Science.gov

Sample records for extinguishment

  1. Fire extinguishant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Ling, A. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Fire extinguishant composition comprising a mixture of a finely divided aluminum compound and alkali metal, stannous or plumbous halide is provided. Aluminum compound may be aluminum hydroxide, alumina or boehmite but preferably it is an alkali metal dawsonite. The metal halide may be an alkali metal, e.g. potassium iodide, bromide or chloride or stannous or plumbous iodide, bromide or chloride. Potassium iodide is preferred.

  2. Halon fire extinguishants

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, R.

    1991-12-31

    Concerns about depletion of stratospheric ozone has forced restrictions on the production and use of some of our most important chemicals -- the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halon. Halons, the subject of this paper, are used for fire extinguishment, inertion, and explosion suppression. Assessment of business opportunities with halon replacement agents must take into account three uncertainties: (1) future regulatory activities, (2) a decreasing market due to conversion to alternative fire protection approaches, and (3) the unsettle technologies. The alternative approaches that will reduce the market for halons and halon-like agents include new procedures, equipment, engineering, and alternative agents (carbon dioxide, water, foam, dry chemical).

  3. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  4. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  6. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  7. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  8. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  9. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  10. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 25.851 Section 25.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must...

  11. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  12. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  13. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  14. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  15. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  16. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  17. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  18. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  19. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  20. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  1. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  2. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  3. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  4. 46 CFR 76.05-25 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Required § 76.05-25 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed...

  5. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  6. 46 CFR 95.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems...

  7. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  8. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  9. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  10. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  11. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  12. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  13. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  14. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire extinguisher. 36.31 Section 36.31 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher carried in a location easily accessible to...

  15. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  16. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 23.851 Section 23.851... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in...

  17. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  18. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  19. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  20. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  1. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  2. Detoxification of Halon Fire-Extinguishant Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Ammonia compounds absorb toxic hydrogen halides as they are produced. Toxic acid vapors resulting from use of Halon (or equivalent) fire extinguishers immediately changed into nontoxic ammonium compounds when extinguishers contain some ammonia or ammonium carbonate. If ammonium carbonate used, particle size of resulting neutral compounds controlled to eliminate virtually any absorption into the lungs.

  3. 30 CFR 56.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., soldering, thawing, or bending— (1) With an electric arc or with an open flame where an electrically conductive extinguishing agent could create an electrical hazard, a multipurpose dry-chemical fire... flame in an area where no electrical hazard exists, a multipurpose dry-chemical fire extinguisher...

  4. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  5. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... units that cannot be readily recharged on the vessel, one spare extinguisher for each classification... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer...

  6. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... units that can not be readily recharged on the vessel, one spare extinguisher for each classification... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer...

  7. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... units that can not be readily recharged on the vessel, one spare extinguisher for each classification... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer...

  8. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... units that can not be readily recharged on the vessel, one spare extinguisher for each classification... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer...

  9. Powder Extinguishants for Jet-Fuel Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Ling, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of alkali metal dawsonite and metal halide show superior performance. In tests of new dry powder fire extinguishants, mixtures of potassium dawsonite with either stannous iodide or potassium iodide found effective for extinguishing jet-fuel fires on hot metal surfaces (up to 900 degrees C). Mixtures performed more effectively than either compound alone.

  10. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems may be used or required...

  11. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems may be used or required...

  12. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 95.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of each size...

  13. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 193.05-10 Section 193... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems must be installed in all...

  14. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 95.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of each size...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet...

  19. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  20. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.235 Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Each hand portable fire...

  1. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.235 Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Each hand portable fire...

  2. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.235 Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Each hand portable fire...

  3. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.235 Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire extinguishing systems. (a) Each hand portable fire...

  4. 46 CFR 107.235 - Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.235 Servicing of hand portable fire extinguishers, semi-portable fire extinguishers and fixed fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Each hand portable fire...

  5. Training simulant for Halon 1211 portable extinguishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Joseph T.; Burns, R.; Jones, P.; Ouellette, R.

    1994-09-01

    The Standard Navy portable Halon 1211 extinguisher can be modified to provide an environmentally acceptable simulant for training. The modifications include replacement of the Halon 1211 with pressurized water as the fire fighting agent and insertion of a full cone spray nozzle in the horn of the extinguisher to form a suitable spray pattern. The modified extinguisher has the same physical appearance and discharge characteristics (time, reach, etc.) as the standard Halon 1211 extinguisher and weighs just two pounds less. Since it uses water as the fire fighting agent, the training simulant has zero Ozone Depletion Potential, zero Global Warming Potential and is non-toxic. Also, there is a potential savings of $160,000-$190,000 per year, based on a usage of 20,000 lbs/year of Halon 1211 for training.

  6. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding, cutting, soldering, thawing, or bending— (1) With an electric arc or with an open flame where...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4600 - Extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4600 Extinguishing equipment. (a) When welding, cutting, soldering, thawing, or bending— (1) With an electric arc or with an open flame where...

  8. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers... for use in a personnel compartment must be designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentration... ventilation rate....

  9. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    DOEpatents

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  10. Extinguishing ELMs in detached radiative divertor plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigarov, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Rognlien, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In order to avoid deleterious effects of ELMs on PFCs in next-step fusion devices it has been suggested to operate with small-sized ELMs naturally extinguishing in the divertor. Our modeling effort is focusing at extinguishing type-I ELMs: conditions for expelled plasma dissipation; efficiency of ELM power handling by detached radiative divertors; and the ELM impact on detachment state. Here time-dependent modeling of a sequence of many ELMs was performed with 2-D edge plasma transport code UEDGE-MB-W which incorporates the Macro-Blob (MB) approach to simulate non-diffusive filamentary transport and various ``Wall'' (W) models for time-dependent hydrogen wall inventory and recycling. Three cases were modeled, in which extinguishing ELMs are achieved due to: (i) intrinsic impurities via graphite sputtering, (ii) extrinsic impurity gas puff (Ne), and (iii) =(i) +(ii). For each case, we performed a series of UEDGE-MB-W runs scanning the deuterium and impurity inventories, pedestal losses and ELM frequency. Temporal variations of the degree of detachment, ionization front shape, recombination sink strength, radiated fraction, peak power loads, OSP, impurity charge states, and in/out asymmetries were analyzed. We discuss the onset of extinguishing ELMs, conditions for not burning through and enhanced plasma recombination as functions of scanned parameters. Efficiencies of intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in ELM extinguishing are compared.

  11. 76 FR 31798 - Airworthiness Directives; L'Hotellier Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final rule... fire extinguishers. This action requires replacing each unairworthy portable fire extinguisher with an airworthy portable fire extinguisher. This amendment is prompted by an ongoing investigation that...

  12. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a) Each... with an aggregate power of at least 1000 B.H.P. (5) Each enclosed ventilation system for...

  13. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump tank (water or antifreeze) Discharge. Clean hose and... mist Maintain system in accordance with the maintenance instructions in the system manufacturer's design, installation, operation, and maintenance manual. (3) On all fire-extinguishing systems all...

  14. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump tank (water or antifreeze) Discharge. Clean hose and... mist Maintain system in accordance with the maintenance instructions in the system manufacturer's design, installation, operation, and maintenance manual. (3) On all fire-extinguishing systems all...

  15. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing equipment. 189.25-20 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-20 Fire extinguishing equipment. (a) At... the inspector shall determine that all fire-extinguishing equipment is in suitable condition and...

  16. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire-extinguishing equipment. 189.25-20 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-20 Fire-extinguishing equipment. (a) At... the inspector shall determine that all fire-extinguishing equipment is in suitable condition and...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to... stored pressure dry chemical extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test are emptied and subjected to applicable maintenance procedures every 6 years. Dry chemical extinguishers having...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to... stored pressure dry chemical extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test are emptied and subjected to applicable maintenance procedures every 6 years. Dry chemical extinguishers having...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  4. 14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing agents. 121.265 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.265 Fire... equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing agent. If methyl bromide or any...

  5. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a) Each... motors or generators used for vital services including bilge pumps, fire pumps, or propulsion. (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 98.30-39 - Alternate fire extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate fire extinguishing system. 98.30-39 Section 98... Portable Tanks and Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-39 Alternate fire extinguishing system. An alternative to the fire extinguishing system required in § 98.30-37(c) may be approved in accordance...

  7. 46 CFR 76.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 76.50-20 Section 76.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  8. 14 CFR 121.271 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 121....271 Fire-extinguishing system materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each component of a fire-extinguishing system that is in a designated fire zone must be made of...

  9. 46 CFR 169.733 - Fire extinguishing branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing branch lines. 169.733 Section 169.733... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.733 Fire extinguishing branch lines. Each branch line valve of every fire extinguishing system must be plainly and permanently...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 29.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 25.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 23.1199... Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. For commuter category airplanes, the following applies: (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting...

  13. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extraction hood must be equipped with a dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or... systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  14. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extraction hood must be equipped with a dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or... systems. (a) A grease extraction hood required by § 118.400 of this part must meet UL 710 “Exhaust...

  15. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Alternately, the Commandant may permit the installation of an approved water sprinkler system or other... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 95.05-10 Section 95.05... fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved fire extinguishing systems may be used or required...

  16. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  18. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  19. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  20. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  1. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  2. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  3. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  4. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  7. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  8. 46 CFR 76.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 76.50-20 Section 76.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  10. 46 CFR 196.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 196.37-23 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  12. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  13. 46 CFR 95.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 95.50-20 Section 95.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  16. 46 CFR 76.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 76.50-20 Section 76.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  17. 46 CFR 169.737 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 169.737 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.737 Hand portable fire extinguishers. Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number, and the location where it...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed...

  19. 46 CFR 108.637 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 108.637 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.637 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher must be marked with a number that identifies it in relation to...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 29.1201 Section 29.1201 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Protection § 29.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No materials in any fire extinguishing...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 29.1201 Section 29.1201 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Protection § 29.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No materials in any fire extinguishing...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 29.1201 Section 29.1201 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Protection § 29.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No materials in any fire extinguishing...

  3. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers... personnel compartment must be designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentrations. (b) Built-in fire... to the volume of the compartment where used and the ventilation rate, must be adequate for any...

  6. Synthesis of Fire-Extinguishing Dawsonites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple nonaqueous process synthesizes sodium or potassium, dawsonites effective against hydrocarbon fuel fires. Fire-extinguishing alkali metal dawsonites are prepared using a finely-pulverized equimolar mixture of hydrogen carbonate, or carbonates and aluminum hydroxide heated for 1 to 6 hours under carbon dioxide pressure.

  7. Fire extinguishment in hypobaric and hyperbaric environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimzey, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Work that has been performed to provide information on the effects of various fire extinguishing agents in special atmospheres is discussed. Data used in the development of both equipment and techniques for manned spacecraft and related equipment are discussed. The equipment includes a hypobaric chamber suitable for low pressure use and a hyperbaric chamber for high pressure operation. The effectiveness of agents in weightless environment is also discussed.

  8. Validation of reliability of fire extinguishers for medical pressure chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharisov, G. K.; Bubyr, N. F.

    1985-11-01

    During a fire in a medical pressure chamber when operated in the regular mode it is impossible to evacuate people, and the only way to save human lives is by extinguishing the fire. The level of reliability of fire extinguishers intended for pressure chamber is examined. In case of fire, the life of people in the chamber depends entirely on reliability of operation of the fire extinguisher. The reliability of equipment, including fire extinguishers, depends on the cost. By regulating the reliability of its cost is also regulated. At the present time no standards are set for parameters of reliability of equipment which protects people from the hazards of a fire.

  9. Fire extinguishment and inhibition in spacecraft environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deris, John

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that it is essential that NASA develop a comprehensive approach to fire extinguishment and inerting in spacecraft environments. Electronic equipment might be easily protected through use of an onboard inert gas generating system. The use of Halon 1301 presents serious technological challenges for agent cleanup and removal of the toxic and corrosive products of combustion. Nitrogen pressurization, while effective, probably presents a serious weight penality. The use of liquid water sprays appears to be the most effective approach to general purpose spacecraft fire protection.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes, the following apply: (a) No material in any fire extinguishing system may react chemically with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials....

  14. 14 CFR 121.271 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials. (b) Connections that are subject to relative motion between components of the airplane must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 121....271 Fire-extinguishing system materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. For commuter category airplanes, the following applies: (a... fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing system; and...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  17. 14 CFR 121.271 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials. (b) Connections that are subject to relative motion between components of the airplane must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 121....271 Fire-extinguishing system materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. For commuter category airplanes, the following applies: (a... fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing system; and...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials....

  1. 14 CFR 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1197 Fire... any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing... airplane or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher on the ground or in flight) from entering...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes, the following apply: (a) No material in any fire extinguishing system may react chemically with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire..., 2011. For commuter category airplanes, the following applies: (a) Fire extinguishing agents must— (1... materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing system; and (2) Have thermal stability over...

  4. 46 CFR 169.734 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 169.734 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.734 Fire extinguishing system controls. Each control cabinet or space containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  5. 46 CFR 76.05-20 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing systems. 76.05-20 Section 76.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-20 Fixed...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  7. 46 CFR 147.67 - Halocarbon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Halocarbon fire extinguishing systems. 147.67 Section... SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.67 Halocarbon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Each halocarbon cylinder forming part of a clean agent fixed fire...

  8. 46 CFR 169.734 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 169.734 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.734 Fire extinguishing system controls. Each control cabinet or space containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  9. 46 CFR 98.30-39 - Alternate fire extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate fire extinguishing system. 98.30-39 Section 98.30-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Portable Tanks § 98.30-39 Alternate fire extinguishing system. An alternative to the fire...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire...

  11. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  12. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  13. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  14. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  15. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  16. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  17. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  18. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  19. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  20. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sprinkler systems which are covered by § 1910.159. (2) This section also applies to fixed systems not... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910.160 Section 1910... § 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, general. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies...

  2. Generalization of Extinguished Skin Conductance Responding in Human Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a human fear conditioning paradigm using the skin conductance response (SCR), participants were assigned to two groups. Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS). At test, presenting the CS in group ABA…

  3. Reinstatement of an Extinguished Fear Conditioned Response in Infant Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revillo, Damian A.; Trebucq, Gastón; Paglini, Maria G.; Arias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently accepted that the extinction effect reflects new context-dependent learning, this is not so clear during infancy, because some studies did not find recovery of the extinguished conditioned response (CR) in rodents during this ontogenetic stage. However, recent studies have shown the return of an extinguished CR in infant…

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 196.37-13 Section 196.37-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-13 Fire extinguishing...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section apply to the placement, use, maintenance, and testing of portable fire extinguishers provided for..., maintenance and testing. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the inspection, maintenance and testing of... assure that portable fire extinguishers are subjected to an annual maintenance check. Stored...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section apply to the placement, use, maintenance, and testing of portable fire extinguishers provided for..., maintenance and testing. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the inspection, maintenance and testing of... assure that portable fire extinguishers are subjected to an annual maintenance check. Stored...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  11. 46 CFR 193.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 193.50-20 Section 193.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand... a corresponding number at least 1/2 inch high. Where only one type and size of hand portable...

  13. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Commercial Cooking Equipment,” or other standard specified by the Commandant. (b) A grease... sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent laboratory...

  14. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Commercial Cooking Equipment,” or other standard specified by the Commandant. (b) A grease... sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent laboratory...

  15. 46 CFR 118.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Commercial Cooking Equipment,” or other standard specified by the Commandant. (b) A grease... sections of NFPA 17 “Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” 17A “Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems,” or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent laboratory...

  16. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., general. (a) Fixed carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing systems must be installed to protect the... fixed extinguishing system must be of an approved carbon dioxide or halogenated type and installed to... tank spaces are so open to the atmosphere as to make the use of a fixed system ineffective; (2)...

  17. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., general. (a) Fixed carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing systems must be installed to protect the... fixed extinguishing system must be of an approved carbon dioxide or halogenated type and installed to... tank spaces are so open to the atmosphere as to make the use of a fixed system ineffective; (2)...

  18. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are fire extinguishers classified? 149.405 Section 149.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.405 How are fire extinguishers classified?...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Portable Fire Suppression... equivalent protection is provided when portable fire extinguishers are removed from service for maintenance... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable fire extinguishers. 1910.157 Section...

