Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC
2006-11-07
If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…
Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions
Lincoln, Don
2014-06-10
The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.
Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.
Collider searches for extra dimensions
Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.
2004-12-01
Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.
Higgs bosons in extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiros, Mariano
2015-04-01
In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH≃125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.
Multigravity from a discrete extra dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.
2004-06-01
Multigravity theories are constructed from the discretization of the extra dimension of five-dimensional gravity. Using an ADM decomposition, the discretization is performed while maintaining the four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariance on each site. We relate the Goldstone bosons used to realize nonlinearly general covariance in discretized gravity to the shift fields of the higher-dimensional metric. We investigate the scalar excitations of the resulting theory and show the absence of ghosts and massive modes; this is due to a local symmetry inherited from the reparametrization invariance along the fifth dimension.
Physics of Extra Dimensions Final Report
Csaba Csaki
2007-12-19
We provide the final report for Csaba Csaki's OJI project on "Physics of extra dimensions". It includes the summary of results of higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking, gauge-higgs unification, AdS/QCD and holographic technicolor, and chiral lattice theories from warped extra dimensions.
Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendry, Archibald W.
2004-02-01
How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?
Microscopic Primordial Black Holes and Extra Dimensions
Conley, John A.; Wizansky, Tommer
2006-11-15
We examine the production and evolution of microscopic black holes in the early universe in the large extra dimensions scenario. We demonstrate that, unlike in the standard four-dimensional cosmology, in large extra dimensions absorption of matter from the primordial plasma by the black holes is significant and can lead to rapid growth of the black hole mass density. This effect can be used to constrain the conditions present in the very early universe. We demonstrate that this constraint is applicable in regions of parameter space not excluded by existing bounds.
Exploring Warped Compactifications of Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabholkar, Sujan
In 1920s, the concept of extra dimensions was considered for the first time to unify gravity and electromagnetism. Since then there have been many developments to understand the unification of fundamental forces using extra dimensions. In this thesis, we study this idea of extra dimensions in higher dimensional gravity theories such as String Theory or Supergravity to make connections with cosmology. We construct a family of non-singular time-dependent solutions of a six-dimensional gravity with a warped geometry. The warp factor is time-dependent and breaks the translation invariance along one of the extra directions. Our solutions have the desired property of homogeneity and isotropy along the non-compact space. These geometries are supported by matter that does not violate the null energy condition. These 6D solutions do not have a closed trapped surface and hence the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems do not apply to these solutions. These solutions are constructed from 7D locally flat solution by performing Kaluza-Klein reduction. We also study warped compactifications of string/M theory with the help of effective potentials for the construction of de Sitter vacua. The dynamics of the conformal factor of the internal metric is explored to investigate instabilities. The results works the best mainly in the case of a slowly varying warp factor. We also present interesting ideas to find AdS vacua of N=1 flux compactifications using smooth, compact toric manifolds as internal space.
Signals for Extra Dimensions at CLIC
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2001-08-28
A brief overview is presented of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at CLIC, an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with a center of mass energy of 3-5 TeV and an integrated luminosity of order 1 ab{sup -1}. In all cases the search reach for the resulting new physic signatures is found to be in the range of {approx} 15-80 TeV.
Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B.; Wyler, D.
2013-01-15
We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.
Kinks, extra dimensions, and gravitational waves
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth
2011-03-01
We investigate in detail the gravitational wave signal from kinks on cosmic (super)strings, including the kinematical effects from the internal extra dimensions. We find that the signal is suppressed, however, the effect is less significant that that for cusps. Combined with the greater incidence of kinks on (super)strings, it is likely that the kink signal offers the better chance for detection of cosmic (super)strings.
One universal extra dimension in PYTHIA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ElKacimi, M.; Goujdami, D.; Przysiezniak, H.; Skands, P.
2010-01-01
The Universal Extra Dimensions model has been implemented in the PYTHIA generator from version 6.4.18 onwards, in its minimal formulation with one TeV -1-sized extra dimension. The additional possibility of gravity-mediated decays, through a variable number of eV -1-sized extra dimensions into which only gravity extends, is also available. The implementation covers the lowest lying Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of Standard Model particles, except for the excitations of the Higgs fields, with the mass spectrum calculated at one loop. 2→2 tree-level production cross sections and unpolarized KK number conserving 2-body decays are included. Mixing between iso-doublet and -singlet KK excitations is neglected thus far, and is expected to be negligible for all but the top sector. New version summaryProgram title: PYTHIA Version number: 6.420 Catalogue identifier: ACTU_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ACTU_v2_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 79 362 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 590 900 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: CERN lxplus and any other machine with a Fortran 77 compiler Operating system: Linux Red Hat RAM: about 800 K words Word size: 32 bits Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ACTU_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 135 (2001) 238 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: At high energy collisions between elementary particles, physics beyond the Standard Model is searched for. Many models are being investigated, namely extra-dimensional models. Solution method: The Universal Extra Dimension model is implemented in the PYTHIA event generator. Reasons for new version
Split universal extra dimension and dark matter
Park, Seong Chan; Shu Jing
2009-05-01
Motivated by the recent observation of the high energy electron and positron excesses in cosmic ray by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we suggest an anomaly-free scenario for the universal extra dimension that localizes the standard model quarks and splits the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein (KK) quarks from KK leptons. When the SM quarks are 'well localized' at the boundaries, the most stringent bound of the model (1/R>510 GeV) comes from the resonance search for the Tevatron dijet channels. Even at the early stage of LHC, one can discover the second KK gluon for masses up to 4 TeV.
Lepton flavor violation in extra dimension models
Chang, W.-F.; Ng, John N.
2005-03-01
Models involving large extra spatial dimension(s) have interesting predictions on lepton flavor violating processes. We consider some five-dimensional (5D) models which are related to neutrino mass generation or address the fermion masses hierarchy problem. We study the signatures in low energy experiments that can discriminate the different models. The focus is on muon-electron conversion in nuclei {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}3e processes and their {tau} counterparts. Their links with the active neutrino mass matrix are investigated. We show that in the models we discussed the branching ratio of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} like rare process is much smaller than the ones of {mu}{yields}3e like processes. This is in sharp contrast to most of the traditional wisdom based on four-dimensional (4D) gauge models. Moreover, some rare tau decays are more promising than the rare muon decays.
Perfect-fluid cosmologies with extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleiser, Reinaldo J.; Diaz, Mario C.
1988-06-01
We give an analysis of the solutions of the n-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with a metric in the form of a direct sum of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric and a Kasner-type Euclidean metric. The solutions are interpreted as four-dimensional perfect-fluid cosmological FRW models, using the simple ansatz proposed by Ibán~ez and Verdaguer. We first obtain the general solution for flat models. These are perfect-fluid solutions that can be made compatible with contraction of all the extra dimensions. The general compatibility of the field equations is then discussed. It is found that for n>5 both open and closed models admit a range of perfect-fluid solutions whose qualitative behavior is analyzed.
Dark energy, inflation, and extra dimensions
Steinhardt, Paul J.; Wesley, Daniel
2009-05-15
We consider how accelerated expansion, whether due to inflation or dark energy, imposes strong constraints on fundamental theories obtained by compactification from higher dimensions. For theories that obey the null energy condition (NEC), we find that inflationary cosmology is impossible for a wide range of compactifications; and a dark energy phase consistent with observations is only possible if both Newton's gravitational constant and the dark energy equation of state vary with time. If the theory violates the NEC, inflation and dark energy are only possible if the NEC-violating elements are inhomogeneously distributed in the compact dimensions and vary with time in precise synchrony with the matter and energy density in the noncompact dimensions. Although our proofs are derived assuming general relativity applies in both four and higher dimensions and certain forms of metrics, we argue that similar constraints must apply for more general compactifications.
Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias
2016-07-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) < 0 .1. The hierarchy problem for the new scalar boson is solved in analogy with the Higgs boson by localizing it near the infrared brane. The infinite sums over the Kaluza-Klein towers of fermion states converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.
BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-10-01
The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as
BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-10-01
The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as
Zero point energy on extra dimensions: Noncommutative torus
Fabi, S.; Harms, B.; Karatheodoris, G.
2007-09-15
In this paper we calculate the zero point energy density experienced by observers on M{sup 4} due to a massless scalar field defined throughout M{sup 4}xT{sub F}{sup 2}, where T{sub F}{sup 2} are fuzzy extra dimensions. Using the Green's function approach we calculate the energy density for the commutative torus and the fuzzy torus. We also calculate the energy density for the fuzzy torus using the Hamiltonian approach. Agreement is shown between the Green's function and Hamiltonian approaches.
Scalar dark matter in an extra dimension inspired model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lineros, Roberto; Pereira dos Santos, Fabio
2016-05-01
In this work we consider a singlet scalar propagating in a flat large extra dimension. The first Kaluza-Klein mode associated to this singlet scalar will be a viable dark matter candidate. The tower of new particles enriches the calculation of the relic density due effect of coannihilation. For large mass splitting, the model converges to the predictions of the singlet dark matter model. For nearly degenerate mass spectrum, coannihilations increase the cross-sections used for direct and indirect dark matter searches. We investigate the impact of the Kaluza-Klein tower associated to singlet scalar for indirect and direct detection of dark matter.
Cosmological constraints on theories with large extra dimensions
Hall, Lawrence J.; Smith, David
1999-04-23
In theories with large extra dimensions, constraints from cosmology lead to non-trivial lower bounds on the gravitational scale M, corresponding to upper bounds on the radii of the compact extra dimensions. These constraints are especially relevant to the case of two extra dimensions, since only if M is 10 TeV or less do deviations from the standard gravitational force law become evident at distances accessible to planned sub-mm gravity experiments. By examining the graviton decay contribution to the cosmic diffuse gamma radiation, we derive, for the case of two extra dimensions, a conservative bound M > 110TeV, corresponding to r{sub 2} < 5.1 x 10{sup -5} mm, well beyond the reach of these experiments. We also consider the constraint coming from graviton overclosure of the universe and derive an independent bound M > 6.5/{radical}h TeV, or r{sub 2} < .015hmm.
Extra Dimensions and New Vector Bosons Searches in CMS
Emam, W.
2008-04-21
This paper addresses a series of searches for signals from extra dimensions and new vector bosons in the CMS experiment. A brief review of the CMS discovery potential of these signatures in different luminosity scenarios is presented.
Probing large extra dimensions with IceCube
Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O.L.G.; Tabrizi, Zahra E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br
2014-12-01
In models with Large Extra Dimensions the smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained by introducing gauge singlet fermions which propagate in the bulk. The Kaluza-Klein modes of these fermions appear as towers of sterile neutrino states on the brane. We study the phenomenological consequences of this picture for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we construct a detailed equivalence between a model with large extra dimensions and a (3+n) scenario consisting of three active and n extra sterile neutrino states, which provides a clear intuitive understanding of Kaluza-Klein modes. Finally, we analyze the collected data of high energy atmospheric neutrinos by IceCube experiment and obtain bounds on the radius of extra dimensions.
Flavor Structure of Warped Extra Dimension Models
Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit
2004-08-10
We recently showed, in hep-ph/0406101, that warped extra dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV KK masses lead to striking signals at B-factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B-physics. We also briefly study other NP signatures that arise in rare K decays (K {yields} {pi}{nu}{nu}), in rare top decays [t {yields} c{gamma}(Z, gluon)] and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates such as K{sub s}{pi}{sup 0} and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, {approx} 3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a ''CP problem'' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal.
Flavor structure of warped extra dimension models
Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit
2005-01-01
We recently showed that warped extra-dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV Kaluza-Klein (KK) masses lead to striking signals at B factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B physics. We also briefly study other new physics signatures that arise in rare K decays (K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}), in rare top decays [t{yields}c{gamma}(Z,gluon)], and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates such as K{sub S}{pi}{sup 0} and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, {approx}3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a 'CP problem' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal.
FLRW and LTB Cosmology in Extra Dimensions
Gueham, A.; Mebarki, N.
2010-10-31
Two models of 4+1 dimensions are discussed and some new exact solutions are found. Moreover, a dynamical study of a 4+1 homogeneous FLRW model is made. It is shown that the LTB inhomogeneous case leads to a scenario of the universe similar to that of Turok's cyclic model but with different mechanism.
Effect of extra dimensions on gravitational waves from cosmic strings.
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-08-20
We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands. PMID:20868089
Search for Universal Extra Dimensions with the D0 Experiment
Mansour, Jason D.
2011-10-01
A search for signs of universal extra dimensions (UED) has been performed with the D0 experiment, using events with two same-sign muons. The considered minimal UED model includes one extra dimension, and has a stable lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) which is a dark matter candidate. In the search, 7.3 fb{sup -1} of D0 data, collected in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, have been used.
Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos
Matsumoto, Shigeki; Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato; Senami, Masato
2008-04-21
Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: A gravitational wave window on extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarkson, Chris; Seahra, Sanjeev S.
2007-05-01
We report on the possibility of detecting a submillimetre-sized extra dimension by observing gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by point-like objects orbiting a braneworld black hole. Matter in the 'visible' universe can generate a discrete spectrum of high frequency GWs with amplitudes moderately weaker than the predictions of general relativity, while GW signals generated by matter on a 'shadow' brane hidden in the bulk are potentially strong enough to be detected using current technology. We know of no other astrophysical phenomena that produce GWs with a similar spectrum, which stresses the need to develop detectors capable of measuring this high-frequency signature of large extra dimensions.
Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants
Maziashvili, Michael
2013-03-01
We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r→0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.
Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation
Graf, Norman A.
2011-01-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.
Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation
Graf, Norman A.
2011-01-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less
Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, Norman A.
2012-12-01
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.
2006-09-01
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.
Search for large extra dimensions in diphoton events at CDF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murgia, Simona
In spite of its undisputed success, the Standard Model is not a theory of everything as it does not incorporate gravity. Gravity is the weakest of all forces and its strength becomes comparable to the remaining forces at energies of the order of the Planck scale, at approximately 10 19 GeV and the Standard Model is viewed as an effective theory at energies below this scale. Recently, a model of large extra dimensions has been formulated by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali that claims that the electroweak scale (approximately 1 TeV) is the only fundamental scale in nature and the fact that the Planck scale appears so large is an artifact of the existence of extra dimensions in which only gravity propagates. This theory can be tested at existing collider experiments, where energies sufficiently high to probe the extra dimensions can be achieved. In particular, the existence of extra dimensions can manifest itself with production of Standard Model particles through graviton mediated processes and thus it predicts an enhancement of production cross sections at high invariant mass. The goal of this work is to search for an excess in the 100 pb-1 of diphoton data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab at s = 1.8 TeV during the 1992--1996 run. No excess is observed and thus we place a 95% confidence level limit on the Planck scale in the bulk extra dimensions MS of 899 GeV for constructive interference and of 797 GeV for destructive interference (Hewett convention).
Dark energy, scalar-tensor gravity, and large extra dimensions
Kainulainen, Kimmo; Sunhede, Daniel
2006-04-15
We explore in detail a dilatonic scalar-tensor theory of gravity inspired by large extra dimensions, where a radion field from compact extra dimensions gives rise to quintessence in our 4-dimensional world. We show that the model can give rise to other types of cosmologies as well, some more akin to k-essence and possibly variants of phantom dark energy. In our model the field (or radius) stabilization arises from quantum corrections to the effective 4D Ricci scalar. We then show that various constraints nearly determine the model parameters, and give an example of a quintessence-type cosmology consistent with observations. We show that the upcoming SNAP-experiment would easily distinguish the present model from a constant {lambda} model with an equal amount of dark energy, but that the SNAP-data alone will not be able distinguish it from a {lambda} model with about 5% less dark energy.
Charged seven-dimensional spacetimes with spherically symmetric extra dimensions
De Felice, Antonio; Ringeval, Christophe
2009-06-15
We derive exact solutions of the seven-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell equations for a spacetime exhibiting Poincare invariance along four dimensions and spherical symmetry in the extra dimensions. Such topology generically arises in the context of braneworld models. Our solutions generalize previous results on Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting the two-sphere and are shown to include wormhole configurations. A regular coordinate system suitable to describe the whole spacetime is singled out, and we discuss the physical relevance of the derived solutions.
Exploring the universal extra dimension at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Datta, Anindya; Majee, Swarup Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava
2009-11-01
Besides supersymmetry, the other prime candidate of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), crying out for verification at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is extra-dimension. To hunt for effects of Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of known fermions and bosons is very much in the agenda of the LHC. These KK states arise when the SM particles penetrate in the extra space-like dimension(s). In this paper, we consider a 5d scenario, called 'Universal Extra Dimension', where the extra space coordinate, compactified on an orbifold S/Z, is accessed by all the particles. The KK number ( n) is conserved at all tree level vertices. This entails the production of KK states in pairs and renders the lightest KK particle stable, which leaves the detector carrying away missing energy. The splitting between different KK flavors is controlled by the zero mode masses and the bulk- and brane-induced one-loop radiative corrections. We concentrate on the production of an n=1 KK electroweak gauge boson in association with an n=1 KK quark. This leads to a signal consisting of only one jet, one or more leptons and missing p. For definiteness we usually choose the inverse radius of compactification to be R=500 GeV, which sets the scale of the lowest lying KK states. We show on a case-by-case basis (depending on the number of leptons in the final state) that with 10 fb -1 integrated luminosity at the LHC with √{s}=14 TeV this signal can be detected over the SM background by imposing appropriate kinematic cuts. We record some of the expectations for a possible intermediate LHC run at √{s}=10 TeV and also exhibit the integrated luminosity required to obtain a 5 σ signal as a function of R.
Extra Dimensions in Photon or Jet plus Missing Transverse Energy
Cardaci, Marco
2010-02-10
Recent studies of the CMS collaboration are presented on the sensitivity to searches for large (ADD) extra dimensions in channels with missing transverse energy (MET), i.e. the channels jets plus MET and photon plus MET. These studies are based on detailed detector simulation, including all Standard Model backgrounds. Particular emphasis is given to possible early discoveries, i.e. with 100 pb{sup -1} or less. Projected 95% CL exclusion limits as function of luminosity are presented as well.
Survival of scalar zero modes in warped extra dimensions
George, Damien P.
2011-05-15
Models with an extra dimension generally contain background scalar fields in a nontrivial configuration, whose stability must be ensured. With gravity present, the extra dimension is warped by the scalars, and the spin-0 degrees of freedom in the metric mix with the scalar perturbations. Where possible, we formally solve the coupled Schroedinger equations for the zero modes of these spin-0 perturbations. When specializing to the case of two scalars with a potential generated by a superpotential, we are able to fully solve the system. We show how these zero modes can be used to construct a solution matrix, whose eigenvalues tell whether a normalizable zero mode exists, and how many negative mass modes exist. These facts are crucial in determining stability of the corresponding background configuration. We provide examples of the general analysis for domain-wall models of an infinite extra dimension and domain-wall soft-wall models. For five-dimensional models with two scalars constructed using a superpotential, we show that a normalizable zero mode survives, even in the presence of warped gravity. Such models, which are widely used in the literature, are therefore phenomenologically unacceptable.
Helical cosmological magnetic fields from extra-dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atmjeet, Kumar; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2015-05-01
We study the inflationary generation of helical cosmological magnetic fields in a higher-dimensional generalization of the electromagnetic theory. For this purpose, we also include a parity breaking piece to the electromagnetic action. The evolution of an extra-dimensional scale factor allows the breaking of conformal invariance of the effective electromagnetic action in 1 +3 dimensions required for such generation. Analytical solutions for the vector potential can be obtained in terms of Coulomb wave-functions for some special cases. We also present numerical solutions for the vector potential evolution in more general cases. In the presence of a higher-dimensional cosmological constant there exist solutions for the scale factors in which both normal and extra dimensional space either inflate or deflate simultaneously with the same rate. In such a scenario, with the number of extra dimensions D =4 , a scale invariant spectrum of helical magnetic field is obtained. The net helicity arises, as one helical mode comes to dominate over the other at the superhorizon scales. A magnetic field strength of the order of 10-9 G can be obtained for the inflationary scale H ≃1 0-3 Mpl . Weaker fields will be generated for lower scales of inflation. Magnetic fields generated in this model respects the bounds on magnetic fields by Planck and γ -ray observations (i.e., 10-16 G
Extra dimensions and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments
Gozdz, Marek; Kaminski, Wieslaw A.; Faessler, Amand
2005-05-01
The neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the few phenomena, belonging to the nonstandard physics, which is extensively being sought for in experiments. In the present paper the link between the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay and theories with large extra dimensions is explored. The use of the sensitivities of currently planned 0{nu}2{beta} experiments: DAMA, CANDLES, COBRA, DCBA, CAMEO, GENIUS, GEM, MAJORANA, MOON, CUORE, EXO, and XMASS, gives the possibility for a nondirect 'experimental' verification of various extra dimensional scenarios. We discuss also the results of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration. The calculations are based on the Majorana neutrino mass generation mechanism in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model.
Radion stabilization from the vacuum on flat extra dimensions
Santos, Eli; Perez-Lorenzana, A.; Pimentel, Luis O.
2008-01-15
Volume stabilization in models with flat extra dimensions could follow from vacuum energy residing in the bulk when translational invariance is spontaneously broken. We study a simple toy model that exemplifies this mechanism which considers a massive scalar field with nontrivial boundary conditions at the end points of the compact space, and includes contributions from brane and bulk cosmological constants. We perform our analysis in the conformal frame where the radion field, associated with volume variations, is defined, and present a general strategy for building stabilization potentials out of those ingredients. We also provide working examples for the interval and the T{sup n}/Z{sub 2} orbifold configuration.
Search for universal extra dimensions in ppbar collisions
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Aoki, Masato; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.
2011-12-01
We present a search for Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles predicted by models with universal extra dimensions (UED) using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 detector at a p{bar p} center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The decay chain of KK particles can lead to a final state with two muons of the same charge. This signature is used to set a lower limit on the compactification scale of R{sup -1} > 260 GeV in a minimal UED model.
Inert scalar dark matter in an extra dimension inspired model
Lineros, R.A.; Santos, F.A. Pereira dos E-mail: fabio.alex@fis.puc-rio.br
2014-10-01
In this paper we analyze a dark matter model inspired by theories with extra dimensions. The dark matter candidate corresponds to the first Kaluza–Klein mode of an real scalar added to the Standard Model. The tower of new particles enriches the calculation of the relic abundance. For large mass splitting, the model converges to the predictions of the inert singlet dark matter model. For nearly degenerate mass spectrum, coannihilations increase the cross-sections used for direct and indirect dark matter searches. Moreover, the Kaluza–Klein zero mode can mix with the SM higgs and further constraints can be applied.
Experimental Hints of Gravity in Large Extra Dimensions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigurdsson, Steinn; Ahluwalia, D. V.
Recent conjectures suggest the universe may have large extra dimensions, through which gravity propagates. This implies gross departures from Newton's law of gravity at small length scales. Here I consider some implications for particle dynamics on scales comparable to the compactification radius, Rc<~1 mm. During planet formation, coalescence of micron sized dust grains to planetesimals is a rate critical step. Blum et al. (2000) found dust grain aggregates form low fractal dimension structures in microgravity, consistent with high angular momentum coalescence. I consider the effects of non-Newtonian gravity on dust aggregation on scales less than Rc and show they naturally coalesce into low-dimensional structures with high specific angular momentum. We infer Rc~80 microns.
Cosmological constant from gauge fields on extra dimensions
Ho, C.-L.; Cho, H.-T.; Ng, K.-W.
2007-11-20
We present a new model of dark energy which could explain the observed accelerated expansion of our Universe. We show that a five-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory defined in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe compactified on a circle possesses degenerate vacua in four dimensions. The present Universe could be trapped in one of these degenerate vacua. With the natural requirement that the size of the extra dimension could be of the GUT scale or smaller, the energy density difference between the degenerate vacua and the true ground state can provide us with just the right amount of dark energy to account for the observed expansion rate of our Universe.
ISLES: Probing Extra Dimensions Using a Superconducting Accelerometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paik, Ho Jung; Moody, M. Vol; Prieto-Gortcheva, Violeta A.
2003-01-01
In string theories, extra dimensions must be compactified. The possibility that gravity can have large radii of compactification leads to a violation of the inverse square law at submillimeter distances. The objective of ISLES is to perform a null test of Newton s law in space with a resolution of one part in 10(exp 5) or better at 100 microns. The experiment will be cooled to less than or equal to 2 K, which permits superconducting magnetic levitation of the test masses. To minimize Newtonian errors, ISLES employs a near null source, a circular disk of large diameter-to-thickness ratio. Two test masses, also disk-shaped, are suspended on the two sides of the source mass at a nominal distance of 100 microns. The signal is detected by a superconducting differential accelerometer. A ground test apparatus is under construction.
Signals of Warped Extra Dimensions at the LHC
Osland, P.; Pankov, A. A.; Tsytrinov, A. V.; Paver, N.
2010-12-22
We discuss the signatures of the spin-2 graviton excitations predicted by the Randall-Sundrum model with one warped extra dimension, in dilepton and diphoton production at LHC. By using a specific angular analysis, we assess the ranges in mass and coupling constant where such gravitons can be discriminated against competitor spin-1 and spin-0 objects, that potentially could manifest themselves in these processes with the same mass and rate of events. Depending on the value of the coupling constant to quarks and leptons, the numerical results indicate graviton identification mass ranges up to 1.1-2.4 TeV and 1.6-3.2 TeV for LHC nominal energy of 14 TeV and time-integrated luminosity of 10 and 100fb{sup -1}, respectively.
Kaluza-Klein theory in the limit of large number of extra dimensions
Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.
2009-10-15
The Kaluza-Klein compactification in the limit of a large number of extra dimensions is studied. The starting point is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus cosmological constant in 4+D dimensions. It is shown that in the large D limit the effective four-dimensional cosmological constant is of order 1/D, whereas the size of the extra dimensions remains finite. A 't Hooft-like large D expansion of the effective Lagrangian for the Kaluza-Klein scalar and gauge fields arising from the dimensional reduction is considered. It is shown that the propagator of the scalar field associated to the determinant of the metric of the extra dimensions is strongly suppressed. This is an interesting result as in standard Kaluza-Klein theory this scalar degree of freedom is responsible for the constraint on the gauge fields which makes it impossible to recover the usual Yang-Mills equations. Moreover in the large D limit it turns out that the ultraviolet divergences due to the interactions between gauge and scalar fields are softened.
Flavor ratios of extragalactic neutrinos and neutrino shortcuts in extra dimensions
Aeikens, Elke; Päs, Heinrich; Sicking, Philipp; Pakvasa, Sandip E-mail: heinrich.paes@tu-dortmund.de E-mail: philipp.sicking@tu-dortmund.de
2015-10-01
The recent measurement of high energy extragalactic neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration has opened a new window to probe non-standard neutrino properties. Among other effects, sterile neutrino altered dispersion relations (ADRs) due to shortcuts in an extra dimension can significantly affect astrophysical flavor ratios. We discuss two limiting cases of this effect, first active-sterile neutrino oscillations with a constant ADR potential and second an MSW-like resonant conversion arising from geodesics oscillating around the brane in an asymmetrically warped extra dimension. We demonstrate that the second case has the potential to suppress significantly the flux of specific flavors such as ν{sub μ} or ν{sub τ} at high energies.
Flavor ratios of extragalactic neutrinos and neutrino shortcuts in extra dimensions
Aeikens, Elke; Päs, Heinrich; Pakvasa, Sandip; Sicking, Philipp
2015-10-02
The recent measurement of high energy extragalactic neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration has opened a new window to probe non-standard neutrino properties. Among other effects, sterile neutrino altered dispersion relations (ADRs) due to shortcuts in an extra dimension can significantly affect astrophysical flavor ratios. We discuss two limiting cases of this effect, first active-sterile neutrino oscillations with a constant ADR potential and second an MSW-like resonant conversion arising from geodesics oscillating around the brane in an asymmetrically warped extra dimension. We demonstrate that the second case has the potential to suppress significantly the flux of specific flavors such as ν{sub μ} or ν{sub τ} at high energies.
U (3 ) gauge theory on fuzzy extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; Ünal, G.
2016-08-01
In this article, we explore the low energy structure of a U (3 ) gauge theory over spaces with fuzzy sphere(s) as extra dimensions. In particular, we determine the equivariant parametrization of the gauge fields, which transform either invariantly or as vectors under the combined action of S U (2 ) rotations of the fuzzy spheres and those U (3 ) gauge transformations generated by S U (2 )⊂U (3 ) carrying the spin 1 irreducible representation of S U (2 ). The cases of a single fuzzy sphere SF2 and a particular direct sum of concentric fuzzy spheres, SF2 Int , covering the monopole bundle sectors with windings ±1 are treated in full and the low energy degrees of freedom for the gauge fields are obtained. Employing the parametrizations of the fields in the former case, we determine a low energy action by tracing over the fuzzy sphere and show that the emerging model is Abelian Higgs type with U (1 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry and possesses vortex solutions on R2, which we discuss in some detail. Generalization of our formulation to the equivariant parametrization of gauge fields in U (n ) theories is also briefly addressed.
Global Fits of the Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions Scenario
Bertone, Gianfranco; Kong, Kyoungchul; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Trotta, Roberto; /Imperial Coll., London
2012-06-22
In theories with Universal Extra-Dimensions (UED), the {gamma}{sub 1} particle, first excited state of the hypercharge gauge boson, provides an excellent Dark Matter (DM) candidate. Here we use a modified version of the SuperBayeS code to perform a Bayesian analysis of the minimal UED scenario, in order to assess its detectability at accelerators and with DM experiments. We derive in particular the most probable range of mass and scattering cross sections off nucleons, keeping into account cosmological and electroweak precision constraints. The consequences for the detectability of the {gamma}{sub 1} with direct and indirect experiments are dramatic. The spin-independent cross section probability distribution peaks at {approx} 10{sup -11} pb, i.e. below the sensitivity of ton-scale experiments. The spin-dependent cross-section drives the predicted neutrino flux from the center of the Sun below the reach of present and upcoming experiments. The only strategy that remains open appears to be direct detection with ton-scale experiments sensitive to spin-dependent cross-sections. On the other hand, the LHC with 1 fb{sup -1} of data should be able to probe the current best-fit UED parameters.
Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahia, F.; Lemos, A. S.
2016-08-01
The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds.
Photon mass as a probe to extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alencar, G.; Muniz, C. R.; Landim, R. R.; Jardim, I. C.; Costa Filho, R. N.
2016-08-01
In this manuscript we show that the geometrical localization mechanism implies a four dimensional mass for the photon. The consistence of the model provides a mass given exactly by mγ =√{ R} / 4 where R is the Ricci scalar. As a consequence, the cosmological photon has a mass related to the vacuum solution of the Einstein equation. At the present age of the universe we have a dS vacuum with R = 4 Λ, where Lambda is a positive cosmological constant. With this we find that mγ ≈ 2 ×10-69 kg, which is below the present experimental upper bounds, and such correction may be observed in the next years with more precise measurements. By considering the value of R inside some astrophysical sources and environments we find that the bound is also satisfied. The experimental verification of this mass, beyond pointing to the existence of extra dimensions, would imply in a fundamental change in cosmology, astrophysics and in particle physics.
Large extra dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.; Peres, O. L. G.; Tabrizi, Zahra
2016-08-01
We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a (3 +3 N )-neutrino framework for modest values of N ; N =1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of C P -invariance violation other than one C P -odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the C P -odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic (3 +1 )-neutrino model.
Gravitating Global Monopoles in Extra Dimensions and the Braneworld Concept
Bronnikov, K.A.; Meierovich, B.E.
2005-12-15
Multidimensional configurations with a Minkowski external spacetime and a spherically symmetric global monopole in extra dimensions are discussed in the context of the braneworld concept. The monopole is formed with a hedgehoglike set of scalar fields {phi}{sup i} with a symmetry-breaking potential V depending on the magnitude {phi}{sup 2} = {phi}{sup i}{phi}{sup i}. All possible kinds of globally regular configurations are singled out without specifying the shape of V({phi}). These variants are governed by the maximum value {phi}{sub m} of the scalar field, characterizing the energy scale of symmetry breaking. If {phi}{sub m} < {phi}{sub cr} (where {phi}{sub cr} is a critical value of {phi} related to the multidimensional Planck scale), the monopole reaches infinite radii, whereas in the 'strong field regime', when {phi}{sub m} {>=} {phi}{sub cr} , the monopole may end with a finite-radius cylinder or have two regular centers. The warp factors of monopoles with both infinite and finite radii may either exponentially grow or tend to finite constant values far from the center. All such configurations are shown to be able to trap test scalar matter, in striking contrast to RS2 type five-dimensional models. The monopole structures obtained analytically are also found numerically for the Mexican hat potential with an additional parameter acting as a cosmological constant.
Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension
Bertone, G.; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, G.; Tait, T. M.P.; Vallinotto, A.
2012-03-01
Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.
Hawking radiation from squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: A window to extra dimensions
Ishihara, Hideki; Soda, Jiro
2007-09-15
We explore the observability of extra dimensions through five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes residing in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime. With the expectation that the Hawking radiation reflects the five-dimensional nature of the squashed horizon, we study the Hawking radiation of a scalar field in the squashed black hole background. As a result, we show that the luminosity of Hawking radiation tells us the size of the extra dimension, namely, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes open a window to extra dimensions.
Extra Dimensions of Space: Are They Going to be Found Soon?
Rubakov, Valery [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, Russia
2016-07-12
Our space may well have more than 3 dimensions. Indeed, theories that pretend to be most fundamental choose to live in higher dimensions: a natural area for superstring/Mtheory is 9- or 10-dimensional space. Extra dimensions have been hidden so far, but they would open up above a certain energy threshold. A fascinating possibility is that this happens within reach of particle colliders. This lecture will address the motivation for such a viewpoint and implications of accessible extra dimensions for our understanding of nature.
On the time-dependent extra spatial dimensions in six dimensional space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lien, Phan Hong; Hai, Do Thi Hong
2016-06-01
In this paper, we analyze the time-dependent extra spatial dimensions in six dimensional (6D) space-time. The 4-brane is assumed to be a de Sitter space. Based on the form of the brane-world energy-momentum tensor proposed by Shiromizu et al. and the five dimensions by Peter K. F. Kuhfittic, we extended the theory to the 2-codimension embedded in higher dimensions. The inflation scenario in 6D is investigated in two cases of cosmological constant: Ʌ > 0 and Ʌ < 0. The energy of two extra dimensions is calculated too.
Neutral triple electroweak gauge boson production in the large extra-dimension model at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, M. C.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.; Seth, Satyajit
2012-05-01
We study the prospects of probing large extra-dimension models at the LHC through neutral triple gauge boson production processes. In theories with extra dimensions these processes result from the exchange of a tower of massive graviton modes between the SM particles. We consider γγγ, γγZ, γZZ, and ZZZ production processes, and present our results for various kinematic distributions at the LHC for S=14TeV.
The effect of extra dimensions on gravity wave bursts from cosmic string cusps
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: ggeshnizjani@perimeterinstitute.ca E-mail: zavala@th.physik.uni-bonn.de
2010-09-01
We explore the kinematical effect of having extra dimensions on the gravitational wave emission from cosmic strings. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, and reduce the probability of their formation. We recompute the gravitational wave burst, taking into account these two factors, and find a potentially significant damping on the gravitational waves of the strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mureika, J. R.
2007-01-01
An interdisciplinary physical theory of emergent consciousness has previously been proposed, stemming from quantum computation-like behavior between 109 or more entangled molecular qubit states (microtubulin). This model relies on the Penrose-Diósi gravity-driven wavefunction collapse framework, and thus is subject to any secondary classical and quantum gravity effects. Specifically, if large extra spatial dimensions exist in the Universe, then the resulting corrections to Newtonian gravity cause this model to suffer serious difficulties. It is shown that if the extra dimensions are larger than 100 fm in size, then this model of consciousness is unphysical. If the dimensions are on the order of 10 fm in size, then a significantly smaller number of microtubulin than originally predicted are required to satisfy experimental constraints. Some speculation on evolution of consciousness is also offered, based on the possibility that the size of these extra dimensions may have been changing over the history of the Universe.
Gravitational radiation from ultra high energy cosmic rays in models with large extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Ben; Drescher, Hans-Joachim; Bleicher, Marcus
2006-06-01
The effects of classical gravitational radiation in models with large extra dimensions are investigated for ultra high energy cosmic rays (CRs). The cross sections are implemented into a simulation package (SENECA) for high energy hadron induced CR air showers. We predict that gravitational radiation from quasi-elastic scattering could be observed at incident CR energies above 10 9 GeV for a setting with more than two extra dimensions. It is further shown that this gravitational energy loss can alter the energy reconstruction for CR energies ECR ⩾ 5 × 10 9 GeV.
Search for Large Extra Dimensions in the Diphoton Final State at the Large Hadron Collider
Chatrchyan, Serguei
2011-05-01
A search for large extra spatial dimensions via virtual-graviton exchange in the diphoton channel has been carried out with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectations is found using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. New lower limits on the effective Planck scale in the range of 1.6-2.3 TeV at the 95% confidence level are set, providing the most restrictive bounds to date on models with more than two large extra dimensions.
Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, N. A.
2011-01-01
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.
Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation
Graf, N.A.; /SLAC
2012-04-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.
Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation
Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC
2011-11-10
High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.
Anisotropic modulus stabilisation: strings at LHC scales with micron-sized extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicoli, M.; Burgess, C. P.; Quevedo, F.
2011-10-01
We construct flux-stabilised Type IIB string compactifications whose extra dimensions have very different sizes, and use these to describe several types of vacua with a TeV string scale. Because we can access regimes where two dimensions are hierarchically larger than the other four, we find examples where two dimensions are micron-sized while the other four are at the weak scale in addition to more standard examples with all six extra dimensions equally large. Besides providing ultraviolet completeness, the phenomenology of these models is richer than vanilla large-dimensional models in several generic ways: ( i) they are supersymmetric, with supersymmetry broken at sub-eV scales in the bulk but only nonlinearly realised in the Standard Model sector, leading to no MSSM superpartners for ordinary particles and many more bulk missing-energy channels, as in supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLED); ( ii) small cycles in the more complicated extra-dimensional geometry allow some KK states to reside at TeV scales even if all six extra dimensions are nominally much larger; ( iii) a rich spectrum of string and KK states at TeV scales; and ( iv) an equally rich spectrum of very light moduli exist having unusually small (but technically natural) masses, with potentially interesting implications for cosmology and astrophysics that nonetheless evade new-force constraints. The hierarchy problem is solved in these models because the extra-dimensional volume is naturally stabilised at exponentially large values: the extra dimensions are Calabi-Yau geometries with a 4D K3 or T 4-fibration over a 2D base, with moduli stabilised within the well-established LARGE-Volume scenario. The new technical step is the use of poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential (which, unlike for simpler models, are likely to be present on K3 or T 4-fibered Calabi-Yau compactifications) to obtain a large hierarchy between the sizes of different dimensions. For several scenarios we identify
Probing the size of extra dimensions with gravitational wave astronomy
Yagi, Kent; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Tanaka, Takahiro
2011-04-15
In the Randall-Sundrum II braneworld model, it has been conjectured, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, that a brane-localized black hole (BH) larger than the bulk AdS curvature scale l cannot be static, and it is dual to a four-dimensional BH emitting Hawking radiation through some quantum fields. In this scenario, the number of the quantum field species is so large that this radiation changes the orbital evolution of a BH binary. We derived the correction to the gravitational waveform phase due to this effect and estimated the upper bounds on l by performing Fisher analyses. We found that the Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and the Big Bang Observatory (DECIGO/BBO) can give a stronger constraint than the current tabletop result by detecting gravitational waves from small mass BH/BH and BH/neutron star (NS) binaries. Furthermore, DECIGO/BBO is expected to detect 10{sup 5} BH/NS binaries per year. Taking this advantage, we find that DECIGO/BBO can actually measure l down to l=0.33 {mu}m for a 5 yr observation if we know that binaries are circular a priori. This is about 40 times smaller than the upper bound obtained from the tabletop experiment. On the other hand, when we take eccentricities into binary parameters, the detection limit weakens to l=1.5 {mu}m due to strong degeneracies between l and eccentricities. We also derived the upper bound on l from the expected detection number of extreme mass ratio inspirals with LISA and BH/NS binaries with DECIGO/BBO, extending the discussion made recently by McWilliams [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 141601 (2010)]. We found that these less robust constraints are weaker than the ones from phase differences.
Shadowing effects in Newton’s law from compact extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleidis, K.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-10-01
One problem that appears in theories with compact extra dimensions is the shadowing phenomenon, which makes it difficult to identify the topology and the geometry of the extra-dimensional manifold, if it exists. In this paper, we address this problem from the perspective of Newton’s law modifications caused by compact extra dimensions. After providing the modifications cause by some of the most phenomenologically interesting compact manifolds, we qualitatively study and compare the modifications that these manifolds cause to Newton’s law. As we demonstrate, the shadowing phenomenon persists in this approach too, and it seems that the shadowing phenomenon is grouped in “shadowing zones”. At these points, it is impossible to distinguish which compact space causes the modification of Newton’s law. However, away from the shadowing zones, the effects of the different compact manifolds are distinguishable. It is possible that these effects can be observed in the next generation of Newton’s law experiments.
Estimate for the size of the compactification radius of a one extra dimension universe
Da Rosa, Felipe S; Pascoal, F; Oliveira, L F; Farina, C
2008-01-01
In this work, we use the Casimir effect to probe the existence of one extra dimension. We begin by evaluating the Casimir pressure between two plates in a M{sup 4} x S{sup 1} manifold, and then use an appropriate statistical analysis in order to compare the theoretical expression with a recent experimental data and set bounds for the compactification radius.
Higgs production and decay in models of a warped extra dimension with a bulk Higgs
Archer, Paul R.; Carena, Marcela; Carmona, Adrian; Neubert, Matthias
2015-01-13
Warped extra-dimension models in which the Higgs boson is allowed to propagate in the bulk of a compact AdS_{5} space are conjectured to be dual to models featuring a partially composite Higgs boson. They offer a framework with which to investigate the implications of changing the scaling dimension of the Higgs operator, which can be used to reduce the constraints from electroweak precision data. In the context of such models, we calculate the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion and the H → γγ decay rate and show that they are finite (at one-loop order) as a consequence of gauge invariance. The extended scalar sector comprising the Kaluza-Klein excitations of the Standard Model scalars is constructed in detail. The largest effects are due to virtual KK fermions, whose contributions to the cross section and decay rate introduce a quadratic sensitivity to the maximum allowed value y_{*} of the random complex entries of the 5D anarchic Yukawa matrices. We find an enhancement of the gluon-fusion cross section and a reduction of the H → γγ rate as well as of the tree-level Higgs couplings to fermions and electroweak gauge bosons. As a result, we perform a detailed study of the correlated signal strengths for different production mechanisms and decay channels as functions of y_{*}, the mass scale of Kaluza-Klein resonances and the scaling dimension of the composite Higgs operator.
Higgs production and decay in models of a warped extra dimension with a bulk Higgs
Archer, Paul R.; Carena, Marcela; Carmona, Adrian; Neubert, Matthias
2015-01-13
Warped extra-dimension models in which the Higgs boson is allowed to propagate in the bulk of a compact AdS5 space are conjectured to be dual to models featuring a partially composite Higgs boson. They offer a framework with which to investigate the implications of changing the scaling dimension of the Higgs operator, which can be used to reduce the constraints from electroweak precision data. In the context of such models, we calculate the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion and the H → γγ decay rate and show that they are finite (at one-loop order) as a consequencemore » of gauge invariance. The extended scalar sector comprising the Kaluza-Klein excitations of the Standard Model scalars is constructed in detail. The largest effects are due to virtual KK fermions, whose contributions to the cross section and decay rate introduce a quadratic sensitivity to the maximum allowed value y* of the random complex entries of the 5D anarchic Yukawa matrices. We find an enhancement of the gluon-fusion cross section and a reduction of the H → γγ rate as well as of the tree-level Higgs couplings to fermions and electroweak gauge bosons. As a result, we perform a detailed study of the correlated signal strengths for different production mechanisms and decay channels as functions of y*, the mass scale of Kaluza-Klein resonances and the scaling dimension of the composite Higgs operator.« less
A PRECISION TEST FOR AN EXTRA SPATIAL DIMENSION USING BLACK-HOLE-PULSAR BINARIES
Simonetti, John H.; Minic, Djordje; Surani, Umair; Vijayan, Vipin; Kavic, Michael
2011-08-20
We discuss the observable effects of enhanced black hole mass loss in a black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binary, due to the presence of a warped extra spatial dimension of curvature radius L in the braneworld scenario. For some masses and orbital parameters in the expected ranges the binary components would outspiral-the opposite of the behavior due to energy loss from gravitational radiation alone. If the NS is a pulsar, observations of the rate of change of the orbital period with a precision obtained for the binary pulsar B1913+16 could easily detect the effect of mass loss. For M{sub BH} = 7 M{sub sun}, M{sub NS} = 1.4 M{sub sun}, eccentricity e = 0.1, and L = 10 {mu}m, the critical orbital period dividing systems that inspiral from systems that outspiral is P {approx} 6.5 hr, which is within the range of expected orbital periods; this value drops to P {approx} 4.2 hr for M{sub BH} = 5 M{sub sun}. Observations of a BH-pulsar system could set considerably better limits on L in these braneworld models than could be determined by torsion-balance gravity experiments in the foreseeable future.
Ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux as a probe of large extra-dimensions
Lykken, Joseph; Mena, Olga; Razzaque, Soebur; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Penn State U.
2007-05-01
A suppression in the spectrum of ultrahigh-energy (UHE, {ge} 10{sup 18} eV) neutrinos will be present in extra-dimensional scenarios, due to enhanced neutrino-antineutrino annihilation processes with the supernova relic neutrinos. In this scenario, neutrinos can not be responsible for the highest energy events observed in the UHE cosmic ray spectrum. A direct implication of these extra-dimensional interactions would be the absence of UHE neutrinos in ongoing and future neutrino telescopes.
Repulsive Casimir effect from extra dimensions and Robin boundary conditions: From branes to pistons
Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Saharian, A. A.
2009-03-15
We evaluate the Casimir energy and force for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter, subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel plates, located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime with an arbitrary internal space. The most general case of different Robin coefficients on the two separate plates is considered. With independence of the geometry of the internal space, the Casimir forces are seen to be attractive for special cases of Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on both plates and repulsive for Dirichlet boundary conditions on one plate and Neumann boundary conditions on the other. For Robin boundary conditions, the Casimir forces can be either attractive or repulsive, depending on the Robin coefficients and the separation between the plates, what is actually remarkable and useful. Indeed, we demonstrate the existence of an equilibrium point for the interplate distance, which is stabilized due to the Casimir force, and show that stability is enhanced by the presence of the extra dimensions. Applications of these properties in braneworld models are discussed. Finally, the corresponding results are generalized to the geometry of a piston of arbitrary cross section.
High temperature symmetry nonrestoration and inverse symmetry breaking on extra dimensions
Sakamoto, Makoto; Takenaga, Kazunori
2009-10-15
We study D-dimensional gauge theory with an extra dimension of a circle at finite temperature. We mainly focus on the expectation value of the gauge field for the direction of the extra dimension, which is the order parameter of the gauge symmetry breaking. We evaluate the effective potential in the one-loop approximation at finite temperature. We show that the vacuum configuration of the theory at finite temperature is determined by a (D-1)-dimensional gauge theory defined by removing the Euclidean time coordinate as well as all of the fermions from the original D-dimensional gauge theory on the circle. It is pointed out that gauge symmetry nonrestoration and/or inverse symmetry breaking can occur at high temperature in a class of gauge theories on circles and that phase transitions (if they occur) are, in general, expected to be first order.
Search for large extra spatial dimensions in dimuon production at D0
Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Arnoud, Y.; Askew, A.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay
2005-06-01
We present the results of a search for the e.ects of large extra spatial dimensions in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in events containing a pair of energetic muons. The data correspond to 246 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Good agreement with the expected background was found, yielding no evidence for large extra dimensions. We set 95% C.L. lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale between 0.85 TeV and 1.27 TeV within several formalisms. These are the most stringent limits achieved in the dimuon channel to date.
Supersymmetric moose models: An extra dimension from a broken deformed conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erlich, Joshua; Anly Tan, Jong
2006-09-01
We find a class of four dimensional deformed conformal field theories which appear extra dimensional when their gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. The theories are supersymmetric moose models which flow to interacting conformal fixed points at low energies, deformed by superpotentials. Using a-maximization we give strong nonperturbative evidence that the hopping terms in the resulting latticized action are relevant deformations of the fixed-point theories. These theories have an intricate structure of RG flows between conformal fixed points. Our results suggest that at the stable fixed points each of the bulk gauge couplings and superpotential hopping terms is turned on, in favor of the extra-dimensional interpretation of the theory. However, we argue that the higher-dimensional gauge coupling is generically small compared to the size of the extra dimension. In the presence of a brane the topology of the extra dimension is determined dynamically and depends on the numbers of colors and bulk and brane flavors, which suggests phenomenological applications. The RG flows between fixed points in these theories provide a class of tests of Cardy’s conjectured a-theorem.
Supersymmetric moose models: An extra dimension from a broken deformed conformal field theory
Erlich, Joshua; Anly Tan, Jong
2006-09-15
We find a class of four dimensional deformed conformal field theories which appear extra dimensional when their gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. The theories are supersymmetric moose models which flow to interacting conformal fixed points at low energies, deformed by superpotentials. Using a-maximization we give strong nonperturbative evidence that the hopping terms in the resulting latticized action are relevant deformations of the fixed-point theories. These theories have an intricate structure of RG flows between conformal fixed points. Our results suggest that at the stable fixed points each of the bulk gauge couplings and superpotential hopping terms is turned on, in favor of the extra-dimensional interpretation of the theory. However, we argue that the higher-dimensional gauge coupling is generically small compared to the size of the extra dimension. In the presence of a brane the topology of the extra dimension is determined dynamically and depends on the numbers of colors and bulk and brane flavors, which suggests phenomenological applications. The RG flows between fixed points in these theories provide a class of tests of Cardy's conjectured a-theorem.
Evolution of the CKM matrix in the universal extra dimension model
Cornell, A. S.; Liu Luxin
2011-02-01
The evolution of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the quark Yukawa couplings is performed for the one-loop renormalization group equations in the universal extra dimension model. It is found that the evolution of mixing angles and the CP violation measure J may rapidly vary in the presence of the Kaluza-Klein modes, and this variation becomes dramatic as the energy approaches the unification scale.
Probe of extra dimensions in lepton pair production at the LHC: An update
Pankov, A. A.; Serenkova, I. A.; Tsytrinov, A. V.
2009-01-01
Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali have proposed a model (ADD) of low-scale quantum gravity featuring large extra dimensions. In this model, the exchange of Kaluza-Klein towers of gravitons can enhance the production rate of lepton pairs at high invariant mass in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. By considering the present and future LHC energy regimes, we reanalyse the potential of the LHC to discover the effects of large extra dimensions and to discriminate between various theoretical models. Specifically, in latter case we explore the capability of the LHC to distinguish spin-2 Kaluza-Klein towers of gravitons exchange from other new physics effects which might be conveniently parametrized by the four-fermion contact interactions. We find that the LHC with planned energy 14 TeV and luminosity 100 fb⁻¹ will be capable of discovering (and identifying) graviton exchange effects in the large extra dimensions with the cutoff parameter of order M{sub S} = 6.2 TeV (4.8 TeV) for d = 6 and M{sub S} = 8.8 TeV (6.8 TeV) for d = 3.
Gauge unification in extra dimensions: power corrections vs. higher dimension operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebecker, A.; Westphal, A.
2004-11-01
Power-like loop corrections to gauge couplings are a generic feature of higher-dimensional field theories. In supersymmetric grand unified theories in d=5 dimensions, such corrections arise only in the presence of a vacuum expectation value of the adjoint scalar of the gauge multiplet. We show that, using the analysis of the exact quantum effective action by Intriligator, Morrison and Seiberg, these power corrections can be understood as the effect of higher dimension operators. Such operators, both classical and quantum, are highly constrained by gauge symmetry and supersymmetry. As a result, even non-perturbatively large contributions to gauge coupling unification can be unambiguously determined within 5d low-energy effective field theory. Since no massive hypermultiplet matter exists in 6 dimensions, the predictivity is further enhanced by embedding the 5d model in a 6d gauge theory relevant at smaller distances. Thus, large and quantitatively controlled power-law contributions to gauge couplings arise naturally and can, in the most extreme case, lead to calculable TeV-scale power law unification. We identify a simple 5d SU(5) model with one massless 10 in the bulk where the power-law effect is exactly MSSM-like.
Sculpting the extra dimensions: inflation from codimension-2 brane back-reaction
Nierop, Leo van; Burgess, C.P. E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca
2012-04-01
We construct an inflationary model in 6D supergravity that is based on explicit time-dependent solutions to the full higher-dimensional field equations, back-reacting to the presence of a 4D inflaton rolling on a space-filling codimension-2 source brane. Fluxes in the bulk stabilize all moduli except the 'breathing' modulus (that is generically present in higher-dimensional supergravities). Back-reaction to the inflaton roll causes the 4D Einstein-frame on-brane geometry to expand, a(t)∝t{sup p}, as well as exciting the breathing mode and causing the two off-brane dimensions to expand, r(t)∝t{sup q}. The model evades the general no-go theorems precluding 4D de Sitter solutions, since adjustments to the brane-localized inflaton potential allow the power p to be dialed to be arbitrarily large, with the 4D geometry becoming de Sitter in the limit p → ∞ (in which case q = 0). Slow-roll solutions give accelerated expansion with p large but finite, and q = ½. Because the extra dimensions expand during inflation, the present-day 6D gravity scale can be much smaller than it was when primordial fluctuations were generated — potentially allowing TeV gravity now to be consistent with the much higher gravity scale required at horizon-exit for observable primordial gravity waves. Because p >> q, the 4 on-brane dimensions expand more quickly than the 2 off-brane ones, providing a framework for understanding why the observed four dimensions are presently so much larger than the internal two. If uplifted to a 10D framework with 4 dimensions stabilized, the 6D evolution described here could describe how two of the six extra dimensions evolve to become much larger than the others, as a consequence of the enormous expansion of the 4 large dimensions we can see.
Classical geometry to quantum behavior correspondence in a virtual extra dimension
Dolce, Donatello
2012-09-15
In the Lorentz invariant formalism of compact space-time dimensions the assumption of periodic boundary conditions represents a consistent semi-classical quantization condition for relativistic fields. In Dolce (2011) we have shown, for instance, that the ordinary Feynman path integral is obtained from the interference between the classical paths with different winding numbers associated with the cyclic dynamics of the field solutions. By means of the boundary conditions, the kinematical information of interactions can be encoded on the relativistic geometrodynamics of the boundary, see Dolce (2012) . Furthermore, such a purely four-dimensional theory is manifestly dual to an extra-dimensional field theory. The resulting correspondence between extra-dimensional geometrodynamics and ordinary quantum behavior can be interpreted in terms of AdS/CFT correspondence. By applying this approach to a simple Quark-Gluon-Plasma freeze-out model we obtain fundamental analogies with basic aspects of AdS/QCD phenomenology. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum behavior is related to the intrinsic periodicity of isolated systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A periodic phenomenon can be parameterized by a virtual extra dimension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KK modes are used to describe the quantum excitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5D classical geometry encodes 4D quantum behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometrodynamical description of AdS/QCD as modulation of space-time periodicity.
Gravitational wave source counts at high redshift and in models with extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Bellido, Juan; Nesseris, Savvas; Trashorras, Manuel
2016-07-01
Gravitational wave (GW) source counts have been recently shown to be able to test how gravitational radiation propagates with the distance from the source. Here, we extend this formalism to cosmological scales, i.e. the high redshift regime, and we discuss the complications of applying this methodology to high redshift sources. We also allow for models with compactified extra dimensions like in the Kaluza-Klein model. Furthermore, we also consider the case of intermediate redshifts, i.e. 0 < z lesssim 1, where we show it is possible to find an analytical approximation for the source counts dN/d(S/N). This can be done in terms of cosmological parameters, such as the matter density Ωm,0 of the cosmological constant model or the cosmographic parameters for a general dark energy model. Our analysis is as general as possible, but it depends on two important factors: a source model for the black hole binary mergers and the GW source to galaxy bias. This methodology also allows us to obtain the higher order corrections of the source counts in terms of the signal-to-noise S/N. We then forecast the sensitivity of future observations in constraining GW physics but also the underlying cosmology by simulating sources distributed over a finite range of signal-to-noise with a number of sources ranging from 10 to 500 sources as expected from future detectors. We find that with 500 events it will be possible to provide constraints on the matter density parameter at present Ωm,0 on the order of a few percent and with the precision growing fast with the number of events. In the case of extra dimensions we find that depending on the degeneracies of the model, with 500 events it may be possible to provide stringent limits on the existence of the extra dimensions if the aforementioned degeneracies can be broken.
Search for Universal Extra Dimensions in p(p)over-bar Collisions
Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatia S.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan K. M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M-C; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; de Jong S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goryachev V. N.; Goussiou A.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph; Grivaz J-F; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; Heredia-De La Cruz I.; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li H.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Mansour J.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; Melnitchouk A.; Menezes D.; Mercadante P. G.; Merkin M.; Meyer A.; Meyer J.; et al.
2012-03-30
We present a search for Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles predicted by models with universal extra dimensions (UED) using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 detector at a p{bar p} center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The decay chain of KK particles can lead to a final state with two muons of the same charge. This signature is used to set a lower limit on the compactification scale of R{sup -1} > 260 GeV in a minimal UED model.
Towards a Natural Theory of Dark Energy: Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Burgess, C.P.
2004-12-10
The first part of this article summarizes the evidence for Dark Energy and Dark Matter, as well as the naturalness issues which plague current theories of Dark Energy. The main point of this part is to argue why these naturalness issues should provide the central theoretical guidance for the search for a successful theory. The second part of the article describes the present status of what I regard as being the best mechanism yet proposed for addressing this issue: Six-dimensional Supergravity with submillimetre-sized Extra Dimensions (Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions, or SLED for short). Besides summarizing the SLED proposal itself, this section also describes the tests which this model has passed, the main criticisms which have been raised, and the remaining challenges which remain to be checked. The bottom line is that the proposal survives the tests which have been completed to date, and predicts several distinctive experimental signatures for cosmology, tests of gravity and for accelerator-based particle physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zong-Hong; Alcaniz, Jailson S.
2005-02-01
There is mounting observational evidence that the expansion of our universe is undergoing an acceleration. A dark energy component has usually been invoked as the most feasible mechanism for the acceleration. However, it is desirable to explore alternative possibilities motivated by particle physics before adopting such an untested entity. In this work, we focus our attention on an acceleration mechanism arising from gravitational leakage into extra dimensions. We test this scenario with high-z Type Ia supernovae compiled by Tonry and coworkers and recent measurements of the X-ray gas mass fractions in clusters of galaxies published by Allen and coworkers. A combination of the two databases gives, at a 99% confidence level, Ωm=0.29+0.04-0.02, Ωrc=0.21+/-0.08, and Ωk=-0.36+0.31-0.35, indicating a closed universe. We then constrain the model using the test of the turnaround redshift, zq=0, at which the universe switches from deceleration to acceleration. We show that, in order to explain that acceleration happened earlier than zq=0=0.6 within the framework of gravitational leakage into extra dimensions, a low matter density, Ωm<0.27, or a closed universe is necessary.
Search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton mass spectrum at the Large Hadron Collider
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; ErÃ¶, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U.
2011-12-01
A search for signatures of extra dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10.
Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knapitsch, A; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Trauner, C; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Bansal, S; Benucci, L; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Ceard, L; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De Jesus Damiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá Júnior, W L; Carvalho, W; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Anjos, T S; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Karadzhinova, A; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Guo, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Wang, S; Zhu, B; Zou, W; Cabrera, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Khalil, S; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Karjalainen, A; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Shreyber, I; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Elgammal, S; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Falkiewicz, A; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Lomidze, D; Anagnostou, G; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Erdmann, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Lingemann, J; Magass, C; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Weber, M
2012-03-16
A search for signatures of extra spatial dimensions in the diphoton invariant-mass spectrum has been performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed using a data sample collected in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb(-1). In the context of the large-extra-dimensions model, lower limits are set on the effective Planck scale in the range of 2.3-3.8 TeV at the 95% confidence level. These limits are the most restrictive bounds on virtual-graviton exchange to date. The most restrictive lower limits to date are also set on the mass of the first graviton excitation in the Randall-Sundrum model in the range of 0.86-1.84 TeV, for values of the associated coupling parameter between 0.01 and 0.10. PMID:22540461
Extra dimensions, SN1987a, and nucleon-nucleon scattering data
Christoph Hanhart; Daniel R. Phillips; Sanjay Reddy; Martin J. Savage
2001-02-01
One of the strongest constraints on the existence of large, compact, ''gravity-only'' dimensions comes from SN1987a. If the rate of energy loss into these putative extra dimensions is too high, then the neutrino pulse from the supernova will differ from that actually seen. The dominant mechanism for the production of Kaluza-Klein gravitons and dilatons in the supernova is via gravistrahlung and dilastrahlung from the nucleon-nucleon system. In this paper we compute the rates for these processes in a model-independent way using low-energy theorems which relate the emissivities to the measured nucleon-nucleon cross section. This is possible because for soft gravitons and dilatons the leading contribution to the energy-loss rate is from graphs in which the gravitational radiation is produced from external nucleon legs. Previous calculations neglected these mechanisms. We re-evaluate the bounds on toroidally-compactified ''gravity-only'' dimensions (GODs), and find that consistency with the observed SN1987a neutrino signal requires that if there are two such dimensions then their radius must be less than 1 micron.
Are quarks and leptons dynamically confined in four flat extra dimensions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryan, Ronald
1998-07-01
Rubakov and Shaposhnikov have shown that the domain wall generated by real one-component φ4 theory extended to five flat (non-compact) dimensions can trap a massive bosonic excitation on the wall M4; adding L D = i Σ μ=04overlineψγ μ∂ μψ + g overlineψφψ likewise traps a massless left-chiral Dirac particle on the wall. Independently, Kaplan has proposed this same mechanism to generate a massless chiral fermion to circumvent no-go theorems in lattice gauge theories. We show that if the Dirac field equation is extended to (7+1) flat dimensions and the classical domain wall replaced in the four extra dimensions overlineR4 by a harmonic-oscillator potential plus a large constant, then "orbital" times "spin" solutions are generated in overlineR4 which exhibit approximate SU(4) × SU(2) symmetry. In an SU(4) = SU(3) × U(1) decomposition, the 1 and 3 irreps of SU(3) resemble singlet and triplet color, respectively, while the U(1) symmetry yields replications suggesting generation number. Doublet representations of SU(2) resemble weak isospin. Thus these representations bear some resemblance to quarks and leptons. We indicate an SU(3)-invariant coupling of gluons to these "quarks", and a left-right symmetric coupling of the proposed quarks and "leptons" to electroweak bosons. We suggest looking for an alternate mechanism to the HO well, perhaps a (Euclidean) instanton.
Constraints on the size of the extra dimension from Kaluza-Klein gravitino decay
Gherson, David
2007-08-15
We study the consequences of the gravitino decay into dark matter. We suppose that the lightest neutralino is the main component of dark matter. In our framework the gravitino is heavy enough to decay before big bang nucleosynthesis starts. We consider a model coming from a five dimensional supergravity compactified on S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} with gravity in the bulk and matter localized on tensionless branes at the orbifold fixed points. We require that the dark matter, which is produced thermally and in the decay of Kaluza-Klein modes of the gravitino, has an abundance compatible with observation. We deduce from our model that there are curves of constraints between the size of the extra dimension and the reheating temperature of the Universe after inflation.
Hooper, Dan; Zaharijas, Gabrijela; /Fermilab
2006-12-01
There are compelling reasons to think that new physics will appear at or below the TeV-scale. It is not known what form this new physics will take, however. Although The Large Hadron collider is very likely to discover new particles associated with the TeV-scale, it may be difficult for it to determine the nature of those particles, whether superpartners, Kaluza-Klein modes or other states. In this article, we consider how direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments may provide information complementary to hadron colliders, which can be used to discriminate between supersymmetry, models with universal extra dimensions, and Little Higgs theories. We find that, in many scenarios, dark matter experiments can be effectively used to distinguish between these possibilities.
