to simple presentation of the pellet; delivering the reinforcer after extinction of L1 reinstates L1 responding by setting the occasion for the L1 response. PMID:21479120

  2. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... (IASFPWG) to draft a revision to the current AC 20-42C, issued on March 1984, by incorporating...

  3. Memory Is Not Extinguished along with CS Presentation but within a Few Seconds after CS-Offset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Cuesta, Luis Maria; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following…

  4. 46 CFR 27.303 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in inland service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in inland service, and on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for before August 27, 2003? 27.303 Section 27.303 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED...

  5. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  6. 46 CFR 27.303 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in inland service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipment on towing vessels in inland service, and on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose..., and on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for before August... semi-portable fire-extinguishing system to protect the engine room; or (2) A fixed...

  7. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  8. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide and Helium as Fire Extinguishing Agents for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of radiation heat transfer in microgravity compared to convection heat transfer in earth gravity for opposed-flow (downward) over thermally-thick fuel using low density foam fuel were investigated. Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally-thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large flame spread rate compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. And thereby valid microgravity results were obtained even in 2.2 second drop-tower experiments not to mention for the longer duration tests in Zero Gravity Facility. Contrast to the conventional understanding, it was found that steady flame spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when radiatively-active diluent gases such as CO2 were employed. This is proposed to result from radiative heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface, which could lead to steady spread even when the amount of the heat transfer via conduction from the flame to the fuel bed is negligible. Radiative effects are more significant at microgravity conditions because the flame is thicker and thus the volume of radiating combustion products is larger as well. These results suggested that helium may be a better inert or extinguishment agent on both a mass and a mole bases at microgravity even though CO2 is much better on a mole bases at earth gravity, and these are relevant to studies of fire safety in manned spacecraft, particularly the International Space Station that uses CO2 fire extinguishers. CO2 may not be as effective as an extinguishing agent at microgravity as it is at earth gravity in some conditions because of the differences in spread mechanisms between the two cases. In particular, the difference between conduction-dominated heat transport to the fuel bed at earth gravity and radiation-dominated heat transport at microgravity indicates that radiatively-inert diluent such as helium could be preferable in

  9. Pressure Effects on the Self-Extinguishment Limits of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Haas, Jon P.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Module (CM) is being designed to operate in an atmosphere of up to 30% oxygen at a pressure of 10.2 psia for lunar missions. Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a closed chamber under the worst expected conditions of pressure and oxygen concentration. Material flammability depends on both oxygen concentration and pressure but, since oxygen concentration is the primary driver, all materials are certified in the 30% oxygen, 10.2 psia environment. Extensive data exist from the Shuttle Program at this condition which used relatively the same test methodology as currently used in the Constellation Program. When the CM returns to Earth, a snorkel device will be activated after splashdown to provide outside air to the crew; however, for operational reasons, it is desirable to maximize the time the crew is able to breathe cabin air before the snorkel device is activated. To maximize this time, it has been proposed to raise the partial pressure of oxygen in the CM immediately before reentry while maintaining the total cabin pressure at 14.7 psia. In addition, it has been proposed to leak-test the Orion CM with ambient air at a maximum pressure of 17.3 psia. No data exist to assess how high the cabin oxygen concentration can be at 14.7 psia or 17.3 psia. One is to re-test a large number of materials at these pressures at a significant cost. However, since the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which a material will self-extinguish has been determined for a variety of spacecraft materials as a function of pressure, a second alternative is to use existing data to estimate the MOC at 14.7 psia and 17.3 psia. This data will be examined in this paper and an analysis presented to determine the oxygen concentrations at the increased pressures that will result in self-extinguishment of a material. This analysis showed that the oxygen concentration for the Orion CM at 14.7 psia cannot be set higher

  10. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide and Helium as Fire Extinguishing Agents for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of radiation heat transfer in microgravity compared to convection heat transfer in earth gravity for opposed-flow (downward) over thermally-thick fuel using low density foam fuel were investigated. Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally-thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large flame spread rate compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. And thereby valid microgravity results were obtained even in 2.2 second drop-tower experiments not to mention for the longer duration tests in Zero Gravity Facility. Contrast to the conventional understanding, it was found that steady flame spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when radiatively-active diluent gases such as CO2 were employed. This is proposed to result from radiative heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface, which could lead to steady spread even when the amount of the heat transfer via conduction from the flame to the fuel bed is negligible. Radiative effects are more significant at microgravity conditions because the flame is thicker and thus the volume of radiating combustion products is larger as well. These results suggested that helium may be a better inert or extinguishment agent on both a mass and a mole bases at microgravity even though CO2 is much better on a mole bases at earth gravity, and these are relevant to studies of fire safety in manned spacecraft, particularly the International Space Station that uses CO2 fire extinguishers. CO2 may not be as effective as an extinguishing agent at g as it is at earth gravity in some conditions because of the differences in spread mechanisms between the two cases. In particular, the difference between conduction-dominated heat transport to the fuel bed at earth gravity and radiation-dominated heat transport at g indicates that radiatively-inert diluent such as helium could be preferable in g applications. Helium may be a

  11. A developmental dissociation of context and GABA effects on extinguished fear in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Richardson, Rick

    2007-02-01

    Although extinction has attracted considerable attention in recent years, there has been very little empirical work on extinction during development. Using Pavlovian fear conditioning, the authors provide evidence for developmental differences in extinction. Specifically, Postnatal Day (PND) 23 rats exhibited recovery of an extinguished freezing response to an auditory conditioned stimulus when tested in a context different from that in which extinction occurred (i.e., renewal) or when injected with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) inverse agonist FG7142 prior to test. In contrast, PND 16 rats failed to exhibit either of these effects, although a subsequent experiment demonstrated that FG7142 alleviated spontaneous forgetting in PND 16 rats. Taken together, it appears that there are fundamental differences in the processes involved in extinction across development.