  20. Spacecraft Fire Detection and Extinguishment: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1988-01-01

    Pertinent fire detection and extinguishment references have been identified to further the knowledge of spacecraft fire safety. To broaden the scope of the bibliography, other unusual environments, e.g., aircraft, submarine, ship, have been included. In addition, for a more comprehensive view of the spacecraft fire safety problem, selected subjects are included, e.g., materials flammability, smoke, human behavior. The references will provide the researcher with access to state-of-the-art and historic works. Selected references from the 1960's have been included, but the emphasis is on references published from 1975 to 1987. The references are arranged by very broad categories. Often a paper will cover more than one topic, but for the purposes of this bibliography it will be cited only once.

  1. Oil well fire extinguisher having upper and lower external flame retardant-dispersing rings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.S.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes an extinguisher system for extinguishing flames from combustible fluid exiting from a pipe. It comprises an elongated tubular extinguisher body disposable over the combustible fluid emitting pipe; valve means mounted in the extinguisher body adjacent the upper outlet end for eliminating the flow of the combustion.

  2. Incidental Reflector Comparison of Containerized Dry Fire Extinguishing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Bryan Scott; Wysong, Andrew Russell

    2016-12-14

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized fire extinguishing agents authorized for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze dry fire extinguishing agent that remains in a container and is not actively being used in a fire emergency. The incidental reflector reactivity worth is determined by comparison to various thicknesses of close fitting water reflection which is commonly used to bound incidental reflectors in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that even in unlimited quantities, when containerized the authorized dry fire extinguishing agents are bound by 0.4 inches of close fitting water.

  3. Use of copper powder extinguishers on lithium fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Joseph T.; Burns, R.; Beither, J.; Ouelette, R.; Darwin, R.

    1994-07-01

    The suitability of using copper powder extinguishers for controlling lithium fires resulting from a damaged Mark 50 Torpedo boiler assembly was evaluated. The results indicated that under ideal conditions, i.e., unobstructed access to the fire, copper powder will extinguish burning lithium when applied at the recommended rate of 4.5 kg (10 lb) of copper per 0.45 kg (1 lb) of lithium. However, the presence of obstructions or of high spots on the surface of the burning lithium increases the quantity of copper powder required for extinguishment.

  4. 14 CFR 121.263 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials in the nacelle and other... designated fire zones. (b) Materials in the fire-extinguishing system must not react chemically with...

  5. 14 CFR 121.263 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials in the nacelle and other... designated fire zones. (b) Materials in the fire-extinguishing system must not react chemically with...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... they are used. (2) The employer may not mix together dry chemical extinguishing agents of different... assure that the dry chemical supply is free of moisture which may cause the supply to cake or form...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection § 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. (a) For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the... may be used, except for engine(s) embedded in the fuselage, where a “two shot” system is required....

  8. 14 CFR 23.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Protection § 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. (a) For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the... may be used, except for engine(s) embedded in the fuselage, where a “two shot” system is required....

  9. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  10. Reinstatement of extinguished fear by an unextinguished conditional stimulus.

    PubMed

    Halladay, Lindsay R; Zelikowsky, Moriel; Blair, Hugh T; Fanselow, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are often treated using extinction-based exposure therapy, but relapse is common and can occur as a result of reinstatement, whereby an aversive "trigger" can reinstate extinguished fear. Animal models of reinstatement commonly utilize a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which subjects are first trained to fear a conditional stimulus (CS) by pairing it with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US), and then extinguished by repeated presentations of the CS alone. Reinstatement is typically induced by exposing subjects to an aversive US after extinction, but here we show that exposure to a non-extinguished CS can reinstate conditional fear responding to an extinguished CS, a phenomenon we refer to as "conditional reinstatement" (CRI). Rats were trained to fear two CSs (light and tone) and subsequently underwent extinction training to only one CS (counterbalanced). Presenting the unextinguished CS (but not a novel cue) immediately after extinction reinstated conditional fear responding to the extinguished CS in a test session given 24 h later. These findings indicate that reinstatement of extinguished fear can be triggered by exposure to conditional as well as unconditional aversive stimuli, and this may help to explain why relapse is common following clinical extinction therapy in humans. Further study of CRI using animal models may prove useful for developing refined extinction therapies that are more resistant to reinstatement.

  11. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  12. 33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment § 127.1509 Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires. (a) Within each marine transfer area... extinguishing or controlling fires may be appropriate for protection against particular hazards. The...

  13. 33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Equipment § 127.1509 Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires. (a) Within each marine transfer area... extinguishing or controlling fires may be appropriate for protection against particular hazards. The...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Equipment § 127.1509 Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires. (a) Within each marine transfer area... extinguishing or controlling fires may be appropriate for protection against particular hazards. The...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Equipment § 127.1509 Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires. (a) Within each marine transfer area... extinguishing or controlling fires may be appropriate for protection against particular hazards. The...

  16. Adsorption of Halogenated Fire-Extinguishing Agents on Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barduhn, Allen J.; Patel, Bhailal S.; Meyer, Walter; Smura, Bronislaw B.

    1960-01-01

    The amounts of four different Freons adsorbed by carbon, silica gel, alumina, and molecular sieves were determined at pressures up to 225 lb/sq in. The carbon adsorbed 50 to 100 percent and the silica gels, 30 to 50 percent of their own weight of Freon. Several adsorbed systems were tested in a standard dry-powder extinguisher on a 5-sq-ft gasoline fire for their effectiveness in putting out a fire. One of the Freons (bromotrifluoromethane) and carbon extinguished fires about as well as bicarbonate powder and nitrogen.

  17. 33 CFR 149.410 - Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-portable fire extinguishers be located? 149.410 Section 149.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located? All portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers described in table 149.409 must be located in the open so as to be readily seen....

  18. 33 CFR 149.410 - Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-portable fire extinguishers be located? 149.410 Section 149.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located? All portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers described in table 149.409 must be located in the open so as to be readily seen....

  19. 46 CFR 131.825 - Controls of fire-extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controls of fire-extinguishing system. 131.825 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.825 Controls of fire-extinguishing system. Each control cabinet or space containing a valve or manifold for a fire extinguishing system...

  20. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  3. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  4. 46 CFR 132.310 - Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint lockers. 132... VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.310 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems for paint... system or another approved fixed fire-extinguishing system must be installed in each paint locker. (b)...

  5. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  6. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  7. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  8. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  9. 46 CFR 108.403a - Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: Non-vital services. 108.403a Section 108.403a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403a Fire extinguishing systems:...

  10. 46 CFR 189.25-20 - Fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each inspection for certification, periodic inspection, and at such other times as considered necessary... conducted. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the... and semiportable fire-extinguishing systems shall be checked as noted in Table 189.25-20(a)(1)....

  11. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... from any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the...

  12. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fireproof materials. (b) Connections that are subject to relative motion between components of the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 125... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM...

  13. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fireproof materials. (b) Connections that are subject to relative motion between components of the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 125... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM...

  14. 14 CFR 125.161 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protection against destruction of the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... be provided to serve all designated fire zones. (b) Materials in the fire-extinguishing system...

  15. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fireproof materials. (b) Connections that are subject to relative motion between components of the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 125... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. For all airplanes with engine(s) embedded in the fuselage or... from any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the...

  17. 14 CFR 125.161 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... protection against destruction of the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... be provided to serve all designated fire zones. (b) Materials in the fire-extinguishing system...

  18. 14 CFR 125.161 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... protection against destruction of the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... be provided to serve all designated fire zones. (b) Materials in the fire-extinguishing system...

  19. 14 CFR 125.169 - Fire-extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fireproof materials. (b) Connections that are subject to relative motion between components of the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing system materials. 125... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM...

  20. 46 CFR 108.631 - Fixed fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed fire extinguishing system controls. 108.631 Section 108.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE... system controls. (a) Each cabinet or space that contains a valve, control, or manifold of a fixed...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section 97.37-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various...

  2. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of fire extinguishers. 145.05 Section 145.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification...

  3. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of fire extinguishers. 145.05 Section 145.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification...

  4. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of fire extinguishers. 145.05 Section 145.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 196.37-13 Section 196.37-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... controls. The control cabinets or spaces containing valves, manifolds, or controls for the various...

  6. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the foam system shall be as set forth in part 95 of Subchapter I (Cargo and Miscellaneous Vessels) of this chapter. (f) Where an enclosed ventilating system is installed for electric propulsion motors... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required §...

  7. 14 CFR 121.263 - Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-extinguishing systems. 121.263 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.263 Fire... the airplane in case of fire is provided by the use of fireproof materials in the nacelle and...

  8. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... space and engines that draw intake air from the protected space prior to release of the extinguishing... the piping installation, using only carbon dioxide, compressed air, or nitrogen gas. (i) Piping... protecting a space such as a paint locker may be tested by blowing out the piping with air at a pressure...

  9. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... space and engines that draw intake air from the protected space prior to release of the extinguishing..., upon completion of the piping installation, using only carbon dioxide, compressed air, or nitrogen gas... protecting a space such as a paint locker may be tested by blowing out the piping with air at a pressure...

  10. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with an aggregate power of 1,000 b. hp. or greater, or their fuel oil units, including purifiers... installed in all spaces containing oil fired boilers, either main or auxiliary, or their fuel oil units... in all lamp and paint lockers, oil rooms, and similar spaces. (c) Fire extinguishing systems shall...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-corrosive material or otherwise protected against corrosion. (13) Automatic detection equipment... all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic... no employee exposure are exempted from the requirements of this section. (b) General requirements....

  12. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-corrosive material or otherwise protected against corrosion. (13) Automatic detection equipment... all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic... no employee exposure are exempted from the requirements of this section. (b) General requirements....

  13. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-corrosive material or otherwise protected against corrosion. (13) Automatic detection equipment... all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic... no employee exposure are exempted from the requirements of this section. (b) General requirements....

  14. 29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-corrosive material or otherwise protected against corrosion. (13) Automatic detection equipment... all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic... no employee exposure are exempted from the requirements of this section. (b) General requirements....

  15. Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus - Flame Extinguishment Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Forman A.; Nayagam, Vedha; Choi, Mun Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus Flame Extinguishment Experiment (MDCA-FLEX) will assess the effectiveness of fire suppressants in microgravity and quantify the effect of different possible crew exploration atmospheres on fire suppression. The goal of this research is to provide definition and direction for large scale fire suppression tests and selection of the fire suppressant for next generation crew exploration vehicles.

  16. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  17. 46 CFR 91.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump tank... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... accordance with the maintenance instructions in the system manufacturer's design, installation,...

  18. 1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PIPES AND VALVES AT LEFT. Looking southeast from entrance to terminal room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed to... an approved carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, halogenated, or clean agent type and installed to the... open to the atmosphere as to make the use of a fixed system ineffective; (2) Any paint or oil room,...

  20. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed to... an approved carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, halogenated, or clean agent type and installed to the... open to the atmosphere as to make the use of a fixed system ineffective; (2) Any paint or oil room,...

  1. 46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed to... an approved carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, halogenated, or clean agent type and installed to the... open to the atmosphere as to make the use of a fixed system ineffective; (2) Any paint or oil room,...

  2. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  3. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...)(1), the signal word “Danger” and the statement of hazard “Poisonous gases formed when used to... the definition of toxic in § 1500.3(c)(2), the signal word “Caution” or “Warning” and the statement of... substances labeled for use as a fire extinguisher that, if applied to an electrical fire, would subject...

  4. 46 CFR 91.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water or antifreeze. Cartridge operated (water, antifreeze or loaded stream) Examine pressure cartridge... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump...

  5. 46 CFR 91.25-20 - Fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water or antifreeze. Cartridge operated (water, antifreeze or loaded stream) Examine pressure cartridge... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump...

  6. 46 CFR 91.25-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water or antifreeze. Cartridge operated (water, antifreeze or loaded stream) Examine pressure cartridge... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump...

  7. Environmentally Safer, Less Toxic Fire-Extinguishing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2003-01-01

    Fire-extinguishing agents comprising microscopic drops of water microencapsulated in flame-retardant polymers have been proposed as effective, less toxic, non-ozone-depleting, non-globalwarming alternatives to prior fire-extinguishing agents. Among the prior fire-extinguishing agents are halons (various halocarbon fluids), which are toxic and contribute both to depletion of upperatmospheric ozone and to global warming. Other prior fire-extinguishing agents are less toxic and less environmentally harmful but, in comparison with halons, are significantly less effective in extinguishing fires. The proposal to formulate new waterbased agents is based on recent success in the use of water mist as a fire-suppression agent. Water suppresses a flame by reducing the flame temperature and the concentration of oxygen available for the combustion process. The temperature is reduced because the water droplets in the mist absorb latent heat of vaporization as they evaporate. The concentration of oxygen is reduced because the newly generated water vapor displaces air. Unfortunately, water mists are difficult to produce in confined spaces and can evaporate before they reach the bases of flames. The proposal addresses both of these issues: The proposed fire-extinguishing agents would be manufactured in microencapsulated form in advance, eliminating the problem of generating mists in confined spaces. Because of the microencapsulation, the droplets would not evaporate until exposed directly to the heat of flames. In addition, the proposal calls for the introduction of free radicals that would inhibit the propagation of the chemical reactions of the combustion reactions. Manufacturing of a fire-extinguishing agent according to the proposal would begin with the formulation of a suitable polymer (e.g., a polybromostyrene) that would contribute free radicals to the combustion process. The polymer would be dissolved in a suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g., toluene). Water would be

  8. Extinguishing in-flight engine fuel-leak fires with dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fire extinguishant storage temperature requirements were examined for several commercially available dry chemicals. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of dry powder extinguishant that, when discharged into a jet engine fuel leak fire, would stick to the hot surfaces. Moreover, after putting out the initial fire, these extinguishants would act as antireignition catalysts, even when the fuel continued to leak onto the heated surface.

  9. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS CONTAINING INHIBITED LITHIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION FOR POLAR USE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Previous experiments under this task using small metal test panels resulted in the selection of a sodium dichromate- oxalic acid inhibitor for use in...of drawn brass or silicon bronze and lined with a lead alloys, were tested with the lithium chloride solution using either sodium dichromate- oxalic ... acid or sodium dichromate alone as an inhibitor. It was determined that 0.5 percent sodium dichromate satisfactorily inhibits corrosion by the water solution of lithium chloride when contained in an extinguisher of drawn brass.

  10. Radio frequency security system, method for a building facility or the like, and apparatus and methods for remotely monitoring the status of fire extinguishers

    DOEpatents

    Runyon, Larry; Gunter, Wayne M.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2006-07-25

    A system for remotely monitoring the status of one or more fire extinguishers includes means for sensing at least one parameter of each of the fire extinguishers; means for selectively transmitting the sensed parameters along with information identifying the fire extinguishers from which the parameters were sensed; and means for receiving the sensed parameters and identifying information for the fire extinguisher or extinguishers at a common location. Other systems and methods for remotely monitoring the status of multiple fire extinguishers are also provided.

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  13. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  15. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...? Each particular location must have the number of fire extinguishers required by table 149.409. Table 149.409—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers, Minimum Quantity and Location Space Classification Minimum quantity and location (a) Safety Areas: (1) Communicating corridors A-II One in each main...

  16. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? Each particular location must have the number of fire extinguishers required by table 149.409. Table 149.409—Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers, Minimum Quantity and Location Space Classification Minimum quantity and location (a) Safety Areas: (1) Communicating corridors A-II One in each main...

  17. 33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment for controlling and... Equipment § 127.1509 Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires. (a) Within each marine transfer area... extinguishing or controlling fires may be appropriate for protection against particular hazards. The...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections. (a) Employer responsibilities. The employer must... protected spaces sufficient to impede escape. (e) Testing the system. (1) When testing a fixed extinguishing... protected space. (f) Conducting system maintenance. Before conducting maintenance on a fixed...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  2. Material and methods for oil spill control and cleanup and extinguishing petroleum fires

    SciTech Connect

    States, J. B.

    1981-02-03

    A dispersal medium is described for cleaning of oil spills and the like and extinguishing petroleum fires. Its major quantitative part consists of a household liquid detergent and also contains eucalyptus oil, bovine urine, alfalfa and vitamin b-6. Methods of oil spill clean-up and fire extinguishing are also described.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  4. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing....45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) General requirements. (1...) At annual inspections, all carbon dioxide (CO2) cylinders, whether fixed or portable, shall...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  7. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  8. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....160. This section does not apply to automatic sprinkler systems which are covered under § 1910.159. (b... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and...