Neutral triple gauge boson production in the large extra dimensions model at linear colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Sun; Ya-Jin, Zhou
2012-10-01
We consider the neutral triple-gauge boson production process in the context of large extra dimensions (LED) models including the Kaluza-Klein (KK) excited gravitons at future linear colliders, say ILC(CLIC). We consider γγγ, γγZ, γZZ, and ZZZ production processes, and analyze their impacts on both the total cross section and some key distributions. These processes are important for new physics searches at linear colliders. Our results show that KK graviton exchange has the most significant effect on e-e+→γZZ among the four processes with relatively small MS, while it has the largest effect on e-e+→γγγ with larger MS. By using the neutral triple-gauge boson production we could set the discovery limit on the fundamental Plank scale MS up to around 6-9 TeV for δ=4 at the 3 TeV CLIC.
Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrara, E. C.; Scargle, J. D.; Troja, E.
2012-01-01
We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.
Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT
Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cameron, R.A.; Caraveo, P.A.; Casandjian, J.M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; /more authors..
2012-08-17
We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to {gamma}{gamma} should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.
Lazoflores, Jose A.
2006-01-01
A search was conducted for evidence of large extra dimensions (LED) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory's Tevatron using the D0 detector. The Tevatron is a p$\\bar{p}$ collider at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Events with particles escaping into extra dimensions will have large missing energy. The search was carried out using data from a total luminosity of 197 ± 13 pb^{-1} with an observable high transverse momentum photon and a large transverse missing energy. The 70 observed events are consistent with photons produced by standard known reactions plus other background processes produced by cosmic muons. The mass limits on the fundamental mass scale at 95% confidence level for large extra dimensions of 2, 4, 6 and 8 are 500 GeV, 581 GeV, 630 GeV, and 668 GeV respectively.
Unified dark matter model in a singlet extension of the universal extra dimension model
Bai Yang; Han Zhenyu
2009-05-01
We propose a dark matter model with standard model singlet extension of the universal extra dimension model to explain the recent observations of ATIC, PPB-BETS, PAMELA, and DAMA. Other than the standard model fields propagating in the bulk of a five-dimensional space, one fermion field and one scalar field are introduced and both are standard model singlets. The zero mode of the new fermion is identified as the right-handed neutrino, while its first Klein-Kaluza (KK) mode is the lightest KK-odd particle and the dark matter candidate. The cosmic ray spectra from ATIC and PPB-BETS determine the dark matter particle mass and hence the fifth dimension compactification scale to be 1.0-1.6 TeV. The zero mode of the singlet scalar field with a mass below 1 GeV provides an attractive force between dark matter particles, which allows a Sommerfeld enhancement to boost the annihilation cross section in the Galactic halo to explain the PAMELA data. The DAMA annual modulation results are explained by coupling the same scalar field to the electron via a higher-dimensional operator. We analyze the model parameter space that can satisfy the dark matter relic abundance and accommodate all the dark matter detection experiments. We also consider constraints from the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, which can be satisfied if the dark matter particle and the first KK mode of the scalar field have highly degenerate masses.
Vandemoortele, Giel; Staes, An; Gonnelli, Giulia; Samyn, Noortje; De Sutter, Delphine; Vandermarliere, Elien; Timmerman, Evy; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart; Eyckerman, Sven
2016-01-01
The use of protein tagging to facilitate detailed characterization of target proteins has not only revolutionized cell biology, but also enabled biochemical analysis through efficient recovery of the protein complexes wherein the tagged proteins reside. The endogenous use of these tags for detailed protein characterization is widespread in lower organisms that allow for efficient homologous recombination. With the recent advances in genome engineering, tagging of endogenous proteins is now within reach for most experimental systems, including mammalian cell lines cultures. In this work, we describe the selection of peptides with ideal mass spectrometry characteristics for use in quantification of tagged proteins using targeted proteomics. We mined the proteome of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus to obtain two peptides that are unique in the proteomes of all known model organisms (proteotypic) and allow sensitive quantification of target proteins in a complex background. By combining these ’Proteotypic peptides for Quantification by SRM’ (PQS peptides) with epitope tags, we demonstrate their use in co-immunoprecipitation experiments upon transfection of protein pairs, or after introduction of these tags in the endogenous proteins through genome engineering. Endogenous protein tagging for absolute quantification provides a powerful extra dimension to protein analysis, allowing the detailed characterization of endogenous proteins. PMID:27264994
Search for Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT
Berenji, Bijan
2012-09-19
Large extra dimensions (LED) have been proposed to account for the apparent weakness of gravitation. These theories also indicate that the postulated massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons may be produced by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung in the course of core collapse of supernovae. Hannestad and Raffelt have predicted energy spectra of gamma ray emission from the decay of KK gravitons trapped by the gravity of the remnant neutron stars (NS). These and other authors have used EGRET data on NS to obtain stringent limits on LED. Fermi-LAT is observing radio pulsar positions obtained from radio and x-ray catalogs. NS with certain characteristics are unlikely emitter of gamma rays, and emit in radio and perhaps x-rays. This talk will focus on the blind analysis we plan to perform, which has been developed using the 1st 2 months of all sky data and Monte Carlo simulations, to obtain limits on LED based on about 1 year of Fermi-LAT data. Preliminary limits from this analysis using these first 2 months of data will be also be discussed.
Extra dimensions in all aspects of life—the meaning of life with bipolar disorder
Rusner, Marie; Carlsson, Gunilla; Brunt, David; Nyström, Maria
2009-01-01
Living with Bipolar Disorder (BD) greatly affects the whole life; still the meaning of it is poorly explored from the perspective of the individuals actually living with it. The aim of this study is thus to explore the existential meaning of life with BD. Ten persons, six women and four men, (aged 30–61), diagnosed with BD were interviewed. A reflective lifeworld perspective based on phenomenological philosophy was used. The findings show that living with BD entails experiencing extra dimensions in all aspects of life, expressed in terms of a magnitude and complexity beyond that which is perceived as pertaining to normal life. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is further described by its constituents: “a specific intensity”, “a struggle to understand”, “an illness that is intertwined with one's whole being”. Living with BD means more for the individual than having episodes of depression and mania and must therefore be understood from a holistic perspective. Adequate care for persons with BD, therefore, includes places for safe and profound reflecting about existential issues, such as identity, trust and self-confidence. The present study recommends the caring services to change their ways to explain and talk about the BD illness. PMID:20523885
Gauge-Higgs unification, neutrino masses, and dark matter in warped extra dimensions
Carena, Marcela; Medina, Anibal D.; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.
2009-05-01
Gauge-Higgs unification in warped extra dimensions provides an attractive solution to the hierarchy problem. The extension of the standard model gauge symmetry to SO(5)xU(1){sub X} allows the incorporation of the custodial symmetry SU(2){sub R} plus a Higgs boson doublet with the right quantum numbers under the gauge group. In the minimal model, the Higgs mass is in the range 110-150 GeV, while a light Kaluza-Klein excitation of the top quark appears in the spectrum, providing agreement with precision electroweak measurements and a possible test of the model at a high luminosity LHC. The extension of the model to the lepton sector has several interesting features. We discuss the conditions necessary to obtain realistic charged lepton and neutrino masses. After the addition of an exchange symmetry in the bulk, we show that the odd neutrino Kaluza-Klein modes provide a realistic dark-matter candidate, with a mass of the order of 1 TeV, which will be probed by direct dark-matter detection experiments in the near future.
Computational techniques to enable visualizing shapes of objects of extra spatial dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Black, Don Vaughn, II
Envisioning extra dimensions beyond the three of common experience is a daunting challenge for three dimensional observers. Intuition relies on experience gained in a three dimensional environment. Gaining experience with virtual four dimensional objects and virtual three manifolds in four-space on a personal computer may provide the basis for an intuitive grasp of four dimensions. In order to enable such a capability for ourselves, it is first necessary to devise and implement a computationally tractable method to visualize, explore, and manipulate objects of dimension beyond three on the personal computer. A technology is described in this dissertation to convert a representation of higher dimensional models into a format that may be displayed in realtime on graphics cards available on many off-the-shelf personal computers. As a result, an opportunity has been created to experience the shape of four dimensional objects on the desktop computer. The ultimate goal has been to provide the user a tangible and memorable experience with mathematical models of four dimensional objects such that the user can see the model from any user selected vantage point. By use of a 4D GUI, an arbitrary convex hull or 3D silhouette of the 4D model can be rotated, panned, scrolled, and zoomed until a suitable dimensionally reduced view or Aspect is obtained. The 4D GUI then allows the user to manipulate a 3-flat hyperplane cutting tool to slice the model at an arbitrary orientation and position to extract or "pluck" an embedded 3D slice or "aspect" from the embedding four-space. This plucked 3D aspect can be viewed from all angles via a conventional 3D viewer using three multiple POV viewports, and optionally exported to a third party CAD viewer for further manipulation. Plucking and Manipulating the Aspect provides a tangible experience for the end-user in the same manner as any 3D Computer Aided Design viewing and manipulation tool does for the engineer or a 3D video game provides
Extra loss due to Fano resonances in inhibited coupling fibers based on a lattice of tubes.
Vincetti, L; Setti, V
2012-06-18
Confinement loss of inhibited coupling fibers with a cladding composed of a lattice of tubes of various shapes is theoretically and numerically investigated. Both solid core and hollow core are taken into account. It is shown that in case of polygonal shaped tubes, confinement loss is affected by extra loss due to Fano resonances between core modes and cladding modes with high spatial dependence. This explains why hollow core Kagome fibers exhibit much higher confinement loss with respect to tube lattice fibers and why hypocycloid core cladding interfaces significantly reduce fiber loss. Moreover it is shown that tube deformations, due for example to fabrication process, affect fiber performances. A relationship between the number of polygon sides and the spectral position of the extra loss is found. This suggests general guide lines for the design and fabrication of fibers free of Fano resonance in the spectral range of interest.
Extra-Pontine Myelinolysis in a Case of Pan-hypopituitarism Due to Empty Sella Syndrome.
Gupta, Vishal Anand; Karnik, Niteen; Itolikar, Manish; Vekariya, Ketan
2015-10-01
Rapid correction of hyponatremia is known to cause central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). It may concurrently involve other areas of brain as well, referred as extra-pontine myelinolysis (EPM). Isolated EPM however is a very rare occurrence. We present a case of EPM where the hyponatremia was secondary to hypothyroidism due to empty sella syndrome. Chronic hyponatremia should always be corrected slowly to avoid such osmotic myelinolysis syndromes (OMS). PMID:27608705
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoroso, Richard L.
2013-09-01
Physics has been slowly and reluctantly beginning to address the role and fundamental basis of the `observer' which has until now also been considered metaphysical and beyond the mandate of empirical rigor. It is suggested that the fundamental premise of the currently dominant view of `Cognitive Theory' - "Mind Equals Brain" is erroneous; and the associated belief that the `Planck scale, `the so-called basement level of reality', as an appropriate arena from which to model psycho-physical bridging is also in error. In this paper we delineate a simple, inexpensive experimental design to `crack the so-called cosmic egg' thereby opening the door to largescale extra dimensions (LSXD) tantamount to the regime of the unified field and thus awareness. The methodology surmounts the quantum uncertainty principle in a manner violating Quantum Electrodynamics, (QED), a cornerstone of modern theoretical physics, by spectrographic analysis of newly theorized Tight-Bound State (TBS) Bohr orbits in `continuous-state' transition frequencies of atomic hydrogen. If one wonders why QED violation in the spectra of atomic hydrogen relates to solving the mind-body (observer) problem; consider this a 1st wrench in a forthcoming tool box of Unified Field Mechanics, UF that will soon enough in retrospect cause the current tools of Classical and Quantum Mechanics to appear as stone axes. Max Planck is credited as the founder of quantum mechanics with his 1900 quantum hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed discretely by the formulation, E = hv. Empirically implementing this next paradigm shift utilizing parameters of the long sought associated `new physics' of the 3rd regime (classicalquantum- unified) allows access to LSXD of space; thus pragmatically opening the domain of mental action for the 1st time in history. This rendering constitutes a massive paradigm shift to Unified Field Theory creating a challenge for both the writer and the reader!
The birds and the Bs in RS: the b → sγ penguin in a warped extra dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanke, Monika; Shakya, Bibhushan; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin
2012-08-01
We calculate contributions to the photon and gluon magnetic dipole operators that mediate b → sγ and b → dγ transitions in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and a brane localized Higgs. Unlike the Standard Model, there are large contributions to the left-handed b quark decays, parameterized by the Wilson coefficient C_7^' } , due to the pattern of bulk fermion localization, and sizable contributions from the gluonic penguins, C_8^{{( ' )}} , through renormalization group mixing. Further, unlike the Randall-Sundrum result for μ → eγ, the unprimed Wilson coefficients receive non-negligible contributions from the misalignment of the bulk fermion spectrum with the Standard Model flavor sector. We compare the size of effects and the constraints imposed by the branching ratios Br( B → X sγ ) and
within the minimal and the custodial model. Within the custodial framework, we study the effect on a number of benchmark observables and find that Br( B → X s μ + μ -) and the forward-backward asymmetry in B → K*μ + μ - remain close to their Standard Model predictions. On the other hand, there can be large enhancements of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B → K*γ and the transverse asymmetry A_T^{{(2)}}.
Constraint of B0d,s - bar B0d,s mixing on warped extra-dimension model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Sanghyeon; Kim, Choong S.; Song, Jeonghyeon
2007-02-01
Recent CDF measurement of the B0s - bar B0s oscillation frequency at the Tevatron imposes significant constraint on various models for new physics. A warped extra-dimension model with custodial isospin symmetry accommodates the B0d,s - bar B0d,s mixing at tree level mainly through the Kaluza-Klein gluons. This is due to the misalignment between the bulk gauge eigenstates and the localized Yukawa eigenstates of the bulk fermions. We adopt the universal 5D Yukawa coupling model where all Yukawa couplings are of order one. The SM fermion mass spectra and mixings are controlled by the bulk Dirac mass parameters. With two versions of the hadronic parameter values for hat BBd,sf2Bd,s, we investigate the implication of the observed B0d,s - bar B0d,s mixings on this model. The CP-violating effects on the Bd system is shown to provide very strong constraint: The first Kaluza-Klein mass of a gluon (MKK) has its lower bound about 3.7 TeV with 1σ uncertainty.
Aad G.; Abbott B.; Abdallah J.; Abdelalim A. A.; Abdesselam A.; Abdinov O.; Abi B.; Abolins M.; AbouZeid O. S.; Abramowicz H.; Abreu H.; Acerbi E.; Acharya B. S.; Adamczyk L.; Adams D. L.; Addy T. N.; Adelman J.; Aderholz M.; Adomeit S.; et al.
2012-04-20
Using data recorded in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, a search for evidence of extra spatial dimensions has been performed through an analysis of the diphoton final state. The analysis uses data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.12 fb{sup -1} of {radical}s = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions. The diphoton invariant mass (m{sub {gamma}{gamma}}) spectrum is observed to be in good agreement with the expected Standard Model background. In the large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali, the results provide 95% CL lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale between 2.27 and 3.53 TeV, depending on the number of extra dimensions and the theoretical formalism used. The results also set 95% CL lower limits on the lightest Randall-Sundrum graviton mass of between 0.79 and 1.85 TeV, for values of the dimensionless coupling k/{ovr M}{sub Pl} varying from 0.01 to 0.1. Combining with previously published ATLAS results from the dielectron and dimuon final states, the 95% CL lower limit on the Randall-Sundrum graviton mass for k/{ovr M}{sub Pl} = 0.01 (0.1) is 0.80 (1.95) TeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; Ünal, G.
2016-05-01
We find new spontaneously generated fuzzy extra dimensions emerging from a certain deformation of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with cubic soft supersymmetry breaking and mass deformation terms. First, we determine a particular four-dimensional fuzzy vacuum that may be expressed in terms of a direct sum of product of two fuzzy spheres, and denote it in short as SF2 Int×SF2 Int . The direct sum structure of the vacuum is clearly revealed by a suitable splitting of the scalar fields in the model in a manner that generalizes our approach in [Phys. Rev. D 92, 025022 (2015)]. Fluctuations around this vacuum have the structure of gauge fields over SF2 Int×SF2 Int, and this enables us to conjecture the spontaneous broken model as an effective U (n ) (n
An anisotropic universe due to dimension-changing vacuum decay
Scargill, James H.C.
2015-08-01
In this paper we consider the question of observational signatures of a false vacuum decay event in the early universe followed by a period of inflation; in particular, motivated by the string landscape, we consider decays in which the parent vacuum has a smaller number of large dimensions than the current vacuum, which leads to an anisotropic universe. We go beyond previous studies, and examine the effects on the CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra, due to both scalar and tensor modes, and consider not only late-time effects but also the full cosmological perturbation theory at early times. We find that whilst the scalar mode behaves as one would expect, and the effects of anisotropy at early times are sub-dominant to the late-time effects already studied, for the tensor modes in fact the the early-time effects grow with multipole and can become much larger than one would expect, even dominating over the late-time effects. Thus these effects should be included if one is looking for such a signal in the tensor modes.
Dirac neutrinos with S4 flavor symmetry in warped extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Ye-Ling
2013-11-01
We present a warped extra dimension model with the custodial symmetry SU(2×SU(2×U(1×PLR based on the flavor symmetry S4×Z2×Z2', and the neutrinos are taken to be Dirac particles. At leading order, the democratic lepton mixing is derived exactly, and the high-dimensional operators introduce corrections of order λc to all the three lepton mixing angles such that agreement with the experimental data can be achieved. The neutrino mass spectrum is predicted to be of the inverted hierarchy and the second octant of θ23 is preferred. We suggest the modified democratic mixing, which is obtained by permuting the second and the third rows of the democratic mixing matrix, should be a good first order approximation to understanding sizable θ13 and the first octant of θ23. The constraints on the model from the electroweak precision measurements are discussed. Furthermore, we investigate the lepton mixing patterns for all the possible residual symmetries Gν and Gl in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors, respectively. For convenience, we work in the base in which m≡mlml† is diagonal, where ml is the charged lepton mass matrix. It is easy to see that the symmetry transformation matrix Gl, which is determined by the condition Gl†mGl=m, is a diagonal and non-degenerate 3×3 phase matrix. In the case that neutrinos are Majorana particles, the light neutrino mass matrix for DC mixing is of the form mνDC=UDC*diag(m1,m2,m3)UDC†. The symmetry transformations Gi, which satisfy GiTmνDCGi=mνDC, are determined to be G1=+u1u1†-u2u2†-u3u3†, G2=-u1u1†+u2u2†-u3u3† and G3=-u1u1†-u2u2†+u3u3† besides the identity transformation, where ui is the ith column of UDC. They satisfy Gi2=1, GiGj=GjGi=Gk(i≠j≠k). Consequently the symmetry group of the neutrino mass matrix mνDC is the Klein four group K4≅Z2×Z2. Denoting the underlying family symmetry group at high energies as G, then the symmetry transformations Gl and Gi should be the elements of G. In the
Utiliser la Dimension Europeenne Pour Faire Sortir l'Ecole de ses Murs ou "Extra Muros."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champollion, Pierre
2002-01-01
Five European institutions devoted to principal training developed the Comenius project "Extra Muros" between 1996-99. Its objectives were understanding the importance of educative action outside the school in order to provide equal opportunity to all students, as well as to promote the awareness of Europe among schools. The project facilitates…
Feng, Li; Axel, Leon; Chandarana, Hersh; Block, Kai Tobias; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo
2015-01-01
Purpose To develop a novel framework for free-breathing MRI called XD-GRASP, which sorts dynamic data into extra motion-state dimensions using the self-navigation properties of radial imaging and reconstructs the multidimensional dataset using compressed sensing. Methods Radial k-space data are continuously acquired using the golden-angle sampling scheme and sorted into multiple motion-states based on respiratory and/or cardiac motion signals derived directly from the data. The resulting under-sampled multidimensional dataset is reconstructed using a compressed sensing approach that exploits sparsity along the new dynamic dimensions. The performance of XD-GRASP is demonstrated for free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) abdominal imaging, two-dimensional (2D) cardiac cine imaging and 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI of the liver, comparing against reconstructions without motion sorting in both healthy volunteers and patients. Results XD-GRASP separates respiratory motion from cardiac motion in cardiac imaging, and respiratory motion from contrast enhancement in liver DCE-MRI, which improves image quality and reduces motion-blurring artifacts. Conclusion XD-GRASP represents a new use of sparsity for motion compensation and a novel way to handle motions in the context of a continuous acquisition paradigm. Instead of removing or correcting motion, extra motion-state dimensions are reconstructed, which improves image quality and also offers new physiological information of potential clinical value. PMID:25809847
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Leveque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; 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Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2008-07-01
We report on a search for large extra dimensions in a data sample of approximately 1 fb(-1) of pp[over] collisions at sqrt s=1.96 TeV. We investigate Kaluza-Klein graviton production with a photon and missing transverse energy in the final state. At the 95% C.L. we set limits on the fundamental mass scale M(D) from 884 to 778 GeV for two to eight extra dimensions. PMID:18764100
Pankov, A. A. Serenkova, I. A. Tsytrinov, A. V. Bednyakov, V. A.
2015-06-15
Prospects of discovering and identifying effects of extra spatial dimensions in dilepton and diphoton production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are studied. Such effects may be revealed by the characteristic behavior of the invariant-mass distributions of dileptons and diphotons, and their identification can be performed on the basis of an analysis of their angular distributions. The discovery and identification reaches are estimated for the scale parameter M{sub S} of the Kaluza-Klein gravitational towers, which can be determined in experiments devoted to measuring the dilepton and diphoton channels at the LHC.
The impact of adding an extra dimension to a preference-based measure.
Brazier, John; Rowen, Donna; Tsuchiya, Aki; Yang, Yaling; Young, Tracy A
2011-07-01
The ability to compare incremental changes in Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) generated by different condition-specific preference-based measures (CSPBMs), or indeed between generic measures, is often criticised even where the valuation methods and source of values are the same. A key concern is the impact of excluding key dimensions from a descriptive system. This study examines the impact of adding a generic pain/discomfort dimension to a CSPBM, the AQL-5D (an asthma-specific CSPBM), by valuing samples of states from the AQL-5D with and without the new dimension using an interviewer administered time trade-off with a sample of the U.K. general public. 180 respondents provided 720 valuations for states with and without pain/discomfort. As expected the additional pain/discomfort dimension was found to have a significant and relatively large coefficient. More importantly for comparing changes in QALYs across populations the addition of pain/discomfort significantly impacts on the coefficients of the other dimensions and the degree of impact differs by dimension and severity level. The net effect on the utility value depends on the severity of their state: the addition of pain/discomfort at level 1 (no pain/discomfort) or 2 (moderate pain/discomfort) significantly increased the mean health state values in an asthma patient population; whereas level 3 pain/discomfort (extreme) reduced values. Comparability between measures requires that the impact of different dimensions on preferences is additive, whether or not they are included in the classification system. Our results cast doubt on this assumption, implying that the chosen measure must contain all important and relevant dimensions in its classification system.
Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K
2014-06-01
A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. PMID:24767616
Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K
2014-06-01
A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency.
Cosmic strings with twisted magnetic flux lines and wound-strings in extra dimensions
Lake, Matthew; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2012-09-01
We consider a generalization of the Nielsen-Olesen ansatz, in the abelian-Higgs model, which describes strings with twisted magnetic flux lines in the vortex core. The solution does not possess cylindrical symmetry, which leads to the existence of components of conserved momentum, both around the core-axis and along the length of the string. In addition, we consider a model of F-strings with rotating, geodesic windings in the compact space of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry and determine matching conditions which ensure energy and momentum conservation when loops chop off from the long-string network. We find that the expressions for the constants of motion, which determine the macroscopic string dynamics, can be made to coincide with those for the twisted flux line string, suggesting that extra-dimensional effects for F-strings may be mimicked by field-theoretic structure in topological defects.
Higgs dark matter from a warped extra dimension — the truncated-inert-doublet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Aqeel; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Gunion, John F.; Jiang, Yun
2015-10-01
We construct a 5D {{Z}}_2 -symmetric model with three D3-branes: two IR ones with negative tension located at the ends of an extra-dimensional interval and a UV-brane with positive tension placed in the middle of the interval — IR-UV-IR model. The background solutions for this geometric setup are found without and with taking into account the backreaction of the matter fields. A 5D SU(2) Higgs doublet is employed as the Goldberger-Wise stabilizing field in this geometry and solutions of the 5D coupled scalar-gravity equations are found by using the superpotential method. Within this setup we investigate the low-energy (zero-mode) effective theory for the bulk Standard Model (SM) bosonic sector. The {{Z}}_2 -even zero-modes correspond to known standard degrees of freedom, whereas the {{Z}}_2 -odd zero modes might serve as a dark sector. The effective low-energy scalar sector contains a scalar which mimics the SM Higgs boson and a second stable scalar particle (dark-Higgs) is a dark matter candidate; the latter is a component of the zero-mode of the {{Z}}_2 -odd Higgs doublet. The model that results from the {{Z}}_2 -symmetric background geometry resembles the Inert Two Higgs Doublet Model. The effective theory turns out to have an extra residual SU(2) × U(1) global symmetry that is reminiscent of an underlying 5D gauge transformation for the odd degrees of freedom. At tree level the SM Higgs and the dark-Higgs have the same mass; however, when leading radiative corrections are taken into account the dark-Higgs turns out to be heavier than the SM Higgs. Implications for dark matter are discussed; it is found that the dark-Higgs can provide only a small fraction of the observed dark matter abundance.
Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT
Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-08-26
We propose a class of AdS/CFT dual pairs which have small internal dimensions on the gravity side. Starting from known Freund-Rubin AdS/CFT dual pairs, we use 7-branes to nearly cancel the curvature energy of the internal dimensions while maintaining their stabilization. This leads to a new corner of the landscape - a class of AdS solutions with a hierarchically large AdS radius - with a dual field theory given (implicitly) by the infrared limit of a concrete brane construction involving D3-branes, 7-branes, and curvature. We first construct a class of hierarchical AdS5/CFT4 dual pairs with a simple formula for the number of degrees of freedom which we interpret in the dual QFT. We then generalize these to AdS4/CFT3 duals, and suggest extensions of the method to obtain de Sitter solutions.
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2012-06-29
Results are presented from a search for new physics in the final state containing a photon (γ) and missing transverse energy (E[combininb /](T)). The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb(-1) collected in pp collisions at √[s]=7 TeV by the CMS experiment. The observed event yield agrees with standard-model expectations for the γ+E[combininb /](T) events. Using models for the production of dark-matter particles (χ), we set 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits of 13.6-15.4 fb on χ production in the γ+E[combininb /](T) state. These provide the most sensitive upper limits for spin-dependent χ-nucleon scattering for χ masses (M(χ)) between 1 and 100 GeV. For spin-independent contributions, the present limits are extended to M(χ)<3.5 GeV. For models with 3-6 large extra dimensions, our data exclude extra-dimensional Planck scales between 1.64 and 1.73 TeV at 95% C.L.
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Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Devaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2009-02-01
We report on a search for large extra spatial dimensions in the dielectron and diphoton channels using a data sample of 1.05 fb;{-1} of pp[over ] collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The invariant mass spectrum of the data agrees well with the prediction of the standard model. We find the most restrictive 95% C.L. lower limits on the effective Planck scale between 2.1 and 1.3 TeV for 2 to 7 extra dimensions. PMID:19257500
Search for large extra dimensions in the mono-photon final state at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV
Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Michigan U.
2008-03-01
The authors report on a search for large extra dimensions in a data sample of approximately 1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. They investigate Kaluza-Klein graviton production with a photon and missing transverse energy in the final state. At the 95% C.L. they set limits on the fundamental mass scale M{sub D} from 884 GeV to 778 GeV for 2 to 8 extra dimensions.
Carrera, Edgar Fernando
2008-12-01
This dissertation presents a search for large extra dimensions in the single photon plus missing transverse energy final states. We use a data sample of approximately 2.7 fb^{-1} of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV (recorded with the D^{-} detector) to investigate direct Kaluza Klein graviton production and set limits, at the 95% C.L., on the fundamental mass scale M_{D} from 970 GeV to 816 GeV for two to eight extra dimensions.
Muon anomalous magnetic moment and penguin loops in warped extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beneke, M.; Moch, P.; Rohrwild, J.
2014-08-01
We describe the computation of the one-loop muon anomalous magnetic moment and radiative penguin transitions in the minimal and custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. A fully five-dimensional (5D) framework is employed to match the 5D theory onto the Standard Model extended by dimension-six operators. The additional contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment from the gauge-boson exchange contributions is $Δ aμ ≈ 8.8 (27.2) ḑot 10-11 × (1 TeV/T)2 ,$ where the first (second) number refers to the minimal (custodially-protected) model. Here 1/T denotes the location of the TeV brane in conformal coordinates, and is related to the mass of the lowest gauge-boson KK excitation by MKK≈2.35T. We also determine the Higgs-exchange contribution, which depends on the 5D Yukawa structure and the precise interpretation of the localization of the Higgs field near or at the TeV brane.
Perturbative calculations in space-time having extra dimensions: The 6D single axial box anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fonseca, M. V. S.; Dallabona, G.; Battistel, O. A.
2014-11-01
A detailed investigation about the 6D single axial box anomalous amplitude is presented. The superficial degree of divergence involved, in the one-loop perturbative calculations, is quadratic and the corresponding theory is nonrenormalizable. In spite of this, we show that the phenomenon of anomaly can be clearly characterized in a completely analogous way as that of 4D single axial triangle anomaly. The required calculations are made within the context of a novel calculational strategy where the amplitudes are not modified in intermediary steps. Divergent integrals are, in fact, not really solved. Adequate representations for the internal propagators are adopted according to the degree of divergence involved, so that when the last Feynman rule is taken (integration over the loop momentum) all the dependence on the internal (arbitrary) momenta are placed only in finite integrals. In the divergent structures emerging, no physical parameter is present and such objects are not really integrated. Only very general properties are assumed for such quantities which are universal (all space-time dimensions). The consistency of the perturbative calculations fixes some relations among the divergent integrals so that all the potentially ambiguous terms can be automatically removed. In spite of the absence of ambiguities, the emerging results allow us to give a clear and transparent description of the anomaly. The present investigation confirms the point of view stated by the same prescription for the well-known 2D axial-vector (AV) two-point and 4D single (AVV) and triple (AAA) axial-vector anomalies: the anomalous amplitudes need not be assumed as ambiguous quantities to allow an adequate description of the anomalies. We show also that a surprising, but natural, connection between the coupling of fermions with a pseudoscalar tensor field is found. In addition, we show that the crucial mathematical aspects of the problem are deeply related to a recently arisen controversy
Reid, Jane M; Keller, Lukas F; Marr, Amy B; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter
2014-03-01
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding and inbreeding depression requires unbiased estimation of inbreeding depression across diverse mating systems. However, studies estimating inbreeding depression often measure inbreeding with error, for example, based on pedigree data derived from observed parental behavior that ignore paternity error stemming from multiple mating. Such paternity error causes error in estimated coefficients of inbreeding (f) and reproductive success and could bias estimates of inbreeding depression. We used complete "apparent" pedigree data compiled from observed parental behavior and analogous "actual" pedigree data comprising genetic parentage to quantify effects of paternity error stemming from extra-pair reproduction on estimates of f, reproductive success, and inbreeding depression in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Paternity error caused widespread error in estimates of f and male reproductive success, causing inbreeding depression in male and female annual and lifetime reproductive success and juvenile male survival to be substantially underestimated. Conversely, inbreeding depression in adult male survival tended to be overestimated when paternity error was ignored. Pedigree error stemming from extra-pair reproduction therefore caused substantial and divergent bias in estimates of inbreeding depression that could bias tests of evolutionary theories regarding inbreeding and inbreeding depression and their links to variation in mating system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goutéraux, B.
2010-11-01
In this thesis, we wish to examine the black-hole solutions of modified gravity theories inspired by String Theory or Cosmology. Namely, these modifications will take the guise of additional gauge and scalar fields for the so-called Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories with an exponential Liouville potential; and of extra spatial dimensions for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories. The black-hole solutions of EMD theories as well as their integrability are reviewed. One of the main results is that a master equation is obtained in the case of planar horizon topology, which allows to completely integrate the problem for s special relationship between the couplings. We also classify existing solutions. We move on to the study of Gauss-Bonnet black holes, focusing on the six-dimensional case. It is found that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling exposes the Weyl tensor of the horizon to the dynamics, severely restricting the Einstein spaces admissible and effectively lifting some of the degeneracy on the horizon topology. We then turn to the study of the thermodynamic properties of black holes, in General Relativity as well as in EMD theories. For the latter, phase transitions may be found in the canonical ensemble, which resemble the phase transitions for Reissner-Nordström black holes. Generically, we find that the thermodynamic properties (stability, order of phase transitions) depend crucially on the values of the EMD coupling constants. Finally, we interpret our planar EMD solutions holographically as Infra-Red geometries through the AdS/CFT correspondence, taking into account various validity constraints. We also compute AC and DC conductivities as applications to Condensed Matter Systems, and find some properties characteristic of strange metal behaviour.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G
2009-11-01
We present the first measurement of dijet angular distributions in pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb(-1) collected with the D0 detector. Dijet angular distributions have been measured over a range of dijet masses, from 0.25 TeV to above 1.1 TeV. The data are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain new physics models including quark compositeness, large extra dimensions, and TeV(-1) scale extra dimensions. For all models considered, we set the most stringent direct limits to date. PMID:20365918
Collaboration, D0
2009-06-01
We present the first measurement of dijet angular distributions in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector. Dijet angular distributions have been measured over a range of dijet masses, from 0.25 TeV to above 1.1 TeV. The data are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain new physics models including quark compositeness, large extra dimensions, and TeV{sup -1} scale extra dimensions. For all models considered, we set the most stringent direct limits to date.