  12. Possibility of increasing the fire-suppression efficiency of the foam in automatic extinguishing installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachanov, I. V.; Veremenyuk, V. V.; Karpenchuk, I. V.; Pavlyukov, S. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanics of movement of a liquid in the diffuser of the injector of an automatic extinguishing installation with preaeration of the fire-fighting substance was theoretically investigated. An integral solution of the equation for movement of the preaerated fire-fighting gas-liquid mixture in the indicated diffuser has been obtained. A mathematical model of two-phase liquid flow in this diffuser, which allows one to calculate the distribution of the average pressure in the diffuser along its length and to determine the loss in this pressure, has been developed. This model can be used for designing the output region of a hydraulic system with a hydrodynamic drag providing the operation of its injector in a definite regime.

  13. Flow of nitrogen-pressurized Halon 1301 in fire extinguishing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.; Garrison, P. W.; Klein, G. A.; Moran, K. M.; Zydowicz, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Halon 1301 which is a halocarbon fire extinguishing agent (CBrF3) used by the U.S. Army for vehicle fire suppression is discussed. Halon 1301 is discharged under nitrogen pressure, and the Halon-nitrogen mixture is a two phase, two component mixture that obeys compressible fluid laws and exhibits choking effects. A computer model was developed to analyze the discharge of Halon and nitrogen from a storage bottle through pipes and nozzles. The model agrees well with data from Halon 1301 discharge tests. The discharge time depends mainly on nozzle area and pipe volume, for given initial conditions. Graphs were developed for estimating discharge times. A nozzle employing multiple concentric converging/diverging nozzles was developed which gave hemispherical coverage.

  14. Influence of carbon dioxide on electronic equipment: Fire extinguishing with low concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, M.; Persson, H.

    Discharge tests and a literature survey have been conducted to investigate the risk for damage on electrical equipment due to low temperatures and electrostatic charges when carbon dioxide (CO2) fire protection systems are operated. The work concentrated on total flooding systems. No indication of adverse effects from CO2 on electrical equipment has been found. Fire tests in a 21.8 cu m room with a computer, electrical cables, or waste paper respectively was performed to investigate the needed CO2 concentration for extinction. At the lowest concentration tested, 26 to 28 volume percent, the fires in the computer and in the cables were extinguished satisfactorily. The fire in the paper reignited when the room was ventilated again.

  15. Ergonomic evaluation of the operating characteristics of the 6MF-30 portable pneumatic extinguisher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linjie; Li, Wenbin; Chen, Jinglian

    2015-11-01

    The 6MF-30 portable pneumatic extinguisher, which is one of the most widely used pieces of equipment for fighting forest fires in China, can produce great physical discomfort for the wearer. To mitigate the physical discomfort associated with the use of the 6MF-30, the operating characteristics of this machine were ergonomically evaluated. Fourteen subjects were instructed to operate the 6MF-30 portable pneumatic extinguisher using three different carrying postures (oblique strap, vertical strap and no strap) two different motions (stationary and swinging) during a simulated firefighting task. Dependent measures included heart rate (HR), electromyography (EMG) data and a subjective assessment (measured as the degree of fatigue in the left arm, right arm and waist). The EMG data were acquired from the palmaris longus and the biceps brachii of the left arm of each subject. Variance analysis indicated that the effects of the carrying posture on the HR (p < 0.001), the EMG data of the left arm (the p value of the palmaris longus is 0.001 and the p value of the biceps brachii is 0.015), and the degree of fatigue of the left and right arms (p < 0.001) were significant, while the effects of motion on all of the dependent measures, and the effects of carrying posture on the degree of fatigue of the waist were not significant. The effect of an oblique strap on the whole-body load is minimal, and the use of the equipment without a strap produced significantly greater physical discomfort for the wearer than did the oblique strap and the vertical strap. The results suggest that the strap of the 6MF-30 can help Chinese forest firefighters to lessen physical stress when operating the 6MF-30, and the use of the oblique strap should be adopted as the standard position.

  16. Failure to extinguish fear and genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Heitland, I; Klumpers, F; Oosting, R S; Evers, D J J; Leon Kenemans, J; Baas, J M P

    2012-01-01

    Failure to extinguish fear can lead to persevering anxiety and has been postulated as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of human anxiety disorders. In animals, it is well documented that the endogenous cannabinoid system has a pivotal role in the successful extinction of fear, most importantly through the cannabinoid receptor 1. However, no human studies have reported a translation of this preclinical evidence yet. Healthy medication-free human subjects (N=150) underwent a fear conditioning and extinction procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex was measured to assess fear-conditioned responding, and subjective fear ratings were collected. Participants were genotyped for two polymorphisms located within the promoter region (rs2180619) and the coding region (rs1049353) of cannabinoid receptor 1. As predicted from the preclinical literature, acquisition and expression of conditioned fear did not differ between genotypes. Crucially, whereas both homozygote (G/G, N=23) and heterozygote (A/G, N=68) G-allele carriers of rs2180619 displayed robust extinction of fear, extinction of fear-potentiated startle was absent in A/A homozygotes (N=51). Additionally, this resistance to extinguish fear left A/A carriers of rs2180619 with significantly higher levels of fear-potentiated startle at the end of the extinction training. No effects of rs1049353 genotype were observed regarding fear acquisition and extinction. These results suggest for the first time involvement of the human endocannabinoid system in fear extinction. Implications are that genetic variability in this system may underlie individual differences in anxiety, rendering cannabinoid receptor 1 a potential target for novel pharmacological treatments of anxiety disorders. PMID:23010766

  17. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytkov, Ivan V.; Zabelin, Maksim V.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  18. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  19. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  20. Relapse of extinguished fear after exposure to a dangerous context is mitigated by testing in a safe context.