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing....45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) General requirements. (1... shall not be led into the cabins, other living spaces, or working spaces. Pipes for conveying...

  10. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  13. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of...

  14. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of...

  15. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of...

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  17. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  18. Portable Extinguishers. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-4-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on portable extinguishers is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 8-hour unit is to familiarize fire fighters with all types of extinguishers. An instructor's guide…

  19. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  20. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  1. 46 CFR 35.40-25 - Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishers-TB/ALL. 35.40-25 Section 35.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-25 Fire extinguishers—TB/ALL. Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with a...

  2. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23 normal... fire extinguishing system for the engine on the model SF50 is required. Regulations requiring...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing....45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will examine all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of...

  4. Development of the International Space Station Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Young, GIna

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segments, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational and compatibility concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. ISS emergency response breathing equipment does not filter carbon dioxide; therefore, crew members are required to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event since the carbon dioxide PFE creates an unsafe breathing environment. The ISS program recommended a nontoxic fire extinguisher to mitigate this operational risk. The FWM PFE can extinguish a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crewmembers. This paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, and discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, V.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B. K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Sodium cooled Fast breeder Reactors (SFRs), accidental leakage of liquid sodium leads to sodium fire. Carbon microsphere is a promising and novel extinguishant for sodium fire since it possesses high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and excellent flow characteristics. Low density Carbon microsphere (CMS) with high thermal stability was successfully synthesized from functionalized styrene divinyl benzene copolymer by carbonization under inert atmosphere. Protocol for stepwise carbonization was developed by optimizing heating rate and time of heating. The synthesized CMS was characterized by Densimeter, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN spectroscopy. CMS thus obtained was spherical in shape having diameters ranging between 60 to 80μm with narrow size distribution. The smooth surface of CMS ensures its free flow characteristics. The yield of carbonization process was about 38%. The performance of CMS was tested on small scale sodium. This paper describes the development of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire and its characteristics.

  6. Study of toxicological evaluation of fire suppressants and extinguishers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The application of fluorocarbons as possible candidates for fire extinguishers and/or suppressants in confined spaces (such as spacecraft, aircraft, or submarines) was investigated, with special emphasis on their safety to man since they would be inhaled on an almost continuous basis. Short-term exposure experiments, using various animal species, were devised to look at specific parameters in order to determine which of the candidate compounds were sufficiently non-toxic to warrant long-term investigations. The following physiologic criteria were examined; tissue distribution, fluoride concentration, effect on mitochondria, microsomes, liposomes, and liver cell nuclei, erythrocyte fragility, clinical chemistry values, hematology, pathology, cardiac sensitization, behavioral effects. Various rodent species were used for initial investigations, with non-human primate exposures for Freon 116 which was warranted for negative results on rodents. Various types of exposure chambers were used, including closed dynamic chambers allowing for a recirculating atmosphere.

  7. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Graf, John; Carlile, Christie; Young, GIna

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. The toxicity of the carbon dioxide requires the crew members to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event, therefore inherently creating an unsafe environment. The FWM PFE extinguishes a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crew members. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, as well as discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  8. The comparative extinguishment performance and thermal decomposition products of halon alternative agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipczak, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    Halon 1301, Halon 1211, and eleven alternative fire-fighting agents were compared for extinguishment effectiveness and thermal decomposition product generation, using a laboratory-scale test apparatus having methane as the fuel. Chemical analysis was conducted using a magnetic sector mass spectrometer with simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide, water, and acid gas production. Chemical mechanisms are advanced to explain how halogenated hydrocarbons extinguish fires. The major conclusion was that the alternative agents were not as effective at fighting fires as Halons and that greater amounts of acid gases were produced during extinguishment. Hydrogen fluoride was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition product for all agents.

  9. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the

  10. Gel retarder for fire prevention and extinguishing -- Its application for spontaneous combustion of coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    With its unique function, gel retarder has been successfully applied to extinguish fire at coal face, roadways and stop line of upper slice extraction, and a comparably perfect set of fire extinguishing techniques has been developed. The technique gathers together characteristics of water-fixation, leak-blocking, cooling, oxidation-retarding and heat-resisting. A new agglomerating agent without amine and corrosion has been developed to replace amine-salt and acid used in the past. Gel-injection technology cooperating with the grouting system on the ground solves previous problems in which gel-injection velocity was slow and materials transport was difficult. The technique has become the main measure to extinguish spontaneous combustion in coal mines in China. The use of gel retarder as an important means of underground fire prevention will be applied more widely to prevent and extinguish spontaneous fire in coal mines.

  11. 75 FR 52034 - Portable Fire Extinguishers (Annual Maintenance Certification Record); Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Portable Fire Extinguishers (Annual Maintenance Certification Record); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of the Information Collection... Management and Budget's (OMB) approval of the information collection requirements contained in the...

  12. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Jimmy D.

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  13. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Jimmy D.

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  14. An Infrared Search for Extinguished Supernovae in Starburst Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Grossan, B.; Spillar, E.; Tripp, R.; Pirzkal, N.; Sutin, B.M.; Barnaby, D.

    1999-08-01

    IR and radio-band observations of heavily extinguished regions in starburst galaxies suggest a high supernova (SN) rate associated with such regions. Optically measured SN rates may therefore underestimate the total SN rate by factors of up to 10, as a result of the very high extinction ({ital A}{sub {ital B}}thinsp{approximately}thinsp10{endash}20 mag) to core-collapse SNe in starburst regions. The IR/radio SN rates come from a variety of indirect means, however, which suffer from model dependence and other problems. We describe a direct measurement of the SN rate from a regular patrol of starburst galaxies done with {ital K}{prime}-band imaging to minimize the effects of extinction. A collection of {ital K}{prime}-band measurements of core-collapse SNe near maximum light is presented. Such measurements (excluding 1987A) are not well reported in the literature. Results of a preliminary {ital K}{prime}-band search, using the MIRC camera at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory and an improved search strategy using the new ORCA optics, are described. A monthly patrol of a sample of {ital IRAS} bright (mostly starburst) galaxies within 25 Mpc should yield 1{endash}6 SNe yr{sup {minus}1}, corresponding to the range of estimated SN rates. Our initial MIRC search with low resolution (2&arcsec;2 pixels) failed to find extinguished SNe in the {ital IRAS} galaxies, limiting the SN rate outside the nucleus (at greater than 15{double_prime} radius) to less than 3.8 far-IR SN rate units (SNe per century per 10{sup 10} {ital L}{sub {circle_dot}} measured at 60 and 100 {mu}m, or FIRSRU) at 90{percent} confidence. The MIRC camera had insufficient resolution to search nuclear starburst regions, where starburst and SN activity is concentrated; therefore, we were unable to rigorously test the hypothesis of high SN rates in heavily obscured star-forming regions. We conclude that high-resolution nuclear SN searches in starburst galaxies with small fields are more productive than low

  15. Extinguishment of enclosed gas fires with water sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wighus, R.

    1993-02-01

    Water sprays are widely used for fire fighting in industrial areas, and they are used for fire protection in the process industry and at offshore oil- and gas-production platforms. No real quantification of the effect of water sprays as a fire fighting medium exists. The water delivery is specified through standards and regulations which are based on industrial experience. In process areas, water spray is often used in deluge systems, intended to control the fire until the leakage of fuel has been shut down. For this purpose, there is a need for quantification of the ability a certain spray system has to remove heat from the fire and to reduce the fire load to the construction and process equipment. SINTEF NBL has studied extinguishment and control of enclosed hydrocarbon fires by means of water sprays. A scale model of a module of an offshore platform is used in studies of enclosed liquid hydrocarbon fire development. The model is instrumented to measure heat transfer, fire development, and production of soot and gases from combustion.

  16. [Extinguishment of harmful algae by organo-clay].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming

    2003-07-01

    Periodic and widespread algal blooms have caused a variety of problems for aquatic life and human activity throughout the world. Currently, the only remedial practice employed for removing algal blooms is to spread clay on the surface of the water. But, the algal removal efficiency by the crude minerals are not really ideal, and how to improve the capability of clays to remove algae is now the technological focus, which also is fatal to the practical value of clays. In this study, hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB), one kind of cationic organo-surfactants, was chosen to improve kaolin by surface sorption and cationic exchange, and was tested to remove Prorocentrum donghaiense, a red tide organism in Donghai Sea. The results indicated that organo-clay had an excellent ability to extinguish red tide organisms, even under the application of 0.01 g.L-1, and could subside more than 95% red tide organisms in 24 h. The efficient algae removal by organo-clay might be from the reversal of the surface electric charge on clay particles, the "net capture" by the long lipoid chains of HDTMAB, and the local high density of HDTMAB on particles surface, which could effectively kill algal cells.

  17. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher ICES Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Carlile, Christie; Graf, John; Young, Gina

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. FWM extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE. In addition, the NASA ISS specific fire standards will be described which were developed to establish acceptable extinguisher performance. The paper will also discuss the flight hardware design. The fin e water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface have been under development for several years. They have gone through several design iterations, and have been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The

  18. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. From a flight hardware design perspective, the fine water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface has been under development for several years. It has gone through several design iterations, and has been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The crew and vehicle interface aspects of the design will use the heritage of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher, to minimize the disruption to the crew and integration impacts to the ISS. The microgravity use environment of the system poses a set of unique design requirements

  19. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  20. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Extinguishing of Cooking Related Fires to Individuals with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Gustafson, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach fire extinguishing behaviors to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three fire extinguishing behaviors and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based program. Results indicate that…

  1. Relapse of Extinguished Fear after Exposure to a Dangerous Context Is Mitigated by Testing in a Safe Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Travis D.; Kim, Janice J.; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events can trigger relapse of extinguished fear memories, presenting a major challenge to the long-term efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined factors regulating the relapse of extinguished fear after exposure of rats to a dangerous context. Rats received unsignaled shock in a distinct context ("dangerous"…

  2. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ..., Hand Fire Extinguishers for Use in Aircraft ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... guidance for the fire-fighting effectiveness, selection, location, mounting and safe-use of hand...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... readily recharged by the vessel's personnel, one spare unit of the same classification shall be carried in lieu of spare charges for all such units of the same size and variety. (b) Recharges, particularly the... extinguishers shall be tested by pumping and discharging the contents, cleaning thoroughly, and then...

  4. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... readily recharged by the vessel's personnel, one spare unit of the same classification shall be carried in lieu of spare charges for all such units of the same size and variety. (b) Recharges, particularly the... extinguishers shall be tested by pumping and discharging the contents, cleaning thoroughly, and then...

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... readily recharged by the vessel's personnel, one spare unit of the same classification shall be carried in lieu of spare charges for all such units of the same size and variety. (b) Recharges, particularly the... extinguishers shall be tested by pumping and discharging the contents, cleaning thoroughly, and then...

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... readily recharged by the vessel's personnel, one spare unit of the same classification shall be carried in lieu of spare charges for all such units of the same size and variety. (b) Recharges, particularly the... extinguishers shall be tested by pumping and discharging the contents, cleaning thoroughly, and then...

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... readily recharged by the vessel's personnel, one spare unit of the same classification shall be carried in lieu of spare charges for all such units of the same size and variety. (b) Recharges, particularly the... extinguishers shall be tested by pumping and discharging the contents, cleaning thoroughly, and then...

  8. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. 145.10 Section 145.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10...

  9. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  10. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  11. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  12. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. 145.10 Section 145.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10...

  13. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  14. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  15. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. 145.10 Section 145.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10...

  16. Extinguished second-order conditioned fear responses are renewed but not reinstated.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Nathan M; Cai, Stefanie Yuxuan; Lay, Belinda Po Pyn; Watts, Nicola R; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2014-10-01

    A series of experiments used rats to examine renewal and reinstatement of extinguished second-order conditioned fear (freezing) responses. The initial experiment demonstrated that freezing responses to a stimulus (S2) were contingent on its pairings with a second stimulus (S1) and on the prior pairings of S1 and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Subsequent experiments showed that these freezing responses extinguished across S2 alone presentations, but were renewed when: S2-S1 pairings and S2 alone presentations occurred in the same context and testing of S2 occurred elsewhere; S2-S1 pairings and testing were in the same context and S2 alone presentations were elsewhere; and when S2-S1 pairings, S2 alone presentations and testing occurred in different contexts. Freezing responses to an extinguished S1 were reinstated by US alone presentations. However, these responses were not reinstated to an extinguished S2 by US or S1 alone presentations, and, conversely, freezing to a nonextinguished S2 was unaffected by extinction of S1. The results were interpreted to mean that S2-S1 pairings produced an association between S2 and the fear responses elicited by S1 and that extinction of this association is controlled by context. The failure to reinstate fear responses to S2 is discussed in terms of theories developed to explain reinstatement of S1.

  17. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recognize: (i) Systems' discharge and evacuation alarms and the appropriate escape routes; and (ii) Hazards associated with the extinguishing systems and agents including the dangers of disturbing system components and equipment such as piping, cables, linkages, detection devices, activation devices, and...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recognize: (i) Systems' discharge and evacuation alarms and the appropriate escape routes; and (ii) Hazards associated with the extinguishing systems and agents including the dangers of disturbing system components and equipment such as piping, cables, linkages, detection devices, activation devices, and...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recognize: (i) Systems' discharge and evacuation alarms and the appropriate escape routes; and (ii) Hazards associated with the extinguishing systems and agents including the dangers of disturbing system components and equipment such as piping, cables, linkages, detection devices, activation devices, and...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recognize: (i) Systems' discharge and evacuation alarms and the appropriate escape routes; and (ii) Hazards associated with the extinguishing systems and agents including the dangers of disturbing system components and equipment such as piping, cables, linkages, detection devices, activation devices, and...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-10 - Fire extinguishing system branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system branch lines. 196.37-10 Section 196.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... permanently marked indicating the spaces served....

  2. Protection from Extinction by Concurrent Presentation of an Excitor or an Extensively Extinguished CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2007-01-01

    One conditioned taste aversion experiment with rats assessed the impact of extinguishing a target conditioned stimulus (CS), S, in compound with a second CS, A, upon conditioned responding elicited by CS S when presented alone at test. Following initial conditioning treatment with CSs A and S, the experiment manipulated number of extinction trials…

  3. Mechanisms of Resurgence II: Response-Contingent Reinforcers Can Reinstate a Second Extinguished Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with rat subjects examined resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response using the procedure introduced by Epstein (1983) with pigeons. There were three phases: (1) initial acquisition of pressing on a lever (L1) for pellet reward, (2) extinction of L1, and (3) a test session in which a second lever (L2) was inserted,…

  4. Handheld delivery system for modified boron-type fire extinguishment agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Michael E.; Tapscott, Robert E.

    1993-11-01

    A handheld, portable extinguisher was developed for Boralon, a modified Boron-type Class D fire extinguishing agent. The development of this unit progressed through the design, prototype, and final product stages. Two prototypes were designed as valved, stored-pressure types using Boralon compatible materials in critical areas exposed to the agent. The units were tested at an operating pressure of 200 lbf/sq in and an agent capacity of 2 to 3 gallons to determine the optimum application rate, throw range and throw pattern. The most favorable unit was tested for reliability. The information obtained in the prototype testing was developed further into a final design. This design specified a stored-pressure type that was sealed with a frangible plug or splined rupture disk and was activated by depressing the handle and removing the seal. Further requirements of a fill ratio of 75 percent agent to 25 percent pressure head at 200 lbf/sq in and an agent fill capacity of at least 2 gallons were also specified. Two manufactured units were found that met the criteria. An extinguisher with a frangible plug seal was successfully tested against 30- and 50-pound magnesium fires. Both the frangible plug and splined rupture disk designs satisfy the final design requirements of the handheld Boralon extinguisher. Both types are recommended for use in the Draft Military Specification for this unit.

  5. 46 CFR 71.25-20 - Fire detecting and extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump tank... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... accordance with the maintenance instructions in the system manufacturer's design, installation,...

  6. 46 CFR 71.25-20 - Fire detecting and extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump tank... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... accordance with the maintenance instructions in the system manufacturer's design, installation,...