Lin, Chun
2005-12-01
In this thesis we present the results of a search for Universal Extra Dimensions (UED) with compactification radius near the TeV scale in the multi-lepton channel from proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This is the first UED search in the multi-lepton channel performed at the Tevatron.
Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beachemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S
2006-10-27
We present the results of a search for new physics in the jets plus missing transverse energy data sample collected from 368 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We compare the number of events observed in the data with a data-based estimate of the standard model backgrounds contributing to this signature. We observe no significant excess of events, and we interpret this null result in terms of lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale for a large extra dimensions scenario.
Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beachemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S
2006-10-27
We present the results of a search for new physics in the jets plus missing transverse energy data sample collected from 368 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We compare the number of events observed in the data with a data-based estimate of the standard model backgrounds contributing to this signature. We observe no significant excess of events, and we interpret this null result in terms of lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale for a large extra dimensions scenario. PMID:17155461
Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara
2006-04-01
The authors present the results of a search for new physics in the jets plus missing transverse energy data sample collected from 368 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. They compare the number of events observed in the data with a data-based estimate of the standard model backgrounds contributing to this signature. They observe no significant excess of events, and they interpret this null result in terms of lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale for a large extra dimensions scenario.
Khachatryan, Vardan
2015-05-29
Our results are presented from a search for particle dark matter (DM), extra dimensions, and unparticles using events containing a jet and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data were collected by the CMS detector in proton–proton collisions at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7fb^{-1} at a centre-of-mass energy of 8TeV. The number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model prediction. Limits are placed on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of the DM particle mass for spin-dependent and spin-independent interactions. Limits are also placed on the scale parameter M_{D} in the Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali (ADD) model of large extra dimensions, and on the unparticle model parameter Λ_{U}. Finally, the constraints on ADD models and unparticles are the most stringent limits in this channel and those on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section are an improvement over previous collider results.
Khachatryan, Vardan
2015-05-29
Our results are presented from a search for particle dark matter (DM), extra dimensions, and unparticles using events containing a jet and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data were collected by the CMS detector in proton–proton collisions at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7fb-1 at a centre-of-mass energy of 8TeV. The number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model prediction. Limits are placed on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of the DM particle mass for spin-dependent and spin-independent interactions. Limits are also placed on the scale parametermore » MD in the Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali (ADD) model of large extra dimensions, and on the unparticle model parameter ΛU. Finally, the constraints on ADD models and unparticles are the most stringent limits in this channel and those on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section are an improvement over previous collider results.« less
Triampo, W; Newman, T J
1999-08-01
This work is a continuation of our previous investigation of binary data corruption due to a Brownian agent [Phys. Rev. E 59, 5172 (1999)]. We extend our study in three main directions which allow us to make closer contact with real bistable systems. These are (i) a detailed analysis of two dimensions, (ii) the case of competing agents, and (iii) the cases of asymmetric and quenched random couplings. Most of our results are obtained by extending our original phenomenological model, and are supported by extensive numerical simulations.
Gao Xiangdong; Li Chongsheng; Gao Jun; Wang Jian; Oakes, Robert J.
2010-02-01
We present the calculations of the complete next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the inclusive total cross sections for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton and photon associated production process pp{yields}{gamma}G{sub KK}+X in the large extra dimensions model at the LHC. We show that the NLO QCD corrections in general enhance the total cross sections and reduce the dependence of the total cross sections on the factorization and renormalization scales. When jet veto is considered, the NLO corrections reduce the total cross sections. We also calculate some important differential cross sections for this process at NLO: the missing transverse momentum distribution, the transverse momentum distribution, and the pseudorapidity distribution of photon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Günther, Uwe; Zhuk, Alexander; Bezerra, Valdir B.; Romero, Carlos
2005-08-01
We study multi-dimensional gravitational models with scalar curvature nonlinearities of types R-1 and R4. It is assumed that the corresponding higher dimensional spacetime manifolds undergo a spontaneous compactification to manifolds with a warped product structure. Special attention has been paid to the stability of the extra-dimensional factor spaces. It is shown that for certain parameter regions the systems allow for a freezing stabilization of these spaces. In particular, we find for the R-1 model that configurations with stabilized extra dimensions do not provide a late-time acceleration (they are AdS), whereas the solution branch which allows for accelerated expansion (the dS branch) is incompatible with stabilized factor spaces. In the case of the R4 model, we obtain that the stability region in parameter space depends on the total dimension D = dim(M) of the higher dimensional spacetime M. For D > 8 the stability region consists of a single (absolutely stable) sector which is shielded from a conformal singularity (and an antigravity sector beyond it) by a potential barrier of infinite height and width. This sector is smoothly connected with the stability region of a curvature-linear model. For D < 8 an additional (metastable) sector exists which is separated from the conformal singularity by a potential barrier of finite height and width so that systems in this sector are prone to collapse into the conformal singularity. This second sector is not smoothly connected with the first (absolutely stable) one. Several limiting cases and the possibility of inflation are discussed for the R4 model.
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Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; 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Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2008-10-31
We present the results of searches for large extra dimensions in samples of events with large missing transverse energy E_{T} and either a photon or a jet produced in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab II. For gamma+E_{T} and jet+E_{T} candidate samples corresponding to 2.0 and 1.1 fb;{-1} of integrated luminosity, respectively, we observe good agreement with standard model expectations and obtain a combined lower limit on the fundamental parameter of the large extra dimensions model M_{D} as a function of the number of extra dimensions in the model.
Domain wall interactions due to vacuum Dirac field fluctuations in 2 +1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fosco, C. D.; Mazzitelli, F. D.
2016-07-01
We evaluate quantum effects due to a two-component Dirac field in 2 +1 spacetime dimensions, coupled to domain-wall-like defects with a smooth shape. We show that these effects induce nontrivial contributions to the (shape-dependent) energy of the domain walls. For a single defect, we study the divergences in the corresponding self-energy, and also consider the role of the massless zero mode—corresponding to the Callan-Harvey mechanism—by coupling the Dirac field to an external gauge field. For two defects, we show that the Dirac field induces a nontrivial, Casimir-like effect between them, and we provide an exact expression for that interaction in the case of two straight-line parallel defects. As is the case for the Casimir interaction energy, the result is finite and unambiguous.
Murayama, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Tobioka, Kohsaku
2011-11-01
We study the discovery potential of the minimal universal extra dimension model (MUED) and improve it by utilizing the multijet+lepton mode at the LHC. Since the MUED has a nearly degenerate spectrum, most events only have soft jets and small E{sub T}{sup miss}. The signature is challenging to search. We apply M{sub T2} for the event selection and set the invisible particle mass of M{sub T2} (test mass) to zero. The test mass is much smaller than the invisible particle mass of MUED. In that case, M{sub T2} of the signal can be large depending on up-stream radiation which includes initial state radiation. On the other hand, M{sub T2} of the background is mainly below the top quark mass. Hence, the signal is extracted from the background in the high M{sub T2} region. Since we use the leading jets for M{sub T2}, there is a combinatorics effect. We find that the effect also enhances the signal to background ratio for high M{sub T2}. We perform a detailed simulation with the matrix element correction to the QCD radiations. The discovery potential of the MUED is improved by the M{sub T2} cut, and the improvement is especially significant for the most degenerate parameter we consider, {Lambda}R=10.
Sandilands, Scott M; Raudenbush, Brandon L; Carreira, Dominic S; Cross, Brian J
2016-01-01
Femoroacetabular impingements (FAIs), specifically cam type and pincer type, continue to be accepted as causes of intra-articular hip pathology and sources of hip pain. Reports of other causes of hip impingement including extra-articular causes have surfaced recently. One structure of importance is the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) due to its inconsistent bony morphology and the pull of the rectus femoris muscle putting it at risk for an avulsion fracture. Under certain circumstances, open surgical excision of exostosis formation after an avulsion fracture of the AIIS has been used. The case below represents a clinical scenario in which a medically unstable and multiply injured trauma patient had an external pelvic fixator placed as part of the treatment plan for an unstable pelvic injury. Following this pelvic external fixation treatment, the patient went on to develop clinically significant heterotopic bone formation at the AIIS pin site with extra-articular hip impingement syndrome. PMID:27637275
Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Bryant, Bruce; Shima, Asako; Sperry, Jeffrey B.; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Tominaga, Makoto; Smith, Amos B.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Breslin, Paul A.S.
2010-01-01
Oleocanthal, a major phenolic compound in extra-virgin olive oil with anti-inflammatory properties, elicits an unusual oral pungency sensed almost exclusively in the throat. This contrasts with most other common oral irritants, such as cinnamaldehyde, capsaicin, and alcohol, which irritate mucus membranes throughout the oral cavity. Here we show that this rare irritation pattern is a consequence of both the specificity of oleocanthal for a single sensory receptor and the anatomical restriction of this sensory receptor to the pharynx, within the oral cavity. We demonstrate, in vitro, that oleocanthal selectively activates the hTRPA1 channel in HEK 293 cells and that its ability to excite the trigeminal nervous system in rodents requires a functional TRPA1. Moreover, we similarly demonstrate that the over-the-counter analgesic, ibuprofen, which elicits the same restricted pharyngeal irritation as oleocanthal, also specifically excites rodent sensory neurons via TRPA1. Using human sensory psychophysical studies and immunohistochemical TRPA1 analyses of human oral and nasal tissues, we observe an overlap of the anatomical distribution of TRPA1 and the regions irritated by oleocanthal in humans. These results suggest that a TRPA1 (ANKTM1) gene product mediates the tissue sensitivity to oleocanthal within the oral cavity. Further, we demonstrate that, despite the fact that oleocanthal possesses the classic electrophilic reactivity of many TRPA1 agonists, it does not use the previously identified activation mechanism via covalent cysteine modification. These findings provide an anatomical and molecular explanation for a distinct oral sensation elicited by oleocanthal and ibuprofen and that is commonly experienced around the world when consuming many extra-virgin olive oils. PMID:21248124
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.
1999-01-01
A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.
Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I
1999-01-01
A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.
Aad, G.
2014-12-11
Research is conducted for non-resonant new phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states, originating from either contact interactions or large extra spatial dimensions. The LHC 2012 proton–proton collision dataset recorded by the ATLAS detector is used, corresponding to 20 fb^{–1} at √s = 8 TeV. The dilepton invariant mass spectrum is a discriminating variable in both searches, with the contact interaction search additionally utilizing the dilepton forward-backward asymmetry. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectation are observed. Lower limits are set on the ℓℓqq contact interaction scale Λ between 15.4 TeV and 26.3 TeV, at the 95% credibility level. For large extra spatial dimensions, lower limits are set on the string scale MS between 3.2 TeV to 5.0 TeV.
Aad, G.
2014-12-11
Research is conducted for non-resonant new phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states, originating from either contact interactions or large extra spatial dimensions. The LHC 2012 proton–proton collision dataset recorded by the ATLAS detector is used, corresponding to 20 fb–1 at √s = 8 TeV. The dilepton invariant mass spectrum is a discriminating variable in both searches, with the contact interaction search additionally utilizing the dilepton forward-backward asymmetry. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectation are observed. Lower limits are set on the ℓℓqq contact interaction scale Λ between 15.4 TeV and 26.3 TeV, at the 95% credibility level.more » For large extra spatial dimensions, lower limits are set on the string scale MS between 3.2 TeV to 5.0 TeV.« less
Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M-T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Coca, M; Colijn, A P; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Dunietz, I; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Fang, H-C; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Gerstein, E; Giannetti, P; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Ivanov, A; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karagoz Unel, M; Karr, K; Kartal, S; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Le, Y; Lee, K; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, T; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N S; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Manca, G; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Matthews, J A J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Napora, R; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C-Y P; Nigmanov, T; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Onyisi, P U E; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Pratt, T; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Renton, P; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M
2002-12-31
The exclusive gammaE(T) signal has a small standard model cross section and is thus a channel sensitive to new physics. This signature is predicted by models with a superlight gravitino or with large extra spatial dimensions. We search for such signals at the Collider Detector at Fermilab, using 87 pb(-1) of data at square root [s]=1.8 TeV, and extract 95% C.L. limits on these processes. A limit of 221 GeV is set on the scale |F|(1/2) in supersymmetric models. For 4, 6, and 8 extra dimensions, model-dependent limits on the fundamental mass scale M(D) of 0.55, 0.58, and 0.60 TeV, respectively, are found. We also specify a "pseudo-model-independent" method of comparing the results to theoretical predictions. PMID:12513133
Mittal, Shweta; Tewari, Sanjay; Goel, Rajat
2014-01-01
Cases of severe attrition are a common finding. Among the congenital anomalies, amelogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta are important conditions that may cause accelerated wear of teeth. The following case report describes the complete oral rehabilitation of a patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta. A detailed treatment plan was chalked out which included proper oral hygiene measures, restoration of carious teeth and endodontic treatment followed by foundation restorations of teeth that were crucial for the final prostheses. Patient was given transitional restorations for about 6 weeks with the aim of regaining the lost vertical dimensions. Final rehabilitation was done by fixed dental prostheses. PMID:25565735
Mittal, Shweta; Tewari, Sanjay; Goel, Rajat
2014-04-01
Cases of severe attrition are a common finding. Among the congenital anomalies, amelogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta are important conditions that may cause accelerated wear of teeth. The following case report describes the complete oral rehabilitation of a patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta. A detailed treatment plan was chalked out which included proper oral hygiene measures, restoration of carious teeth and endodontic treatment followed by foundation restorations of teeth that were crucial for the final prostheses. Patient was given transitional restorations for about 6 weeks with the aim of regaining the lost vertical dimensions. Final rehabilitation was done by fixed dental prostheses. PMID:25565735
Karger, Amy B; Senn, Christine; Skogseth, Kathy; Floodman, Stacy
2016-07-01
In 2014, the West Bank Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, part of the non-profit Fairview Health Services system, went live with two Siemens Dimension Vista® 500 instruments. In the first few months after go-live, the lab began receiving reports of rare, erroneous results from clinicians. After further investigation it was noted that most of the errors being reported followed a consistent pattern with significantly elevated potassium, BUN and creatinine. After months of unsuccessful troubleshooting with Siemens, our lab and others within the Fairview Health Services system began hypothesizing that urine carryover was occurring due to the pattern of elevated analytes, and asked Siemens to investigate this hypothesis. In March 2016 Siemens confirmed a software defect which omits an aliquot probe rinse resulting in sample carryover in rare cases. Our objective is to alert current users of the Siemens Dimension Vista® instruments to this rare but alarming phenomenon, discuss the frequency and impact of the erroneous results at our institution, and detail recommended steps for users of Siemens Dimension Vista® instruments to help retrospectively determine whether they have experienced similar erroneous results.
Garrill, Ashley
2011-01-01
This article describes an undergraduate lab exercise that demonstrates the importance of students thinking critically about what they see through a microscope. The students are given growth data from tip-growing organisms that suggest the cells grow in a pulsatile manner. The students then critique this data in several exercises that incorporate aspects of a problem-based learning approach, envisaging growth not just in two dimensions, but in three dimensions. For some cells, what appears to be pulsatile growth could also be explained by growth at a constant rate up and down in the z-axis. Depending on the diffraction pattern generated by the tip of the cell, this movement in the z-axis could go undetected. This raises the possibility that pulsatile growth seen in some species may be an artifact generated by the limitations of the light microscope. Students were subsequently asked to rate their awareness of the need to think critically about what they see through a microscope, using a scale of 1 (unaware) to 5 (very much aware). Prior to doing the lab exercise, the mean rating was 2.7; this increased to 4.4 after the lab. The students also indicated a likelihood of being more critical in their thinking in other aspects of their biology curriculum. PMID:22135376
Garrill, Ashley
2011-01-01
This article describes an undergraduate lab exercise that demonstrates the importance of students thinking critically about what they see through a microscope. The students are given growth data from tip-growing organisms that suggest the cells grow in a pulsatile manner. The students then critique this data in several exercises that incorporate aspects of a problem-based learning approach, envisaging growth not just in two dimensions, but in three dimensions. For some cells, what appears to be pulsatile growth could also be explained by growth at a constant rate up and down in the z-axis. Depending on the diffraction pattern generated by the tip of the cell, this movement in the z-axis could go undetected. This raises the possibility that pulsatile growth seen in some species may be an artifact generated by the limitations of the light microscope. Students were subsequently asked to rate their awareness of the need to think critically about what they see through a microscope, using a scale of 1 (unaware) to 5 (very much aware). Prior to doing the lab exercise, the mean rating was 2.7; this increased to 4.4 after the lab. The students also indicated a likelihood of being more critical in their thinking in other aspects of their biology curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uerling, Donald F.; Strope, John L., Jr.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the due-process rights of public employees. These particular rights are grounded in the constitutionally protected liberty interest in one's good name and reputation. Both employers and employees should be aware of what parameters case law provides with regard to the dimensions of this due-process right and…
Orye, E; Craen, M; Laureys, G; van Coster, R; van Mele, B
1985-06-01
A Y;12 translocation, resulting in extra Yq material and partial monosomy 12p, was found in a 7 1/2 year old boy. He showed growth and mental retardation and several of the congenital anomalies seen in the 12p deletion syndrome. LDHB activity, the gene for which is located at 12p12, was normal in serum, in accordance with the suspected 12p13 deletion in the patient. PMID:4009644
de Froment, Adrian J.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Levin, Simon A.
2014-01-01
The standard view in biology is that all animals, from bumblebees to human beings, face a trade-off between speed and accuracy as they search for resources and mates, and attempt to avoid predators. For example, the more time a forager spends out of cover gathering information about potential food sources the more likely it is to make accurate decisions about which sources are most rewarding. However, when the cost of time spent out of cover rises (e.g. in the presence of a predator) the optimal strategy is for the forager to spend less time gathering information and to accept a corresponding decline in the accuracy of its decisions. We suggest that this familiar picture is missing a crucial dimension: the amount of effort an animal expends on gathering information in each unit of time. This is important because an animal that can respond to changing time costs by modulating its level of effort per-unit-time does not have to accept the same decrease in accuracy that an animal limited to a simple speed-accuracy trade-off must bear in the same situation. Instead, it can direct additional effort towards (i) reducing the frequency of perceptual errors in the samples it gathers or (ii) increasing the number of samples it gathers per-unit-time. Both of these have the effect of allowing it to gather more accurate information within a given period of time. We use a modified version of a canonical model of decision-making (the sequential probability ratio test) to show that this ability to substitute effort for time confers a fitness advantage in the face of changing time costs. We predict that the ability to modulate effort levels will therefore be widespread in nature, and we lay out testable predictions that could be used to detect adaptive modulation of effort levels in laboratory and field studies. Our understanding of decision-making in all species, including our own, will be improved by this more ecologically-complete picture of the three-way tradeoff between time
de Froment, Adrian J; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Levin, Simon A
2014-12-01
The standard view in biology is that all animals, from bumblebees to human beings, face a trade-off between speed and accuracy as they search for resources and mates, and attempt to avoid predators. For example, the more time a forager spends out of cover gathering information about potential food sources the more likely it is to make accurate decisions about which sources are most rewarding. However, when the cost of time spent out of cover rises (e.g. in the presence of a predator) the optimal strategy is for the forager to spend less time gathering information and to accept a corresponding decline in the accuracy of its decisions. We suggest that this familiar picture is missing a crucial dimension: the amount of effort an animal expends on gathering information in each unit of time. This is important because an animal that can respond to changing time costs by modulating its level of effort per-unit-time does not have to accept the same decrease in accuracy that an animal limited to a simple speed-accuracy trade-off must bear in the same situation. Instead, it can direct additional effort towards (i) reducing the frequency of perceptual errors in the samples it gathers or (ii) increasing the number of samples it gathers per-unit-time. Both of these have the effect of allowing it to gather more accurate information within a given period of time. We use a modified version of a canonical model of decision-making (the sequential probability ratio test) to show that this ability to substitute effort for time confers a fitness advantage in the face of changing time costs. We predict that the ability to modulate effort levels will therefore be widespread in nature, and we lay out testable predictions that could be used to detect adaptive modulation of effort levels in laboratory and field studies. Our understanding of decision-making in all species, including our own, will be improved by this more ecologically-complete picture of the three-way tradeoff between time
Kuo, Hung-Fei; Frederick
2014-03-01
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the leading candidate for 22 nm node technology and beyond. This research studies the influence of focal contributor on critical dimension (CD) variation in the EUV lithography and calculates the CD sensitivity to focal contributor based on the resist CD. EUV lithography parameters used in the simulation include NA = 0.25, 6 degrees oblique incident on the mask and source wavelength at 13.6 nm. The reflection design of EUV mask consists of 40 alternating Si/Mo layers, a ruthenium capping layer, and an absorber layer. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory is adapted to solve the aerial image of contact hole (CH) feature layouts on the EUV mask. Then the resist CDs for the CH feature are measured at the position of the 10% from the bottom of resist profile. The target CD is 35 nm on wafer. The simulation results reveal the 2 nm discrepancy of spatial position for the aerial image curves measured between on the X metrology and Y metrology planes. The CDs of CH features with the iso-pitch are more sensitive to focal variation than the CDs of the features with the dense pitch. The maximum CD uniformity is 3.1 nm for the focal range at 90 nm. PMID:24745274
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, Uttam M.; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.
2015-11-01
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using slow rotating large field of view cameras requires spatiotemporal reconstruction of dynamically acquired data to capture the time variation of the radiotracer concentration. In vivo, MPI contains additional degrees of freedom involving unavoidable motion of the heart due to quasiperiodic beating and the effects of respiration, which can severely degrade the quality of the images. This work develops a technique for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that reconstructs the distribution of the radiotracer concentration in the myocardium using a tensor product of different sets of basis functions that approximately describe the spatiotemporal variation of the radiotracer concentration and the motion of the heart. In this study the temporal B-spline basis functions are chosen to reflect the dynamics of the radiotracer, while the intrinsic deformation and the extrinsic motion of the heart are described by a product of a discrete set of Gaussian basis functions. Reconstruction results are presented showing the dynamics of the tracer in the myocardium as it deforms due to cardiac beating, and is displaced due to respiratory motion. These results are compared with the conventional 4D-spatiotemporal reconstruction method that models only the temporal changes of the tracer activity. The higher dimensional reconstruction method proposed here improves bias, yet the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases slightly due to redistribution of the counts over the cardiac-respiratory gates. Additionally, there is a trade-off between the number of gates and the number of projections per gate to achieve high contrast images.
Shrestha, Uttam M.; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.
2015-01-01
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using slow rotating large field of view cameras requires spatiotemporal reconstruction of dynamically acquired data to capture the time variation of the radiotracer concentration. In vivo, MPI contains additional degrees of freedom involving unavoidable motion of the heart due to quasiperiodic beating and the effects of respiration, which can severely degrade the quality of the images. This work develops a technique for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that reconstructs the distribution of the radiotracer concentration in the myocardium using a tensor product of different sets of basis functions that approximately describe the spatiotemporal variation of the radiotracer concentration and the motion of the heart. In this study the temporal B-spline basis functions are chosen to reflect the dynamics of the radiotracer, while the intrinsic deformation and the extrinsic motion of the heart are described by a product of a discrete set of Gaussian basis functions. Reconstruction results are presented showing the dynamics of the tracer in the myocardium as it deforms due to cardiac beating, and is displaced due to respiratory motion. These results are compared with the conventional 4D-spatiotemporal reconstruction method that models only the temporal changes of the tracer activity. The higher dimensional reconstruction method proposed here improves bias, yet the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases due to redistribution of the counts over the cardiac-respiratory gates. However, there is a trade-off between the number of gates and the number of projections per gate to achieve high contrast images. PMID:26450115
Shrestha, Uttam M.; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.
2015-10-09
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using slow rotating large field of view cameras requires spatiotemporal reconstruction of dynamically acquired data to capture the time variation of the radiotracer concentration. In vivo, MPI contains additional degrees of freedom involving unavoidable motion of the heart due to quasiperiodic beating and the effects of respiration, which can severely degrade the quality of the images. This work develops a technique for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that reconstructs the distribution of the radiotracer concentration in the myocardium using a tensor product of different sets of basis functions that approximately describe the spatiotemporal variationmore » of the radiotracer concentration and the motion of the heart. In this study the temporal B-spline basis functions are chosen to reflect the dynamics of the radiotracer, while the intrinsic deformation and the extrinsic motion of the heart are described by a product of a discrete set of Gaussian basis functions. Reconstruction results are presented showing the dynamics of the tracer in the myocardium as it deforms due to cardiac beating, and is displaced due to respiratory motion. We find these results are compared with the conventional 4D-spatiotemporal reconstruction method that models only the temporal changes of the tracer activity. The higher dimensional reconstruction method proposed here improves bias, yet the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases slightly due to redistribution of the counts over the cardiac-respiratory gates. Additionally, there is a trade-off between the number of gates and the number of projections per gate to achieve high contrast images.« less
Shrestha, Uttam M.; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.
2015-10-09
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using slow rotating large field of view cameras requires spatiotemporal reconstruction of dynamically acquired data to capture the time variation of the radiotracer concentration. In vivo, MPI contains additional degrees of freedom involving unavoidable motion of the heart due to quasiperiodic beating and the effects of respiration, which can severely degrade the quality of the images. This work develops a technique for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that reconstructs the distribution of the radiotracer concentration in the myocardium using a tensor product of different sets of basis functions that approximately describe the spatiotemporal variation of the radiotracer concentration and the motion of the heart. In this study the temporal B-spline basis functions are chosen to reflect the dynamics of the radiotracer, while the intrinsic deformation and the extrinsic motion of the heart are described by a product of a discrete set of Gaussian basis functions. Reconstruction results are presented showing the dynamics of the tracer in the myocardium as it deforms due to cardiac beating, and is displaced due to respiratory motion. We find these results are compared with the conventional 4D-spatiotemporal reconstruction method that models only the temporal changes of the tracer activity. The higher dimensional reconstruction method proposed here improves bias, yet the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases slightly due to redistribution of the counts over the cardiac-respiratory gates. Additionally, there is a trade-off between the number of gates and the number of projections per gate to achieve high contrast images.
Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H; Gullberg, Grant T
2015-11-01
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using slow rotating large field of view cameras requires spatiotemporal reconstruction of dynamically acquired data to capture the time variation of the radiotracer concentration. In vivo, MPI contains additional degrees of freedom involving unavoidable motion of the heart due to quasiperiodic beating and the effects of respiration, which can severely degrade the quality of the images. This work develops a technique for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that reconstructs the distribution of the radiotracer concentration in the myocardium using a tensor product of different sets of basis functions that approximately describe the spatiotemporal variation of the radiotracer concentration and the motion of the heart. In this study the temporal B-spline basis functions are chosen to reflect the dynamics of the radiotracer, while the intrinsic deformation and the extrinsic motion of the heart are described by a product of a discrete set of Gaussian basis functions. Reconstruction results are presented showing the dynamics of the tracer in the myocardium as it deforms due to cardiac beating, and is displaced due to respiratory motion. These results are compared with the conventional 4D-spatiotemporal reconstruction method that models only the temporal changes of the tracer activity. The higher dimensional reconstruction method proposed here improves bias, yet the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases slightly due to redistribution of the counts over the cardiac-respiratory gates. Additionally, there is a trade-off between the number of gates and the number of projections per gate to achieve high contrast images. PMID:26450115
2016-08-17
Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil. PMID:27533420
Axion arising from warped extra-dimensional gauge fields
Burnier, Y.; Kuehnel, F.
2011-06-01
We present a connection between two known solutions to the strong-CP problem: the standard introduction of axions and the extra-dimensional one, relying on topological arguments. Using an equivalent lower-dimensional setup with a warped extra dimension but without adding any new fields, it is shown that an additional light degree of freedom appears. Like an axion, it couples to the topological charge density via fermionic loop corrections. Its decay constant is related to the geometry of the extra dimension and is suppressed by the warping scale.
Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alwitt, Linda F.
Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…
Extra-dimensional models on the lattice
Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico
2016-08-05
In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less
Space: The Hunt for Hidden Dimensions
Hewett, JoAnne
2006-04-25
Extra dimensions of space may be present in our universe. Their discovery would dramatically change our view of the cosmos and would prompt many questions. How do they hide? What is their shape? How many are there? How big are they? Do particles and forces feel their presence? This lecture will explain the concept of dimensions and show that current theoretical models predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions which could be in the discovery reach of present and near-term experiments. The manner by which these additional dimensions reveal their existence will be described. Searches for modifications of the gravitational force, astrophysical effects, and collider signatures already constrain the size of extra dimensions and will be summarized. Once new dimensions are discovered, the technology by which the above questions can be answered will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang; Wang, Ya Ping; Li, Chunyan; Gao, Shu; Shi, Benwei; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Dandan; Li, Gaocong; Dai, Chen
2016-04-01
Interactions between turbulence, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), settling velocity, effective density, fractal dimension, and floc size were studied on the tide-dominated, muddy coastal shelf of the southwestern Yellow Sea, China. The measurements were carried out in July 2013 at two sites located in water depths of 21.2 and 22.1 m. Negative correlations were observed between shear rate, SSC, effective density, and mean floc size, which supports the results of previous numerical, experimental, and field studies. A significant positive correlation was observed between near-bed SSC and shear rate, an indication that SSC variations are controlled by turbulence and re-suspension. In addition, significant linear relationships were found between settling velocity and other parameters (floc size, turbulence, SSC, effective density, and fractal dimension) at the two sites, indicating that the controlling factors on settling velocity are spatially variable. Principal component analysis was applied to determine the relative importance of turbulence, flocculation ability, and SSC as controls on floc size in situ. The relative contributions of turbulence, flocculation ability, and SSC to floc size (at both sites) were ~33.0%, 30.3%, and 29.7%, respectively, this being a new field-based quantitative analysis of the controls on floc size. The findings demonstrate that, in nature, flocculation ability affects floc size to the same degree as turbulence and SSC. Therefore, predictions of floc size in coastal marine environments require constraints not only on turbulence and SSC, but also on flocculation ability.
Infinitely Large New Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja
1999-07-29
We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.
Extra- and intrathoracic access.
Lazarides, Miltos K; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos
2014-01-01
The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are contraindicated as in obese patients and in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease, a range of extrathoracic "exotic" extra-anatomic access procedures as the necklace cross-chest arteriovenous (AV) grafts, the ipsilateral axillo-axillary loops, the brachial-jugular AV grafts, the axillo-femoral AV grafts or even intra-thoracic ones as the right atrial AV bypasses represent the vascular surgeon's last resort. The selection among those extra-anatomical chest-wall procedures should be based upon each patient's anatomy or patient-specific factors. PMID:24817469
Liang, Ji; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wang, Ruixue; Liang, Zuowen; Yue, Jiaming; Liu, Ruizhi
2015-01-01
A derivative X chromosome formed by translocation involving an X chromosome and a chromosome 18 in a Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patient with a 47,XXY karyotype has not been reported before. In this study, we present the clinical and molecular cytogenetic characteristics. The patient presented with small testes and azoospermia. G-banding analysis identified the karyotype as 47,XY,del(X)(p?11.4). Array CGH detected a 10.36-Mb duplication of chromosome region 18p11.22p11.32 (14,316-10,377,516) and a 111.18-Mb duplication of chromosome region Xp11.4q28 (61,931, 689-155,111,583), in addition to the normal chromosome 18 and an X chromosome. FISH results further revealed the extra 18p located at the end of the short arm of a deleted X chromosome, forming a derivative X chromosome. Finally, we identified the karyotype of the patient as 47,XY,+der(X)t(X;18)(p11.4;p11.22). The derivative X chromosome was maternally inherited. To our knowledge, this rare karyotype has not yet been reported in the literature. The present study may suggest a novel karyotype associated with KS. PMID:26430900
Higgs decay into two photons in a warped extra dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Juliane; Hörner, Clara; Malm, Raoul; Neubert, Matthias; Novotny, Kristiane; Schmell, Christoph
2014-05-01
A detailed five-dimensional calculation of the Higgs-boson decay into two photons is performed in both the minimal and the custodially protected Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, where the Standard Model (SM) fields propagate in the bulk and the scalar sector lives on or near the IR brane. It is explicitly shown that the gauge invariance of the sum of diagrams involving bosonic fields in the SM also applies to the case of these RS scenarios. An exact expression for the amplitude in terms of the five-dimensional (5D) gauge-boson and fermion propagators is presented, which includes the full dependence on the Higgs-boson mass. Closed expressions for the 5D -boson propagators in the minimal and the custodial RS model are derived, which are valid to all orders in . In contrast to the fermion case, the result for the bosonic contributions to the amplitude is insensitive to the details of the localization of the Higgs profile on or near the IR brane. The various RS predictions for the rate of the process are compared with the latest LHC data, and exclusion regions for the RS model parameters are derived.