    PubMed

    Goode, Travis D; Kim, Janice J; Maren, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Aversive events can trigger relapse of extinguished fear memories, presenting a major challenge to the long-term efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined factors regulating the relapse of extinguished fear after exposure of rats to a dangerous context. Rats received unsignaled shock in a distinct context ("dangerous" context) 24 h prior to auditory fear conditioning in another context. Fear to the auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) was subsequently extinguished either in the conditioning context ("ambiguous" context) or in a third novel context ("safe" context). Exposure to the dangerous context 30 min before a CS retention test caused relapse to the CS in the ambiguous and safe test contexts relative to nonextinguished controls. When rats were tested 24 h later (with or without short-term testing), rats tested in the ambiguous context continued to exhibit relapse, whereas rats tested in the safe context did not. Additionally, exposure of rats to the conditioning context--in place of the unsignaled shock context--did not result in relapse of fear to the CS in the safe testing context. Our work highlights the vulnerabilities of extinction recall to interference, and demonstrates the importance of context associations in the relapse of fear after extinction.

  1. Molecular-beam sampling study of extinguishment of methane-air flames by dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, E. L.; Ni, W.-F.; Seeger, C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of Al2O3, NaHCO3, KHCO3, NH4H2PO4 and KCl powders for the inhibition of a methane/oxygen diffusion flame is studied through measurement of composition and temperature profiles, using a molecular beam mass spectrometer sampling system. In order to obtain significant inhibition without extinguishing the flame, a powder feeding rate of 2 mg/liter of gas was used for KCl and Al2O3, and of 3 mg/liter of gas for the remaining powders. CH4, O2, N2, H2O and CO2 concentrations were measured by the mass spectrometer, while temperature was measured by the time-of-flight technique. For the powder feeding rates used, Al2O3 was the least and KCl and NH2H4PO2 the most effective in reducing temperature; in reaction-inhibition effectiveness, Al2O3 was again lowest while KCl was superior to all others. Because the KCl concentration was only 2/3 that of NH4H2PO4, it is recommended as the most effective temperature reducer and reaction inhibitor.

  2. High-frequency stimulation of the hippocampus blocks fear learning sensitization and return of extinguished fear.

    PubMed

    Deschaux, O; Koumar, O-C; Canini, F; Moreau, J-L; Garcia, R

    2015-02-12

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) present hippocampal (HPC) dysfunction, which may facilitate fear-related phenomena such as fear learning sensitization (i.e. potentiation of fear acquisition by initial fear conditioning (FC1)) and fear return (i.e. reactivation of extinguished fear). Fear return is sensitive to HPC high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in rats. The goal of the present study was to examine whether fear learning sensitization is also sensitive to HPC HFS in rats. We found in control conditions that, after FC1 (with 15 shock administrations) and extinction, conditioning in a different context with one shock administration was potentiated (proactive effect) and associated with fear return in the initial context (retroactive effect). Both phenomena were prevented by HPC HFS applied before the second conditioning. We also found that the effect of HPC HFS on fear learning sensitization required initial extinction. These findings suggest a pivotal role of the HPC in preventing proactive and retroactive effects of successive fear conditionings. These data also support the concept that HPC deactivation may be involved in fear learning sensitization and fear return in PTSD patients.

  3. The development and evaluation of water-mist fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Staggs, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    Fire protection for underfloor space is primarily provided by Halon 1301 which has proven to be very effective. However, due to the link between halons and the possible depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, plans have been implemented to eventually phase out Halon 1301 and 1211. In September 1987 the Montreal Protocol concerning chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons was signed by the United States, the European Economic Community, and 23 other nations. The Montreal Protocol calls for freezing halon production at 1986 levels. Because the majority of underfloor fire protection at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) sites, is either Halon 1301 or sprinklers, some other means of suppression will have to be developed and verified. The potential loss to facilities housing computer or control rooms damaged by underfloor fires can be extreme. These losses would not only include hardware and software replacement costs, but also lost computing and control capability. Here at LLNL technical research in a facility could be severely affected. Recent studies conducted by the Fire Research Discipline of the Special Projects Division have shown that severe fires fueled by cable insulation can develop within as little as a 6-in-high underfloor space (even with mechanical ventilation shut off). Studies also show that conventional sprinklers may not be effective in preventing this destruction. Therefore, we are investigating the water-mist fire extinguishing system as an alternative to Halon 1301 and sprinklers.

  4. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  5. Extinguishment of a Diffusion Flame Over a PMMA Cylinder by Depressurization in Reduced-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey Scott

    1996-01-01

    Extinction of a diffusion flame burning over horizontal PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) cylinders in low-gravity was examined experimentally and via numerical simulations. Low-gravity conditions were obtained using the NASA Lewis Research Center's reduced-gravity aircraft. The effects of velocity and pressure on the visible flame were examined. The flammability of the burning solid was examined as a function of pressure and the solid-phase centerline temperature. As the solid temperature increased, the extinction pressure decreased, and with a centerline temperature of 525 K, the flame was sustained to 0.1 atmospheres before extinguishing. The numerical simulation iteratively coupled a two-dimensional quasi-steady, gas-phase model with a transient solid-phase model which included conductive heat transfer and surface regression. This model employed an energy balance at the gas/solid interface that included the energy conducted by the gas-phase to the gas/solid interface, Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, surface radiation, and the energy conducted into the solid. The ratio of the solid and gas-phase conductive fluxes Phi was a boundary condition for the gas-phase model at the solid-surface. Initial simulations modeled conditions similar to the low-gravity experiments and predicted low-pressure extinction limits consistent with the experimental limits. Other simulations examined the effects of velocity, depressurization rate and Phi on extinction.