  7. 46 CFR 71.25-20 - Fire detecting and extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... thoroughly. Recharge. Foam Discharge. Clean hose and inside of extinguisher thoroughly. Recharge. Pump tank... liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out of... accordance with the maintenance instructions in the system manufacturer's design, installation,...

  8. Experimental investigation of foam spread and extinguishment of the large-scale methanol pool fire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Lu; Bi, Yixing; Xu, Dajun; Zhi, Huiqiang; Qiu, Peifang

    2015-04-28

    A steel channel with the size of 30m×2 m×1.2m has been made to simulate the full surface fire of a 50,000m(3) methanol tank. Several large-scale methanol fire extinguishment experiments have been conducted under different foam application rates and foam concentrations in order to investigate the flow length, flow velocity and fire extinguishing effectiveness of the alcohol-resistant foam. The result showed that the alcohol-resistant aqueous film forming foam (AFFF/AR) and alcohol-resistant fluoro-protein foam (FP/AR) could flow beyond 30m on the burning methanol surface and extinguish the fire successfully even with the foam application rate of 4Lmin(-1)m(-2). Under the same condition, the fire extinguishing performance of AFFF/AR was better than FP/AR, and the flow velocity of AFFF/AR on the burning methanol surface was 0.203ms(-1), while the value of FP/AR was 0.082ms(-1).

  9. 33 CFR 149.407 - Must fire extinguishers be on the deepwater port at all times?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must fire extinguishers be on the deepwater port at all times? 149.407 Section 149.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire...

  10. 46 CFR 71.25-20 - Fire-detecting and extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... water or antifreeze. Cartridge operated (water, antifreeze or loaded stream) Examine pressure cartirdge... dry chemical is in extinguisher. Recharge if pressure is low or if dry chemical is needed. Vaporizing liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out...

  11. 46 CFR 71.25-20 - Fire-detecting and extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water or antifreeze. Cartridge operated (water, antifreeze or loaded stream) Examine pressure cartirdge... dry chemical is in extinguisher. Recharge if pressure is low or if dry chemical is needed. Vaporizing liquid 2 (pump type) Pump a few strokes into clean pail and replace liquid. Keep water out...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  15. Spontaneous Recovery But Not Reinstatement of the Extinguished Conditioned Eyeblink Response in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Reinstatement, the return of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) after reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US), and spontaneous recovery, the return of an extinguished CR with the passage of time, are two of four well-established phenomena which demonstrate that extinction does not erase the conditioned stimulus (CS)-US association. However, reinstatement of extinguished eyeblink CRs has never been demonstrated and spontaneous recovery of extinguished eyeblink CRs has not been systematically demonstrated in rodent eyeblink conditioning. In Experiment 1, US reexposure was administered 24 hours prior to a reinstatement test. In Experiment 2, US reexposure was administered 5 min prior to a reinstatement test. In Experiment 3, a long, discrete cue (a houselight), present in all phases of training and testing, served as a context within which each trial occurred to maximize context processing, which in other preparations has been shown to be required for reinstatement. In Experiment 4, an additional group was included that received footshock exposure, rather than US reexposure, between extinction and test, and contextual freezing was measured prior to test. Spontaneous recovery was robust in Experiments 3 and 4. In Experiment 4, context freezing was strong in a group given footshock exposure but not in a group given eyeshock US reexposure. There was no reinstatement observed in any experiment. With stimulus conditions that produce eyeblink conditioning and research designs that produce reinstatement in other forms of classical conditioning, we observed spontaneous recovery but not reinstatement of extinguished eyeblink CRs. This suggests that reinstatement, but not spontaneous recovery, is a preparation- or substrate-dependent phenomenon. PMID:21517145

  16. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fixed gaseous or other approved fixed-type extinguishing system. (a) Paint lockers with a carrying capacity of more than 200 cubic feet, and similar spaces containing flammable liquids. (b) Galley ranges...

  17. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fixed gaseous or other approved fixed-type extinguishing system. (a) Paint lockers with a carrying capacity of more than 200 cubic feet, and similar spaces containing flammable liquids. (b) Galley ranges...

  18. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fixed gaseous or other approved fixed-type extinguishing system. (a) Paint lockers with a carrying capacity of more than 200 cubic feet, and similar spaces containing flammable liquids. (b) Galley ranges...

  19. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fixed gaseous or other approved fixed-type extinguishing system. (a) Paint lockers with a carrying capacity of more than 200 cubic feet, and similar spaces containing flammable liquids. (b) Galley ranges...

  20. 33 CFR 149.413 - On a manned deepwater port, what spaces require a fixed fire extinguishing system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fixed gaseous or other approved fixed-type extinguishing system. (a) Paint lockers with a carrying capacity of more than 200 cubic feet, and similar spaces containing flammable liquids. (b) Galley ranges...

  1. Fire extinguishing apparatus having a slidable mass for a penetrator nozzle. [for penetrating aircraft and shuttle orbiter skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.; Senseny, R. M.; Bolton, P. N.

    1980-01-01

    A fire extinguishing apparatus for delivering an extinguishing agent through a tarrier surrounding a structure into its interior includes an elongated tubular nozzle body which has a pointed penetrating head carried on one end of the tubular body. A source of extinguishing agent coupled to the opposite end of the tubular body is fed through and passes through passages adjacent the head for delivering the extinguishing agent to the interior of the structure. A slidable mass is carried on the tubular body on a remote end of the tubular body from the penetrating head. By manipulating the slidable mass and bringing such in contact with an abutment the force imparted to the tubular body causes the head to penetrate the structure.

  2. Zero Gravity Aircraft Testing of a Prototype Portable Fire Extinguisher for Use in Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, J.; Carriere, T.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Easton, J.

    2012-01-01

    For the past five years ADA Technologies has been developing a portable fire extinguisher (PFE) for use in microgravity environments. This technology uses fine water mist (FWM) to effectively and efficiently extinguish fires representative of spacecraft hazards. Recently the FWM PFE was flown on a Zero-G (reduced gravity) aircraft to validate the performance of the technology in a microgravity environment. Test results demonstrated that droplet size distributions generated in the reduced gravity environment were in the same size range as data collected during normal gravity (1-g) discharges from the prototype PFE. Data taken in an obscured test configuration showed that the mist behind the obstacle was more dense in the low-g environment when compared to 1-g discharges. The mist behind the obstacle tended to smaller droplet sizes in both the low-g and 1-g test conditions.

  3. Thermal Characteristics of Foams and Discharge from Fire-Extinguishment Foam Spray Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Jea; Pyo, Jin-Soo

    To evaluate the performance of discharged foam agents used to protect structures from heat and fire damages, the thermal characteristics of fire-extinguishment foams were experimentally investigated. Especially, two different parameters of a spray nozzle, that is, the number of air holes and the orifice diameter, were considered. A simple repeatable test for fire-extinguishment foams subjected to fire radiation was performed. Experimental results showed that the expansion ratio of the discharged foam with the small orifice throat (d0= 9.5 mm) and opened air hole (Nh=9) was large. Results also showed that although the temperature gradient in the foam increased as the foam expansion ratio is increased, it remained constant as the intensity of heat flux increased.

  4. Power packs: A passive approach to extinguishing fire in combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnerty, Anthony E.; Polyanski, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    Thin (12.7 and 6.4 mm) panels of fire extinguishing powder in a honeycomb matrix were tested for their ability to extinguish fires in the FAASV ammunition resupply vehicle. These powder packs were applied to the exterior of hydraulic fluid reservoirs and fuel cells for protection from hydrocarbon fires caused by shaped charge jets penetrating the fluid containers. It was found that a surround of 12.7-mm-thick panels was required to achieve a sub 250-ms fire-out time with no second-degree burns expected to personnel with hot hydraulic fluid reservoirs. Power packs as thin as 6.4 mm provided the same protection in the case of hot diesel fuel.

  5. Fire Extinguisher Robot Using Ultrasonic Camera and Wi-Fi Network Controlled with Android Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Purba, H. A.; Efendi, S.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-03-01

    Fire disasters can occur anytime and result in high losses. It is often that fire fighters cannot access the source of fire due to the damage of building and very high temperature, or even due to the presence of explosive materials. With such constraints and high risk in the handling of the fire, a technological breakthrough that can help fighting the fire is necessary. Our paper proposed the use of robots to extinguish the fire that can be controlled from a specified distance in order to reduce the risk. A fire extinguisher robot was assembled with the intention to extinguish the fire by using a water pump as actuators. The robot movement was controlled using Android smartphones via Wi-fi networks utilizing Wi-fi module contained in the robot. User commands were sent to the microcontroller on the robot and then translated into robotic movement. We used ATMega8 as main microcontroller in the robot. The robot was equipped with cameras and ultrasonic sensors. The camera played role in giving feedback to user and in finding the source of fire. Ultrasonic sensors were used to avoid collisions during movement. Feedback provided by camera on the robot displayed on a screen of smartphone. In lab, testing environment the robot can move following the user command such as turn right, turn left, forward and backward. The ultrasonic sensors worked well that the robot can be stopped at a distance of less than 15 cm. In the fire test, the robot can perform the task properly to extinguish the fire.

  6. A developmental dissociation in reinstatement of an extinguished fear response in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Richardson, Rick

    2007-07-01

    Recently, studies from our laboratory have shown that 16-day-old rats, in contrast to 23-day-old rats, fail to show either ABA renewal or recovery of an extinguished fear response following a pre-test injection of FG7142 [Kim, J. H. & Richardson, R. (2007). A developmental dissociation of context and GABA effects on extinguished fear in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience; Yap & Richardson, unpublished data]. The present study, using freezing as a measure of learned fear, extends these findings by examining whether there is a developmental difference in susceptibility to reinstatement following extinction. 16- and 23-day-old rats were trained to fear a white-noise conditioned stimulus (CS) by pairing it with a shock unconditioned stimulus (US). This fear was subsequently extinguished by non-reinforced presentations of the CS. Some rats received a post-extinction Reminder which consisted of a single presentation of a reduced-intensity US. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that this Reminder was effective in reinstating extinguished fear in 23-day-olds, and that this reinstatement effect was context-specific in rats this age. In contrast, 16-day-old rats failed to show the reinstatement effect in either experiment. The failure to observe a post-extinction reinstatement effect in the 16-day-olds was not due to a general ineffectiveness of the Reminder treatment at this age because it did alleviate spontaneous forgetting in rats this age (Experiment 3). Taken together, the results suggest that fundamentally different processes may mediate extinction early in development compared to later in development.

  7. Extinguishment of a Methane Air Diffusion Flame by Using Blast Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, H.; Saito, S.; Ito, A.

    After the occurrence of a large-scale disaster such as the Great East Japan Earthquake, multiple simultaneous fires, consisting of diffusion flames, often break out. At the same time, infrastructure, such as water utilization for firefighting, roads and etc., is destroyed violently by the disaster impact. Therefore, it is difficult to use conventional firefighting techniques against the post-disaster fires. To mitigate and minimize the damages, the development of a new firefighting method which can extinguish each fire promptly is needed.

  8. Role of the basolateral amygdala in the reinstatement and extinction of fear responses to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Four experiments used rats to study the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the reinstatement and extinction of fear responses (freezing) to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS). In Experiment 1, BLA inactivation before pairing the extinguished CS with the shock unconditioned stimulus (US) or before US-alone exposure impaired the restoration and the reinstatement of fear responses to the extinguished CS. In Experiment 2, BLA inactivation before extinction impaired long-term inhibition of fear responses, but its inactivation before extinction of fear responses restored by CS-US pairing did not impair long-term inhibition. In Experiment 3, BLA inactivation before extinction of fear responses or before the extinction of fear responses reinstated by US-alone exposure impaired long-term inhibition. In Experiment 4, BLA inactivation did not impair long-term inhibition of fear responses reinstated by US-alone exposure if the context where the US-alone exposure occurred had been previously extinguished. These results confirm that the BLA is critical for both learning fear and fear inhibition, but not for relearning this inhibition. The results are consistent with the view that reinstatement is due to the extinguished CS being tested in a dangerous context and are discussed in terms of a contemporary neural model of fear inhibition.

  9. Detailed Results from the Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) March 2009 to December 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Nayagam, M. Vedha; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Choi, Mun Y.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) program is a continuing set of experiments on droplet combustion, performed employing the Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA), inside the chamber of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), which is located in the Destiny module of the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the experimental hardware, the diagnostic equipment, the experimental procedures, and the methods of data analysis for FLEX. It also presents the results of the first 284 tests performed. The intent is not to interpret the experimental results but rather to make them available to the entire scientific community for possible future interpretations.

  10. Conditions of appearance of fires in benzol scrubbers and methods of extinguishing them

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretskii, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    The cause of appearance of fires in benzol scrubbers filled with wooden grid packing may be either an external flame during an accident or spontaneous combustion of iron sulfides during shutdown of the scrubbers for modification or replacement of the packing. The fire and explosion hazard of benzol scrubbers is also due to the fact that grid packing made of pine lath (the ignition temperature of pinewood is 255/sup 0/C, maximum combustion temperature 900/sup 0/C, calorific value to 17 MJ/kg) during operation is intensely permeated by fuel components of the coke-oven gas and wash oil, and sludge deposits, sometimes reaching 20% of the weight of the packing, accumulate on its surface. Fires inside benzol scrubbers are characterized by a comparatively high rate of combustion and a significant calorific value of the products of decomposition of the grid packing and the sludge deposits on it. Due to the structural characteristics of the internal cavity of benzol scrubbers, their significant height, great internal volume and the specific nature of combustion in them, the use of water, water vapor and low- and medium-ratio mechanical air foams is ineffective for extinguishing fires in them. Nitrogen may be a promising means of preventing and extinguishing fires in benzol scrubbers. One should also keep in mind the economic aspect of using nitrogen, since coking plants usually have nitrogen potentially available through the smelting facilities.

  11. Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex is Responsible for Inhibiting Cocaine Seeking in Extinguished Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jamie; LaLumiere, Ryan T.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    The rat prelimbic prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core are critical for initiating cocaine seeking. In contrast, the neural circuitry responsible for inhibiting cocaine seeking during extinction is unknown. The present findings using inhibition of selected brain nuclei with GABA agonists show that the suppression of cocaine seeking produced by prior extinction training required activity in the rat infralimbic cortex. Conversely, the reinstatement of drug seeking by a cocaine injection in extinguished animals was suppressed by increasing neuronal activity in infralimbic cortex with the glutamate agonist AMPA. The cocaine seeking induced by inactivating infralimbic cortex resembled other forms of reinstated drug seeking by depending on activity in prelimbic cortex and the basolateral amygdala. A primary efferent projection from the infralimbic cortex is to the nucleus accumbens shell. Akin to infralimbic cortex, inhibition of the accumbens shell induced cocaine seeking in extinguished rats. However, bilateral inhibition of the shell also elicited increased locomotor activity. Nonetheless, unilateral inhibition of the accumbens shell did not increase motor activity, and simultaneous unilateral inactivation of the infralimbic cortex and shell induced cocaine seeking, suggesting that an interaction between these two structures is necessary for extinction training to inhibit cocaine seeking. The infralimbic cortex and accumbens shell appear to be recruited by extinction learning because inactivation of these structures prior to extinction training did not alter cocaine seeking. Together, these findings suggest that a neuronal network involving the infralimbic cortex and accumbens shell is recruited by extinction training to suppress cocaine seeking. PMID:18524910

  12. Flammability of self-extinguishing kenaf/ABS nanoclays composite for aircraft secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, S.; Majid, D. L.; Mohd Tawil, M. L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the flammability properties of kenaf fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) with nanoclays composites. Natural fiber is one of the potential materials to be used with thermoplastic as a composite due to its attractive properties such as lightweight and strong. In this paper, flammability properties of this material are evaluated through Underwriters Laboratory 94 Horizontal Burning (UL94 HB), which has been conducted for both controlled and uncontrolled conditions, smoke density and limiting oxygen index tests (LOI). These flammability tests are in compliance with the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) requirement. The results from UL94 HB and smoke density tests show that the presence of nanoclays with effective composition of kenaf fiber reinforced ABS has enhanced the burning characteristics of the material by hindering propagation of flame spread over the surface of the material through char formation. Consequently, this decreases the burning rate and produces low amount of smoke during burning. On contrary, through LOI test, this material requires less oxygen to burn when exposed to fire, which hinders the enhancement of burning characteristics. This is due to burning mechanism exhibited by nanoclays that catalyzes barrier formation and flame propagation rate over the surface of the biocomposite material. Overall, these experimental results suggest that this biocomposite material is capable of self-extinguishing and possesses effective fire extinction. The observed novel synergism from the result obtained is promising to be implemented in secondary structures of aircraft with significant benefits such as cost-effective, lightweight and biodegradable self-extinguishing biocomposite.