Predictions of Warped Extra Dimensions for Flavor Phenomenology
Gori, Stefania
2010-02-10
The aim of these proceedings is to present the main predictions of the Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection for particle-antiparticle mixing and rare decays of K and B{sub s,d} mesons, putting particular attention on the testability of the resulting NP effects at future experiments. Before giving numerical results, we discuss theoretical expectations, residing in the flavor structure of the model. The high energy scale M{sub KK} is chosen in such a way that direct searches of new particles at the LHC are possible, still being consistent with electroweak precision observables.
Infinitely Large New Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja
2000-01-24
We construct intersecting brane configurations in anitde Sitter (AdS) space which localize gravity to the intersection region, generalizing the trapping of gravity to any number n of infinite extra dimensions. Since the 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined by the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius L via the familiar relation M{sup 2}{sub Pl}{approx}M{sup 2+n}{sub *}L{sup n} , we get two kinds of theories with TeV scale quantum gravity and submillimeter deviations from Newton's law. With M{sub *}{approx}TeV and L{approx}submillimeter , we recover the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternatively, if M{sub *}{approx}L{sup -1}{approx}M{sub Pl} , and our 3-brane is at a distance of {approx}100M{sup -1}{sub Pl} from the intersection, we obtain a theory with an exponential determination of the weak/Planck hierarchy. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Particle creation by naked singularities in higher dimensions
Miyamoto, Umpei; Nemoto, Hiroya; Shimano, Masahiro
2011-04-15
Recently, the possibility was pointed out by one of the present authors and his collaborators that an effective naked singularity referred to as ''a visible border of spacetime'' is generated by high-energy particle collision in the context of large extra dimensions or TeV-scale gravity. In this paper, we investigate the particle creation by a naked singularity in general dimensions, while adopting a model in which a marginally naked singularity forms in the collapse of a homothetic lightlike pressureless fluid. We find that the spectrum deviates from that of Hawking radiation due to scattering near the singularity but can be recast in quasithermal form. The temperature is always higher than that of Hawking radiation of a same-mass black hole, and can be arbitrarily high depending on a parameter in the model. This implies that, in principle, the naked singularity may be distinguished from a black hole in collider experiments.
Casimir force in Randall-Sundrum models with q+1 dimensions
Frank, Mariana; Turan, Ismail; Saad, Nasser
2008-09-01
We evaluate the Casimir force between two parallel plates in Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenarios extended by q compact dimensions. After giving exact expressions for one extra compact dimension (6D RS model), we generalize to an arbitrary number of compact dimensions. We present the complete calculation for both the two-brane scenario (RSI model) and the one-brane scenario (RSII model) using the method of summing over the modes. We investigate the effects of extra dimensions on the magnitude and sign of the force, and comment on limits for the size and number of the extra dimensions.
Dolley, T.P.
2003-01-01
Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bertel, Erminald
2013-01-01
Due to progress in nanotechnology high-quality quantum wires can nowadays be fabricated. The behavior of particles in one dimension differs significantly from that in three-dimensional (3D) systems, yet the physics of such low-dimensional systems is generally not very well represented in standard undergraduate or graduate curricula. For instance,…
Different lattice geometries with a synthetic dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suszalski, Dominik; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2016-09-01
The possibility of creating different geometries with the help of an extra synthetic dimension in optical lattices is studied. The additional linear potential together with Raman-assisted tunnelings are used to engineer well-controlled tunnelings between available states. The great flexibility of the system allows us to obtain different geometries of synthetic lattices with the possibility for adding synthetic gauge fields.
Extra osseous primary Ewing's sarcoma.
Ali, Syed Asad; Muhammad, Agha Taj; Soomro, Abdul Ghani; Siddiqui, Akmal Jamal
2010-01-01
The case of 20 years old boy with an extra osseous Ewing's sarcoma is described. He was initially diagnosed as a case of infiltrative malignant tumour of left suprarenal gland on the basis of preoperative workup but postoperative biopsy of surgically excised specimen confirmed Extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma (EES) suprarenal gland with no evidence of malignancy on skeletal scintiscan, bone marrow aspirate and histopathology Suprarenal location of primary EES is unknown and probably has not been reported in literature. We report a unique case of EES.
Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.
Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
2016-01-01
Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery
Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.
Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
2016-01-01
Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mushotzky, R.
2008-01-01
I will discuss how one can determine the origin of the 'extra entropy' in groups and clusters and the feedback needed in models of galaxy formation. I will stress the use of x-ray spectroscopy and imaging and the critical value that Con-X has in this regard.
Stabilization of submillimeter dimensions: The new guise of the hierarchy problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John
2001-03-01
A new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was recently proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due to the existence of new submillimeter spatial dimensions. In this picture the standard model fields are localized to a (3+1)-dimensional wall or ``3-brane.'' The hierarchy problem becomes isomorphic to the problem of the largeness of the extra dimensions. This is in turn inextricably linked to the cosmological constant problem, suggesting the possibility of a common solution. The radii of the extra dimensions must be prevented from both expanding to too great a size, and collapsing to the fundamental Planck length TeV-1. In this paper we propose a number of mechanisms addressing this question. We argue that a positive bulk cosmological constant Λ¯ can stabilize the internal manifold against expansion, and that the value of Λ¯ is not unstable to radiative corrections provided that the supersymmetries of string theory are broken by dynamics on our 3-brane. We further argue that the extra dimensions can be stabilized against collapse in a phenomenologically successful way by either of two methods: (1) large, topologically conserved quantum numbers associated with higher-form bulk U(1) gauge fields, such as the naturally occurring Ramond-Ramond gauge fields, or the winding number of bulk scalar fields; (2) the brane-lattice crystallization of a large number of 3-branes in the bulk. These mechanisms are consistent with theoretical, laboratory, and cosmological considerations such as the absence of large time variations in Newton's constant during and after primordial nucleosynthesis, and millimeter-scale tests of gravity.
Djouadi, Abdelhak; Moreau, Gregory; Richard, Francois; Singh, Ritesh K.
2010-10-01
The CDF and D0 experiments have reported on the measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of top quark pair production at the Tevatron and the result is that it is more than 2 standard deviations above the predicted value in the standard model. This has to be added to the long-standing anomaly in the forward-backward asymmetry for bottom quark production at LEP which is 3 standard deviations different from the standard model value. The discrepancy in the bottom asymmetry can be accounted for by the contributions of Kaluza-Klein excitations of electroweak gauge bosons at LEP in warped extra-dimensional models in which the fermions are localized differently along the extra dimension so that the gauge interactions of heavy third generation fermions are naturally different from that of light fermions. In this paper, we show that it is more difficult to elaborate a model generating a significant top asymmetry through exchanges of Kaluza-Klein gluons at the Tevatron due to the indirect constraints originating from precision electroweak data.
2010-01-01
Context: Snapping hip, or coxa saltans, is a vague term used to describe palpable or auditory snapping with hip movements. As increasing attention is paid to intra-articular hip pathologies such as acetabular labral tears, it is important to be able to identify and understand the extra-articular causes of snapping hip. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms snapping hip and coxa sultans were used in PubMed to locate suitable studies of any publication date (ending date, November 2008). Results: Extra-articular snapping may be caused laterally by the iliotibial band or anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to differentiate from intra-articular causes of snapping. Dynamic ultrasound can help detect abrupt tendon translation during movement, noninvasively supporting the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping hip. The majority of cases of snapping hip resolve with conservative treatment, which includes avoidance of aggravating activities, stretching, and anti-inflammatory medication. In recalcitrant cases, surgery to lengthen the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon has produced symptom relief but may result in prolonged weakness. Conclusions: In treating active patients with snapping soft tissues around the hip, clinicians should recognize that the majority of cases resolve without surgical intervention, while being mindful of the potential for concomitant intra-articular and internal snapping hips. PMID:23015936
Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement
Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason
2005-02-07
We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.
Dynamics of particles near black hole with higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish
2016-07-01
This paper explores the dynamics of particles in higher dimensions. For this purpose, we discuss some interesting features related to the motion of particles near a Myers-Perry black hole with arbitrary extra dimensions as well as a single non-zero spin parameter. Assuming it as a supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, we calculate red-blue shifts in the equatorial plane for the far away observer as well as the corresponding black hole parameters of the photons. Next, we study the Penrose process and find that the energy gain of the particle depends on the variation of the black hole dimensions. Finally, we discuss the center of mass energy for 11 dimensions, which indicates a similar behavior to that of four dimensions but it is higher in four dimensions than five or more dimensions. We conclude that higher dimensions have a great impact on the particle dynamics.
Extra-Territorial Siting of Nuclear Installations
Shea, Thomas E.; Morris, Frederic A.
2009-10-07
Arrangements might be created for siting nuclear installations on land ceded by a host State for administration by an international or multinational organization. Such arrangements might prove useful in terms of resolving suspicions of proliferation in troubled areas of the world, or as a means to introduce nuclear activities into areas where political, financial or technical capabilities might otherwise make such activities unsound, or as a means to enable global solutions to be instituted for major nuclear concerns (e.g., spent fuel management). The paper examines practical matters associated with the legal and programmatic aspects of siting nuclear installations, including diplomatic/political frameworks, engaging competent industrial bodies, protection against seizure, regulation to ensure safety and security, waste management, and conditions related to the dissolution of the extra-territorial provisions as may be agreed as the host State(s) achieve the capabilities to own and operate the installations. The paper considers the potential for using such a mechanism across the spectrum of nuclear power activities, from mining to geological repositories for nuclear waste. The paper considers the non-proliferation dimensions associated with such arrangements, and the pros and cons affecting potential host States, technology vendor States, regional neighbors and the international community. It considers in brief potential applications in several locations today.
Screening and validation of EXTraS data products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpano, Stefania; Haberl, F.; De Luca, A.; Tiengo, A.: Israel, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Belfiore, A.; Rosen, S.; Read, A.; Wilms, J.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Law-Green, D.
2015-09-01
The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) is aimed at fullyexploring the serendipitous content of the XMM-Newton EPIC database in the timedomain. The project is funded within the EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework and is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany). The several tasks consist in characterise aperiodicvariability for all 3XMM sources, search for short-term periodic variability on hundreds of thousands sources, detect new transient sources that are missed by standard source detection and hence not belonging to the 3XMM catalogue, search for long term variability by measuring fluxes or upper limits for both pointed and slew observations, and finally perform multiwavelength characterisation andclassification. Screening and validation of the different products is essentially in order to reject flawed results, generated by the automatic pipelines. We present here the screening tool we developed in the form of a Graphical User Interface and our plans for a systematic screening of the different catalogues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanhart, C.; Pons, J. A.; Phillips, D. R.; Reddy, S.
2001-06-01
The existence of compact dimensions which are accessible only to gravity represents an intriguing possible solution to the hierarchy problem. At present the strongest constraint on the existence of such compact Gravity-Only Dimensions (GODs) comes from SN 1987a. Here we report on the first self-consistent simulations of the early, neutrino-emitting phase of a proto-neutron star which include energy losses due to the coupling of the Kaluza-Klein modes of the graviton which arise in a world with GODs. We compare the neutrino signals from these simulations to that from SN 1987a and use a rigorous probabilistic analysis to derive improved bounds for the radii of such GODs. We find that the possibility that there are two compact extra dimensions with radii larger than 0.66 μm is excluded at the 95% confidence level - as is the possibility that there are three compact extra dimensions larger than 0.8 nm.
An Operant Intra-/Extra-dimensional Set-shift Task for Mice.
Scheggia, Diego; Papaleo, Francesco
2016-01-01
Alterations in executive control and cognitive flexibility, such as attentional set-shifting abilities, are core features of several neuropsychiatric diseases. The most widely used neuropsychological tests for the evaluation of attentional set-shifting in human subjects are the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the CANTAB Intra-/Extra-dimensional set shift task (ID/ED). These tasks have proven clinical relevance and have been modified and successfully adapted for research in animal models. However, currently available tasks for rodents present several limitations, mainly due to their manual-based testing procedures, which are hampering translational advances in psychiatric medicine. To overcome these limitations and to better mimic the original version in primates, we present the development of a novel operant-based two-chamber ID/ED "Operon" task for rodents. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this novel task to measure different facets of cognitive flexibility in mice including attentional set formation and shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, we show the high flexibility of this task in which three different perceptual dimensions can be manipulated with a high number of stimuli cues for each dimension. This novel ID/ED Operon task can be an effective preclinical tool for drug testing and/or large genetic screening relevant to the study of executive dysfunction and cognitive symptoms found in psychiatric disorders.
An Operant Intra-/Extra-dimensional Set-shift Task for Mice
Scheggia, Diego; Papaleo, Francesco
2016-01-01
Alterations in executive control and cognitive flexibility, such as attentional set-shifting abilities, are core features of several neuropsychiatric diseases. The most widely used neuropsychological tests for the evaluation of attentional set-shifting in human subjects are the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the CANTAB Intra-/Extra-dimensional set shift task (ID/ED). These tasks have proven clinical relevance and have been modified and successfully adapted for research in animal models. However, currently available tasks for rodents present several limitations, mainly due to their manual-based testing procedures, which are hampering translational advances in psychiatric medicine. To overcome these limitations and to better mimic the original version in primates, we present the development of a novel operant-based two-chamber ID/ED "Operon" task for rodents. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this novel task to measure different facets of cognitive flexibility in mice including attentional set formation and shifting, and reversal learning. Moreover, we show the high flexibility of this task in which three different perceptual dimensions can be manipulated with a high number of stimuli cues for each dimension. This novel ID/ED Operon task can be an effective preclinical tool for drug testing and/or large genetic screening relevant to the study of executive dysfunction and cognitive symptoms found in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26863331
Tev-Scale Black Hole Lifetimes in Extra-Dimensional Lovelock Gravity
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2006-01-05
We examine the mass loss rates and lifetimes of TeV-scale extra dimensional black holes (BH) in ADD-like models with Lovelock higher-curvature terms present in the action. In particular we focus on the predicted differences between the canonical and microcanonical ensemble statistical mechanics descriptions of the Hawking radiation that results in the decay of these BH. In even numbers of extra dimensions the employment of the microcanonical approach is shown to generally lead to a significant increase in the BH lifetime as in case of the Einstein-Hilbert action. For odd numbers of extra dimensions, stable BH remnants occur when employing either description provided the highest order allowed Lovelock invariant is present. However, in this case, the time dependence of the mass loss rates obtained employing the two approaches will be different. These effects are in principle measurable at future colliders.
Signatures from an extra-dimensional seesaw model
Blennow, Mattias; Melbeus, Henrik; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang He
2010-08-15
We study the generation of small neutrino masses in an extra-dimensional model, where singlet fermions are allowed to propagate in the extra dimension, while the standard model particles are confined to a brane. Motivated by the fact that extra-dimensional models are nonrenormalizable, we truncate the Kaluza-Klein towers at a maximal Kaluza-Klein number. This truncation, together with the structure of the bulk Majorana mass term, motivated by the Sherk-Schwarz mechanism, implies that the Kaluza-Klein modes of the singlet fermions pair to form Dirac fermions, except for a number of unpaired Majorana fermions at the top of each tower. These heavy Majorana fermions are the only sources of lepton number breaking in the model, and similarly to the type-I seesaw mechanism, they naturally generate small masses for the left-handed neutrinos. The lower Kaluza-Klein modes mix with the light neutrinos, and the mixing effects are not suppressed with respect to the light-neutrino masses. Compared to conventional fermionic seesaw models, such mixing can be more significant. We study the signals of this model at the Large Hadron Collider, and find that the current low-energy bounds on the nonunitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix are strong enough to exclude an observation.
Origin of a peculiar extra U(1)
Barr, S.M.; Dorsner, I.
2005-07-01
The origin of a family-independent ''extra U(1)'', discovered by Barr, Bednarz, and Benesh and independently by Ma, and whose phenomenology has recently been studied by Ma and Roy, is discussed. Even though it satisfies anomaly constraints in a highly economical way, with just a single extra triplet of leptons per family, this extra U(1) cannot come from four-dimensional grand unification. However, it is shown here that it can come from a Pati-Salam scheme with an extra U(1), which explains the otherwise surprising cancellation of anomalies.
Grandes nouvelles dimensions et gravité quantique au coin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia
2003-04-01
The electroweak unification mass may be the only fundamental scale in nature. If so, the visible universe may lie on a membrane floating within a higher dimensional space; new dimensions, black holes, quantum gravity, and string theory may become experimentally accessible in this decade. The dark matter could reside on parallel universes inside the extra dimensions. To cite this article: N. Arkani-Hamed et al., C. R. Physique 4 (2003).
Extra Molting and Selection on Nymphal Growth in the Desert Locust.
Pélissié, Benjamin; Piou, Cyril; Jourdan-Pineau, Hélène; Pagès, Christine; Blondin, Laurence; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre
2016-01-01
In insects, extra-molting has been viewed as a compensatory mechanism for nymphal growth that contributes to optimize body weight for successful reproduction. However, little is known on the capacity of extra-molting to evolve in natural populations, which limits our understanding of how selection acts on nymphal growth. We used a multi-generational pedigree, individual monitoring and quantitative genetics models to investigate the evolution of extra-molting and its impact on nymphal growth in a solitarious population of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Growth compensation via extra-molting was observed for 46% of the females, whose adult weight exceeded by 4% that of other females, at a cost of a 22% longer development time. We found a null heritability for body weight threshold only, and the highest and a strongly female-biased heritability for extra molting. Our genetic estimates show that (1) directional selection can act on growth rate, development time and extra-molting to optimize body weight threshold, the target of stabilizing selection, (2) extra-molting can evolve in natural populations, and (3) a genetic conflict, due to sexually antagonistic selection on extra-molting, might prevent its fixation. Finally, we discuss how antagonistic selection between solitarious and gregarious environments and/or genetic correlations between growth and phase traits might also impact the evolution of extra-molting in locusts.
Extra Molting and Selection on Nymphal Growth in the Desert Locust
Piou, Cyril; Jourdan-Pineau, Hélène; Pagès, Christine; Blondin, Laurence; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre
2016-01-01
In insects, extra-molting has been viewed as a compensatory mechanism for nymphal growth that contributes to optimize body weight for successful reproduction. However, little is known on the capacity of extra-molting to evolve in natural populations, which limits our understanding of how selection acts on nymphal growth. We used a multi-generational pedigree, individual monitoring and quantitative genetics models to investigate the evolution of extra-molting and its impact on nymphal growth in a solitarious population of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Growth compensation via extra-molting was observed for 46% of the females, whose adult weight exceeded by 4% that of other females, at a cost of a 22% longer development time. We found a null heritability for body weight threshold only, and the highest and a strongly female-biased heritability for extra molting. Our genetic estimates show that (1) directional selection can act on growth rate, development time and extra-molting to optimize body weight threshold, the target of stabilizing selection, (2) extra-molting can evolve in natural populations, and (3) a genetic conflict, due to sexually antagonistic selection on extra-molting, might prevent its fixation. Finally, we discuss how antagonistic selection between solitarious and gregarious environments and/or genetic correlations between growth and phase traits might also impact the evolution of extra-molting in locusts. PMID:27227885
Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research
Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
2016-01-01
Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses
Extra Y chromosome in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.
Xiao, H; Dadey, B; Block, A W; Han, T; Sandberg, A A
1991-02-01
Using separated lymphocytes from 95 male patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, we have established both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and short-term cultures with polyclonal B-cell mitogens. Cytogenetic studies of these patients revealed an extra Y chromosome in 4 of 71 male cell lines examined. An extra Y chromosome appeared to be the sole karyotype change (47,XY, + Y) in 2 of these 4 patients. The extra Y chromosome was accompanied by extra copies of chromosomes 12 and 21 (48,XY, + Y, + 12 and 48,XY, + Y, + 21) in the other 2 patients, respectively. The possible oncological role of the extra Y chromosome in the initiation of leukemia is discussed. PMID:1847090
Dimension of chaotic attractors
Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.
1982-09-01
Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.
Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R
2010-01-01
ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system. PMID:21977172
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in quasi one dimension
Satpathi, Urbashi Deo, P. Singha
2015-06-24
Electronic charge and spin separation leading to charge density wave and spin density wave is well established in one dimension in the presence and absence of Coulomb interaction. We start from quasi one dimension and show the possibility of such a transition in quasi one dimension as well as in two dimensions by going to a regime where it can be shown for electrons that just interact via Fermi statistics. Such density waves arise due to internal symmetry breaking in a many fermion quantum system. We can extend this result to very wide rings with infinitely many electrons including Coulomb interaction.
Extra-cavity feedback into unstable resonators.
Corkum, P B; Baldis, H A
1979-05-01
Unstable resonators constructed of totally reflecting optics are particularly sensitive to extra-cavity feedback. This is demonstrated experimentally by reflecting the attenuated output of an injection mode-locked TEA CO(2) laser, fitted with a confocal unstable resonator, back into the laser resonator. Even after attenuation by ~10(6), significant perturbation ( greater, similar10%) could be observed in the temporal characteristics of the output train. A theory of extra-cavity feedback in the geometric limit is presented. PMID:20212847
General gauge mediation in five dimensions
McGarrie, Moritz; Russo, Rodolfo
2010-08-01
We use the ''general gauge mediation'' (GGM) formalism to describe a five-dimensional setup with an S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We first consider a model independent supersymmetry breaking hidden sector on one boundary and generic chiral matter on another. Using the definition of GGM, the effects of the hidden sector are contained in a set of global symmetry current correlator functions and is mediated through the bulk. We find the gaugino, sfermion and hyperscalar mass formulas for minimal and generalized messengers in different regimes of a large, small and intermediate extra dimension. Then we use the five-dimensional GGM formalism to construct a model in which an SU(5) Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih (ISS) model is located on the hidden boundary. We weakly gauge a global symmetry of the ISS model and associate it with the bulk vector superfield. Compared to four-dimensional GGM, there is a natural way to adjust the gaugino versus sfermion mass ratio by a factor (Ml){sup 2}, where M is a characteristic mass scale of the supersymmetry breaking sector and l is the length of the extra dimension.
Use of ICS/LABA (extra-fine and non-extra-fine) in elderly asthmatics
Benfante, Alida; Basile, Marco; Battaglia, Salvatore; Spatafora, Mario; Scichilone, Nicola
2016-01-01
Age represents an exclusion criterion in randomized clinical trials designed to test the efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs in asthma. As a consequence, data on efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combinations in elderly asthmatics are scanty. Older age is associated with an increased proportion of comorbid conditions; in addition, all organ functions undergo a process of senescence, thus reducing their ability to metabolize the agents. Overall, these age-associated conditions may variably, and often unpredictably, affect the metabolism and excretion of respiratory drugs. However, pharmacological treatment of asthma does not follow specific recommendations in the elderly. In the elderly, the ICS/LABA combinations may carry an increased risk of local indesiderable effects, primarily due to the lack of coordination between activation of the device and inhalation, and systemic adverse events, mainly due to the greater amount of active drug that is available because of the age-associated changes in organ functions as well as drug-to-drug and drug-to-concomitant disease interactions. The extra-fine formulations of ICSs/LABAs, which allow for a more favorable drug deposition in the lungs at a reduced dose, may contribute to overcome this issue. This review revises the efficacy and safety of treatment with ICSs/LABAs, focusing on the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs and highlighting the potential risks in the elderly asthmatic population. PMID:27789954
Navigating between the Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker
2011-01-01
Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…
Extra and Intra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis.
Chaudhary, R K; Banskota, B; Rijal, S; Banskota, A K
2015-01-01
Synovial chondromatosis is not so rare intra-articular condition secondary to synovial metaplasia, that affects the knee joint. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis however is an extremely rare condition that usually involves the synovial sheath or bursa of the foot or hand. We present two cases of synovial chondromatosis, one intra and one extra-articular. The first case was a 25 year old lady who presented with pain, swelling and restricted range of motion of left knee and was found to have an intra-articular synovial chondromatosis which was treated successfully by joint debridement. The second case was that of a 22 year old man who presented with right knee pain and was diagnosed to have an extra-articular synovial chondromatosis of his right medial hamstring tendon sheath, excision of which resulted in complete relief of symptoms. PMID:27549506
Synchronous extra-parotid Warthin's tumour.
Nishikawa, H; Kirkham, N; Hogbin, B M
1989-08-01
Warthin's tumour (also known as adenolymphoma or papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is benign and accounts for 12 per cent of all neoplasms of the parotid gland. A case of extra-parotid Warthin's tumour occurring synchronously in a peri-parotid lymph node is described. This is not a metastatic phenomenon and occurs as a result of salivary gland inclusions of local lymph nodes during the embryological development of the parotid. Extra-parotid Warthin's tumour should be regarded as a benign incidental finding and the prognosis is excellent.
Extra intestinal manifestations and complications in inflammatory bowel disease.
Marineaţă, Anca; Rezuş, Elena; Mihai, Cătălina; Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi
2014-01-01
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), doesn't affect only the intestinal tract, but also involve other organs such as: eyes, skin, joints, liver and biliary tracts, kidneys, lungs, vascular system. It is difficult to differentiate the true extraintestinal manifestations from secondary extraintestinal complications. The pathogenetic autoimmune mechanisms include genetic susceptibility, antigenic display of autoantigen, aberrant self-recognition and immunopathogenetic autoantibodies against organ-specific cellular antigens shared by colon and extra-colonic organs. An important role is owned by microbes due to molecular mimicry. This paper reviews the frequency, clinical presentation and therapeutic implications of extraintestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25076688
Dimension control of Superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Tyler; Hui Deng Collaboration; Barry C. Sanders Collaboration
2016-05-01
We develop a theory for quantum dipole-dipole coupling when the electromagnetic fields are confined to an open line, open plane, or open space, commensurate with experimental capability for collective atomic effects subject to dimensional confinement. Our mathematical model naturally interpolates for all real dimension between one dimension for the line to three dimensions for open space. We show how superradiant emission can be controlled by dimensional confinement, including near-field and dipole-orientation effects, and we propose a two-dimensional confinement experiment to test our theory's efficacy. University of Michigan.
Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.
1983-01-01
Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)
Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.
Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena
2011-01-01
In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules.
Progress in extra-solar planet detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Robert A.
1991-01-01
Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex motion and occultations.
Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations
Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul
2010-07-16
There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.
Ruyts, Sanne C; Ampoorter, Evy; Coipan, Elena C; Baeten, Lander; Heylen, Dieter; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik; Verheyen, Kris
2016-09-01
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies complex and transmitted by Ixodid ticks. In North America only one pathogenic genospecies occurs, in Europe there are several. According to the dilution effect hypothesis (DEH), formulated in North America, nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) decreases with increasing host diversity since host species differ in transmission potential. We analysed Borrelia infection in nymphs from 94 forest stands in Belgium, which are part of a diversification gradient with a supposedly related increasing host diversity: from pine stands without to oak stands with a shrub layer. We expected changing tree species and forest structure to increase host diversity and decrease NIP. In contrast with the DEH, NIP did not differ between different forest types. Genospecies diversity however, and presumably also host diversity, was higher in oak than in pine stands. Infected nymphs tended to harbour Borrelia afzelii infection more often in pine stands while Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi ss. infection appeared to be more prevalent in oak stands. This has important health consequences, since the latter two cause more severe disease manifestations. We show that the DEH must be nuanced for Europe and should consider the response of multiple pathogenic genospecies. PMID:27173094
Coradeschi, Francesco; De Curtis, Stefania; Dominici, Daniele
2010-07-01
We consider the continuum limit of a moose model corresponding to a generalization to N sites of the degenerate BESS model. The five-dimensional formulation emerging in this limit is a realization of a RS1 type model with SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} in the bulk, broken by boundary conditions and a vacuum expectation value on the infrared brane. A low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived by means of the holographic technique and corresponding bounds on the model parameters are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coradeschi, Francesco; de Curtis, Stefania; Dominici, Daniele
2010-07-01
We consider the continuum limit of a moose model corresponding to a generalization to N sites of the degenerate BESS model. The five-dimensional formulation emerging in this limit is a realization of a RS1 type model with SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R in the bulk, broken by boundary conditions and a vacuum expectation value on the infrared brane. A low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived by means of the holographic technique and corresponding bounds on the model parameters are obtained.
Stretched extra dimensions and bubbles of nothing in a toy model landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, I.-Sheng
2010-06-01
Using simple 6D junction conditions, we describe two surprising geometries. First in a case of transitions between dS4×S2 vacua, the S2 can be stretched significantly larger than the vacuum values both before and after the transition. The same mechanism can also lead to “bubble of nothing” geometries.
Stretched extra dimensions and bubbles of nothing in a toy model landscape
Yang, I-Sheng
2010-06-15
Using simple 6D junction conditions, we describe two surprising geometries. First in a case of transitions between dS{sub 4}xS{sub 2} vacua, the S{sub 2} can be stretched significantly larger than the vacuum values both before and after the transition. The same mechanism can also lead to ''bubble of nothing'' geometries.
Impact of warped extra dimensions on the dipole coefficients in b → sγ transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malm, Raoul; Neubert, Matthias; Schmell, Christoph
2016-04-01
We calculate the electro- and chromomagnetic dipole coefficients C 7 γ,8 g and {tilde{C}}_{7γ, 8g} in the context of the minimal Randall-Sundrum (RS) model with a Higgs sector localized on the IR brane using the five-dimensional (5D) approach, where the coefficients are expressed in terms of integrals over 5D propagators. Since we keep the full dependence on the Yukawa matrices, the integral expressions are formally valid to all orders in v 2/ M KK 2 . In addition we relate our results to the expressions obtained in the Kaluza-Klein (KK) decomposed theory and show the consistency in both pictures analytically and numerically, which presents a non-trivial cross-check. In Feynman-'t Hooft gauge, the dominant corrections from virtual KK modes arise from the scalar parts of the W ±-boson penguin diagrams, including the contributions from the scalar component of the 5D gauge-boson field and from the charged Goldstone bosons in the Higgs sector. The size of the KK corrections depends on the parameter y *, which sets the upper bound for the anarchic 5D Yukawa matrices. We find that for y * ≳ 1 the KK corrections are proportional to y ∗ 2 . We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results for the branching ratio Br(overline{B}to {X}_sγ ) , the time-dependent CP asymmetry S K ∗ γ , the direct CP asymmetry A CP b → sγ and the CP asymmetry difference Δ A CP b → sγ . We can derive a lower bound on the first KK gluon resonance of 3 .8 TeV for y * = 3, requiring that at least 10% of the RS parameter space covers the experimental 2 σ error margins. We further discuss the branching ratio Br(overline{B}to {X}_s{l}+{l}-) and compare our predictions for C 7γ,9,10 and {tilde{C}}_{7γ, 9,10} with phenomenological results derived from model-independent analyses.
Life in extra dimensions of database world or penetration of NoSQL in HEP community
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, V.; Evans, D.; Metson, S.
2012-12-01
The recent buzzword in IT world is NoSQL. Major players, such as Facebook, Yahoo, Google, etc. are widely adopted different “NoSQL” solutions for their needs. Horizontal scalability, flexible data model and management of big data volumes are only a few advantages of NoSQL. In CMS experiment we use several of them in production environment. Here, we present CMS projects based on NoSQL solutions, their strengths and weaknesses as well as our experience with those tools and their coexistence with standard RDBMS solutions in our applications.
Extra dimensions in photon-induced two lepton final states at the CERN LHC
Atag, S.; Inan, S. C.; Sahin, I.