  6. Reversible Inactivation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Prevents Reinstatement But Not Renewal of Extinguished Fear1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Travis D.; Kim, Janice J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The extinction of conditioned fear is labile. For example, fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) returns after presentation of an aversive stimulus (“reinstatement”) or a change in context (“renewal”). Substantial research implicates the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the stress-induced relapse of extinguished behaviors, such as in instrumental drug seeking, but its role in the relapse of extinguished fear responses is not clear. Here, we explored the role of the BNST in both the reinstatement and renewal of fear, two forms of relapse that are differentially triggered by stress. In Experiment 1, rats received pairings of an auditory CS and footshock unconditioned stimulus (US) followed by an extinction procedure. After extinction, rats received an unsignaled US to reinstate fear to the extinguished CS. Twenty-four hours later, they were infused with either muscimol or vehicle into the BNST immediately prior to a CS retrieval test. In Experiment 2, rats were conditioned and extinguished in two distinct contexts. Twenty-four hours after extinction, the rats were infused with muscimol, NBQX, or vehicle immediately prior to a CS retrieval test in either the extinction context or a different (but familiar) context. In both experiments, freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear. The results revealed that BNST inactivation prevented reinstatement (Experiment 1), but not renewal (Experiment 2), of conditioned freezing to the extinguished CS. Hence, the BNST is critical for the reinstatement of extinguished fear in an aversive context, but not for the contextual retrieval processes that mediate fear renewal. PMID:26464990

  7. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    PubMed

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations. PMID:26220745

  8. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    PubMed

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations.

  9. Tissue-specific extinguisher loci in the human genome: A screening study based on random marking and transfer of human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapero, M.H.; Langston, A.A.; Fournier, R.E.K. )

    1994-05-01

    Expression of many liver-specific genes is extinguished when cultured hepatoma cells are fused with fibroblasts, but liver genes can be reexpressed in hybrid segregants that have lost fibroblast chromosomes. To map extinguisher loci involved in this process, hepatoma microcell hybrids retaining single fibroblast chromosomes have been employed. Two different, trans-dominant loci that affect liver gene expression have been defined in this way. To determine whether other monochromosomal extinction phenotypes could be observed, the authors inserted a selectable marker into many human chromosomal sites and transferred the marked human chromosomes into rat hepatoma recipient cells by microcell fusion. Nearly 200 microcell hybrid clones were isolated and screened for expression of liver-specific mRNAs. Most liver transcripts continued to be expressed. However, PEPCK mRNA was extinguished in 12 hybrid clones. Some of these hybrids contained human TSE1, the previously characterized extinguisher locus on chromosome 17, but others contained a novel extinguishing function that mapped to human chromosome 14. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one's drug use history.

  11. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice differ in extinction and renewal of extinguished conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Dunnett, Claire; Falls, William A

    2004-10-01

    While a number of studies have examined the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear in inbred mice, very few have examined extinction of conditioned fear in inbred mice and few attempts have been made to compare extinction learning between inbred strains. Because inbred strains differ in a number of physiological and biochemical variables, differences in extinction learning may provide insight into the genetic influence of extinction learning. The purpose of this study was to examine extinction and renewal of conditioned fear in two common inbred strains of mice. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were conditioned with pairings of either a tone or light and foot shock in a single session. On the following 4 days, mice were given extinction training, consisting of tone or light alone trials (Experiment 1A). C57 mice exhibited robust spontaneous recovery between sessions, but did extinguish both within and between sessions. DBA mice extinguished more quickly relative to C57 mice, and this extinction was stable between sessions (i.e., DBA mice did not exhibit spontaneous recovery). The rapid loss of fear in DBA relative to C57 mice was extinction-dependent and not merely due to poor long-term memory (Experiment 1B). Renewal testing (Experiment 2) replicated the strain difference in extinction and also showed that DBA mice have a deficit in the context specificity of extinction. C57 mice, but not DBA mice showed renewal of extinguished fear when tested in a context different from the one in which extinction training took place. These data suggest that the nature of extinction learning is influenced by characteristics of the inbred mouse strain.

  12. HNF4 and HNF1 as well as a panel of hepatic functions are extinguished and reexpressed in parallel in chromosomally reduced rat hepatoma-human fibroblast hybrids

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Rat hepatoma-human fibroblast hybrids of two independent lineages containing only 8-11 human chromosomes show pleiotropic extinction of thirteen out of fifteen hepatic functions examined. Reexpression of the entire group of functions most often occurs in a block, and except for one discordant subclone, correlates with loss of human chromosome 2. The extinguished cells and their reexpressing derivatives have been examined for the expression of seven liver-enriched transcription factors. C/EBP, LAP, DBP, HNF3, and vHNF1 expression are not systematically extinguished in parallel with the hepatic functions. However, HNF1 and HNF4 show a perfect correlation with phenotype: these factors are expressed only in the cells showing pleiotropic reexpression. Since recent evidence indicates that HNF4 controls HNF1 expression, it can be proposed that the HNF4 gene is the primary target of the pleiotropic extinguisher. PMID:8491780