  13. Extinguishment of a Diffusion Flame Over a PMMA Cylinder by Depressurization in Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey S.; Tien, James S.; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of flames in low-speed flows in low-gravity is relevant to spacecraft fire safety. Previous work has shown that flames in the presence of low-speed forced flows in low-gravity may be more flammable than in a forced flow of the same magnitude in normal gravity. Additionally, fire suppression plans for the International Space Station include the use of venting (depressurization) as an emergency option for extinguishing fires. This procedure would induce flows in the affected compartment that could temporarily intensify the fire, as was observed in flammability tests of solids conducted on board Skylab. Despite a general Understanding, current knowledge of the combined effects of reduced pressure and forced flow on a burning solid in low-gravity is inadequate for the design of a venting extinguishment system. Previous studies in low-g have examined flammability limits for thermally thin solids. However, there are differences when burning thick materials because the interior solid-phase temperature continuously changes, which affects the percentage of gas-phase heat feedback to the solid-phase. Changes in the heat feedback to the solid-phase can affect the flammability characteristics of the material. In the current work, the extinction of a diffusion flame burning over PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) cylinders during depressurization with a low-speed cross flow was examined experimentally and via numerical simulations.

  14. 25 CFR 166.421 - If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a permit is canceled for non-payment, does that extinguish the permittee's debt? 166.421 Section 166.421 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections...

  15. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, and clean agent fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, and clean agent fire... Requirements § 167.45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, and clean agent fire extinguishing systems. (a... the cabins, other living spaces, or working spaces. Pipes for conveying carbon dioxide or...

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, and clean agent fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, and clean agent fire... Requirements § 167.45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, and clean agent fire extinguishing systems. (a... the cabins, other living spaces, or working spaces. Pipes for conveying carbon dioxide or...

  17. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  18. Memory Is Not Extinguished along with CS Presentation but within a Few Seconds after CS-Offset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Cuesta, Luis Maria; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following…

  19. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  20. The Effects of Context Changes on the Reinstatement of Extinguished Conditioned Behavior in a Conditioned Suppression Task with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Reinstatement refers to the return of previously extinguished conditioned responses to test trials of a conditional stimulus (CS) when presentations of the unconditional stimulus (US) alone are given following extinction. Four experiments were conducted to determine whether reinstatement could be found in a conditioned suppression task with humans…

  1. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide and Helium as Fire Extinguishing Agents for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of radiation heat transfer in microgravity compared to convection heat transfer in earth gravity for opposed-flow (downward) over thermally-thick fuel using low density foam fuel were investigated. Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally-thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large flame spread rate compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. And thereby valid microgravity results were obtained even in 2.2 second drop-tower experiments not to mention for the longer duration tests in Zero Gravity Facility. Contrast to the conventional understanding, it was found that steady flame spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when radiatively-active diluent gases such as CO2 were employed. This is proposed to result from radiative heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface, which could lead to steady spread even when the amount of the heat transfer via conduction from the flame to the fuel bed is negligible. Radiative effects are more significant at microgravity conditions because the flame is thicker and thus the volume of radiating combustion products is larger as well. These results suggested that helium may be a better inert or extinguishment agent on both a mass and a mole bases at microgravity even though CO2 is much better on a mole bases at earth gravity, and these are relevant to studies of fire safety in manned spacecraft, particularly the International Space Station that uses CO2 fire extinguishers. CO2 may not be as effective as an extinguishing agent at microgravity as it is at earth gravity in some conditions because of the differences in spread mechanisms between the two cases. In particular, the difference between conduction-dominated heat transport to the fuel bed at earth gravity and radiation-dominated heat transport at microgravity indicates that radiatively-inert diluent such as helium could be preferable in

  2. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide and Helium as Fire Extinguishing Agents for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of radiation heat transfer in microgravity compared to convection heat transfer in earth gravity for opposed-flow (downward) over thermally-thick fuel using low density foam fuel were investigated. Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally-thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large flame spread rate compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. And thereby valid microgravity results were obtained even in 2.2 second drop-tower experiments not to mention for the longer duration tests in Zero Gravity Facility. Contrast to the conventional understanding, it was found that steady flame spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when radiatively-active diluent gases such as CO2 were employed. This is proposed to result from radiative heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface, which could lead to steady spread even when the amount of the heat transfer via conduction from the flame to the fuel bed is negligible. Radiative effects are more significant at microgravity conditions because the flame is thicker and thus the volume of radiating combustion products is larger as well. These results suggested that helium may be a better inert or extinguishment agent on both a mass and a mole bases at microgravity even though CO2 is much better on a mole bases at earth gravity, and these are relevant to studies of fire safety in manned spacecraft, particularly the International Space Station that uses CO2 fire extinguishers. CO2 may not be as effective as an extinguishing agent at g as it is at earth gravity in some conditions because of the differences in spread mechanisms between the two cases. In particular, the difference between conduction-dominated heat transport to the fuel bed at earth gravity and radiation-dominated heat transport at g indicates that radiatively-inert diluent such as helium could be preferable in g applications. Helium may be a

  3. Flow of nitrogen-pressurized Halon 1301 in fire extinguishing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.; Garrison, P. W.; Klein, G. A.; Moran, K. M.; Zydowicz, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Halon 1301 which is a halocarbon fire extinguishing agent (CBrF3) used by the U.S. Army for vehicle fire suppression is discussed. Halon 1301 is discharged under nitrogen pressure, and the Halon-nitrogen mixture is a two phase, two component mixture that obeys compressible fluid laws and exhibits choking effects. A computer model was developed to analyze the discharge of Halon and nitrogen from a storage bottle through pipes and nozzles. The model agrees well with data from Halon 1301 discharge tests. The discharge time depends mainly on nozzle area and pipe volume, for given initial conditions. Graphs were developed for estimating discharge times. A nozzle employing multiple concentric converging/diverging nozzles was developed which gave hemispherical coverage.

  4. Feasibility of systematic recycling of aircraft halon extinguishing agents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.D.

    1991-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the feasibility of recycling Halon 1301 extinguishing agent for support of the United States civil aircraft fleet until 2020. Research for this study centered around known relationships of refrigerants; scientific principles of Avogadro, Dalton, Henry, Raoult, and natural physical properties of Halon 1301. results of this study demonstrate that recovery of Halon 1301 to military specification purity requirements is practical. Agent recovery efficiency of 98 percent (minimum) can be expected; and the recovered agent can meet applicable purity requirements, except for a maximum noncondensible gas content of 10 pounds per square inch partial pressure at 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Support of current and future United States domestic civil fleet until 2020 and beyond requires less than 5 percent of the projected 1994 Halon 1301 bank.

  5. Failure to extinguish fear and genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Klumpers, F; Oosting, R S; Evers, D J J; Leon Kenemans, J; Baas, J M P

    2012-09-25

    Failure to extinguish fear can lead to persevering anxiety and has been postulated as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of human anxiety disorders. In animals, it is well documented that the endogenous cannabinoid system has a pivotal role in the successful extinction of fear, most importantly through the cannabinoid receptor 1. However, no human studies have reported a translation of this preclinical evidence yet. Healthy medication-free human subjects (N=150) underwent a fear conditioning and extinction procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex was measured to assess fear-conditioned responding, and subjective fear ratings were collected. Participants were genotyped for two polymorphisms located within the promoter region (rs2180619) and the coding region (rs1049353) of cannabinoid receptor 1. As predicted from the preclinical literature, acquisition and expression of conditioned fear did not differ between genotypes. Crucially, whereas both homozygote (G/G, N=23) and heterozygote (A/G, N=68) G-allele carriers of rs2180619 displayed robust extinction of fear, extinction of fear-potentiated startle was absent in A/A homozygotes (N=51). Additionally, this resistance to extinguish fear left A/A carriers of rs2180619 with significantly higher levels of fear-potentiated startle at the end of the extinction training. No effects of rs1049353 genotype were observed regarding fear acquisition and extinction. These results suggest for the first time involvement of the human endocannabinoid system in fear extinction. Implications are that genetic variability in this system may underlie individual differences in anxiety, rendering cannabinoid receptor 1 a potential target for novel pharmacological treatments of anxiety disorders.

  6. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytkov, Ivan V.; Zabelin, Maksim V.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  7. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  8. Relapse of extinguished fear after exposure to a dangerous context is mitigated by testing in a safe context.

    PubMed

    Goode, Travis D; Kim, Janice J; Maren, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Aversive events can trigger relapse of extinguished fear memories, presenting a major challenge to the long-term efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined factors regulating the relapse of extinguished fear after exposure of rats to a dangerous context. Rats received unsignaled shock in a distinct context ("dangerous" context) 24 h prior to auditory fear conditioning in another context. Fear to the auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) was subsequently extinguished either in the conditioning context ("ambiguous" context) or in a third novel context ("safe" context). Exposure to the dangerous context 30 min before a CS retention test caused relapse to the CS in the ambiguous and safe test contexts relative to nonextinguished controls. When rats were tested 24 h later (with or without short-term testing), rats tested in the ambiguous context continued to exhibit relapse, whereas rats tested in the safe context did not. Additionally, exposure of rats to the conditioning context--in place of the unsignaled shock context--did not result in relapse of fear to the CS in the safe testing context. Our work highlights the vulnerabilities of extinction recall to interference, and demonstrates the importance of context associations in the relapse of fear after extinction.

  9. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  10. The development and evaluation of water-mist fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Staggs, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    Fire protection for underfloor space is primarily provided by Halon 1301 which has proven to be very effective. However, due to the link between halons and the possible depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, plans have been implemented to eventually phase out Halon 1301 and 1211. In September 1987 the Montreal Protocol concerning chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons was signed by the United States, the European Economic Community, and 23 other nations. The Montreal Protocol calls for freezing halon production at 1986 levels. Because the majority of underfloor fire protection at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) sites, is either Halon 1301 or sprinklers, some other means of suppression will have to be developed and verified. The potential loss to facilities housing computer or control rooms damaged by underfloor fires can be extreme. These losses would not only include hardware and software replacement costs, but also lost computing and control capability. Here at LLNL technical research in a facility could be severely affected. Recent studies conducted by the Fire Research Discipline of the Special Projects Division have shown that severe fires fueled by cable insulation can develop within as little as a 6-in-high underfloor space (even with mechanical ventilation shut off). Studies also show that conventional sprinklers may not be effective in preventing this destruction. Therefore, we are investigating the water-mist fire extinguishing system as an alternative to Halon 1301 and sprinklers.

  11. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  12. Molecular-beam sampling study of extinguishment of methane-air flames by dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, E. L.; Ni, W.-F.; Seeger, C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of Al2O3, NaHCO3, KHCO3, NH4H2PO4 and KCl powders for the inhibition of a methane/oxygen diffusion flame is studied through measurement of composition and temperature profiles, using a molecular beam mass spectrometer sampling system. In order to obtain significant inhibition without extinguishing the flame, a powder feeding rate of 2 mg/liter of gas was used for KCl and Al2O3, and of 3 mg/liter of gas for the remaining powders. CH4, O2, N2, H2O and CO2 concentrations were measured by the mass spectrometer, while temperature was measured by the time-of-flight technique. For the powder feeding rates used, Al2O3 was the least and KCl and NH2H4PO2 the most effective in reducing temperature; in reaction-inhibition effectiveness, Al2O3 was again lowest while KCl was superior to all others. Because the KCl concentration was only 2/3 that of NH4H2PO4, it is recommended as the most effective temperature reducer and reaction inhibitor.

  13. Accumbens shell AMPA receptors mediate expression of extinguished reward seeking through interactions with basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Millan, E Zayra; McNally, Gavan P

    2011-07-01

    Extinction is the reduction in drug seeking when the contingency between drug seeking behavior and the delivery of drug reward is broken. Here, we investigated a role for the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). Rats were trained to respond for 4% (v/v) alcoholic beer in one context (Context A) followed by extinction in a second context (Context B). Rats were subsequently tested in the training context, A (ABA), or the extinction context, B (ABB). Pre-test injections of the glutamate AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX (1 µg) into AcbSh had no effect on renewal of alcoholic beer seeking when rats were returned to the training context (ABA). However, NBQX increased responding when rats were tested in the extinction context (ABB). In a second experiment, rats received training, extinction, and test in the same context. Pre-test injections of NBQX (0, 0.3, and 1 µg) into the AcbSh dose-dependently attenuated expression of extinction. We also found that NBQX in the AcbSh had no effect on initial acquisition of extinction or the motivation to respond for reward as measured by break point on a progressive ratio schedule. Finally, we show that pharmacological disconnection of a basolateral amygdala (BLA) → AcbSh pathway via NBQX in AcbSh combined with reversible inactivation of the contralateral BLA attenuates expression of extinction. Together, these results suggest that AcbSh AMPA receptors mediate expression of extinguished reward seeking through glutamatergic inputs from the BLA.

  14. Pharmacogenetic reactivation of the original engram evokes an extinguished fear memory.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Takahiro; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    Fear memory extinction has several characteristic behavioral features, such as spontaneous recovery, renewal, and reinstatement, suggesting that extinction training does not erase the original association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). However, it is unclear whether reactivation of the original physical record of memory (i.e., memory trace) is sufficient to produce conditioned fear response after extinction. Here, we performed pharmacogenetic neuronal activation using transgenic mice expressing hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) under the control of the activity-dependent c-fos gene promoter. Neuronal ensembles activated during fear-conditioned learning were tagged with hM3Dq and subsequently reactivated after extinction training. The mice exhibited significant freezing, even when the fear memory was no longer triggered by external CS, indicating that the artificial reactivation of a specific neuronal ensemble was sufficient to evoke the extinguished fear response. This freezing was not observed in non-fear-conditioned mice expressing hM3dq in the same brain areas. These results directly demonstrated that at least part of the original fear memory trace remains after extinction, and such residual plasticity might reflect the persistent memory.

  15. Extinguishment of a Diffusion Flame Over a PMMA Cylinder by Depressurization in Reduced-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey Scott

    1996-01-01

    Extinction of a diffusion flame burning over horizontal PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) cylinders in low-gravity was examined experimentally and via numerical simulations. Low-gravity conditions were obtained using the NASA Lewis Research Center's reduced-gravity aircraft. The effects of velocity and pressure on the visible flame were examined. The flammability of the burning solid was examined as a function of pressure and the solid-phase centerline temperature. As the solid temperature increased, the extinction pressure decreased, and with a centerline temperature of 525 K, the flame was sustained to 0.1 atmospheres before extinguishing. The numerical simulation iteratively coupled a two-dimensional quasi-steady, gas-phase model with a transient solid-phase model which included conductive heat transfer and surface regression. This model employed an energy balance at the gas/solid interface that included the energy conducted by the gas-phase to the gas/solid interface, Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, surface radiation, and the energy conducted into the solid. The ratio of the solid and gas-phase conductive fluxes Phi was a boundary condition for the gas-phase model at the solid-surface. Initial simulations modeled conditions similar to the low-gravity experiments and predicted low-pressure extinction limits consistent with the experimental limits. Other simulations examined the effects of velocity, depressurization rate and Phi on extinction.

  16. Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD.

  17. Reversible Inactivation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Prevents Reinstatement But Not Renewal of Extinguished Fear1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Travis D.; Kim, Janice J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The extinction of conditioned fear is labile. For example, fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) returns after presentation of an aversive stimulus (“reinstatement”) or a change in context (“renewal”). Substantial research implicates the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the stress-induced relapse of extinguished behaviors, such as in instrumental drug seeking, but its role in the relapse of extinguished fear responses is not clear. Here, we explored the role of the BNST in both the reinstatement and renewal of fear, two forms of relapse that are differentially triggered by stress. In Experiment 1, rats received pairings of an auditory CS and footshock unconditioned stimulus (US) followed by an extinction procedure. After extinction, rats received an unsignaled US to reinstate fear to the extinguished CS. Twenty-four hours later, they were infused with either muscimol or vehicle into the BNST immediately prior to a CS retrieval test. In Experiment 2, rats were conditioned and extinguished in two distinct contexts. Twenty-four hours after extinction, the rats were infused with muscimol, NBQX, or vehicle immediately prior to a CS retrieval test in either the extinction context or a different (but familiar) context. In both experiments, freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear. The results revealed that BNST inactivation prevented reinstatement (Experiment 1), but not renewal (Experiment 2), of conditioned freezing to the extinguished CS. Hence, the BNST is critical for the reinstatement of extinguished fear in an aversive context, but not for the contextual retrieval processes that mediate fear renewal. PMID:26464990

  18. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  19. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans

    PubMed Central

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A.; Zielinski, David J.; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS−. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations. PMID:26220745

  20. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    PubMed

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations.