2009-10-01
We discuss the potential of the photon-induced two lepton final states at the LHC to explore the phenomenology of the Kaluza-Klein tower of gravitons in the scenarios of the Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali model and the Randall-Sundrum model. The sensitivity to model parameters can be improved compared to the present LEP or Tevatron sensitivity.
Ruyts, Sanne C; Ampoorter, Evy; Coipan, Elena C; Baeten, Lander; Heylen, Dieter; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik; Verheyen, Kris
2016-09-01
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies complex and transmitted by Ixodid ticks. In North America only one pathogenic genospecies occurs, in Europe there are several. According to the dilution effect hypothesis (DEH), formulated in North America, nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) decreases with increasing host diversity since host species differ in transmission potential. We analysed Borrelia infection in nymphs from 94 forest stands in Belgium, which are part of a diversification gradient with a supposedly related increasing host diversity: from pine stands without to oak stands with a shrub layer. We expected changing tree species and forest structure to increase host diversity and decrease NIP. In contrast with the DEH, NIP did not differ between different forest types. Genospecies diversity however, and presumably also host diversity, was higher in oak than in pine stands. Infected nymphs tended to harbour Borrelia afzelii infection more often in pine stands while Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi ss. infection appeared to be more prevalent in oak stands. This has important health consequences, since the latter two cause more severe disease manifestations. We show that the DEH must be nuanced for Europe and should consider the response of multiple pathogenic genospecies.
Radius stabilization and dark matter with a bulk Higgs in warped extra dimension
Ahmed, A.; Grzadkowski, B.; Gunion, J. F.; Jiang, Y.
2015-01-01
In this study, we employ an SU(2) bulk Higgs doublet as the stabilization field in the Randall–Sundrum model with appropriate bulk and brane-localized potentials. The gauge hierarchy problem can be solved for an exponentially IR-localized Higgs background field with mild values of fundamental parameters of the 5D theory. We consider an IR–UV–IR background geometry with the 5D SM fields in the bulk such that all the fields have even and odd towers of KK-modes. The zero-mode 4D effective theory contains all the SM fields plus a stable scalar, which serves as a dark matter candidate.
Equientangled bases in arbitrary dimensions
Karimipour, V.; Memarzadeh, L.
2006-01-15
For the space of two identical systems of arbitrary dimensions, we introduce a continuous family of bases with the following properties: (i) the bases are orthonormal (ii) in each basis, all the states have the same values of entanglement, and (iii) they continuously interpolate between the product basis and the maximally entangled basis. The states thus constructed may find applications in many areas related to the quantum information science including quantum cryptography, optimal Bell tests, and the investigation of the enhancement of channel capacity due to entanglement.
The EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luca, A.; Tiengo, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Watson, M.; Haberl, F.; Wilms, J.
2016-06-01
The EXTraS project is extracting the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by XMM-Newton/EPIC since its launch. This includes a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources, spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results, together with new analysis tools, will be made available to the community in an easy-to-use form at the end of 2016, with prospects of extending the analysis to future data. EXTraS products will have a very broad range of applications, from the search for rare events to population studies, with a large impact in almost all fields of astrophysics. This will boost the scientific exploitation of XMM data and make EPIC the reference for time-domain astronomy in the soft X-rays. The EXTraS project (2014-2016), funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).
Unveiling long-term variability in XMM-Newton surveys within the EXTraS project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, S.; Read, A.; Law-Green, D.; Watson, M.; Pye, J.; O'Brien, P.
2016-06-01
The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray transient and variable sky) is an EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework programme that aims to bring together a diverse set of time-domain analyses of XMM-Newton X-ray data and make them available to the public in a coherent manner. Through a combination of pointed observations and slew scans, XMM-Newton has repeatedly observed many regions of the sky, in a few cases up to ˜50 times, ˜70000 sources being observed more than once. While non-uniformly spaced and often sparse, these snapshots provide scientifically valuable information on the photometric behaviour of sources on longer term (hours to ˜ a decade) timescales. Here we describe the collation of XMM-Newton data for long-term variability from the 3XMM-DR5 catalogue, the slew survey and upper-limit information from the associated XMM-Newton products, and the analysis being performed on the ensuing light curves. We also present emerging examples of some newly identified long-term variable sources to highlight the value of this element of the EXTraS project. These longer baseline light curves can (i) unveil variable sources that appear stable in individual observations, (ii) reveal exotic and transient sources and (iii) complement short-term variability information from elsewhere in the EXTraS project by probing slower physical phenomena.
Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.
Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant
2016-01-01
Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.
Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Apollo Spacesuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Kenneth S.
2016-01-01
Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Apollo Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) spacesuits, which supported launch and reentry and extra-vehicular activity. This program was NASA's first attempt to develop a new suit design from requirements and concepts. Mr. Thomas will chronicle the challenges, developments, struggles, and solutions that culminated in the system that allowed the first human exploration of the Moon and deep space (outside low-Earth orbit). Apollo pressure suit designs allowed the heroic repair of the Skylab space station and supported the first U.S. and Russian spacecraft docking during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Mr. Thomas will also discuss the IEVA suits' successes and challenges associated with the IEVA developments of the 1960s.
The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.
Drake, Frank
2011-02-13
Modern history of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is reviewed. The history of radio searches is discussed, as well as the major advances that have occurred in radio searches and prospects for new instruments and search strategies. Recent recognition that searches for optical and infrared signals make sense, and the reasons for this are described, as well as the equipment and special detection methods used in optical searches. The long-range future of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed in the context of the history of rapid change, on the cosmic and even the human time scale, of the paradigms guiding SETI searches. This suggests that SETI searches be conducted with a very open mind. PMID:21220287
Vitamin D and extra-skeletal health: causality or consequence.
Al Nozha, Omar M
2016-07-01
Vitamin D deficiency /insufficiency is widely recognized as a global health problem that is likely to be involved in pathogenesis or progression of many acute and chronic health disorders. Its relation to skeletal health has been clearly demonstrated and thoroughly examined. This review aims to highlight the continuous debate about the relation between vitamin D and extra-skeletal health and whether it is a causality or just an association. Overall, the available evidence does not meet the criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships because of the limitations of observational studies to corroborate the causality due to many potential confounders. Moreover, the causal relationship couldn't be established in randomized studies or in many meta-analyses. This may reflect the fact that vitamin D level reduction is just a biomarker of ill health. The inflammatory processes involved in the disease occurrence and the functional limitations of the diseases would have a role in reducing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D "25 (OH) D" level, which would explain why low vitamin D is reported in a wide range of disorders. This may underscore the possibility of harm instead of benefit of vitamin D supplementation when its exact role is not fully established, thus many guidelines and interest groups are still hesitant toward recommending replacement in extra-skeletal disease. Future directions entails the need for a large well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) to resolve the active debate on the benefits of vitamin D replacement for extra-skeletal disease, and not only that, future studies should establish specific, clinically relevant effects of vitamin D repletion, provide cut-values for optimal serum levels of 25 (OH) D, and appropriate doses for non-skeletal health benefits.
Vitamin D and extra-skeletal health: causality or consequence
Al Nozha, Omar M.
2016-01-01
Vitamin D deficiency /insufficiency is widely recognized as a global health problem that is likely to be involved in pathogenesis or progression of many acute and chronic health disorders. Its relation to skeletal health has been clearly demonstrated and thoroughly examined. This review aims to highlight the continuous debate about the relation between vitamin D and extra-skeletal health and whether it is a causality or just an association. Overall, the available evidence does not meet the criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships because of the limitations of observational studies to corroborate the causality due to many potential confounders. Moreover, the causal relationship couldn’t be established in randomized studies or in many meta-analyses. This may reflect the fact that vitamin D level reduction is just a biomarker of ill health. The inflammatory processes involved in the disease occurrence and the functional limitations of the diseases would have a role in reducing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D “25 (OH) D” level, which would explain why low vitamin D is reported in a wide range of disorders. This may underscore the possibility of harm instead of benefit of vitamin D supplementation when its exact role is not fully established, thus many guidelines and interest groups are still hesitant toward recommending replacement in extra-skeletal disease. Future directions entails the need for a large well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) to resolve the active debate on the benefits of vitamin D replacement for extra-skeletal disease, and not only that, future studies should establish specific, clinically relevant effects of vitamin D repletion, provide cut-values for optimal serum levels of 25 (OH) D, and appropriate doses for non-skeletal health benefits. PMID:27610068
Vitamin D and extra-skeletal health: causality or consequence.
Al Nozha, Omar M
2016-07-01
Vitamin D deficiency /insufficiency is widely recognized as a global health problem that is likely to be involved in pathogenesis or progression of many acute and chronic health disorders. Its relation to skeletal health has been clearly demonstrated and thoroughly examined. This review aims to highlight the continuous debate about the relation between vitamin D and extra-skeletal health and whether it is a causality or just an association. Overall, the available evidence does not meet the criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships because of the limitations of observational studies to corroborate the causality due to many potential confounders. Moreover, the causal relationship couldn't be established in randomized studies or in many meta-analyses. This may reflect the fact that vitamin D level reduction is just a biomarker of ill health. The inflammatory processes involved in the disease occurrence and the functional limitations of the diseases would have a role in reducing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D "25 (OH) D" level, which would explain why low vitamin D is reported in a wide range of disorders. This may underscore the possibility of harm instead of benefit of vitamin D supplementation when its exact role is not fully established, thus many guidelines and interest groups are still hesitant toward recommending replacement in extra-skeletal disease. Future directions entails the need for a large well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) to resolve the active debate on the benefits of vitamin D replacement for extra-skeletal disease, and not only that, future studies should establish specific, clinically relevant effects of vitamin D repletion, provide cut-values for optimal serum levels of 25 (OH) D, and appropriate doses for non-skeletal health benefits. PMID:27610068
Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Pemberton, J.
1987-01-01
Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has proved to be a revolutionary advance in the treatment of renal stone disease. It, itself, is non-invasive but may necessitate or be used as an adjunct to more invasive auxiliary procedures. The basic principles of lithotripsy, the clinical experience thus far and probable future applications are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3330235
Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
2013-01-01
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...
19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...
19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...
19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...
19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...
Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation
Kohri, Kazunori; Matsuda, Tomohiro E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp
2015-02-01
At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may alter the time-dependence of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is possible to remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to 0N{sub e}∼ 6, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of ± 0.01 without adding significant contribution to the spectral index. The corrections to the spectral index (and the amplitude) could be important in considering global behavior of the corrected spectrum, although they can be neglected in the estimation of the spectrum and its spectral index at the pivot scale. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be due to such fields, can be used to nullify tension between BICEP2 and Planck experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Jiménez, I.; Novales-Sánchez, H.; Toscano, J. J.
2016-05-01
One-loop Standard Model observables produced by virtual heavy Kaluza-Klein fields play a prominent role in the minimal model of universal extra dimensions. Motivated by this aspect, we integrate out all the Kaluza-Klein heavy modes coming from the Yang-Mills theory set on a spacetime with an arbitrary number, n , of compact extra dimensions. After fixing the gauge with respect to the Kaluza-Klein heavy gauge modes in a covariant manner, we calculate a gauge-independent effective Lagrangian expansion containing multiple Kaluza-Klein sums that entail a bad divergent behavior. We use the Epstein-zeta function to regularize and characterize discrete divergences within such multiple sums, and then we discuss the interplay between the number of extra dimensions and the degree of accuracy of effective Lagrangians to generate or not divergent terms of discrete origin. We find that nonrenormalizable terms with mass dimension k are finite as long as k >4 +n . Multiple Kaluza-Klein sums of nondecoupling logarithmic terms, not treatable by Epstein-zeta regularization, are produced by four-dimensional momentum integration. On the grounds of standard renormalization, we argue that such effects are unobservable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wunderlich, Richard A.
1985-01-01
In response to research questioning the utility of the Jesness Inventory in predicting and differentiating delinquency, this study isolated the personality dimensions of 422 adjudicated, noninstitutionalized adolescents by item level factor analysis. The resulting three factors--Mistrust, Social Pessimism, and Hypersensitivity--were compared with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, Paul
2012-01-01
The first word of this item is "imagine". This instruction has the potential to signal a journey through a world of geometry that might leave you spellbound. On the other hand, it could be the start of a roller-coaster ride through three dimensions that will tax both your imagination, and your powers of visualisation. It is likely that you will…
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Overmier, Mary; And Others
After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…
46 CFR Sec. 8 - Extra work and changes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extra work and changes. Sec. 8 Section 8 Shipping... Sec. 8 Extra work and changes. (a) At any time after the award of an original job order and during the time the work thereunder is being performed, additional or extra work or changes in the work covered...
46 CFR Sec. 8 - Extra work and changes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extra work and changes. Sec. 8 Section 8 Shipping... Sec. 8 Extra work and changes. (a) At any time after the award of an original job order and during the time the work thereunder is being performed, additional or extra work or changes in the work covered...
750 GeV diphoton resonance as a singlet scalar in an extra dimensional model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Chengfeng; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Zhang, Hong-Hao
2016-04-01
We interpret the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently found in the 13 TeV LHC data as a singlet scalar in an extra dimensional model, where one extra dimension is introduced. In the model, the scalar couples to multiple vectorlike fermions, which are just the Kaluza-Klein modes of SM fermions. Mediated by the loops of these vectorlike fermions, the ϕ effective couplings to gluons and photons can be significantly large. Therefore, it is quite easy to obtain an observed cross section for the diphoton excess. We also calculate the cross sections for other decay channels of ϕ , and find that this interpretation can evade the bounds from the 8 TeV LHC data.
Tensor sufficient dimension reduction
Zhong, Wenxuan; Xing, Xin; Suslick, Kenneth
2015-01-01
Tensor is a multiway array. With the rapid development of science and technology in the past decades, large amount of tensor observations are routinely collected, processed, and stored in many scientific researches and commercial activities nowadays. The colorimetric sensor array (CSA) data is such an example. Driven by the need to address data analysis challenges that arise in CSA data, we propose a tensor dimension reduction model, a model assuming the nonlinear dependence between a response and a projection of all the tensor predictors. The tensor dimension reduction models are estimated in a sequential iterative fashion. The proposed method is applied to a CSA data collected for 150 pathogenic bacteria coming from 10 bacterial species and 14 bacteria from one control species. Empirical performance demonstrates that our proposed method can greatly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the CSA technique. PMID:26594304
Cultural dimensions of learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyford, Glen A.
1990-06-01
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
Laryngeal Leishmaniasis with Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis.
Tayal, Swati; Khatiwada, Saurav; Sehrawat, Priyanka; Nischal, Neeraj; Jorwal, Pankaj; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, M C; Sharma, S K; Verma, Pankaj; Singh, Anup
2015-09-01
Clinical presentations of Leishmania infection include visceral (most common form), cutaneous, mucocutaneous, mucosal and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Mucosal form of leishmaniasis mostly involves oral and nasal mucosa. Rarely, laryngeal and pharyngeal mucosa may also be involved. Its concomitant presence with tuberculosis (TB), a disease rampant in India, is uncommon. Here we are reporting a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis associated with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), with approach to diagnosis and treatment in a tropical resource-limited setting. PMID:27608871
Direct imaging of extra-solar planets
Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.
1997-03-01
Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.
Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.
Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L
2015-02-01
Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ∼130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used.
Spectral Dimension of a Percolation Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudra, Jayanta
2005-03-01
While the fractal dimension df describes the self-similar static nature of the lattice, the spectral dimension ds dictates the dynamic properties on it. Alexander and Orbach^1 conjectured that the spectral dimension might be exactly 4/3 for percolation networks with embedding euclidian dimension de >= 2. Recent numerical simulations^2, however, could not decisively prove or disprove this conjecture, although there are other indirect evidences that it is true. We believe that the failure of the simulations to decisively check the validity of the conjecture is due to the non-stochastic nature of the methods. Most of these simulations are Monte Carlo Methods based on a random-walk model and, in spite of very large number of walks on huge lattices, the results do not reach the satisfactory level. In this work we apply a stochastic approach^3 to determine the spectral dimension of percolation network for de >= 2 and check the validity of the Alexander-Orbach-conjecture. Due to its stochastic nature this method is numerically superior and more accurate than the conventional Monte Carlo simulations. References: 1. S. Alexander and R. Orbach, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 43 (1982) L625. 2. N. Pitsianis, G. Bleris and P. Argyrakis, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 7097. 3. J. Rudra and J. Kozak, Phys. Lett A 151 (1990) 429.
The Extra-Zodiacal Explorer (EZE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, S. W.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Kruk, J. W.; Thronson, H. A.
2012-01-01
We describe a mission architecture study designed to substantially increase the potential science performance of the NASA SMD Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO offerors working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to an extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to 10X increased photometric sensitivity and 150X increased observing speed relative to a Sun-Earth L2 or Earth-trailing orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has applicability to SMD Planetary competed missions and aligns with NASA in-space propulsion technology road map objectives and associated flight demonstration planning.
Extra Pay for Extra Duties of Teachers, 1974-75. ERS Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stieber, Gertrude N.
This report presents a system-by-system listing of extra pay for athletic and nonathletic extracurricular teacher activities. The data is drawn from the information supplied in connection with the Educational Research Service "National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 1974-75." Table 1 shows the number of school systems reporting…
The EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiengo, Andrea
Modern soft X-ray observatories can yield unique insights into time domain astrophysics. Indeed, a huge amount of information is stored - and largely unexploited - in data archives. The EXTraS project will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton mission in more than 13 yr of observations. This will include a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodical and aperiodical) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale (from <1 s to >10 yr) and six orders of magnitude in flux (from 10(-9) to 10(-15) erg cm(-2) s(-1) in 0.2-12 keV). X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of all previously undetected sources. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results will be made available to the community in a public catalogue, together with new analysis tools. The EXTraS project, funded within the EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).
Unveiling long-term variability in XMM-Newton surveys: the EXTraS project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, S.; Read, A.; De Luca, A.; EXTraS Collaboration
2014-07-01
The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue, the XMM-Newton Slew Survey (XSS) and the associated XMM-Newton EPIC data, are extensive resources for exploring high energy, time-domain astrophysics. Amongst these data are potential, hitherto unidentified variable sources, ranging from short duration (~seconds) transients through to objects varying on timescales of years. Variability signatures can be key to understanding the energetics and physical processes in a diverse range of astrophysical settings. The EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework project, `Exploring the X-ray transient and variable sky' (EXTraS), aims to exploit these XMM-Newton resources to explore, as fully as possible, the range of X-ray variability present and provide the results to the community through a public database. Here we outline one of the project's core aims, i.e. identifying and characterising long-term (days to years) variability. The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue contains ˜67000 sources with multiple detections. 3XMM, in conjunction with the XSS, which has now covered almost 70% of the sky, often with multiple slews, offers excellent scope for identifying new variable objects by tracking their flux between XMM-Newton observations. We discuss the plans for the EXTraS long-term variability catalogue and highlight some examples of the detection of long-term variability in 3XMM-DR4/XSS data.
Accelerated Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson metric in D dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gürses, Metin; Sarıoğlu, Özgür
2005-12-01
A conformally flat accelerated charge metric is found in an arbitrary dimension D. It is a solution of the Einstein-Maxwell-null fluid equations with a cosmological constant in D ≥ 4 dimensions. When the acceleration is zero, our solution reduces to the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson metric. We show that the charge loses its energy, for all dimensions, due to the acceleration.
Bond percolation in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corwin, Eric I.; Stinchcombe, Robin; Thorpe, M. F.
2013-07-01
We collect results for bond percolation on various lattices from two to fourteen dimensions that, in the limit of large dimension d or number of neighbors z, smoothly approach a randomly diluted Erdős-Rényi graph. We include results on bond-diluted hypersphere packs in up to nine dimensions, which show the mean coordination, excess kurtosis, and skewness evolving smoothly with dimension towards the Erdős-Rényi limit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khan, Badrul H.
2002-01-01
Considers factors that must be weighed in creating effective electronic learning environments and presents a basic framework for Web-based or electronic learning. Highlights include the institutional dimension; the pedagogical dimension; technological dimension; interface design; evaluation; management; resource support; and ethical…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, Manu; Bardon, Thibaut
2012-11-01
It has long been proposed that insect flight might have evolved on a fluid interface. Surface of a pond provides an ecological niche which is exploited by a large number of species capable of locomotion on a fluid interface. Here we describe the discovery of constrained flight in two dimensions as a novel mode of locomotion used by water lily beetles (genus Galerucella). Because water lily beetles are also capable of three-dimensional free flight, this novel two-dimensional locomotion provides us with a unique model system to explore both the transition between two and three dimensional flight and the associated energetics. Here we present a comparative analysis of this transition in terms of wing stroke angles associated with two and three dimensional flight, as well as modeling surface tension forces on both the horizontal and vertical axes. Special attention is paid to the dynamics and energetics of flight in two-dimensions, focusing on the interaction of the wing strokes with the fluid interface and the capillary-gravity wave drag associated with two-dimensional propulsion. Current Address: Ecole Polytechnique, France.
Supergravity in twelve dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Kang-Sin
2015-09-01
We consider supergravity in twelve dimension, whose dimensional reduction yields eleven-dimensional, IIA, and IIB supergravities. This also provides the effective field theory of F-theory. We must take one direction as a compact circle, so that the Poincaré symmetry and the zero-mode field contents are identical to those of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We also have a tower of massive Kaluza-Klein states to be viewed as the wrapping modes of M2-branes. The twelfth dimension decompactifies only if other two directions are compactified on a torus, restoring different ten dimensional Poincaré symmetry of IIB supergravity, whose missing graviton is provided by components of the rank three tensor field. This condition prevents us from violating the condition on the maximal number of real supercharges, which should be thirty-two. The self-duality condition of the IIB four-form fields is understood from twelve-dimensional Hodge duality. In this framework T-duality is re-interpreted as taking different compactification routes.
Robust frameless stereotactic localization in extra-cranial radiotherapy
Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Spadea, Maria Francesca; Bassanini, Fabio; Tagaste, Barbara; Garibaldi, Cristina; Orecchia, Roberto; Pedotti, Antonio
2006-04-15
In the field of extra-cranial radiotherapy, several inaccuracies can make the application of frameless stereotactic localization techniques error-prone. When optical tracking systems based on surface fiducials are used, inter- and intra-fractional uncertainties in marker three-dimensional (3D) detection may lead to inexact tumor position estimation, resulting in erroneous patient setup. This is due to the fact that external fiducials misdetection results in deformation effects that are poorly handled in a rigid-body approach. In this work, the performance of two frameless stereotactic localization algorithms for 3D tumor position reconstruction in extra-cranial radiotherapy has been specifically tested. Two strategies, unweighted versus weighted, for stereotactic tumor localization were examined by exploiting data coming from 46 patients treated for extra-cranial lesions. Measured isocenter displacements and rotations were combined to define isocentric procedures, featuring 6 degrees of freedom, for correcting patient alignment (isocentric positioning correction). The sensitivity of the algorithms to uncertainties in the 3D localization of fiducials was investigated by means of 184 numerical simulations. The performance of the implemented isocentric positioning correction was compared to conventional point-based registration. The isocentric positioning correction algorithm was tested on a clinical dataset of inter-fractional and intra-fractional setup errors, which was collected by means of an optical tracker on the same group of patients. The weighted strategy exhibited a lower sensitivity to fiducial localization errors in simulated misalignments than those of the unweighted strategy. Isocenter 3D displacements provided by the weighted strategy were consistently smaller than those featured by the unweighted strategy. The peak decrease in median and quartile values of isocenter 3D displacements were 1.4 and 2.7 mm, respectively. Concerning clinical data, the
Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider: testing critical string theory.
Hewett, JoAnne L; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G
2005-12-31
We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With approximately 20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, . In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.
Hinojosa, Carlos A.; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E.; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Lizola, Rene; Torres-Machorro, Adriana
2016-01-01
The aortic bifurcation and iliac vessels are common sites of atherosclerotic occlusive disease causing the clinical expression known as “Leriche’s syndrome”. An aortobifemoral bypass grafting in the setting of a septic groin remains a significant challenge to vascular surgeons. We present a 65-year-old male with complete occlusion of the distal aorta and iliac arteries; he had undergone a left axillo-femoral and femoral-femoral artery bypass 2 years prior to our evaluation. Owing to a complex graft infection in the right groin and worsening lower extremity ischemia, we performed an aortobifemoral reconstruction through the right obturator membrane. This report highlights the safety and efficacy of the obturator bypass for avoiding infected groins while preserving vascular continuity and durability with 78 months of secondary patency rate. PMID:27386453
Priming the Holiday Spirit: Persistent Activation due to Extra-Experimental Experiences
Coane, Jennifer H.; Balota, David A.
2010-01-01
The concept of activation is a critical component of many models of cognition. A key characteristic of activation is that recent experience with a concept or stimulus increases the accessibility of the corresponding representation. The extent to which increases in accessibility occur as a result of experiences outside of laboratory settings has not been extensively explored. In the present study, we presented lexical stimuli associated to different holidays and festivities over the course of a year in a lexical decision task. When stimulus meaning and time of testing were congruent (e.g., leprechaun in March), response times were faster and accuracy greater than when meaning and time of test were incongruent (e.g., leprechaun in November). Congruency also benefited performance on a surprise free recall task of the items presented earlier in the lexical decision task. Discussion focuses on potential theoretical accounts of this heightened accessibility of time-of-the-year relevant concepts. PMID:19966266
Extra echo spaces: ultrasonography and computerised tomography correlations.
Wada, T; Honda, M; Matsuyama, S
1982-01-01
Among the echocardiograms of 844 patients of the International Goodwill Hospital from January 1980 to April 1981, 700 showed clinically inexplicable extra echo spaces. Fifty of the 700 had computerised tomography of their hearts which showed the extra echo spaces to be caused either by anterior or posterior subepicardial fat. Six of the 50 cases had both fat and pericardial effusions, which are difficult to differentiate echocardiographically unless follow-up clinical observations are performed. Subepicardial fat deposits are reasonable explanations for the extra echo spaces frequently observed by echocardiography: they correlate well with clinical findings. Subepicardial fat should be recognised as the cause of such extra echo spaces. Images PMID:7073903
Action languages: Dimensions, effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon
1989-01-01
Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.
Science with the EXTraS Project: Exploring the X-Ray Transient and Variable Sky
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luca, A.; Salvaterra, R.; Tiengo, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Watson, M. G.; Haberl, F.; Wilms, J.
The EXTraS project ("Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky") will characterise the temporal behaviour of the largest ever sample of objects in the soft X-ray range (0.1-12 keV) with a complex, systematic and consistent analysis of all data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. We will search for, and characterize variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. We will also search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis. Our analysis will be completed by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries and phenomenological classification of variable sources. All results and products will be made available to the community in a public archive, serving as a reference for a broad range of astrophysical investigations.
Box-covering algorithm for fractal dimension of weighted networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Dai-Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hai-Xin; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran
2013-10-01
Box-covering algorithm is a widely used method to measure the fractal dimension of complex networks. Existing researches mainly deal with the fractal dimension of unweighted networks. Here, the classical box covering algorithm is modified to deal with the fractal dimension of weighted networks. Box size length is obtained by accumulating the distance between two nodes connected directly and graph-coloring algorithm is based on the node strength. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of the ``Sierpinski'' weighted fractal networks, the E.coli network, the Scientific collaboration network, the C.elegans network and the USAir97 network. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks. We find that the fractal property is influenced by the edge-weight in weighted networks. The possible variation of fractal dimension due to changes in edge-weights of weighted networks is also discussed.
Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck.
Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin S; Dharia, Tejas P; Polnaya, Ashwin M
2012-10-01
Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR) procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN) has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches. PMID:23833428
Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction
Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin
2015-01-01
Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females’ alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females’ within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases. PMID:25346331
[Extra-thoracic solitary fibrous tumor. Report of 2 cases].
Trabelsi, Amel; Mestiri, Sarra; Mokni, Moncef; Stita, Wided; Ikram, Bellara; Sriha, Badreddine; Korbi, Sadok
2006-09-01
The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), is an unusual entity, first described in the pleura, but can involve other serosal surfaces and viscera. We report two cases of extra-thoracic SFT involving the retro-peritoneum and the upper arm. Extra-thoracic TFS is a rarily wide morphologic and evolutive spectrum.
7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of..., scab, freezing injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury... rubs, hail, drought spots, scars, disease, insects, or other means. The apples are free from...
7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more than one variety is printed on... apples are also free from injury caused by bruises, brown surface discoloration, smooth...
7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of..., scab, freezing injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury... rubs, hail, drought spots, scars, disease, insects, or other means. The apples are free from...
7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more than one variety is printed on... apples are also free from injury caused by bruises, brown surface discoloration, smooth...
23 CFR 635.120 - Changes and extra work.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes and extra work. 635.120 Section 635.120 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.120 Changes and extra work. (a) Following authorization... work shall have formal approval by the Division Administrator in advance of their effective...
23 CFR 635.120 - Changes and extra work.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes and extra work. 635.120 Section 635.120 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.120 Changes and extra work. (a) Following authorization... work shall have formal approval by the Division Administrator in advance of their effective...
Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction.
Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin
2015-01-01
Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females' alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females' within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases.
Extra cellular matrix features in human meninges.
Montagnani, S; Castaldo, C; Di Meglio, F; Sciorio, S; Giordano-Lanza, G
2000-01-01
We collected human fetal and adult normal meninges to relate the age of the tissue with the presence of collagenous and non-collagenous components of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). Immunohistochemistry led us to observe some differences in the amount and in the distribution of these proteins between the two sets of specimens. In particular, laminin and tenascin seem to be expressed more intensely in fetal meninges when compared to adult ones. In order to investigate whether the morphofunctional characteristics of fetal meninges may be represented in pathological conditions we also studied meningeal specimens from human meningiomas. Our attention was particularly focused on the expression of those non-collagenous proteins involved in nervous cell migration and neuronal morphogenesis as laminin and tenascin, which were present in lesser amount in normal adult specimens. Microscopical evidences led us to hipothesize that these proteins which are synthesized in a good amount during the fetal development of meninges can be newly produced in tumors. On the contrary, the role of tenascin and laminin in adult meninges is probably only interesting for their biophysical characteristics.
Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.
Black, M
1998-01-01
It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.
The Role of Extra-Anatomic Bypass in the Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion
Ilhan, Gokhan; Bozok, Şahin; Ergene, Şaban; Karakisi, Sedat Ozan; Tufekci, Nebiye; Kazdal, Hızır; Ogullar, Sabri; Kucuker, Seref Alp
2015-01-01
Background Aortic occlusion is rare catastophic pathology with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity. In this study, we aimed to share our experience in the management of aortic occlusion and to assess the outcomes of extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Methods Eighteen patients who had undergone extra-anatomic bypass interventions in the cardiovascular surgery department of our tertiary care center between July 2009 and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were preoperatively assessed with angiograms (conventional, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance angiography) and Doppler ultrasonography. Operations consisted of bilateral femoral thromboembolectomy, axillobifemoral extra-anatomic bypass and femoropopliteal bypass and were performed on an emergency basis. Results In all patients during early postoperative period successful revascularization outcomes were obtained; however, one of these operated patients died on the 10th postoperative due to multiorgan failure. The patients were followed up for a mean duration of 21.2±9.4 months (range, 6 to 36 months). Amputation was not warranted for any patient during postoperative follow-up. Conclusion To conclude, acute aortic occlusion is a rare but devastating event and is linked with substantial morbidity and mortality in spite of the recent advances in critical care and vascular surgery. Our results have shown that these hazardous outcomes may be minimized and better rates of graft patency may be achieved with extra-anatomic bypass techniques tailored according to the patient. PMID:26078925
The Influence of Referee Bias on Extra Time in Elite Soccer Matches.
Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Gómez-López, Maite
2016-04-01
Referees have discretion over the addition of extra time at the end of the soccer game to compensate for lost time due to unusual stoppages. This study assesses if referees favor big teams by shortening close games where the big team is ahead and lengthening close games where the big team is behind. The sample comprises all 380 matches in the Spanish La Liga during the 2014-2015 season. The dependent variable was the extra time the referee decides to add to the second half. The independent variables were the score difference, opponent team's level of play, yellow cards, red cards, player substitutions, average attendance, and fouls committed. Linear regression analysis suggested that the greater the score difference between teams, the less extra time was added by the referee. However, in close games, referees tended to add more time for a higher level team when they were behind and add less time when they were ahead. Red cards and the number of fouls committed increased the extra time.
Dimensions of systems biology.