  13. Lack of effect of ethanol on cocaine prime-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are commonly co-abused for reasons that are incompletely understood. Laboratory animal studies have suggested that, although the reinforcing effects of low cocaine doses are increased following chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption, acute EtOH administration does not consistently alter cocaine self-administration. The present study examined whether EtOH influences another abuse-related effect of cocaine: reinstatement of extinguished responding. Rhesus monkeys that had previously consumed EtOH for 8 weeks (2.0 g/kg over 1 h, 5 days/week) self-administered up to 10 injections per day of 0.1 mg/kg cocaine under a fixed-interval 300-s schedule. After responding had been extinguished by substituting saline for cocaine, a pre-session infusion of saline or EtOH (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg, intravenously over 10 min) was followed by a 'priming' injection of saline or cocaine (intravenously). Responding was increased significantly by priming injections of cocaine, but not saline. EtOH infusions neither reinstated behavior when administered before a saline prime nor altered the priming effect of cocaine. The inability of EtOH to alter the response-reinstating ability of cocaine provides further evidence for a lack of acute behavioral interactions between cocaine and EtOH. PMID:27509315

  14. Water-based chitosan/melamine polyphosphate multilayer nanocoating that extinguishes fire on polyester-cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Leistner, Marcus; Abu-Odeh, Anas A; Rohmer, Sarah C; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-10-01

    Polyester-cotton (PECO) blends are widely used in the textile industry because they combine the softness of cotton and the strength and durability of polyester. Unfortunately, both fiber types share the disadvantage of being flammable. The layer-by-layer coating technique was used to deposit a highly effective flame retardant (melamine polyphosphate) from water onto polyester-cotton fabric. Soluble melamine and sodium hexametaphosphate form this water-insoluble flame retardant during the coating procedure. This unique nanocoating imparts self-extinguishing properties to PECO with only 12% relative coating weight. Vertical flame testing, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the quality of the coating as well as its flame retardant performance. A combination of both condensed and gas-phase activity appears to be the reason for this effective flame retardancy. Degradation pathways of both cotton and polyester are affected by the applied coating, as shown by PCFC and TGA. Use of environmentally benign and non-toxic chemicals, and the ease of layer-by-layer deposition, making this coating an industrially feasible alternative to render polyester-cotton fabric self-extinguishing.

  15. 46 CFR 27.305 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for on or after August 27, 2003? 27.305 Section 27.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS TOWING VESSELS...

  16. National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 7: Alarm and Special Extinguishing Systems. 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    These NFPA recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices, or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) extinguishing systems, (2) standpipe and hose systems, (3) wetting agents, (4) fire hydrants, (5) water charges for…

  17. Solid State Digital Propulsion "Cluster Thrusters" For Small Satellites Using High Performance Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellants (ECESP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Wayne N.; Katzakian, Arthur; Grix, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellants (ESCSP) are capable of multiple ignitions, extinguishments and throttle control by the application of electrical power. Both core and end burning no moving parts ECESP grains/motors to three inches in diameter have now been tested. Ongoing research has led to a newer family of even higher performance ECESP providing up to 10% higher performance, manufacturing ease, and significantly higher electrical conduction. The high conductivity was not found to be desirable for larger motors; however it is ideal for downward scaling to micro and pico- propulsion applications with a web thickness of less than 0.125 inch/ diameter. As a solid solution propellant, this ECESP is molecularly uniform, having no granular structure. Because of this homogeneity and workable viscosity it can be directly cast into thin layers or vacuum cast into complex geometries. Both coaxial and grain stacks have been demonstrated. Combining individual propellant coaxial grains and/or grain stacks together form three-dimensional arrays yield modular cluster thrusters. Adoption of fabless manufacturing methods and standards from the electronics industry will provide custom, highly reproducible micro-propulsion arrays and clusters at low costs. These stack and cluster thruster designs provide a small footprint saving spacecraft surface area for solar panels and/or experiments. The simplicity of these thrusters will enable their broad use on micro-pico satellites for primary propulsion, ACS and formation flying applications. Larger spacecraft may find uses for ECESP thrusters on extended booms, on-orbit refueling, pneumatic actuators, and gas generators.

  18. Formation of self-extinguishing flame retardant biobased coating on cotton fabrics via Layer-by-Layer assembly of chitin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-22

    The self-extinguishing coating, consisting of biobased chitin derivatives, phosphorylated chitin and deacetylated chitin (chitosan), was deposited on cotton fabrics via the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembled method. The content of phosphorylated chitin prepared on cotton fabrics surface is dependent on the bilayers' number and concentration of phosphorylated chitin. In the vertical flame test, the cotton fabric with 20 bilayers prepared at the high phosphorylated chitin concentration (2 wt%) could extinguish the flame. Microcombustion calorimetry result showed that all coated cotton fabrics showed lower peak heat-release rate and total heat-release values compared with that of the pure one. Thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that thermal and thermal oxidation stability of all coated cotton fabrics were enhanced in the high temperature range (400-700°C). This work provided the flame retardant multilayer films based on fully biobased chitin derivatives on cotton fabrics to enhance its flame retardancy.