  1. Tissue-specific extinguisher loci in the human genome: A screening study based on random marking and transfer of human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapero, M.H.; Langston, A.A.; Fournier, R.E.K. )

    1994-05-01

    Expression of many liver-specific genes is extinguished when cultured hepatoma cells are fused with fibroblasts, but liver genes can be reexpressed in hybrid segregants that have lost fibroblast chromosomes. To map extinguisher loci involved in this process, hepatoma microcell hybrids retaining single fibroblast chromosomes have been employed. Two different, trans-dominant loci that affect liver gene expression have been defined in this way. To determine whether other monochromosomal extinction phenotypes could be observed, the authors inserted a selectable marker into many human chromosomal sites and transferred the marked human chromosomes into rat hepatoma recipient cells by microcell fusion. Nearly 200 microcell hybrid clones were isolated and screened for expression of liver-specific mRNAs. Most liver transcripts continued to be expressed. However, PEPCK mRNA was extinguished in 12 hybrid clones. Some of these hybrids contained human TSE1, the previously characterized extinguisher locus on chromosome 17, but others contained a novel extinguishing function that mapped to human chromosome 14. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one's drug use history.

  3. Water-based chitosan/melamine polyphosphate multilayer nanocoating that extinguishes fire on polyester-cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Leistner, Marcus; Abu-Odeh, Anas A; Rohmer, Sarah C; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-10-05

    Polyester-cotton (PECO) blends are widely used in the textile industry because they combine the softness of cotton and the strength and durability of polyester. Unfortunately, both fiber types share the disadvantage of being flammable. The layer-by-layer coating technique was used to deposit a highly effective flame retardant (melamine polyphosphate) from water onto polyester-cotton fabric. Soluble melamine and sodium hexametaphosphate form this water-insoluble flame retardant during the coating procedure. This unique nanocoating imparts self-extinguishing properties to PECO with only 12% relative coating weight. Vertical flame testing, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the quality of the coating as well as its flame retardant performance. A combination of both condensed and gas-phase activity appears to be the reason for this effective flame retardancy. Degradation pathways of both cotton and polyester are affected by the applied coating, as shown by PCFC and TGA. Use of environmentally benign and non-toxic chemicals, and the ease of layer-by-layer deposition, making this coating an industrially feasible alternative to render polyester-cotton fabric self-extinguishing.

  4. National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 7: Alarm and Special Extinguishing Systems. 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    These NFPA recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices, or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) extinguishing systems, (2) standpipe and hose systems, (3) wetting agents, (4) fire hydrants, (5) water charges for…

  5. Diode laser measurements of HF concentrations from heptane/air pan fires extinguished by FE-36 and FE-36 plus ammonium polyphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, R. R.; Daniel, Robert G.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Herud, Craig; Bolt, William R.; Horton, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the time evolution of hydrogen fluoride concentrations produce from a series of enclosed heptane/air pan fires extinguished by FE-36 or FE-36 plus ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Recent advances in room temperature fiber coupled, near-IR diode lasers provide isolation of the laser and signal processing electronics from the hostile sampling site. For the fires studied, the change in HF gas concentration with time is dependent upon the fire fighting chemical used to extinguish the fire. The presence of APP is observed to accelerate the dissipation of HF from the fire enclosure. Visible attenuation spectroscopy is also used to measure the amount of light attenuation that occurs as a hand held fire extinguisher containing powder fire fighting agents released in the crew space of a M1-Abrams land combat vehicle. Obscuration test demonstrate that release of APP from extinguishers in an occupied space does not present a visibility challenge to the vehicle personnel.

  6. 46 CFR 27.305 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for on or after... for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was... Lakes route is restricted (as indicated on its certificate of inspection), so that the barge may...

  7. Solid State Digital Propulsion "Cluster Thrusters" For Small Satellites Using High Performance Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellants (ECESP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Wayne N.; Katzakian, Arthur; Grix, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellants (ESCSP) are capable of multiple ignitions, extinguishments and throttle control by the application of electrical power. Both core and end burning no moving parts ECESP grains/motors to three inches in diameter have now been tested. Ongoing research has led to a newer family of even higher performance ECESP providing up to 10% higher performance, manufacturing ease, and significantly higher electrical conduction. The high conductivity was not found to be desirable for larger motors; however it is ideal for downward scaling to micro and pico- propulsion applications with a web thickness of less than 0.125 inch/ diameter. As a solid solution propellant, this ECESP is molecularly uniform, having no granular structure. Because of this homogeneity and workable viscosity it can be directly cast into thin layers or vacuum cast into complex geometries. Both coaxial and grain stacks have been demonstrated. Combining individual propellant coaxial grains and/or grain stacks together form three-dimensional arrays yield modular cluster thrusters. Adoption of fabless manufacturing methods and standards from the electronics industry will provide custom, highly reproducible micro-propulsion arrays and clusters at low costs. These stack and cluster thruster designs provide a small footprint saving spacecraft surface area for solar panels and/or experiments. The simplicity of these thrusters will enable their broad use on micro-pico satellites for primary propulsion, ACS and formation flying applications. Larger spacecraft may find uses for ECESP thrusters on extended booms, on-orbit refueling, pneumatic actuators, and gas generators.

  8. Formation of self-extinguishing flame retardant biobased coating on cotton fabrics via Layer-by-Layer assembly of chitin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-22

    The self-extinguishing coating, consisting of biobased chitin derivatives, phosphorylated chitin and deacetylated chitin (chitosan), was deposited on cotton fabrics via the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembled method. The content of phosphorylated chitin prepared on cotton fabrics surface is dependent on the bilayers' number and concentration of phosphorylated chitin. In the vertical flame test, the cotton fabric with 20 bilayers prepared at the high phosphorylated chitin concentration (2 wt%) could extinguish the flame. Microcombustion calorimetry result showed that all coated cotton fabrics showed lower peak heat-release rate and total heat-release values compared with that of the pure one. Thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that thermal and thermal oxidation stability of all coated cotton fabrics were enhanced in the high temperature range (400-700°C). This work provided the flame retardant multilayer films based on fully biobased chitin derivatives on cotton fabrics to enhance its flame retardancy.

  9. Test and Evaluation of Commercially Available Halon 1211 Hand-Portable Fire Extinguishers for Use in Habitable and Cargo Compartments of USAF Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    in this portion of the valve head. The flat spring inside the head was slightly corroded. The safety pin was stiff to remove. Valve operation was...assembly. Salt deposits were present here and the flat valve spring was slightly corroded. The safety pin was stiff to remove. Valve oper- ation was...light chain to prevent loss. These devices were easily removed for extinguisher operation. Although the Ansul safety pin , when in place, did prevent

  10. Circadian rhythm of hormones is extinguished during prolonged physical stress, sleep and energy deficiency in young men.

    PubMed

    Opstad, K

    1994-07-01

    The circadian rhythm of hormones (N = 10) and mental performance (N = 18) was investigated in male cadets during a 5-day military training course with continuous heavy physical activities corresponding to 35% of the maximal oxygen uptake, with almost total lack of food and sleep. The 24-h means for androstenedione, dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and thyroid-stimulating hormone decreased strongly during the course, and the circadian rhythm was extinguished below the minimum levels measured during the control experiment. The 24-h means for cortisol, dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone increased during the course, and the circadian rhythm was abolished above the maximum levels of the control experiment. A gradual increase was found in thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine during the first 12 h of activities, followed by a constant decrease for the rest of the course. Mental performance decreased during the course and the amplitude of its circadian rhythm increased from +/- 10% to +/- 30% of the 24-h mean. The circadian rhythms investigated were almost normalized after 4-5 days of rest. However, the nocturnal rise for cortisol, androstenedione and DHEA appeared earlier, and the plasma levels of thyroid hormones, estradiol and DHEA-S were lower during the recovery experiment than in the control experiment. The responses to stress of the circadian rhythm for mental performance and steroid hormones during the course indicate a differential regulation.

  11. UKIRT Microlensing Surveys as a Pathfinder for WFIRST: The Detection of Five Highly Extinguished Low-∣b∣ Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Bryden, G.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Howell, S. B.; Beichman, C.

    2017-02-01

    Optical microlensing surveys are restricted from detecting events near the Galactic plane and center, where the event rate is thought to be the highest due to the high optical extinction of these fields. In the near-infrared (NIR), however, the lower extinction leads to a corresponding increase in event detections and is a primary driver for the wavelength coverage of the WFIRST microlensing survey. During the 2015 and 2016 bulge observing seasons, we conducted NIR microlensing surveys with UKIRT in conjunction with and in support of the Spitzer and Kepler microlensing campaigns. Here, we report on five highly extinguished ({A}H=0.81{--}1.97), low-Galactic latitude (-0.98≤slant b≤slant -0.36) microlensing events discovered from our 2016 survey. Four of them were monitored with an hourly cadence by optical surveys but were not reported as discoveries, likely due to the high extinction. Our UKIRT surveys and suggested future NIR surveys enable the first measurement of the microlensing event rate in the NIR. This wavelength regime overlaps with the bandpass of the filter in which the WFIRST microlensing survey will conduct its highest-cadence observations, making this event rate derivation critically important for optimizing its yield.

  12. Memory is not extinguished along with CS presentation but within a few seconds after CS-offset

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cuesta, Luis María; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab’s contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following questions are raised. First, when is extinction memory acquired, if not along extinction training, and how long does it take? Second, can acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory be pharmacologically dissected? Here we address these questions performing three series of experiments: a first one aimed to study systematically the relationship between extinction and increasing periods of unreinforced CS presentations, a second one to determine the time boundaries of the extinction memory acquisition, and the third one to assay the requirement for protein synthesis and NMDA-like receptors of acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory. Our results confirm that it is CS-offset and not the mere retrieval (CS-onset) that triggers acquisition of extinction memory and that it is completed in less than 45 sec after CS-offset. In addition, protein synthesis is required for consolidation but not for acquisition of this memory and, conversely, NMDA-like receptor activity is required for its acquisition but not for its consolidation. Finally, we offer an interpretative scheme of our results and we discuss to what extent it could apply to multitrial extinction. PMID:17272655

  13. Baclofen prevents drug-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking behaviour and nicotine place preference in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Spano, Maria Sabrina; Cossu, Gregorio; Scherma, Maria; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

    2009-07-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen is known to reduce drug intake in both animals and humans and to prevent reinstatement of cocaine-, opioid-, and alcohol-seeking in rats after a period of extinction, but its effect on nicotine reinstatement is unknown. This study investigated the effect of baclofen on nicotine-seeking reinstatement both using the extinction/reinstatement model of nicotine self-administration and conditioned place preference (CPP). Results showed that in rats previously trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine (30 microg/kg/inf) under a FR-1 schedule of reinforcement, acute nicotine (0.15 mg/kg) priming effectively reinstates nicotine-seeking behaviour following extinction. At doses used in this study (up to 2.5 mg/kg) baclofen alone did not affect locomotor activity and did not reinstate responding. However, baclofen dose-dependently attenuated drug-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in rats. Moreover, baclofen (1.25 mg/kg) completely blocked nicotine-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) CPP in mice. Altogether, our results showed that baclofen is able to antagonise reinstatement of nicotine-seeking and CPP triggered by nicotine primings, suggesting its potential clinical utility as an anti-relapse agent.

  14. Exposure to a novel context after extinction causes a renewal of extinguished conditioned responses: implications for the treatment of fear.

    PubMed

    Neumann, David L; Kitlertsirivatana, Edward

    2010-06-01

    Renewal gives an experimental model for the relapse of fear symptoms following exposure therapy. While renewal of extinguished fear in humans has been observed following a return to the original context in which fear was acquired (ABA design), it has been more difficult to show upon presentation of a novel context (ABC design). The present experiment used a particularly strong context manipulation in a fear conditioning procedure. Context was manipulated by using large photographs of real environments taken from various angles and was present throughout the entire experiment. A renewal of cognitive expectancy was found in both ABA and ABC renewal designs, although it was larger in the former than in the latter. Response times in making the expectancy judgments increased when there was a change to a new context. The results demonstrate consistency in fear renewal effects between human and animal studies and suggest that relapse following exposure therapy via renewal remains a danger when people encounter a previously feared object in a novel context.

  15. The performance of automatic sprinkler systems in the extinguishment of incipient conveyor belt fires under ventilated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Pro, R.W.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of automatic water sprinkler systems in the extinguishment of incipient conveyor belt fires under ventilated conditions. Large-scale experiments were conducted using a double strand conveyor belt configuration. Standard response, pendent-type sprinklers, with activation temperatures of 100{degrees}C, were installed above and between the two strands of belting, in accordance with Federal standards for sprinkler system installations in belt drive areas. Experiments at airflows of 1.1 and 4.6 m/s showed that the sprinklers activated later, the peak heat release rate was larger, and more belting was consumed at the higher airflow. In experiments with 74{degrees}C, fast response, directional sprinklers, the sprinklers activated at the same heat release rate for both high and low Wows, but the peak heat release rate and amount of belt consumed was slightly higher at the lower airflow. Experiments were also conducted with 100{degrees}C, standard pendent sprinklers installed above the top belt, in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 123 for sprinkler system installations in conveyor belt drive areas in underground coal mines. In these experiments, the heat release rate and amount of belting consumed was larger at the higher airflow.

  16. NICER elements: a family of nerve growth factor-inducible cAMP-extinguishable retrovirus-like elements.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, K O; Minsk, B; Wagner, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have shown previously that the transcription of the gene designated d5 is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells and that this NGF induction is repressed by cAMP. In this paper we demonstrate that d5 is a member of a gene family that contains several hundred members, which is closely related to retroviruses and retrotransposons, as demonstrated by the following observations: (i) the original d5 cDNA hybridized to numerous restriction fragments in genomic DNA; (ii) d5 cDNA hybridized to genomic clones with various intensities, and genomic clones can be isolated with a frequency suggesting that this family includes several hundred members; and (iii) there were minor sequence variations in four independently isolated cDNA clones that were homologous to d5 cDNA. Primer extension studies show that initiation of the 5.7-kilobase d5 mRNA(s) occurs at a unique site relative to a synthetic primer. The 5' end of the cDNA sequence was homologous to Rasheed rat sarcoma virus; and a genomic clone contained several elements that are typical of a long terminal repeat (LTR), including a CCAAT box, a TATA box, a primer binding site, a poly(A) addition signal, and a poly(A) addition site. Furthermore, there is a LTR at the 3' end of at least one of the genes in this family, and there appeared to be a four-base duplication at the probable site of integration into host DNA. Since several members of this family retain responses to NGF and cAMP, we conclude that the regulatory elements present in the LTR have been conserved in many members of this family. We have named this family of genes the NICER elements because they are a family of NGF-inducible cAMP-extinguishable retrovirus-like elements. Images PMID:2160077

  17. NMDA antagonist MK 801 in nucleus accumbens core but not shell disrupts the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, Laura N; Guzman, Andrea S; Virgolini, Miriam B; Cancela, Liliana M

    2016-12-15

    Relapse is a common feature of cocaine addiction. In rodents, it can be elicited by cues, stress or the drug. Restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful model to study the mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse of drug-seeking behavior. There is evidence that the glutamate NMDA receptors are critically involved in drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior and drug-CPP responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of NMDA receptors within core vs. shell nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions to restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP. After extinction of cocaine-conditioned preference, animals were administered MK 801 systemically or directly into intra-core or intra-shell, and restrained for 30min or left undisturbed in their home-cages. First, we demonstrated that restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP depends on the duration of restraint as well as on the context in which it is applied. Second, this effect was blocked by systemic MK 801 administration either before or after restraint. Third, intra-core but not intra-shell administration abrogated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement. These findings show that NMDA receptors within NAc core, but not shell, play a critical role in restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-CPP.

  18. Vaporizing Fire Extinguishing Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-08-18

    the pro- ject under contract included: Dr. Earl T. McBee, Head, Chemistry Department; Dr. Zara D. Welch, Researbh Supervisor; and Dr’s T. R. Santelli...Aeronautics Authority kxperimental Station, Indianapolis, Indiana, which has supplied test data for inclusion in this report. The Medical Division of the...Development of sources of supply for agent anAL con- tainers. f. Service testing. This report oovers technical phases a, b, and a to 1 April 1950, and

  19. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  20. The renewal of extinguished conditioned fear with fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli by a context change after extinction.

    PubMed

    Neumann, David L; Longbottom, Paula L

    2008-02-01

    The acquisition, extinction, and subsequent recovery of conditioned fear can be influenced by the nature of the conditional stimulus (CS) and the context in which the CS is presented. The combined effects of these factors were examined in a differential fear-conditioning procedure with humans. Fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs were followed by a shock unconditional stimulus (US) during acquisition and presented alone during extinction. The CSs were images presented upon different background contexts. Half the participants received the same context during acquisition and extinction and the remaining received different contexts. All participants received test trials in the same context as acquisition. In Experiment 1 (N=64), a renewal of shock expectancy and skin conductance responses was found during test for fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant CSs when extinction was given in a different context. In Experiment 2 (N=72), renewal for fear-relevant stimuli was enhanced when acquisition and test was given in an indoor office context and extinction in an outdoor bush context. The opposite context configuration produced the strongest renewal for fear-irrelevant stimuli. The return of extinguished conditioned fear can occur to fear-relevant stimuli that are commonly associated with clinical fears and its strength may be enhanced when the stimuli are encountered in certain contexts after extinction.

  1. To Extinguish the Fire from Outside the Cell or to Shutdown the Gas Valve Inside? Novel Trends in Anti-Inflammatory Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Monasta, Lorenzo; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are the most important soluble mediators of inflammation. Rare pediatric diseases provided exemplar conditions to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of new generation therapies (biologics/biopharmaceuticals) selectively targeting single cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins have revolutionized anti-inflammatory therapies in the last two decades, allowing the specific targeting of single cytokines. They are very effective in extinguishing inflammation from outside the cell, even with the risk of an excessive and prolonged immunosuppression. Small molecules can enter the cell and shutdown the valve of inflammation by directly targeting signal proteins involved in cytokine release or in response to cytokines. They are orally-administrable drugs whose dosage can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired anti-inflammatory effect. This could make these drugs more suitable for a wide range of diseases as stroke, gout, or neurological impairment, where inflammatory activation plays a pivotal role as trigger. Autoinflammatory diseases, which have previously put anti-cytokine proteins in the limelight, can again provide a valuable model to measure the real potential of small inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26370962

  2. To Extinguish the Fire from Outside the Cell or to Shutdown the Gas Valve Inside? Novel Trends in Anti-Inflammatory Therapies.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Monasta, Lorenzo; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-09-07

    Cytokines are the most important soluble mediators of inflammation. Rare pediatric diseases provided exemplar conditions to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of new generation therapies (biologics/biopharmaceuticals) selectively targeting single cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins have revolutionized anti-inflammatory therapies in the last two decades, allowing the specific targeting of single cytokines. They are very effective in extinguishing inflammation from outside the cell, even with the risk of an excessive and prolonged immunosuppression. Small molecules can enter the cell and shutdown the valve of inflammation by directly targeting signal proteins involved in cytokine release or in response to cytokines. They are orally-administrable drugs whose dosage can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired anti-inflammatory effect. This could make these drugs more suitable for a wide range of diseases as stroke, gout, or neurological impairment, where inflammatory activation plays a pivotal role as trigger. Autoinflammatory diseases, which have previously put anti-cytokine proteins in the limelight, can again provide a valuable model to measure the real potential of small inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents.

  3. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  4. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Blacktop, Jordan M.; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A.; Mantsch, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 hrs/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5” duration, average every 40 sec; range 10–70 sec) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 µg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. PMID:26596556

  5. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 μg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts.

  6. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (70 °F) are excepted from labeling (except when offered for transportation by air) and the... fabricated with a burst pressure of not less than six times its charged pressure at 21 °C -(70 °F) when... packaging must be used. The metal packaging must be capable of withstanding, without bursting, a pressure...

  7. Fire Extinguishing Agents for Rocket Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-09-01

    ras purified by rectification through a Widaer ©piusa. la additions some furfuryl alcohol «ras obtained’ from the Eastman Kodak -Company...preliminary tests with furfuryl alcohol were- carried out la aa effort to ofetoiBi tho flaaea-fele-liaxt’S of this fuel, rapid dehydration cad...34v - ^ , -S"»i -- ».. 3— j i furfuryl Aieoteol - Aniliae - - - - - S^rasiary of Test E$suits "*» -—,—— •»«*«•«•«>•’*» -«0 p

  8. An Extinguisher to Quench Propellant Fires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if neessary and k*ntif by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GRU Fii~e, Propellant, Water, Foam...achieve a reasonable amount of fome in the final product. Large concentrations (over 601 by volume) ot ethylnesglycol-type coamercial antlfreete may be

  9. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... one and one-half times the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130 °F); and (iii) Each... equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130 °F) without evidence of...

  10. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., without bursting, a pressure of one and one-half times the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C... pressure in the container is equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130...

  11. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... one and one-half times the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130 °F); and (iii) Each... equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130 °F) without evidence of...

  12. 49 CFR 173.309 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., without bursting, a pressure of one and one-half times the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C... pressure in the container is equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the contents at 55 °C (130...

  13. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Bait wells. 2. Glove compartments. 3. Buoyant flotation material. 4. Open slatted flooring. 5. Ice... stowed when not in use to prevent it from rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions. (d)...

  14. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Bait wells. 2. Glove compartments. 3. Buoyant flotation material. 4. Open slatted flooring. 5. Ice... stowed when not in use to prevent it from rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions. (d)...

  15. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Bait wells. 2. Glove compartments. 3. Buoyant flotation material. 4. Open slatted flooring. 5. Ice... stowed when not in use to prevent it from rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions. (d)...

  16. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Bait wells. 2. Glove compartments. 3. Buoyant flotation material. 4. Open slatted flooring. 5. Ice... stowed when not in use to prevent it from rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions. (d)...

  17. 46 CFR 25.30-20 - Fire extinguishing equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Bait wells. 2. Glove compartments. 3. Buoyant flotation material. 4. Open slatted flooring. 5. Ice... stowed when not in use to prevent it from rolling out of control under heavy sea conditions. (d)...

  18. Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their…

  19. Chemical Action of Halogenated Agents in Fire Extinguishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belles, Frank E.

    1955-01-01

    The action of halogenated agents in preventing flame propagation in fuel-air mixtures in laboratory tests is discussed in terms of a possible chemical mechanism. The mechanism chosen is that of chain-breaking reactions between agent and active particles (hydrogen and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicsls). Data from the literature on the flammability peaks of n-heptane agent-air mixtures are treated. Ratings of agent effectiveness in terms of the fuel equivalent of the agent, based on both fuel and agent concentrations at the peak, are proposed as preferable to ratings in terms of agent concentration alone. These fuel-equivalent ratings are roughly correlated by reactivities assigned to halogen and hydrogen atoms in the agent molecules. It is concluded that the presence of hydrogen in agent need not reduce its fire-fighting ability, provided there is enough halogen to make the agent nonflammable. A method is presented for estimating from quenching-distance data a rate constant for the reaction of agent with active particles. A quantitative result is obtained for methyl bromide. This rate constant predicts the observed peak concentration of methyl bromide quite well. However, more data are needed to prove the validity of the method. The assumption that hal.ogenatedagents act mainly by chain-bresking reactions with active particles is consistent with the experimental facts and should help guide the selection of agents for further tests.

  20. Method for evaluating effectiveness of dry fire-extinguishing chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus used in method is commercially available, powder-deposition type oxy-acetylene torch that has been modified to provide electronically timed operations and more uniform powder flow; usual torch tips are replaced by burner head with pilot flame.

  1. Extinguishment of combustible porous solids by water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, Arvind

    1993-04-01

    Two experimental configurations are chosen for the study. Stagnation-point flow apparatus allows the study of both the gas-phase and the condensed-phase suppression actions and enables transient chemical measurements in the exhaust gas. These measurements are used to study the suppression mechanisms and quantify the suppression effectiveness. Counterflow diffusion flame apparatus allows detailed flame structure measurements but is limited to studying gas-phase suppression mechanisms, chemical and/or physical.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed... employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design..., the gas may be in a liquid state during storage. (2) Application. The requirements of paragraphs...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed... employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design..., the gas may be in a liquid state during storage. (2) Application. The requirements of paragraphs...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed... employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design..., the gas may be in a liquid state during storage. (2) Application. The requirements of paragraphs...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed... employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design..., the gas may be in a liquid state during storage. (2) Application. The requirements of paragraphs...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed... employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design..., the gas may be in a liquid state during storage. (2) Application. The requirements of paragraphs...

  7. Feasibility of Systematic Recycling of Aircraft Halon Extinguishing Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    stated. Larger aircraft are the cout se of the past few years, more than A340s from 21 customers. David Jennings, the only viable short-term solution...to con- 20% of all now ai,,raft had been ordered by VP-marketlng, said here that the European gestion problems. leasing companies. consortium believes

  8. Modeling of extinguishing ELMs in detached divertor plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigarov, A.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Hollmann, E.; Rognlien, T.

    2015-11-01

    Detached plasmas, the primary operational regime for divertors in next-step fusion devices, should be compatible with both good H-mode confinement and relatively small ELMs providing tolerable heat power loads on divertor targets. Here, dynamics of boundary plasma, impurities and material walls over a sequence of many type-I ELM events under detached divertor plasma conditions is studied with UEGDE-MB-W, the newest version of 2D edge plasma transport code, which incorporates Macro-Blob (MB) approach to simulate non-diffusive filamentary transport and various ``Wall'' (W) models for time-dependent hydrogen wall inventory and recycling. We present the results of multi-parametric analysis on the impact of the size and frequency of ELMs on the divertor plasma parameters where we vary the MB characteristics under different pedestals and divertor configurations. We discuss the conditions, under which small but frequent type-I ELMs (typical for high-power H-mode discharges on current tokamaks with hard deuterium gas puff) are not ``burning through'' the formed detached divertor plasma. In this case, the inner and outer divertors are filled by sub-eV, recombining, highly-impure plasma. Variations of impurity plasma content, radiation pattern, and deuterium wall inventory over the ELM cycle are analyzed. UEDGE-MB-W modeling results are compared to available experimental data.

  9. Fine water spray for fire extinguishing. Phase 2: Turbine hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aune, P.; Wighus, R.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    SINTEF has carried out tests of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system intended to be used as a replacement for Halon systems in turbine hoods on offshore platforms operated by British Petroleum Norway. The tests were carried out in a 70 cu m full scale model representing a turbine hood of the Ula platform in the North Sea. A mock-up of a gas turbine was installed in the model. The scope of work in Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of fire suppression in realistic fire scenarios using a Fine Water Spray system, and to find an optimum procedure for water application in a fire situation. Two reports have been made from the experiments in Phase 2, one Main Report, STF25 A94036, and the present Technical Report, STF25 A94037. The discussion and conclusions are given in the Main Report while this Technical Report gives a more thorough presentation of the experimental setup and methods used for calibration and calculation of measured values. In addition, a complete set of curves for each experiment is included.

  10. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification of... means so that all portions of the space concerned may be covered. Examples of size graduations for...

  11. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.05 Classification of... means so that all portions of the space concerned may be covered. Examples of size graduations for...

  12. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protected space and engines that draw intake air from the protected space prior to release of the..., compressed air, or nitrogen gas. (i) Piping between a storage cylinder and a stop valve in the manifold must... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The...

  13. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  14. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  15. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protected space and engines that draw intake air from the protected space prior to release of the..., compressed air, or nitrogen gas. (i) Piping between a storage cylinder and a stop valve in the manifold must... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The...

  16. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  17. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protected space and engines that draw intake air from the protected space prior to release of the..., compressed air, or nitrogen gas. (i) Piping between a storage cylinder and a stop valve in the manifold must... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The...

  18. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  19. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  20. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protected space and engines that draw intake air from the protected space prior to release of the..., compressed air, or nitrogen gas. (i) Piping between a storage cylinder and a stop valve in the manifold must... blowing out the piping with air at a pressure of not less than 689 kPa (100 psi). (8) The...

  1. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  2. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  3. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  4. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  5. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  6. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brake horsepower (b.h.p.) or greater, or their fuel oil units, including purifiers, valves, and... oil fired boilers or their associated fuel oil units, valves, or manifolds in the line between the... and paint lockers, oil rooms, and similar spaces. (b) A fixed carbon dioxide or clean agent...

  7. Scattered, extinguished, emitted: Three views of the dust in Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jonathan Bruce

    Dust in star-forming regions is both a blessing and a curse. By shrouding young stars it inhibits our study of their birth, yet without dust we would have an impoverished view of the structure of the molecular cloud before it collapses to form a protostar--the initial conditions of the problem of star formation. Though less than 1% of the mass of a molecular cloud, dust is a reliable tracer of the invisible H 2 which makes up the vast majority of the material. Other molecules can trace the H 2 distribution, and are useful in the appropriate regime, but all are confounded by the complications of chemistry, excitation conditions, and depletion, processes which have little effect on dust. Interpreting observations of dust is not entirely straightforward. We do not have a comprehensive theory of dust which explains the size distribution and mineralogical composition of dust in the diverse environments where it is present, from the diffuse ISM to the proto-planetary disks around young stars. Lacking such a theory, it is surprising that models of dust are nonetheless able to reproduce many of the observational constraints imposed upon them. Among these constraints are direct capture of dust grains, spectral features, extinction of background light, scattering, and thermal emission. In this thesis I (1) describe a method to use scattered ambient galactic light to map dense cores with unprecedented high resolution; (2) extend near-infrared extinction mapping by incorporating background galaxies; (3) demonstrate a relation between column density and changes in the extinction law, which is evidence of grain growth; (4) report on a study using NH 3 temperatures to more precisely interpret a thermal emission map at 1.1-mm; and (5) apply all these different techniques to a single starless region in order to compare them and learn something both about dust and the initial conditions of star formation.

  8. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... independent, nationally recognized testing laboratory for the system being installed. (3) System design and installation must be in accordance with the Manufacturer's Marine Design, Installation, Operation, and...) Automatically shut down all power ventilation systems serving the protected space and all engines that...

  9. Behavioral momentum and relapse of extinguished operant responding.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms. During baseline conditions, pigeons responded for food reinforcement on variable-interval 120-sec schedules in alternating periods of exposure to two stimuli arranged by a multiple schedule. Additional response-independent food presentations were also delivered in the presence of one of the multiple-schedule stimuli. Consistent with previous research, baseline response rates were lower in the presence of the stimulus with the added response-independent reinforcement, and relative resistance to extinction was greater in the presence of that stimulus. In addition, following extinction, the relative relapse of responding produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms was greater in the presence of the stimulus associated with the higher rate of reinforcement. We suggest that a model of extinction from behavioral momentum theory may be useful for understanding these results.

  10. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in special cases: (1) A fixed foam system may be used in cargo tanks. (2) A water sprinkling system.... Alternately, the Commandant may permit the installation of an approved water sprinkler system or other... is contracted for on or after November 19, 1952, a fixed carbon dioxide, foam, or water spray...

  11. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar... containing an oil fired boiler; (3) An incinerator and; (4) A space containing a gasoline storage tank....

  12. On demand, non-halon, fire extinguishing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bengamin D.

    1993-06-01

    A system and process for on-demand generation of inert, nonflammable gases and water vapor to decrease the available atmospheric oxygen in the ullage of a hydrocarbon fuel storage tank to a level that will not support combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, is disclosed. One, or more, of a variety of non-Halon, fire suppressor charges are selectively contained in one or more gas generating cartridges. The gas generating cartridge(s), when activated, cause release of these charges to promote rapid chemical reactions and supply inert, nonflammable gases and water vapor to the tank ullage. Activation is accomplished in aircraft by, either pilot action or, by pressure and temperature sensors contained within the hydrocarbon fuel tank.