  19. The performance of automatic sprinkler systems in the extinguishment of incipient conveyor belt fires under ventilated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Pro, R.W.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of automatic water sprinkler systems in the extinguishment of incipient conveyor belt fires under ventilated conditions. Large-scale experiments were conducted using a double strand conveyor belt configuration. Standard response, pendent-type sprinklers, with activation temperatures of 100{degrees}C, were installed above and between the two strands of belting, in accordance with Federal standards for sprinkler system installations in belt drive areas. Experiments at airflows of 1.1 and 4.6 m/s showed that the sprinklers activated later, the peak heat release rate was larger, and more belting was consumed at the higher airflow. In experiments with 74{degrees}C, fast response, directional sprinklers, the sprinklers activated at the same heat release rate for both high and low Wows, but the peak heat release rate and amount of belt consumed was slightly higher at the lower airflow. Experiments were also conducted with 100{degrees}C, standard pendent sprinklers installed above the top belt, in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 123 for sprinkler system installations in conveyor belt drive areas in underground coal mines. In these experiments, the heat release rate and amount of belting consumed was larger at the higher airflow.

  20. Memory is not extinguished along with CS presentation but within a few seconds after CS-offset.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cuesta, Luis María; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following questions are raised. First, when is extinction memory acquired, if not along extinction training, and how long does it take? Second, can acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory be pharmacologically dissected? Here we address these questions performing three series of experiments: a first one aimed to study systematically the relationship between extinction and increasing periods of unreinforced CS presentations, a second one to determine the time boundaries of the extinction memory acquisition, and the third one to assay the requirement for protein synthesis and NMDA-like receptors of acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory. Our results confirm that it is CS-offset and not the mere retrieval (CS-onset) that triggers acquisition of extinction memory and that it is completed in less than 45 sec after CS-offset. In addition, protein synthesis is required for consolidation but not for acquisition of this memory and, conversely, NMDA-like receptor activity is required for its acquisition but not for its consolidation. Finally, we offer an interpretative scheme of our results and we discuss to what extent it could apply to multitrial extinction.

  1. NMDA antagonist MK 801 in nucleus accumbens core but not shell disrupts the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, Laura N; Guzman, Andrea S; Virgolini, Miriam B; Cancela, Liliana M

    2016-12-15

    Relapse is a common feature of cocaine addiction. In rodents, it can be elicited by cues, stress or the drug. Restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful model to study the mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse of drug-seeking behavior. There is evidence that the glutamate NMDA receptors are critically involved in drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior and drug-CPP responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of NMDA receptors within core vs. shell nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions to restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP. After extinction of cocaine-conditioned preference, animals were administered MK 801 systemically or directly into intra-core or intra-shell, and restrained for 30min or left undisturbed in their home-cages. First, we demonstrated that restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP depends on the duration of restraint as well as on the context in which it is applied. Second, this effect was blocked by systemic MK 801 administration either before or after restraint. Third, intra-core but not intra-shell administration abrogated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement. These findings show that NMDA receptors within NAc core, but not shell, play a critical role in restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-CPP. PMID:27506656

  2. NMDA antagonist MK 801 in nucleus accumbens core but not shell disrupts the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, Laura N; Guzman, Andrea S; Virgolini, Miriam B; Cancela, Liliana M

    2016-12-15

    Relapse is a common feature of cocaine addiction. In rodents, it can be elicited by cues, stress or the drug. Restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful model to study the mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse of drug-seeking behavior. There is evidence that the glutamate NMDA receptors are critically involved in drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior and drug-CPP responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of NMDA receptors within core vs. shell nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions to restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP. After extinction of cocaine-conditioned preference, animals were administered MK 801 systemically or directly into intra-core or intra-shell, and restrained for 30min or left undisturbed in their home-cages. First, we demonstrated that restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP depends on the duration of restraint as well as on the context in which it is applied. Second, this effect was blocked by systemic MK 801 administration either before or after restraint. Third, intra-core but not intra-shell administration abrogated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement. These findings show that NMDA receptors within NAc core, but not shell, play a critical role in restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-CPP.

  3. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  4. To Extinguish the Fire from Outside the Cell or to Shutdown the Gas Valve Inside? Novel Trends in Anti-Inflammatory Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Monasta, Lorenzo; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are the most important soluble mediators of inflammation. Rare pediatric diseases provided exemplar conditions to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of new generation therapies (biologics/biopharmaceuticals) selectively targeting single cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins have revolutionized anti-inflammatory therapies in the last two decades, allowing the specific targeting of single cytokines. They are very effective in extinguishing inflammation from outside the cell, even with the risk of an excessive and prolonged immunosuppression. Small molecules can enter the cell and shutdown the valve of inflammation by directly targeting signal proteins involved in cytokine release or in response to cytokines. They are orally-administrable drugs whose dosage can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired anti-inflammatory effect. This could make these drugs more suitable for a wide range of diseases as stroke, gout, or neurological impairment, where inflammatory activation plays a pivotal role as trigger. Autoinflammatory diseases, which have previously put anti-cytokine proteins in the limelight, can again provide a valuable model to measure the real potential of small inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26370962

  5. Involvement of Noradrenergic Neurotransmission in the Stress- but not Cocaine-Induced Reinstatement of Extinguished Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice: Role for β-2 Adrenergic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mantsch, John R; Weyer, Andy; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Beyer, Chad E; Baker, David A; Caretta, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The responsiveness of central noradrenergic systems to stressors and cocaine poses norepinephrine as a potential common mechanism through which drug re-exposure and stressful stimuli promote relapse. This study investigated the role of noradrenergic systems in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced conditioned place preference by cocaine and stress in male C57BL/6 mice. Cocaine- (15 mg/kg, i.p.) induced conditioned place preference was extinguished by repeated exposure to the apparatus in the absence of drug and reestablished by a cocaine challenge (15 mg/kg), exposure to a stressor (6-min forced swim (FS); 20–25°C water), or administration of the α-2 adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or BRL44408 (5, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). To investigate the role of ARs, mice were administered the nonselective β-AR antagonist, propranolol (5, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), the α-1 AR antagonist, prazosin (1, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), or the α-2 AR agonist, clonidine (0.03, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) before reinstatement testing. Clonidine, prazosin, and propranolol failed to block cocaine-induced reinstatement. The low (0.03 mg/kg) but not high (0.3 mg/kg) clonidine dose fully blocked FS-induced reinstatement but not reinstatement by yohimbine. Propranolol, but not prazosin, blocked reinstatement by both yohimbine and FS, suggesting the involvement of β-ARs. The β-2 AR antagonist ICI-118551 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not the β-1 AR antagonist betaxolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.), also blocked FS-induced reinstatement. These findings suggest that stress-induced reinstatement requires noradrenergic signaling through β-2 ARs and that cocaine-induced reinstatement does not require AR activation, even though stimulation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission is sufficient to reinstate. PMID:20613718

  6. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 μg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts.

  7. β-adrenergic receptor mediation of stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice: roles for β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Vranjkovic, Oliver; Hang, Shona; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2012-08-01

    Stress can trigger the relapse of drug use in recovering cocaine addicts and reinstatement in rodent models through mechanisms that may involve norepinephrine release and β-adrenergic receptor activation. The present study examined the role of β-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the stressor-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced (15 mg/kg i.p.) conditioned place preference in mice. Forced swim (6 min at 22°C) stress or activation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission by administration of the selective α(2) adrenergic receptor antagonist 2-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole (BRL-44,408) (10 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement in wild-type, but not β- adrenergic receptor-deficient Adrb1/Adrb2 double-knockout, mice. In contrast, cocaine administration (15 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reinstatement in both wild-type and β-adrenergic receptor knockout mice. Stress-induced reinstatement probably involved β(2) adrenergic receptors. The β(2) adrenergic receptor antagonist -(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI-118,551) (1 or 2 mg/kg i.p.) blocked reinstatement by forced swim or BRL-44,408, whereas administration of the nonselective β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) or the β(2) adrenergic receptor-selective agonist clenbuterol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement. Forced swim-induced, but not BRL-44,408-induced, reinstatement was also blocked by a high (20 mg/kg) but not low (10 mg/kg) dose of the β(1) adrenergic receptor antagonist betaxolol, and isoproterenol-induced reinstatement was blocked by pretreatment with either ICI-118,551 or betaxolol, suggesting a potential cooperative role for β(1) and β(2) adrenergic receptors in stress-induced reinstatement. Overall, these findings suggest that targeting β-adrenergic receptors may represent a promising pharmacotherapeutic strategy for preventing drug relapse, particularly in cocaine addicts whose drug use

  8. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of weight of charge. Inspect.... Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of the weight of the charge. Test time delays, alarms... or replace if weight loss exceeds 5 percent of the weight of the charge or if cylinder has a...

  9. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Carbon dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of weight of charge. Inspect.... Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of weight of charge. 1 1 Cylinders must be tested and marked...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1910.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire... control. (3) The employer shall assure that employees are not exposed to toxic levels of gaseous agent...

  11. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification of... means so that all portions of the space concerned may be covered. Examples of size graduations for...

  12. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification of... means so that all portions of the space concerned may be covered. Examples of size graduations for...

  13. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gross tons and greater, a fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in 46 CFR subpart 95... construction, conversion or automation of which is contracted for on or after July 1, 1968, the systems...

  14. Scattered, extinguished, emitted: Three views of the dust in Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jonathan Bruce

    Dust in star-forming regions is both a blessing and a curse. By shrouding young stars it inhibits our study of their birth, yet without dust we would have an impoverished view of the structure of the molecular cloud before it collapses to form a protostar--the initial conditions of the problem of star formation. Though less than 1% of the mass of a molecular cloud, dust is a reliable tracer of the invisible H 2 which makes up the vast majority of the material. Other molecules can trace the H 2 distribution, and are useful in the appropriate regime, but all are confounded by the complications of chemistry, excitation conditions, and depletion, processes which have little effect on dust. Interpreting observations of dust is not entirely straightforward. We do not have a comprehensive theory of dust which explains the size distribution and mineralogical composition of dust in the diverse environments where it is present, from the diffuse ISM to the proto-planetary disks around young stars. Lacking such a theory, it is surprising that models of dust are nonetheless able to reproduce many of the observational constraints imposed upon them. Among these constraints are direct capture of dust grains, spectral features, extinction of background light, scattering, and thermal emission. In this thesis I (1) describe a method to use scattered ambient galactic light to map dense cores with unprecedented high resolution; (2) extend near-infrared extinction mapping by incorporating background galaxies; (3) demonstrate a relation between column density and changes in the extinction law, which is evidence of grain growth; (4) report on a study using NH 3 temperatures to more precisely interpret a thermal emission map at 1.1-mm; and (5) apply all these different techniques to a single starless region in order to compare them and learn something both about dust and the initial conditions of star formation.

  15. Behavioral momentum and relapse of extinguished operant responding.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms. During baseline conditions, pigeons responded for food reinforcement on variable-interval 120-sec schedules in alternating periods of exposure to two stimuli arranged by a multiple schedule. Additional response-independent food presentations were also delivered in the presence of one of the multiple-schedule stimuli. Consistent with previous research, baseline response rates were lower in the presence of the stimulus with the added response-independent reinforcement, and relative resistance to extinction was greater in the presence of that stimulus. In addition, following extinction, the relative relapse of responding produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms was greater in the presence of the stimulus associated with the higher rate of reinforcement. We suggest that a model of extinction from behavioral momentum theory may be useful for understanding these results.