  13. On demand, non-halon, fire extinguishing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Benjamin D.

    1995-06-01

    A system and process for on-demand generation of inert, non-flammable gases and water vapor to decrease the available atmospheric oxygen in the ullage of a hydrocarbon fuel storage tank to a level that will not support combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, is disclosed. One, or more, of a variety of non-Halon, fire suppressor charges are selectively contained in one or more gas generating cartridges. The gas generating cartridge(s), when activated, cause release of these charges to prOmote rapid chemical reactions and supply inert, non-flammable gases and water vapor to the tank ullage. Activation is accomplished in aircraft by either pilot action or by pressure and temperature sensors contained within the hydrocarbon fuel tank.

  14. Learned Together, Extinguished Apart: Reducing Fear to Complex Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn E.; Ringuet, Stephanie; Monfils, Marie-H.

    2013-01-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a footshock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone comes to elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). We have previously shown that an extinction session that occurs within the reconsolidation window…

  15. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-17 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be distinctly marked in conspicuous red letters at least 2 inches high—“STEAM FIRE APPARATUS”, “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE APPARATUS”, “FOAM FIRE APPARATUS”, “WATER SPRAY FIRE APPARATUS”, “MANUAL...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-17 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be distinctly marked in conspicuous red letters at least 2 inches high—“STEAM FIRE APPARATUS”, “CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE APPARATUS”, “FOAM FIRE APPARATUS”, “WATER SPRAY FIRE APPARATUS”, “MANUAL...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 25.1195 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1195 Fire... reignition. An individual “one-shot” system may be used for auxiliary power units, fuel burning heaters,...

  19. 33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.603 Portable...

  20. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... time delay and alarm arranged to require the alarm to sound for at least 20 seconds or the time... cylinder must be maintained at a temperature within the range from −30 °C (−20 °F) to 55 °C (130 °F) or at another temperature as listed by the independent laboratory and stated in the manufacturer's...

  1. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and alarm of a type approved by the Commandant, arranged to require the alarm to sound for at least 20... containing a storage cylinder must be maintained at a temperature within the range from −30 °C (−20 °F) to 55 °C (130 °F) or at another temperature as listed by the independent laboratory and stated in...

  2. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... time delay and alarm arranged to require the alarm to sound for at least 20 seconds or the time... cylinder must be maintained at a temperature within the range from −30 °C (−20 °F) to 55 °C (130 °F) or at another temperature as listed by the independent laboratory and stated in the manufacturer's...

  3. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... time delay and alarm arranged to require the alarm to sound for at least 20 seconds or the time... cylinder must be maintained at a temperature within the range from −30 °C (−20 °F) to 55 °C (130 °F) or at another temperature as listed by the independent laboratory and stated in the manufacturer's...

  4. A Review of the Toxicology of Halogenated Fire Extinguishing Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    coronary reserve limited by atherosclerosis and who may be either suffering from intermittent bouts of angina pectoris , or be potential candidates for...and angina pectoris has not been demonstrated in the laboratory the pharmacologic-toxicologic basis has been established by these studies and warrants...anginal attacks in the near future. Furthermore, angina is known to be aggravated by any factor that increases myocardial oxygen demand such as

  5. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600), or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent...

  6. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600), or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent...

  7. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600), or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent...

  8. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600), or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent...

  9. 46 CFR 181.425 - Galley hood fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... UL 710 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant... meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600), or other standard specified by the Commandant, and must be listed by an independent...

  10. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  11. Phase II: Fire Extinguishment by Electro-Magnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-19

    next generation of free radicals or other endothermic reactions required to continue the chain reaction . Electrons are considerably faster than heavy...more than the flame originally did and so dispose of the freed reaction energy rather than being an energy source for endothermic steps to keep the...Positive Requires negative space charge Acoustical Negative Tends to accelerate exothermic reactions Magnetic

  12. Synthesis of dawsonites. [for use in fire extinguishing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Alkali metal and ammonium dawsonites can be prepared by a nonaqueous process according to which equimolar quantities of the corresponding hydrogen carbonate and aluminum hydroxide in finely divided state are heated together to a tempeature within the range of 150 to 250 C, for a period of 1 to 6 hours under a carbon dioxide pressure within the range of 120 to 360 psig. Carbonates may be used instead of hydrogencarbonates.

  13. 46 CFR 193.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engines; (4) Chemical storerooms; (5) Any space containing auxiliaries with an aggregate power of 1,000... settling tanks and the boilers. (d) Systems for spaces containing explosives and other dangerous...

  14. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locations and number of fire... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10 Locations... Classification Quantity and location safety areas Communicating corridors A-II 1 in each main corridor not...

  15. 33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locations and number of fire... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10 Locations... Classification Quantity and location safety areas Communicating corridors A-II 1 in each main corridor not...

  16. 78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ..., Small Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, MO 64106..., retractable gear, carbon composite, airplane with one turbofan engine mounted partially in the upper aft.... Issued in Kansas City, Missouri on June 5, 2013. Earl Lawrence, Small Airplane Directorate,...

  17. 46 CFR 34.05-5 - Fire extinguishing systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., oil rooms, and similar spaces. (4) Pump rooms. A carbon dioxide or clean agent system as described in... protection of all pump rooms. If a clean agent system is installed for the pump room of a tank ship carrying... fired boiler, the boiler fuel oil service pump, or any fuel oil units such as heaters, strainers,...

  18. 46 CFR 34.05-5 - Fire-extinguishing systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... installed in all lamp and paint lockers, oil rooms, and similar spaces. (4) Pump rooms. A carbon dioxide..., their fuel oil service pumps and/or such fuel oil units as the heaters, strainers, valves, manifolds, etc., that are subject to the discharge pressure of the fuel oil service pumps. (6) Machinery...

  19. 46 CFR 34.05-5 - Fire-extinguishing systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. (1) Dry cargo compartments. A carbon dioxide or water spray system... subparagraph. (3) Lamp and paint lockers and similar spaces. A carbon dioxide or water spray system must be installed in all lamp and paint lockers, oil rooms, and similar spaces. (4) Pump rooms. A carbon...

  20. Improved method for extinguishing coal-refuse fires. Final research report Jun 89-Feb 91

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    Coal refuse fires present environmental and personnel hazards to those living in the vicinity of the fire as well as those engaged in the reclamation efforts. The fire can also increase subsidence problems as well as prevent revegatation and reclamation of the site. Conventional efforts have been excavation and quenching; expensive, dangerous, and very often unsuccessful techniques. Water flooding has also proven unsuccessful due to the poor distribution of the water in the refuse pile. Water quickly drains from the coal refuse pile below its injection point with little or no laterial distribution. As an alternate to excavation and/or quenching, the feasibility of using water based foams to improve the distribution of water injected into a coal refuse fire was examined. Using surfactants to foam the water and gelling agents to reduce its fluidity, tests were conducted in the lab and the field. The foam still tends to follow the larger channels/openings in the pile, although above, as well as below the injection point. While the foam does improve water distribution in the pile, additional work needs to be conducted to prevent preferential channel flow and further improve distribution.

  1. Study on fire-extinguishing of spontaneous combustion wastes and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Chai, X.

    1994-12-31

    Spoil banks of coal mining have become an important aspect for environmental pollution. Toxic and pernicious gases resulting from the spontaneous combustion of wastes are much more serious pollutants. The authors have gained certain experience in preventing the spontaneous combustion of spoil banks and in fighting fires. The paper describes a revegetation test for the spoil bank. Using a spoil bank in the frigid and arid area in Shanxi, the paper describes the tests and results of the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and thoroughly analyzes the influence these characteristics have on the revegetation of the spoil bank. Revegetation promotes weathering of the wastes and mitigates erosion of the spoil bank. It was found that the wastes do not store adequate water, so that in the early stage of planting, irrigation is recommended. The pH of the wastes is suitable for plant growth, but in the case of fire fighting, care should be taken to mitigate the damage to lime emulsion alkalinity.

  2. 46 CFR 132.350 - Tests and inspections of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Not later than the next inspection for certification and periodic inspection, unless the total time... that specified for fixed systems by Table 132.350. Further, each must be examined for excessive... required by Table 132.350 of this subpart; (ii) Inspected, tested, and marked as required by §§ 147.60...

  3. A system for extinguishing POL (Petroleum, Oils and Lubricants) and ordnance type fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrander, W. C.

    1984-08-01

    The capability to control catastrophic fire is now available and application analysis can identify optimum hardware installation. Protection can be by mobile equipment or a fixed installation; the system provides reduced damage, permits earlier facility start-up and return to production/operation and readiness is preserved by minimizing personnel, material, and facility losses.

  4. Fire fighting aboard ships. Volume 2: Structural design and fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavitskiy, M.G.; Kortunov, M.F.; Sidoryuk, V.M.; Vostryakov, V.I.; Martynenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains recommendations for the prevention, detection, and suppression of fires on ships. It suggests practical measures for decreasing the risk of fire during preparatory work, construction, and repair of ships. Information is in accordance with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention on Life Safety at Sea, the rules of the USSR Registry, and the resolutions of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. This book analyzes recent international and national standards for fire protection of ships, and reviews the future trends of the international fire protection standards. It also includes the results of research on ship-building materials, fire-resistant and fire-retardant assemblies, and fire-suppression means.

  5. Extinguishing the Southern Fire: Developing a Solution to Thailand’s Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    13 Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN). The BRN was founded in 1960 as a result of the Thai government’s decision to integrate the Islamic pondok...Insurgency And Terrorism, “Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN),” June 8, 2009, http:// search.janes.com/Search/printFriendlyView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...Terrorism, “Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN).” 22 In June 2010, SBPAC will be redesigned the Southern Border Areas Administration Center (SBAAC) and will no

  6. Study of the modelling of an electromagnetic launcher of fire extinguishing loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Oncescu, Cosmin; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Vintea, Adela

    2016-06-01

    The problem of launchers used in civil applications is a topical issue. The role of a launcher is to launch objects with a certain speed towards certain goals like for example dangerous fire outbreaks (drilling areas, fires in buildings). This paper is aiming to present the theoretical aspects and results regarding the launching objects, in this case spheres that contains firefighting substance, during the launching stage, the ballistic stage and the impact stage with a solid surface.

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gas saturation of 25 percent of the gross volume of the largest boiler room from tank top to top of the boilers. Top of the boilers is to be considered as the top of the shell of a Scotch or leg type of boiler, and the top of the casing or drum, whichever is the higher, on water-tube boilers. The...

  8. Topiramate diminishes fear memory consolidation and extinguishes conditioned fear in rats

    PubMed Central

    do Prado-Lima, Pedro Antônio Schmidt; Perrenoud, Myriam Fortes; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Background Topiramate has been recognized as a drug that can induce memory and cognitive impairment. Using the one-trial inhibitory avoidance task, we sought to verify the effect of topiramate on consolidation and extinction of aversive memory. Our hypothesis was that topiramate inhibits the consolidation and enhances the extinction of this fear memory. Methods In experiment 1, which occured immediately or 3 hours after training, topiramate was administered to rats, and consolidation of memory was verified 18 days after the conditioning session. In experiment 2, which occured 18–22 days after the training session, rats were submitted to the extinction protocol. Rats received topiramate 14 days before or during the extinction protocol. Results Topiramate blocked fear memory retention (p < 0.01) and enhanced fear memory extinction (p < 0.001) only when administered during the extinction protocol. Limitations This experimental design did not allow us to determine whether topiramate also blocked the reconsolidation of fear memory. Conclusion Topiramate diminishes fear memory consolidation and promotes extinction of inhibitory avoidance memory. PMID:21392483

  9. When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.

    PubMed

    Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

    2014-01-01

    Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters.

  10. Qualification of an Acceptable Alternative to Halon 1211 DOD Flightline Extinguishers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    77°F Heat of Vaporization 69 BTU/lb @ boiling point TBD Cup Burner 6.3% 6-7% NOAEL 10% 1% LOAEL 15% 2% ODP 0 0.014 GWP 6,300 (100 yr, CO2 = 1...discharge was permitted. Four small steel cups (approximately three inches in diameter and two inches tall) were placed on level ground at measured...distances of 20, 25, 30, and 35 feet from the agent discharge nozzle. Each cup was filled with 0.5 inches of JP-8 floated on one inch of water

  11. An Evaluation of Pre-Engineered Fire Extinguishing Systems for Machinery Space Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    requirements limit the size for spaces protected with a PFES to 57 m3 (2000 ft3). New vessel designs have produced a need for PFESs that can protect larger...ingested in a running diesel engine. The results of these tests are summarized in the following paragraphs. The actuation of a PFES was shown to...be a function of fire size, fire location, enclosure aspect ratio, eleva- tion of the PFES within the protected space, and the ventilation

  12. Punishment of an extinguishing shock-avoidance response by time-out from positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Nigro, M R

    1966-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of punishment by time-out from positive reinforcement on the extinction of discriminated shock-avoidance responding. Subjects were trained initially to bar press for food on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and, concurrently, to avoid shock at the onset of a warning signal. Experiment I compared avoidance extinction performance under no punishment and when avoidance responding resulted in a 30-sec TO from reinforced appetitive responding. In Exp II, the contingent use of TO punishment was compared with its random, or noncontingent use. The results of both experiments showed that in the absence of punishment, avoidance extinction was characterized by short latencies and nearly 100% avoidance responding. Avoidance responding in extinction was little affected by noncontingent TO punishment. When TO was made contingent upon avoidance responding, however, avoidance latencies immediately increased and the frequency of avoidance responses subsequently decreased to zero.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Wheeled Ultra-High Pressure Extinguisher System with Novec 1230

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    into different regions of the nacelle to simulate different fire scenarios. The nacelle sits atop a concave concrete pad that can collect an 11-ft...preheated to a specified temperature, and then a certain amount of fuel was allowed to flow into the nacelle and onto the concrete pad (Figure 5), followed...nozzles 2 (2 gal/min) and 3 (2 gal/min) at a total flow rate of 4 gal/min.  Flow 25 gal of jet fuel through the fixture into the concrete pan. 12

  14. Using Stories to Extinguish the Hot Spots in Second Language Acquisition, Preschool to Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderman, Anne K.; Clevenger, Kay G.; Kent, Ian Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many U.S. classrooms today have at least some children with limited abilities to understand and express themselves in English. Two critical factors spell success or failure for teachers who have dual language learners (DLLs) in their classrooms: the teacher's understanding of and respect for the initial difficulties in learning a second language…

  15. Next-Generation Fire Extinguishing Agent. Phase 4. Foundation for New Training Agent Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    water . 21 SECTION III SMALL-SCALE OUTDOOR TESTS A. OBJECTIVE This testing, performed to determine fire extiguishment capabilities of two hydrogen...ALBUQUERQUE N.M. 87131 DECEMBER 1989 INTERIM REPORT JULY 1988 - DECEMBER 1989 91-16562 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED1 ENGINEERING...Laboratory Air Force Engineering and Services Center Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida 32403 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY

  16. Development and Testing of Dry Chemicals in Advanced Extinguishing Systems for Jet Engine Nacelle Fires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    to thermal dilution (heat capacity effects pertaining to crystal structure changes. chemical decomposi- tion, phase change phenomena, and thermal...difficult to distinguish purely physical phenomena such as crystal decrepitation and subsequent thermal reservoir effects produced by chemical...for fire control, and this compound was also included in the list of potential agents. d. Forest fire control has, in the past, used borax (sodium

  17. Accumbens Shell AMPA Receptors Mediate Expression of Extinguished Reward Seeking through Interactions with Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millan, E. Zayra; McNally, Gavan P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction is the reduction in drug seeking when the contingency between drug seeking behavior and the delivery of drug reward is broken. Here, we investigated a role for the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). Rats were trained to respond for 4% (v/v) alcoholic beer in one context (Context A) followed by extinction in a second context (Context B).…

  18. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  19. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... effective in at least controlling fire in the protected area or on protected equipment. (2) The employer shall assure that drainage of water spray systems is directed away from areas where employees...

  20. Intumescent all-polymer multilayer nanocoating capable of extinguishing flame on fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fabric was treated with flame-retardant coatings composed of poly (sodium phosphate), PSP, which acts as the acid source, and poly (allylamine), PAAm, which is used as the blowing agent, prepared via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. By applying these thin coating on fabric, after-glow is elimi...