  16. Modeling of extinguishing ELMs in detached divertor plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigarov, A.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Hollmann, E.; Rognlien, T.

    2015-11-01

    Detached plasmas, the primary operational regime for divertors in next-step fusion devices, should be compatible with both good H-mode confinement and relatively small ELMs providing tolerable heat power loads on divertor targets. Here, dynamics of boundary plasma, impurities and material walls over a sequence of many type-I ELM events under detached divertor plasma conditions is studied with UEGDE-MB-W, the newest version of 2D edge plasma transport code, which incorporates Macro-Blob (MB) approach to simulate non-diffusive filamentary transport and various ``Wall'' (W) models for time-dependent hydrogen wall inventory and recycling. We present the results of multi-parametric analysis on the impact of the size and frequency of ELMs on the divertor plasma parameters where we vary the MB characteristics under different pedestals and divertor configurations. We discuss the conditions, under which small but frequent type-I ELMs (typical for high-power H-mode discharges on current tokamaks with hard deuterium gas puff) are not ``burning through'' the formed detached divertor plasma. In this case, the inner and outer divertors are filled by sub-eV, recombining, highly-impure plasma. Variations of impurity plasma content, radiation pattern, and deuterium wall inventory over the ELM cycle are analyzed. UEDGE-MB-W modeling results are compared to available experimental data.

  17. Synthesis of dawsonites. [for use in fire extinguishing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Alkali metal and ammonium dawsonites can be prepared by a nonaqueous process according to which equimolar quantities of the corresponding hydrogen carbonate and aluminum hydroxide in finely divided state are heated together to a tempeature within the range of 150 to 250 C, for a period of 1 to 6 hours under a carbon dioxide pressure within the range of 120 to 360 psig. Carbonates may be used instead of hydrogencarbonates.

  18. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The distribution... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and...

  19. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The distribution... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and...

  20. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The distribution... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and...

  1. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The distribution... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and...

  2. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protecting a space such as a paint locker may be tested by blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and the..., see 46 CFR 175.600) and the requirements of this paragraph (g). (2) The Halon 1301 quantity...

  3. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The distribution... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and...

  4. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protecting a space such as a paint locker may be tested by blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and the... UL 1058 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and the requirements of this paragraph...

  5. Chemical Action of Halogenated Agents in Fire Extinguishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E.

    1955-01-01

    The action of halogenated agents in preventing flame propagation in fuel-air mixtures in laboratory tests is discussed in terms of a possible chemical mechanism. The mechanism chosen is that of chain-breaking reactions between agent and active particles (hydrogen and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicsls). Data from the literature on the flammability peaks of n-heptane agent-air mixtures are treated. Ratings of agent effectiveness in terms of the fuel equivalent of the agent, based on both fuel and agent concentrations at the peak, are proposed as preferable to ratings in terms of agent concentration alone. These fuel-equivalent ratings are roughly correlated by reactivities assigned to halogen and hydrogen atoms in the agent molecules. It is concluded that the presence of hydrogen in agent need not reduce its fire-fighting ability, provided there is enough halogen to make the agent nonflammable. A method is presented for estimating from quenching-distance data a rate constant for the reaction of agent with active particles. A quantitative result is obtained for methyl bromide. This rate constant predicts the observed peak concentration of methyl bromide quite well. However, more data are needed to prove the validity of the method. The assumption that hal.ogenatedagents act mainly by chain-bresking reactions with active particles is consistent with the experimental facts and should help guide the selection of agents for further tests.

  6. 33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.603 Portable...

  7. 33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.603 Portable...

  8. 33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.603 Portable...

  9. 33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.603 Portable...

  10. 33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.603 Portable...

  11. 46 CFR 147.66 - Inert gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be retested every 10 years in accordance with 49 CFR 180.209(b). (b) An inert gas cylinder must be...; (3) Has lost more than 5 percent of its tare weight; or (4) Has been involved in a fire. (c)...

  12. 46 CFR 147.67 - Halocarbon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conforming to the requirements of 49 CFR 180.209(g) may be given the complete external visual inspection in...) Has lost more than 5 percent of its tare weight; or (4) Has been involved in a fire. (c)...

  13. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... UL 1058 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and the requirements of this paragraph (g... bubble leak test, and all joints must be leak free. (ii) Piping between the storage cylinders and...

  14. Behavioral momentum and relapse of extinguished operant responding.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms. During baseline conditions, pigeons responded for food reinforcement on variable-interval 120-sec schedules in alternating periods of exposure to two stimuli arranged by a multiple schedule. Additional response-independent food presentations were also delivered in the presence of one of the multiple-schedule stimuli. Consistent with previous research, baseline response rates were lower in the presence of the stimulus with the added response-independent reinforcement, and relative resistance to extinction was greater in the presence of that stimulus. In addition, following extinction, the relative relapse of responding produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms was greater in the presence of the stimulus associated with the higher rate of reinforcement. We suggest that a model of extinction from behavioral momentum theory may be useful for understanding these results. PMID:19815932

  15. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  16. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... must be made of flexible materials that are at least fire-resistant and be located so as to...

  17. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... must be made of flexible materials that are at least fire-resistant and be located so as to...

  18. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... must be made of flexible materials that are at least fire-resistant and be located so as to...

  19. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... must be made of flexible materials that are at least fire-resistant and be located so as to...

  20. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... must be made of flexible materials that are at least fire-resistant and be located so as to...