Huang, S; Wikswo, J
2006-01-01
Systems biology, possibly the latest sub-discipline of biology, has arisen as a result of the shockwave of genomic and proteomic data that has appeared in the past few years. However, despite ubiquitous initiatives that carry this label, there is no precise definition of systems biology other than the implication of a new, all-encompassing, multidisciplinary endeavor. Here we propose that systems biology is more than the integration of biology with methods of the physical and computational sciences, and also more than the expansion of the single-pathway approach to embracing genome-scale networks. It is the discipline that specifically addresses the fundamental properties of the complexity that living systems represent. To facilitate the discussion, we dissect and project the multifaceted systems complexity of living organisms into five dimensions: (1) molecular complexity; (2) structural complexity; (3) temporal complexity; (4) abstraction and emergence; and (5) algorithmic complexity. This "five-dimensional space" may provide a framework for comparing, classifying, and complementing the vast diversity of existing systems biology programs and their goals, and will also give a glimpse of the magnitude of the scientific problems associated with unraveling the ultimate mysteries of life.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.
2013-01-01
With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.
2013-01-01
With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case
Anomalous dimensions of conformal baryons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-10-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three-color theory as functions of the number of massless flavors within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the δ expansion, for a wide range of number of flavors. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.
Exterior dimension of fat fractals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.
1985-01-01
Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.
Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.
Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.
Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, George C.
Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…
Dimensions of Organizational Task Environments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dess, Gregory G.; Beard, Donald W.
1984-01-01
Reducing Aldrich's codification of organizational task environments from six to three dimensions--munificence (capacity), complexity (homogeneity-heterogeneity, concentration-dispersion), and dynamism (stability-instability, turbulence), the authors use interim and factor analytical techniques to explore each dimension's viability and draw…
Dimensions of temperament: an analysis.
Lorr, M; Stefic, E C
1976-01-01
The TDOT recast into a single stimulus format was administered to 150 college Ss. A factor analysis of the items followed by an analysis of item clusters that define each factor indicated the presence of 14 dimensions. Of the 10 bipolar scales of the TDOT, 3 were confirmed as independent dimensions, and 5 were confirmed in part or split into unipolar factors.
Living well to the end: A phenomenological analysis of life in extra care housing
Shaw, Rachel L.; West, Karen; Hagger, Barbara; Holland, Carol A.
2016-01-01
Objectives To understand older adults’ experiences of moving into extra care housing which offers enrichment activities alongside social and healthcare support. Design A longitudinal study was conducted which adopted a phenomenological approach to data generation and analysis. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the first 18 months of living in extra care housing. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used because its commitment to idiography enabled an in-depth analysis of the subjective lived experience of moving into extra care housing. Themes generated inductively were examined against an existential–phenomenological theory of well-being. Results Learning to live in an extra care community showed negotiating new relationships was not straightforward; maintaining friendships outside the community became more difficult as capacity declined. In springboard for opportunity/confinement, living in extra care provided new opportunities for social engagement and a restored sense of self. Over time horizons began to shrink as incapacities grew. Seeking care illustrated reticence to seek care, due to embarrassment and a sense of duty to one's partner. Becoming aged presented an ontological challenge. Nevertheless, some showed a readiness for death, a sense of homecoming. Conclusions An authentic later life was possible but residents required emotional and social support to live through the transition and challenges of becoming aged. Enhancement activities boosted residents’ quality of life but the range of activities could be extended to cater better for quieter, smaller scale events within the community; volunteer activity facilitators could be used here. Peer mentoring may help build new relationships and opportunities for interactive stimulation. Acknowledging the importance of feeling—empathic imagination—in caregiving may help staff and residents relate better to each other, thus helping individuals to become ontologically secure
Hogg, J; Evans, P L
1975-05-01
The use of discrimination learning paradigms in the study of attentional transfer is discussed. The technique of go/no-go discrimination learning followed by stimulus generalization testing is contrasted with the more familiar simultaneous learning paradigm followed by a shift in the relevant cues. In the former paradigm the effect of training a discrimination on one dimension on the slope of the stimulus generalization gradient on an independent gradient dimension (extra-dimensional training) is assessed. A steepening of the gradient relative to appropriate control procedures is taken as evidence of positive attentional transfer. The relevance of the technique to the detailed study of attentional transfer in educationally subnormal (severely) (ESN(S)) children is considered. In Expt. I nine ESN(S) children were trained in a go/no-go discrimination involving stimuli differing in orientation, and were generalization tested on a dimension that was orthogonal, namely hue. Of the six subjects who learnt the discrimination five showed clear decremental gradients on the hue dimension. In contrast a Pseudo-Discrimination group (PD) of eight subjects matched to those in the TD group showed no gradients. These subjects were not trained in the orientation discrimination, but were reinforced for responding on 50 per cent of each of the S+ and S- stimulus presentations. They thus received equal exposure to, but no differential training on, the orientation dimension. An S+ only group of four subjects who received no exposure to the orientation stimuli showed no gradients when stimulus generalization testing on the hue continuum was carried out. The result is discussed in terms of transfer deriving from stimulus control by relational aspects of the stimuli; in terms of control by constant irrelevant stimuli; and in terms of the study of stimulus control in ESN(S) children. In Expt. II the influence of the codability of the colours on the location of the peak of the stimulus
Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Maio, Ilona Di; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese
2013-01-01
Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660
Extra-mammary findings on breast MRI: a pictorial review.
Karp, Norna L; Price, Elissa R; Wisner, Dorota J; Chang, C Belinda; Hylton, Nola M; Joe, Bonnie N
2015-01-01
Recent improvements in breast coil performance have made detection of extra-mammary findings increasingly common. Some of these findings have important clinical implications. The radiologist should be aware of the spectrum of extra-mammary pathologies found on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and be able to distinguish clinically significant findings from those that are inconsequential. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate various common and uncommon extra-mammary findings encountered while interpreting breast MRI and to detail appropriate management recommendations.
Bazerbachi, Fateh; Haffar, Samir; Garg, Sushil K; Lake, John R
2016-01-01
Background and aims: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health problem that afflicts almost 20 million individuals annually and causes acute liver injury in 3.5 million, with approximately 56 000 deaths. As with other viral hepatitides, extra-hepatic manifestations could represent an important aspect of this infection. The spectrum of these manifestations is still emerging. Acute pancreatitis and neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and other immune-mediated manifestations have been described. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the published literature of extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. Data sources: We searched the PubMed database using the MeSH term “hepatitis E” and each of the extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. No language or date restrictions were set in these searches. Searches retrieving articles with non-A, non-B hepatitis were excluded. Additional articles were identified through the reference lists of included articles. Results: Several extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection have been published. The temporal association between some extra-hepatic manifestations and HEV infection and the exclusion of other possible etiologies suggests that HEV infection could have caused some of them. According to the available data, HEV infection appears to be strongly associated with acute pancreatitis, neurological disorders (with primarily dominant peripheral nerve involvement, most commonly manifested as Guillain-Barré syndrome, followed by neuralgic amyotrophy), hematological diseases (hemolytic anemia due to glucose phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and severe thrombocytopenia), glomerulonephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. More data are needed to clarify whether an association exists with musculoskeletal or other immune-mediated manifestations. Conclusions: HEV infection should be considered in patients with acute pancreatitis
20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...
20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...
20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...
20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...
7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...
7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL
Mandal, P.; Anantha Ramakrishna, S.; Patil, Raj; Venu Gopal, Achanta
2013-12-14
An array of H-shaped subwavelength slits in a plasmonic film has a polarization dependent extra-ordinary transmission due to shape anisotropy. Non-overlapping extra-ordinary transmission bands for the orthogonal linear polarization states of the input light are used to demonstrate a polarization dependent color switch. The fabricated array of submicron sized H-slits on a gold film displayed two transmission bands for the linear x- and y-polarized light at visible (650–850 nm) and near-infra-red (1150–1450 nm) bands, respectively. The relative transmitted light in these two bands can be controlled by changing the linear polarization state of the input radiation from 0° to 90°.
Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.
Calvert, George T; Monument, Michael J; Burt, Randall W; Jones, Kevin B; Randall, R Lor
2012-01-01
Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.
Extra-Pair Mating and Evolution of Cooperative Neighbourhoods
Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jørgensen, Christian
2014-01-01
A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans. PMID:24987839
Cold start extra emissions as a function of engine stop time: Evolution over the last 10 years
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favez, Jean-Yves; Weilenmann, Martin; Stilli, Jan
Cars with catalysts show a significant increase in exhaust emissions at engine start. These extra emissions are expressed as the difference, over a particular driving cycle, between emissions generated when the vehicle is started and when the engine or the catalyst are stably warm. Experimental data, suitable for the assessment of cold start emissions, are usually available for completely cooled engines. Most results originate from tests at ambient temperature of 20-30 °C and with an engine stop time of at least 12 h. On the other hand, data including shorter stop times are very rare. The present work investigates the influence of exhaust emissions with shorter stop times, i.e. 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The main goal consists in the comparison of emissions exhausted by recent car models (Euro-4) against emissions assessed in the framework of a similar campaign 10 years ago (FAV1/Euro-1 vehicles). A short survey of the current extra emission estimation methods is presented in this paper. It is shown that some methods are not suited for providing correct estimations in all cases. We discuss the fact that different estimation methods can show either similar or completely different results depending on the evolution behaviour of the hot emissions. Due to new technologies, e.g. the catalyst and improved engine control algorithms, emissions have been considerably reduced over the last 10 years. In this study it is determined how the relative extra emissions, i.e. extra emissions relative to the extra emissions for the standard stop time of 12 h, expressed as a function of stop time have changed. We may claim with caution that for medium stop times of 0.5-4 h the average relative extra emissions of Euro-4 vehicles are well below the average of the relative extra emissions of Euro-1 vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saharian, Aram; Kotanjyan, Anna; Sargsyan, Hayk; Simonyan, David
2016-07-01
The models with compact spatial dimensions appear in a number of fundamental physical theories. In particular, the idea of compactified dimensions has been extensively used in supergravity and superstring theories. In quantum field theory, the modification of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum by the periodicity conditions imposed on the field operator along compact dimensions leads to a number of interesting physical effects. A well known example of this kind, demonstrating the close relation between quantum phenomena and global geometry, is the topological Casimir effect. In models with extra compact dimensions, the Casimir energy creates a nontrivial potential for the compactification radius. This can serve as a stabilization mechanism for moduli fields and for the effective gauge couplings. The Casimir effect has also been considered as a possible origin for the dark energy in Kaluza-Klein-type and braneworld models. In the resent presentation we investigate the effects of the gravity and topology on the local properties of the quantum vacuum for a charged scalar field in the presence of a classical gauge field. Vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and current density are investigated for a charged scalar field in dS spacetime with toroidally compact spatial dimensions in the presence of a classical constant gauge field. Due to the nontrivial topology, the latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effect on the vacuum characteristics. The vacuum current density, energy density and stresses are even periodic functions of the magnetic flux enclosed by compact dimensions. For small values of the comoving lengths of compact dimensions, compared with the dS curvature radius, the effects of gravity on the topological contributions are small and the expectation values are expressed in terms of the corresponding quantities in the Minkowski bulk by the standard conformal relation. For large values of the comoving lengths, depending on the field mass, two
Timbre Dimensions for Musical Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giese, Gregory Roy
This dissertation addresses the folowing question: Given the technologies to develop and implement any kind of sound generating and controlling device, what will the instrument designer, the composer, and the performer need to know in order to more fully utilize the dimensions of timbre in music and musical performance? This question is approached from the standpoint of music theory. Definitions of timbre and a few examples of related physical and perceptual research are reviewed. Included is a discussion of the essential elements of musical control and of intelligent organization of sound in music. This discussion raises more questions than can be answered simply. It is an attempt to unravel the nature of sound clues and sound qualities as they convey sound identities and musical gesture. A theoretical simplification of sound dimensions for musical use is proposed. Sounds which can be sustained indefinitely consist of steady-state acoustical dimensions. These dimensions rely upon the perceptual phenomenon of simultaneous fusion (synance). Sounds which can not be sustained indefinitely consist of transitions. Transitions may cause successive fusion (sonance). The discussion of steady-state and transition dimensions includes a review of a few informal experiments. This work reveals problems that will influence the musical use of timbre dimensions. It also leads to a theory for the organization and control of timbre dimensions in music. Among the timbre dimensions discussed are: spectral envelope, harmonic content, brightness, phase, inharmonicity, aperiodicity, and temporal transitions. Questions are raised regarding the perception of harmonic content. The effect of register on perception of tones consisting of from two to nine partials is explored and discussed. The size of interval between partials determines a unique quality. This is most apparent with tones consisting of only two or three partials (dions or trions).
Increasing the dimensions of metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurer, Wilhelm; Blaesing-Bangert, Carola; Paul, Hans-Helmut
1990-06-01
In any process that generates or measures pattern-placement (overlay), these parameters need to be regarded at least as two-dimensional. We show this on our procedure bringing a mask repeater under statistical process control SPC). In order to increase the accuracy of the overlay measurement process itself, plate bending has to be included as a third dimension. By taking the third dimension into account, the LMS 2000 Metrology System significantly reduces the maximum uncertainity of measurement results.
Broadband gold nanoantennas arrays with transverse dimension effects.
Su, Chen-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ping
2016-08-01
Broadband resonance in gold paired-rods nanoantennas and paired-strips gratings is investigated when the nanostructure's transverse (non-polarization) dimension is changed from paired-rods to paired-strips. Increasing the transverse dimension blue shifts the resonance wavelength and widens its bandwidth due to cancellation of the magnetic field between nanoantennas. A derived resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) equivalent circuit model verifies the nanostructures' resonance when elongating the transverse dimensions. Paired-strips gratings have a bandwidth 2.04 times that of paired-rods nanoantennas. PMID:27505744
Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction
Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter; van de Pol, Martijn
2015-01-01
One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females’ EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring
Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.
Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter
2015-07-01
One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within
Vibration-induced extra torque during electrically-evoked contractions of the human calf muscles
2010-01-01
Background High-frequency trains of electrical stimulation applied over the lower limb muscles can generate forces higher than would be expected from a peripheral mechanism (i.e. by direct activation of motor axons). This phenomenon is presumably originated within the central nervous system by synaptic input from Ia afferents to motoneurons and is consistent with the development of plateau potentials. The first objective of this work was to investigate if vibration (sinusoidal or random) applied to the Achilles tendon is also able to generate large magnitude extra torques in the triceps surae muscle group. The second objective was to verify if the extra torques that were found were accompanied by increases in motoneuron excitability. Methods Subjects (n = 6) were seated on a chair and the right foot was strapped to a pedal attached to a torque meter. The isometric ankle torque was measured in response to different patterns of coupled electrical (20-Hz, rectangular 1-ms pulses) and mechanical stimuli (either 100-Hz sinusoid or gaussian white noise) applied to the triceps surae muscle group. In an additional investigation, Mmax and F-waves were elicited at different times before or after the vibratory stimulation. Results The vibratory bursts could generate substantial self-sustained extra torques, either with or without the background 20-Hz electrical stimulation applied simultaneously with the vibration. The extra torque generation was accompanied by increased motoneuron excitability, since an increase in the peak-to-peak amplitude of soleus F waves was observed. The delivery of electrical stimulation following the vibration was essential to keep the maintained extra torques and increased F-waves. Conclusions These results show that vibratory stimuli applied with a background electrical stimulation generate considerable force levels (up to about 50% MVC) due to the spinal recruitment of motoneurons. The association of vibration and electrical stimulation could be
Trainlets: Dictionary Learning in High Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulam, Jeremias; Ophir, Boaz; Zibulevsky, Michael; Elad, Michael
2016-06-01
Sparse representations has shown to be a very powerful model for real world signals, and has enabled the development of applications with notable performance. Combined with the ability to learn a dictionary from signal examples, sparsity-inspired algorithms are often achieving state-of-the-art results in a wide variety of tasks. Yet, these methods have traditionally been restricted to small dimensions mainly due to the computational constraints that the dictionary learning problem entails. In the context of image processing, this implies handling small image patches. In this work we show how to efficiently handle bigger dimensions and go beyond the small patches in sparsity-based signal and image processing methods. We build our approach based on a new cropped wavelet decomposition, which enables a multi-scale analysis with virtually no border effects. We then employ this as the base dictionary within a double sparsity model to enable the training of adaptive dictionaries. To cope with the increase of training data, while at the same time improving the training performance, we present an Online Sparse Dictionary Learning (OSDL) algorithm to train this model effectively, enabling it to handle millions of examples. This work shows that dictionary learning can be up-scaled to tackle a new level of signal dimensions, obtaining large adaptable atoms that we call trainlets.
Fractal dimension of alumina aggregates grown in two dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larosa, Judith L.; Cawley, James D.
1992-01-01
The concepts of fractal geometry are applied to the analysis of 0.4-micron alumina constrained to agglomerate in two dimensions. Particles were trapped at the bottom surface of a drop of a dilute suspension, and the agglomeration process was directly observed, using an inverted optical microscope. Photographs were digitized and analyzed, using three distinct approaches. The results indicate that the agglomerates are fractal, having a dimension of approximately 1.5, which agrees well with the predictions of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model.
Force-balance model of suppression of multipolar division in cancer cells with extra centrosomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jie
2013-03-01
Cancer cells often possess extra centrosomes which have the potential to cause cell death due to catastrophic multipolar division. Many cancer cells, however, are able to escape multipolar mitosis by clustering the extra centrosomes to form bipolar spindles. The mechanism of centrosome clustering is therefore of great interest to the development of anti-cancer drugs because the de-clustering of extra centrosomes provides an appealing way to eliminate cancer cells while keeping healthy cells intact. We present a physical model assuming 1) dynamic centrosomal microtubules interact with chromosomes by both pushing on chromosome arms and pulling along kinetochores; 2) these microtubules interact with force generators associated with actin/adhesion structures at the cell boundary; and 3) motors act on anti-parallel microtubules from different centrosomes. We find via computer simulations that chromosomes tend to aggregate near the cell center while centrosomes can be either clustered to form bipolar spindles or scattered to form multipolar spindles, depending on the strengths of relative forces, cell shape and adhesion geometry. The model predictions agree with data from cells plated on adhesive micropatterns and from biochemically or genetically perturbed cells. Furthermore, our model is able to explain various microtubule distributions in interphase cells on patterned substrates. This work was supported by NSF
Upper bound on the gluino mass in supersymmetric models with extra matters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroi, Takeo; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yokozaki, Norimi
2016-09-01
We discuss the upper bound on the gluino mass in supersymmetric models with vector-like extra matters. In order to realize the observed Higgs mass of 125 GeV, the gluino mass is bounded from above in supersymmetric models. With the existence of the vector-like extra matters at around TeV, we show that such an upper bound on the gluino mass is significantly reduced compared to the case of minimal supersymmetric standard model. This is due to the fact that radiatively generated stop masses as well the stop trilinear coupling are enhanced in the presence of the vector-like multiplets. In a wide range of parameter space of the model with extra matters, particularly with sizable tan β (which is the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs bosons), the gluino is required to be lighter than ∼ 3 TeV, which is likely to be within the reach of forthcoming LHC experiment.
Dimension of fractal basin boundaries
Park, B.S.
1988-01-01
In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.
Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: a systematic review
2010-01-01
Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examined. We divided the reported adverse events into major (defined as those needing intervention or not disappearing) and minor ones (transient, not requiring intervention). Results The search yielded 87 relevant studies:44 case reports, 37 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies. The major adverse events included osteomyelitis and protothecosis; one fatal necrotizing fasciitis; cellulitis and ecchymosis; tendon ruptures; atrophy of the plantar fat was described after injecting a neuroma; and local skin effects appeared as atrophy, hypopigmentation or as skin defect. The minor adverse events effects ranged from skin rash to flushing and disturbed menstrual pattern. Increased pain or steroid flare after injection was reported in 19 studies. After extra-articular injection, the incidence of major adverse events ranged from 0-5.8% and that of minor adverse events from 0-81%. It was not feasible to pool the risk for adverse effects due to heterogeneity of study populations and difference in interventions and variance in reporting. Conclusion In this literature review it was difficult to accurately quantify the incidence of adverse effects after extra-articular corticosteroid injection. The reported adverse events were relatively mild, although one fatal reaction was reported. PMID:20836867
Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?
Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele
2016-08-01
The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?
Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele
2016-08-01
The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26847164
Classical Liquids in Fractal Dimension.
Heinen, Marco; Schnyder, Simon K; Brady, John F; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-08-28
We introduce fractal liquids by generalizing classical liquids of integer dimensions d=1,2,3 to a noninteger dimension dl. The particles composing the liquid are fractal objects and their configuration space is also fractal, with the same dimension. Realizations of our generic model system include microphase separated binary liquids in porous media, and highly branched liquid droplets confined to a fractal polymer backbone in a gel. Here, we study the thermodynamics and pair correlations of fractal liquids by computer simulation and semianalytical statistical mechanics. Our results are based on a model where fractal hard spheres move on a near-critical percolating lattice cluster. The predictions of the fractal Percus-Yevick liquid integral equation compare well with our simulation results.
Personality dimensions of opiate addicts.
Vukov, M; Baba-Milkic, N; Lecic, D; Mijalkovic, S; Marinkovic, J
1995-02-01
A survey of 80 opiate addicts included in a detoxification program was conducted at the Institute on Addictions in Belgrade. In addition to a dependence diagnosis and mental disorders based on DSM-III-R, we applied a Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that measures the 3 major personality dimensions: novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). When compared with a control group (a sample of Yugoslav undergraduate students), the opiate addicts demonstrate significantly high NS dimension as well as significant divergences of HA and RD subscales. The surveyed opiate addicts demonstrate a high percentage of personality disorders specifically in cluster B. The personality dimensions of opiate addicts showed certain temperament traits, such as: impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fear of uncertainty and dependence. NS, HA and RD determined by temperament specifics may be an etiological factor in forming of a personality disorder, an affective disorder as well as of a drug choice.
Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions
Bonesteel, Nicholas E
2015-01-31
This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.
The Role of Extra-Credit Assignments in the Teaching of World Languages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alley, David
2011-01-01
The granting of extra credit is a hotly debated topic in all fields of education. Teachers are reluctant to offer extra credit for fear of inflating grades, but students are persistent in their demands for extra-credit points to which they have become accustomed. This article considers extra-credit assignments in the teaching of world languages.…
Saidov, Tamerlan; Zhuk, Alexander
2007-04-15
We study multidimensional gravitational models with scalar curvature nonlinearity of the type 1/R and with form-fields (fluxes) as a matter source. It is assumed that the higher dimensional space-time undergoes Freund-Rubin-like spontaneous compactification to a warped product manifold. It is shown that for certain parameter regions the model allows for a freezing stabilization of the internal space near the positive minimum of the effective potential which plays the role of the positive cosmological constant. This cosmological constant provides the observable late-time accelerating expansion of the Universe if the parameters of the model are fine tuned. Additionally, the effective potential has the saddle point. It results in domain walls in the Universe. We show that these domain walls do not undergo inflation.
Critical dimension: MEMS road map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulingue, Marc; Knutrud, Paul
2007-03-01
The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology in mechanical, biotechnology, optical, communications, and ink jet is growing. Critical dimensions in MEMS devices are getting smaller and processes are constantly facing new metrology challenges. This paper will examine some critical dimension metrology needs and challenges for MEMS using resist-on-silicon structures. It is shown that the use of automated optical CD metrology can meet emerging measurement requirements while bringing the advantages of a non-destructive, high throughput and precise methodology.
Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex
Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.
2016-01-01
Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.
Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.
Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal
2016-01-01
Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.
Application Perspective of 2D+SCALE Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul
2016-09-01
Different applications or users need different abstraction of spatial models, dimensionalities and specification of their datasets due to variations of required analysis and output. Various approaches, data models and data structures are now available to support most current application models in Geographic Information System (GIS). One of the focuses trend in GIS multi-dimensional research community is the implementation of scale dimension with spatial datasets to suit various scale application needs. In this paper, 2D spatial datasets that been scaled up as the third dimension are addressed as 2D+scale (or 3D-scale) dimension. Nowadays, various data structures, data models, approaches, schemas, and formats have been proposed as the best approaches to support variety of applications and dimensionality in 3D topology. However, only a few of them considers the element of scale as their targeted dimension. As the scale dimension is concerned, the implementation approach can be either multi-scale or vario-scale (with any available data structures and formats) depending on application requirements (topology, semantic and function). This paper attempts to discuss on the current and new potential applications which positively could be integrated upon 3D-scale dimension approach. The previous and current works on scale dimension as well as the requirements to be preserved for any given applications, implementation issues and future potential applications forms the major discussion of this paper.
Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex
Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.
2016-01-01
Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211
Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.
Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal
2016-01-01
Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211
Nonminimal universal extra dimensional model confronts Bs→μ+μ-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Anindya; Shaw, Avirup
2016-03-01
The addition of boundary localized kinetic and Yukawa terms to the action of a five-dimensional Standard Model would nontrivially modify the Kaluza-Klein spectra and some of the interactions among the Kaluza-Klein excitations compared to the minimal version of this model, in which these boundary terms are not present. In the minimal version of this framework, known as the universal extra dimensional model, special assumptions are made about these unknown, beyond the cutoff contributions to restrict the number of unknown parameters of the theory to be minimum. We estimate the contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes to the branching ratios of Bs (d )→μ+μ- in the framework of the nonminimal universal extra dimensional model, at one-loop level. The results have been compared to the experimental data to constrain the parameters of this model. From the measured decay branching ratio of Bs→μ+μ- (depending on the values of boundary localized parameters), the lower limit on R-1 can be as high as 800 GeV. We have briefly reviewed the bounds on nonminimal universal extra dimensional parameter space coming from electroweak precision observables. The present analysis (Bs→μ+μ-) has ruled out new regions of parameter space in comparison to the analysis of electroweak data. We have revisited the bound on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional model, which came out to be 454 GeV. This limit on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional framework is not as competitive as the limits derived from the consideration of relic density or Standard Model Higgs boson production and decay to W+W-. Unfortunately, the Bd→μ+μ- decay branching ratio would not set any significant limit on R-1 in a minimal or nonminimal universal extra dimensional model.
Determination of seleno-amino acids bound to proteins in extra virgin olive oils.
Torres, Sabier; Gil, Raul; Silva, María Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo
2016-04-15
An analytical method has been developed to determine seleno-amino acids in proteins extracted from extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Different aqueous/organic solvents were tested to isolate proteins, an acetone:n-hexane combination being the best protein precipitant. In a first dimension chromatography, extracted proteins were analysed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify S and Se associations as proteins marker. Two fractions of 66 kDa (A) and 443 kDa (B) were identified. These fractions were submitted to microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) to release seleno-amino acids. In a second dimension chromatography seleno-amino acids were determined by reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) coupled to ICP-MS. Seleno-methylselenocysteine was determined with values ranging from 1.03-2.03±0.2 μg kg(-1) and selenocysteine at a concentration of 1.47±0.1 μg kg(-1). Variations of protein and seleno-amino acid concentrations were observed between EVOO varieties, contributing to EVOO cultivar differentiation. PMID:26616967
Scrotal abscess, a rare case of extra intestinal amoebiasis.
Prasetyo, R H
2015-09-01
The majority of amoeba infection are asymptomatic, but clinically intestinal amoebiasis or extra intestinal amoebiasis may result. Genital amoebiasis is very rare manifestation of extra intestial amoebiasis, but a case of amoebic scrotal abscess, seen in Surabaya. The invasive form of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite was seen in Giemsa stained aspirate of the abscess. In case of an abscess bacteria are primarly considered, but the case presented here shows that amoeba can be the cause, although very rarely. Thus when bacteriological diagnostics are negative amoeba should be considered, especially in case of brown-reddish colored and foul smelling pus. PMID:26695210
Inheritance contradictions between functional and extra-functional requirements
Hochmueller, E.
1996-12-31
This paper discusses the tension which may arise between functional and extra-functional requirements during the process of object-oriented design. A sketch of some design conflicts in object-oriented development induced by concurrency and security requirements will serve as a basis for rather provocative prospects on an essential distinction between the core requirements for systems dealing with their proper purpose and functionality and the requirements which can be considered to be of extra-functional nature in constraining the systems solution space.
QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential
Ravagli, L.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.
2007-09-01
Using an integration formula recently derived by Conrey, Farmer, and Zirnbauer, we calculate the expectation value of the phase factor of the fermion determinant for the staggered lattice QCD action in one dimension. We show that the chemical potential can be absorbed into the quark masses; the theory is in the same chiral symmetry class as QCD in three dimensions at zero chemical potential. In the limit of a large number of colors and fixed number of lattice points, chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously, and our results are in agreement with expressions based on a chiral Lagrangian. In this limit, the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator are correlated according to random matrix theory for QCD in three dimensions. The discontinuity of the chiral condensate is due to an alternative to the Banks-Casher formula recently discovered for QCD in four dimensions at nonzero chemical potential. The effect of temperature on the average phase factor is discussed in a schematic random matrix model.
Executive amnesia in a patient with pre-frontal damage due to a gunshot wound.
de Oliveira-Souza, R; Moll, J; Moll, F T; de Oliveira, D L
2001-01-01
This paper reports the case of a young patient with extensive pre-frontal damage in whom we tested the hypothesis that intensive training improves executive performance as assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). As long as her declarative memory, complex perceptual abilities and global cognitive status were spared, we surmised that any deficit in executive learning would have occurred in relative isolation. We showed that her abnormal performance on the WCST, both on the standard as well as on the post-instruction condition, was due to an impairment of shifting attention across perceptual dimensions (extra-dimensional). In contrast, her ability to shift attention within perceptual categories (intra-dimensional) was spared, as were her declarative memory, object and visuospatial perception, oral language comprehension and praxis (ideomotor, tool use and constructional). This case supports the hypothesis that executive amnesia is a type of amnesic disorder distinct from the classic amnesic syndrome due to mamillo-temporomedial damage. As such, it is probably closely related to procedural learning and may depend on the same fronto-subcortical loops that mediate the actual execution of behaviour.
Dimensions of Interpersonal Relationships Revisited.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiemann, John M.; Krueger, Dorothy Lenk
The ways in which people described their own interpersonal relationships were examined along the universally acknowledged relational dimensions control and affiliation. A total of 216 undergraduate communication students wrote about one of three types of relationships they had: best liked friend of the opposite sex, (60), best liked friend of the…
Dimension independence in exterior algebra.
Hawrylycz, M
1995-01-01
The identities between homogeneous expressions in rank 1 vectors and rank n - 1 covectors in a Grassmann-Cayley algebra of rank n, in which one set occurs multilinearly, are shown to represent a set of dimension-independent identities. The theorem yields an infinite set of nontrivial geometric identities from a given identity. PMID:11607520
The Visuospatial Dimension of Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olive, Thierry; Passerault, Jean-Michel
2012-01-01
The authors suggest that writing should be conceived of not only as a verbal activity but also as a visuospatial activity, in which writers process and construct visuospatial mental representations. After briefly describing research on visuospatial cognition, they look at how cognitive researchers have investigated the visuospatial dimension of…
The European Dimension in Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.
This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…
Heat conduction in three dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.
1980-01-01
Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.
Procura de Sinais de Dimensões Extras Universais em Colisões Próton-Antipróton
de Souza Santos, Angelo
2012-01-01
Models that predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions have been studied since the beginning of the 20th century. These models can incorporate gravity in the framework that describes the other interactions and they can present a number of interesting features such as a dark matter candidate. In this work, we explore the consequences of the Universal Extra Dimensions (UED) model by searching for the production of Kaluza-Klein particles whose decay chain leads to signature $\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm} + \\mathrm{jets} + \\met$. We employ the data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of \\unit{7.3}{\\femto\\barn}$^{-1}$, collected by the \\dzero{} detector at a $p\\bar p$ collider at a center of mass energy of \\unit{1.96}{\\tera\\electronvolt}. Since no excess was observed in the data, we were able to set a lower limit on the compactification scale of $R^{-1}>260$ GeV in the model. This is the first study to impose a direct limit on the minimal UED model.
32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extra-tribunal statements. 776.45 Section 776.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL... possibility of a plea of guilty to the offense or the existence or contents of any confession, admission,...
32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extra-tribunal statements. 776.45 Section 776.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL... possibility of a plea of guilty to the offense or the existence or contents of any confession, admission,...
32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extra-tribunal statements. 776.45 Section 776.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL... possibility of a plea of guilty to the offense or the existence or contents of any confession, admission,...
Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario
2006-01-01
Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…
8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...
8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL
CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH ...
CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH WAS TO STORE SPENT FUEL THAT WOULD ACCUMULATE BEFORE THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT WAS READY TO PROCESS IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1659. Unknown Photographer, 3/9/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID
Extra-axial isolated cerebral varix misdiagnosed as convexity meningioma
Tan, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Qian; Cui, Yan; Yi, Lei; Ouyang, Yian; Jiang, Yugang
2016-01-01
Abstract Isolated cerebral varix is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly, which is easily misdiagnosed as other brain tumors. A 59-year-old female patient with noncontributory medical history presented with headache and insomnia for the last 2 months. Upon admission, her neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-demarcated extra medullary mass, 11 × 11 mm in size, within the subdural space at the right frontal lobe. The lesion was initially interpreted as a convexity meningioma. After conducting a craniotomy on the patient, an extra-axial varix was exposed and resected subsequently. The patient's headache was resolved soon after surgery and charged without neurologic sequelae. Extra-axial isolated cerebral varix is mimicking convexity meningioma on MR images and should be considered as a differential diagnosis. The focal erosion in the inner table of the skull could be an important character of extra-axial isolated cerebral varix. An extremely round shape and smooth contour of the lesion was another important character. Isolated cerebral varix is rare vascular lesion that is treated surgically in the case of rupture or compression of adjacent structures. The information obtained with noninvasive imaging techniques should include CTA to make a clinical decision. PMID:27368037
Extra-team Connections for Knowledge Transfer between Staff Teams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramanadhan, Shoba; Wiecha, Jean L.; Emmons, Karen M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
2009-01-01
As organizations implement novel health promotion programs across multiple sites, they face great challenges related to knowledge management. Staff social networks may be a useful medium for transferring program-related knowledge in multi-site implementation efforts. To study this potential, we focused on the role of extra-team connections (ties…
20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions in extra service. 332.4 Section 332.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.4 Restrictions in...
Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears
Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.
2011-01-01
Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995
The use of extra-oral traction with removable appliances.
Rock, W P
1990-05-19
Extra-oral traction has two main applications in orthodontic treatment. It may be used to prevent forward movement of anchor teeth and also to provide a force for distalisation of molars, and/or buccal segments. If correctly applied, EOT can help to ease problems in a difficult treatment and make possible an otherwise impossible treatment plan.
Are Extra Classes the Success behind High Performance and Marks?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santhi, N.
2011-01-01
Extra classes have been a fixture in the educational system in India. They pre-date all existing educational programmes and examinations. Yet more recently the justification and reasons for the maintenance of these classes have been called into question. There have been unsubstantiated claims that in some cases the classes have been "organized" in…
Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.
Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach
2015-01-01
Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.
Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report
1996-05-01
This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.
Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.
Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida
2013-01-01
Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.
Extra-Curricular Inequality. Research Brief. Edition 1
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sutton Trust, 2014
2014-01-01
This Research Briefing analyses Office for National Statistics data and finds children from the most advantaged households benefit from significantly more spending on extra-curricular activities and private tutoring than their poorer peers. The brief also includes the Trust's annual polling on private tuition and new polling on parents and…
Charged current unitarity and extra neutral gauge bosons
Marciano, W.J.; Sirling, A.
1987-03-01
The experimental status of the Kobayashi-Maskawa-Cabibbo (KMC) matrix is surveyed and shown to provide a precision test of the standard model at the level of its O(..cap alpha..) radiative corrections. Implications for new physics and constraints of extra neutral gauge bosons are described. 12 refs., 1 fig.
Extra-medical stimulant dependence among recent initiates
O’Brien, Megan S.; Anthony, James C.
2014-01-01
New estimates for the risk of becoming stimulant dependent within 24 months after first extra-medical (EM) use of a stimulant drug compound are presented, with a focus on subgroup variations in this risk (e.g., alcohol dependence, male–female differences). The study estimates are derived from a representative sample of United States residents ages 12 and older (n = 166,737) obtained from the 2003 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. A total of 1700 respondents were found to have used stimulants extra-medically for the first time within 24 months prior to assessment. Approximately 5% of these recent-onset EM users had become stimulant dependent since onset of EM use. As hypothesized, alcohol dependence cases were found to have experienced an excess risk of becoming stimulant dependent soon after onset of stimulant drug use; there was no robust male–female difference in risk. Independently, initiates who had used multiple types of stimulants extra-medically, and methamphetamine users, were more likely to have become stimulant dependent soon after onset of use; by comparison, EM users of methylphenidate (Ritalin®) were less likely to have developed rapid-onset dependence. These epidemiologic findings help quantify a continuing public health burden associated with new onsets of extra-medical stimulant use in the 21st century. PMID:19515516
Lesson of the Heart: An Extra-Credit Assignment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehman, Linda L.
2012-01-01
Teacher candidates need to have a passion for teaching and a drive to do whatever is necessary even when it is uncomfortable, uncommon, or hard. Such efforts should not be considered extra, but essential. A purposeful, focused enthusiasm for one's students, a belief in their potential, along with heartfelt compassion and the perseverance to work…
University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Alan
2014-01-01
The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…
The Extra Strand of the Maori Science Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Georgina
2011-01-01
This paper comments on the process of re-development of the Maori-medium Science (Putaiao) curriculum, as part of overall curriculum development in Aotearoa New Zealand. A significant difference from the English Science curriculum was the addition of an "extra strand" covering the history and philosophy of science. It is recommended that this…
Pathogenesis of serous, extra-uterine Müllerian epithelial cancer and therapeutic implications
Dubeau, Louis
2015-01-01
Serous extra-uterine Müllerian tumors include lesions previously classified either as serous ovarian, fimbrial, or primary peritoneal tumors. They should be distinguished from intra-uterine (endometrial) serous tumors in spite of their common Müllerian differentiation lineage due to distinctive clinical-pathological parameters. Increased risk for these cancers is driven primarily by cell non-autonomous hormonal factors associated with menstrual cycle progression, which can be accentuated by mutations in BRCA1/2. Additional factors, such as inflammatory conditions and others, may also contribute to elevated cancer risk in some individuals. The most consistent molecular alterations associated with serous extra-uterine Müllerian carcinomas, whether they arise in the context of familial predisposition or BRCA-independent hormonal factors, include severe aneuploidy superimposed on P53 mutations. Their near polyploid nature strongly suggests a role for mitotic errors associated with cytokinesis failure in their pathogenesis. A molecular mechanism is proposed involving a combination of both cell non-autonomous and cell autonomous factors in the development and progression of serous extra-uterine Müllerian tumors. Cell non-autonomous factors lead to increased cellular proliferation in extra-uterine serous Müllerian epithelium and contribute to the site-specificity of cancers associated with germline BRCA mutations. Cell autonomous factors in individuals with BRCA1 mutations lead to failure of cytokinesis following recovery from a cell cycle arrest at the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint. In individuals with intact BRCA1/2 function, recovery from such arrest might be facilitated by CCNE1 amplification and ensuing centrosome duplication leading to increased microtubule anchoring, accounting for frequent amplification of this cyclin observed in tumors not associated with BRCA1/2 mutations. The cell non-autonomous factors provide an opportunity for using
Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in Seasonal Forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff; Thornton, Hazel; Roberts, Julia; Hermanson, Leon
2015-04-01
Severe damages and large insured losses over Europe related to natural phenomena are mostly caused by extra-tropical cyclones and their related windstorm fields. Thus, an adequate representation of these events in seasonal prediction systems and reliable forecasts up to a season in advance would be of high value for society and economy. In this study, state-of-the-art seasonal forecast prediction systems are analysed (ECMWF, UK Met Office) regarding the general climatological representation and the seasonal prediction of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms during the core winter season (DJF) with a lead time of up to four months. Two different algorithms are used to identify cyclones and windstorm events in these datasets. Firstly, we apply a cyclone identification and tracking algorithm based on the Laplacian of MSLP and secondly, we use an objective wind field tracking algorithm to identify and track continuous areas of extreme high wind speeds (cf. Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can be related to extra-tropical winter cyclones. Thus, for the first time, we can analyse the forecast of severe wind events near to the surface caused by extra-tropical cyclones. First results suggest a successful validation of the spatial climatological distributions of wind storm and cyclone occurrence in the seasonal forecast systems in comparison with reanalysis data (ECMWF-ERA40 & ERAInterim) in general. However, large biases are found for some areas. The skill of the seasonal forecast systems in simulating the year-to-year variability of the frequency of severe windstorm events and cyclones is investigated using the ranked probability skill score. Positive skill is found over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere as well as for the most intense extra-tropical cyclones and its related wind fields.
Critical gravity in four dimensions.
Lü, H; Pope, C N
2011-05-01
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions. PMID:21635082
Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions
Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.
2011-05-06
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Critical gravity in four dimensions.
Lü, H; Pope, C N
2011-05-01
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Double Semions in Arbitrary Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Michael H.; Hastings, Matthew B.
2016-10-01
We present a generalization of the double semion topological quantum field theory to higher dimensions, as a theory of {d-1} dimensional surfaces in a d dimensional ambient space. We construct a local Hamiltonian that is a sum of commuting projectors and analyze the excitations and the ground state degeneracy. Defining a consistent set of local rules requires the sign structure of the ground state wavefunction to depend not just on the number of disconnected surfaces, but also upon their higher Betti numbers through the semicharacteristic. For odd d the theory is related to the toric code by a local unitary transformation, but for even d the dimension of the space of zero energy ground states is in general different from the toric code and for even {d > 2} it is also in general different from that of the twisted {Z_2} Dijkgraaf-Witten model.
Turing patterns in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoji, Hiroto; Yamada, Kohtaro; Ueyama, Daishin; Ohta, Takao
2007-04-01
We investigate three-dimensional Turing patterns in two-component reaction diffusion systems. The FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, the Brusselator, and the Gray-Scott model are solved numerically in three dimensions. Several interconnected structures of domains as well as lamellar, hexagonal, and spherical domains are obtained as stable motionless equilibrium patterns. The relative stability of these structures is studied analytically based on the reduction approximation. The relation with the microphase-separated structures in block copolymers is also discussed.
BMS modules in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campoleoni, A.; Gonzalez, H. A.; Oblak, B.; Riegler, M.
2016-04-01
We build unitary representations of the BMS algebra and its higher-spin extensions in three dimensions, using induced representations as a guide. Our prescription naturally emerges from an ultrarelativistic limit of highest-weight representations of Virasoro and 𝒲 algebras, which is to be contrasted with nonrelativistic limits that typically give nonunitary representations. To support this dichotomy, we also point out that the ultrarelativistic and nonrelativistic limits of generic 𝒲 algebras differ in the structure of their nonlinear terms.
Supergravity Theory from Ten Dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romans, Larry James
1985-12-01
This work is concerned with the study of several ten-dimensional field theories intimately associated with superstring theories, and possibilities for obtaining realistic four-dimensional theories from them. Three chapters follow the N = 2b supergravity from ten to five, then to four dimensions. First of all, compactifications to five dimensions on various manifolds are studied. Then the entire mass spectrum for the compactification on S('5) is derived using techniques of harmonic analysis on spheres. A particular set of modes corresponds to a gauged maximal supergravity theory in five dimensions; this theory, with Yang-Mills group SO(6), is constructed in detail. By a process similar to analytic continuation, noncompact versions of this theory are also obtained, gauging all the semisimple real forms of SO(6). One particular form, with gauge group SO*(6) (DBLTURN) SU(3,1), compactifies to flat four-dimensional spacetime and offers attractive phenomenological possibilities. The final chapter is concerned with candidates for effective low-energy theories for N = 1 superstrings with gauge group SO(32) or E(,8) x E(,8). These effective theories contain curvature squared terms, and require unusual gravitational interactions to cancel anomalies. The field equations are derived and found to admit compactifications to flat four dimensional spacetime, with the possibility of accommodating many phenomenological considerations.
Yamane, Shihori; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Watanabe, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko
2016-01-01
Sterilization using high-energy irradiation is an important aspect of implementing an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liner in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this study, we evaluate the effects of extra irradiations such as gamma-ray or plasma irradiation during sterilization of the poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC]) (PMPC) surface and cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) substrate of a PMPC-grafted CLPE acetabular liner. The PMPC-grafted surface yielded high wettability and low friction properties regardless of the extra irradiations as compared with untreated CLPE. During a hip simulator test, wear resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner was maintained after extra irradiation, which is due to the high wettability characteristics of the PMPC surface. In particular, the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner treated with plasma irradiation showed greater wettability and wear resistance than that with gamma-ray irradiation. However, we could not clearly observe the changes in chemical properties and morphology of the PMPC surface after both extra irradiations. The physical and mechanical properties attributed to CLPE substrate performance were also unchanged. In contrast, PMPC-grafted CLPE treated with plasma irradiation showed improved oxidation resistance as compared to that treated with gamma-ray irradiation after accelerated aging. Thus, we conclude that PMPC-grafted CLPE with plasma irradiation has promise as a lifelong solution for bearing in THA. PMID:26148654
Lee, Seung-Jong
2012-01-01
Objectives The maintenance of the healthy periodontal ligament cells of the root surface of donor tooth and intimate surface contact between the donor tooth and the recipient bone are the key factors for successful tooth transplantation. In order to achieve these purposes, a duplicated donor tooth model can be utilized to reduce the extra-oral time using the computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) technique. Materials and Methods Briefly, a three-dimensional digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) image with the real dimensions of the donor tooth was obtained from a computed tomography (CT), and a life-sized resin tooth model was fabricated. Dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were calculated. And extra-oral time was recorded during the autotransplantation of the teeth. Results The average extra-oral time was 7 min 25 sec with the range of immediate to 25 min in cases which extra-oral root canal treatments were not performed while it was 9 min 15 sec when extra-oral root canal treatments were performed. The average radiographic distance between the root surface and the alveolar bone was 1.17 mm and 1.35 mm at mesial cervix and apex; they were 0.98 mm and 1.26 mm at the distal cervix and apex. When the dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were measured in cadavers, the average of absolute error was 0.291 mm between real teeth and CARP model. Conclusions These data indicate that CARP may be of value in minimizing the extra-oral time and the gap between the donor tooth and the recipient alveolar bone in tooth transplantation. PMID:23431083
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, Yin C.; Boster, John; Hwu, Shian; Watson, John C.; deSilva, Kanishka; Piatek, Irene (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
The Wireless Video System (WVS) provides real-time video coverage of astronaut extra vehicular activities during International Space Station (ISS) assembly. The ISS wireless environment is unique due to the nature of the ISS structure and multiple RF interference sources. This paper describes how the system was developed to combat multipath, blockage, and interference using an automatic antenna switching system. Critical to system performance is the selection of receiver antenna installation locations determined using Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques.
DISSIPATION AND EXTRA LIGHT IN GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. 'CUSP' ELLIPTICALS
Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Dutta, Suvendra N.; Hernquist, Lars; Kormendy, John; Lauer, Tod R.
2009-03-15
We study the origin and properties of 'extra' or 'excess' central light in the surface brightness profiles of cusp or power-law elliptical galaxies. Dissipational mergers give rise to two-component profiles: an outer profile established by violent relaxation acting on stars already present in the progenitor galaxies prior to the final stages of the merger, and an inner stellar population comprising the extra light, formed in a compact central starburst. By combining a large set of hydrodynamical simulations with data that span a broad range of profiles at various masses, we show that observed cusp ellipticals appear consistent with the predicted 'extra light' structure, and we use our simulations to motivate a two-component description of the observations that allows us to examine how the properties and mass of this component scale with, e.g., the mass, gas content, and other properties of the galaxies. We show how to robustly separate the physically meaningful extra light and outer, violently relaxed profile, and demonstrate that the observed cusps and 'extra light' are reliable tracers of the degree of dissipation in the spheroid-forming merger. We show that the typical degree of dissipation is a strong function of stellar mass, roughly tracing the observed gas fractions of disks of the same mass over the redshift range z {approx} 0-2. We demonstrate a correlation between the strength of this component and effective radius at fixed mass, in the sense that systems with more dissipation are more compact, sufficient to explain the discrepancy in the maximum phase-space and mass densities of ellipticals and their progenitor spirals. We show that the outer shape of the light profile in simulated and observed systems (when fit to properly account for the central light) does not depend on mass, with a mean outer Sersic index {approx}2.5. We also explore how this relates to, e.g., the shapes, kinematic properties, and stellar population gradients of ellipticals. Extra
Extra-Renal Manifestations of Complement-Mediated Thrombotic Microangiopathies
Hofer, Johannes; Rosales, Alejandra; Fischer, Caroline; Giner, Thomas
2014-01-01
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are rare but severe disorders, characterized by endothelial cell activation and thrombus formation leading to hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ failure. Complement over activation in combination with defects in its regulation is described in an increasing number of TMA and if primary for the disease denominated as atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although TMA predominantly affects the renal microvasculature, extra-renal manifestations are observed in 20% of patients including involvement of the central nerve system, cardiovascular system, lungs, skin, skeletal muscle, and gastrointestinal tract. Prompt diagnosis and treatment initiation are therefore crucial for the prognosis of disease acute phase and the long-term outcome. This review summarizes the available evidence on extra-renal TMA manifestations and discusses the role of acute and chronic complement activation by highlighting its complex interaction with inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial homeostasis. PMID:25250305
[The place of extra-corporeal oxygenation in pulmonary diseases].
Le Guen, M; Parquin, F
2015-04-01
Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) effectively replaces the lung in providing oxygenation and carbon dioxide (CO2) removal. For some years, and in parallel to the H1N1 influenza pandemic, this technique has gained interest in relation to significant technological improvements, leading to new concepts of "awake and mobile ECMO" or rehabilitation with ECMO. Finally, the publication of randomized controlled trials giving encouraging results in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has helped to validate this technique and further studies are warranted. This general review aims to outline the definition, classification and principles of ECMO and to give some current information about the indications and possibilities of the technique to the pulmonologist and intensivist. Further possible uses for this technique include extra-corporeal removal of CO2 during hypercapnic respiratory failure and assistance during lung transplantation from the preoperative to the early postoperative period.
Non-abelian black holes and black strings in higher dimensions
Hartmann, Betti
2009-05-01
We review the properties of static, higher dimensional black hole solutions in theories where non-abelian gauge fields are minimally coupled to gravity. It is shown that black holes with hyperspherically symmetric horizon topology do not exist in d>4, but that hyperspherically symmetric black holes can be constructed numerically in generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills models. 5-dimensional black strings with horizon topology S{sup 2}xS{sup 1} are also discussed. These are so-called undeformed and deformed non-abelian black strings, which are translationally invariant and correspond to 4-dimensional non-abelian black holes trivially extended into one extra dimensions. The fact that black strings can be deformed, i.e. axially symmetric for constant values of the extra coordinate is a new feature as compared to black string solutions of Einstein (-Maxwell) theory. It is argued that these non-abelian black strings are thermodynamically unstable.
Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) review of a lifesaving technology
Makdisi, George
2015-01-01
Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) indications and usage has strikingly progressed over the last 20 years; it has become essential tool in the care of adults and children with severe cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction refractory to conventional management. In this article we will provide a review of ECMO development, clinical indications, patients’ management, options and cannulations techniques, complications, outcomes, and the appropriate strategy of organ management while on ECMO. PMID:26380745
Detecting the polarization signatures of extra-solar planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hough, J. H.; Lucas, P. W.; Bailey, J. A.; Tamura, M.; Hirst, E.
2006-06-01
Direct detection of the light scattered from extra-solar planets is important in establishing the planet's mass, radius, albedo and nature of the particles in the planetary atmosphere. We describe, and present results from, a new optical polarimeter (PlanetPol) designed to reach fractional polarizations of 10 -6 or better from ground-based telescopes, necessary to detect the polarization signature of unresolved hot-Jupiters.
The Merits of Giving an Extra Credit Quiz
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, Ryall
2014-01-01
In the past, Ryall Carroll struggled to get students to arrive on time, read the material in advance of the class, and to start class on topic. In an attempt to address these issues, he started implementing an extra-credit two-question quiz at the beginning of every class, hoping it would provide a small incentive for students to at least come on…
Extra phalangeal crease - A trait in forensic identification.
Singh, Bahadur; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj
2015-10-01
In the past, many biological, anthropological and forensic studies have been conducted on variations in finger and palm ridge patterns, however, finger crease patterns have not received much attention in the literature. The photocase shows an obvious extra phalangeal crease in the little finger as an extremely rarely reported characteristic. Similar unique characteristics need to be reported for their rarity and significance in forensic investigations.
17. NBS TOOL ROOM. MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS USED DURING EXTRA VEHICULAR ...
17. NBS TOOL ROOM. MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS USED DURING EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) MISSIONS AND NBS TRAINING. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT THE TOOLS ARE: SHUTTLE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (STS) PORTABLE FOOT RESTRAINT (PFR), ESSEX WRENCH, SOCKET WRENCH, SAFETY TETHER REEL (LEFT REAR), MINI WORKSTATION (CENTER REAR), TETHERS (FRONT CENTER), HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) POWER TOOL (FRONT RIGHT), HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE & PORTABLE FOOT RESTRAINT (REAR RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL
Decanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine
2008-08-15
We develop the Hadamard renormalization of the stress-energy tensor for a massive scalar field theory defined on a general spacetime of arbitrary dimension. Our formalism could be helpful in treating some aspects of the quantum physics of extra spatial dimensions. More precisely, for spacetime dimensions up to six, we explicitly describe the Hadamard renormalization procedure and for spacetime dimensions from 7 to 11, we provide the framework permitting the interested reader to perform this procedure explicitly in a given spacetime. We complete our study (i) by considering the ambiguities of the Hadamard renormalization of the stress-energy tensor and the corresponding ambiguities for the trace anomaly, (ii) by providing the expressions of the gravitational counterterms involved in the renormalization process, and (iii) by discussing the connections between Hadamard renormalization and renormalization in the effective action. All our results are expanded on standard bases for Riemann polynomials constructed from group theoretical considerations and thus given on irreducible forms.
Quantum cosmology near two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bautista, Teresa; Dabholkar, Atish
2016-08-01
We consider a Weyl-invariant formulation of gravity with a cosmological constant in d -dimensional spacetime and show that near two dimensions the classical action reduces to the timelike Liouville action. We show that the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal quantum momentum tensor which satisfies the Ward identities in a nontrivial way. The resulting evolution equations for an isotropic, homogeneous universe lead to slowly decaying vacuum energy and power-law expansion. We outline the implications for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.
Turing patterns in three dimensions.
Shoji, Hiroto; Yamada, Kohtaro; Ueyama, Daishin; Ohta, Takao
2007-04-01
We investigate three-dimensional Turing patterns in two-component reaction diffusion systems. The FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, the Brusselator, and the Gray-Scott model are solved numerically in three dimensions. Several interconnected structures of domains as well as lamellar, hexagonal, and spherical domains are obtained as stable motionless equilibrium patterns. The relative stability of these structures is studied analytically based on the reduction approximation. The relation with the microphase-separated structures in block copolymers is also discussed. PMID:17500983
Correlation dimension of complex networks.
Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús
2013-04-19
We propose a new measure to characterize the dimension of complex networks based on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. This measure is derived from the correlation sum of a trajectory generated by a random walker navigating the network, and extends the classical Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the context of complex networks. The method is validated with reliable results for both synthetic networks and real-world networks such as the world air-transportation network or urban networks, and provides a computationally fast way for estimating the dimensionality of networks which only relies on the local information provided by the walkers.
Fractal dimension of bioconvection patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noever, David A.
1990-01-01
Shallow cultures of the motile algal strain, Euglena gracilis, were concentrated to 2 x 10 to the 6th organisms per ml and placed in constant temperature water baths at 24 and 38 C. Bioconvective patterns formed an open two-dimensional structure with random branches, similar to clusters encountered in the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. When averaged over several example cultures, the pattern was found to have no natural length scale, self-similar branching, and a fractal dimension (d about 1.7). These agree well with the two-dimensional DLA.
Localized instanton in four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'brien, G. M.; Tchrakian, D. H.
1987-02-01
A family of generalized Yang-Mills- (GYM) Higgs (H) systems is proposed as phenomenological models giving rise to localized instantons in four dimensions. An argument in favor of the (qualified) uniqueness of this system, which features a fundamental-representation Higgs field, is given. Two ``radial'' Ansa$auml-tze are made, and the compatibility of one of them with the field equation is analyzed in detail. It is suggested that such GYMH systems can be used in the computation of the confining potential.
Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function.
Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay
2016-09-01
Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496]. PMID:27530684
Preoperative Embolization of Extra-axial Hypervascular Tumors with Onyx
Fusco, Matthew R.; Salem, Mohamed M.; Reddy, Arra S.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Thomas, Ajith J.
2016-01-01
Objective Preoperative endovascular embolization of intracranial tumors is performed to mitigate anticipated intraoperative blood loss. Although the usage of a wide array of embolic agents, particularly polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), has been described for a variety of tumors, literature detailing the efficacy, safety and complication rates for the usage of Onyx is relatively sparse. Materials and Methods We reviewed our single institutional experience with pre-surgical Onyx embolization of extra-axial tumors to evaluate its efficacy and safety and highlight nuances of individualized cases. Results Five patients underwent pre-surgical Onyx embolization of large or giant extra-axial tumors within 24 hours of surgical resection. Four patients harbored falcine or convexity meningiomas (grade I in 2 patients, grade II in 1 patient and grade III in one patient), and one patient had a grade II hemangiopericytoma. Embolization proceeded uneventfully in all cases and there were no complications. Conclusion This series augments the expanding literature confirming the safety and efficacy of Onyx in the preoperative embolization of extra-axial tumors, underscoring its advantage of being able to attain extensive devascularization via only one supplying pedicle. PMID:27114961
An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects
Grar, Nabila; Rowley, Neil
2006-08-14
The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects.
Extra-Neural Metastases of Malignant Gliomas: Myth or Reality?
Beauchesne, Patrick
2011-01-01
Malignant gliomas account for approximately 60% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Prognosis for these patients has not significantly changed in recent years— despite debulking surgery, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy—with a median survival of 9–12 months. Virtually no patients are cured of their illness. Malignant gliomas are usually locally invasive tumors, though extra-neural metastases can sometimes occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years). They generally appear after craniotomy although spontaneous metastases have also been reported. The incidence of these metastases from primary intra-cranial malignant gliomas is low; it is estimated at less than 2% of all cases. Extra-neural metastases from gliomas frequently occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years), and generally appear after craniotomy, but spontaneous metastases have also been reported. Malignant glioma metastases usually involve the regional lymph nodes, lungs and pleural cavity, and occasionally the bone and liver. In this review, we present three cases of extra-neural metastasis of malignant gliomas from our department, summarize the main reported cases in literature, and try to understand the mechanisms underlying these systemic metastases. PMID:24212625
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jae-Bum; Lee, Tae-Young
2004-11-01
A numerical study has been made to evaluate the impact of horizontal resolution on the estimation of the source receptor (S R) relationship. Numerical experiments with four different horizontal grid sizes have been performed for an extra-tropical cyclonic episode in East Asia. CSU RAMS and YU-SADM (Yonsei University's sulfuric acid deposition model) have been used to simulate meteorological and pollutant fields, respectively.In this study, enhanced spatial resolution has improved the simulation of an extra-tropical cyclone, cold front and associated precipitation systems. As spatial resolution increases, the circulation associated with the cyclone and cold front becomes stronger, and the amount of frontal rainfall increases. This study has shown that enhancement of spatial resolution tends to increase self-contributions but decrease foreign contributions to the wet deposition associated with an extra-tropical cyclone. It has been found that increased precipitation for enhanced spatial resolution reduces the amount of transported pollutant but increases the wet deposition of locally emitted pollutants. The larger self-contribution for higher resolutions may also be partially due to the increased strength of resolved convection. The impact of enhancing spatial resolution on dry deposition is felt mostly over downstream regions where the centres of the lows and fronts pass. Contributions from upstream sources increase as cyclonic circulation becomes stronger with increasing spatial resolution. On the other hand, enhancing spatial resolution does not significantly affect the S R relationship for either dry or wet deposition in the other regions where the extra-tropical cyclone does not pass. This study indicates that improved simulation of a cold front does not significantly affect the S R relationship for wet deposition over the area of passage of the cold front. An additional discussion infers a S R relationship for the wet deposition associated with a typical extra
7 CFR 51.560 - U.S. Extra No. 1.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.560 U.S. Extra No. 1. “U.S. Extra No. 1” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are well...
7 CFR 51.560 - U.S. Extra No. 1.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.560 U.S. Extra No. 1. “U.S. Extra No. 1” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are well...
Random flights through spaces of different dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimberg, Paulo H. F.; Abramo, L. Raul
2015-01-01
We shall study random flights that start in a space of one given dimension and, after performing a definite number of steps, continue to develop in a space of higher dimension. We show that if the difference of the dimension of spaces is even, then the probability density describing the composite flight can be expressed as marginalizations of the probability density associated to a random flight in the space of less dimensions. This dimensional reduction is a consequence of Gegenbauer addition theorem.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dimensions. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.3 Dimensions. Full-size baby cribs shall have dimensions as follows: (a) Interior. The interior dimensions shall be 71±1.6 centimeters (28±5/8 inches) wide as measured between...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dimensions. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.3 Dimensions. Full-size baby cribs shall have dimensions as follows: (a) Interior. The interior dimensions shall be 71±1.6 centimeters (28±5/8 inches) wide as measured between...
Quantum Dimension and Quantum Projective Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matassa, Marco
2014-09-01
We show that the family of spectral triples for quantum projective spaces introduced by D'Andrea and Dąbrowski, which have spectral dimension equal to zero, can be reconsidered as modular spectral triples by taking into account the action of the element K_{2rho} or its inverse. The spectral dimension computed in this sense coincides with the dimension of the classical projective spaces. The connection with the well known notion of quantum dimension of quantum group theory is pointed out.
NEW DIMENSIONS IN JUNIOR COLLEGE PLANNING.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BOYCE, R. DUDLEY; AND OTHERS
THIS REPORT CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF DISCUSSIONS BY MANY AUTHORS IN FOUR BROAD DIMENSIONS RELATIVE TO JUNIOR COLLEGES. THE FIRST DIMENSION IS PURPOSES AND DEALS WITH THE UNIQUE ROLE OF THE COMMUNITY JUNIOR COLLEGE, PROVISIONS FOR FACILITIES, PROBLEMS, AND POTENTIALITIES. THE SECOND DIMENSION FOCUSES ON PLANNING AND REPORTS ON STUDIES IN PLANNING…
15 CFR 241.5 - Standard dimensions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard dimensions. 241.5 Section 241..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.5 Standard dimensions. Whenever in the rules and regulations in this part the error on a dimension is mentioned, this error shall be determined...
15 CFR 241.5 - Standard dimensions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard dimensions. 241.5 Section 241..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.5 Standard dimensions. Whenever in the rules and regulations in this part the error on a dimension is mentioned, this error shall be determined...
7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.881 U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging...
7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging requirements set forth in § 51.911....
7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging requirements set forth in § 51.911....
7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.881 U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging...
Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Shibata, Masaru
2006-12-15
Scenarios of large extra dimensions have enhanced the importance for the study of black holes in higher dimensions. In this paper, we analyze an axisymmetric system of two black holes. Specifically, the Bowen-York method is generalized for higher dimensions in order to calculate the initial data for head-on collision of two equal-mass black holes. Then, the initial data are evolved adopting the close-slow approximation to study gravitational waves emitted during the collision. We derive an empirical formula for radiation efficiency, which depends weakly on the dimensionality. Possible implications of our results for the black hole formation in particle colliders are discussed.
Reflections from the fourth dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefranc, Marc
2013-01-01
The knot-theoretic characterization of three-dimensional strange attractors has proved an invaluable tool for comparing models to experiments, understanding the structure of bifurcation diagrams, constructing symbolic encodings or obtaining signatures of chaos. In four dimensions and above, however, all closed curves can be deformed into each other without crossing themselves. Therefore, the fundamental idea of topological analysis, namely that the topological structure of a strange attractor provides signatures of the stretching and folding mechanisms which organize it, must be translated into a different formalism. Here, we discuss two modest attempts to make progress in this direction. First, we illustrate the relevance of catastrophe theory in the analysis of higher-dimensional systems by describing experimental signatures of cusps in weakly coupled chaotic systems. Second, we note that determinism not only precludes intersection of two trajectories but also orientation reversal of phase space volume elements. Enforcing this principle on dynamical triangulations of periodic points advected by the flow leads to higher-dimensional analogues of braids, which in three dimensions appear to provide the same information as usual approaches.
Fractal Dimensions of Macromolecular Structures
Todoroff, Nickolay; Kunze, Jens; Schreuder, Herman; Hessler, Gerhard; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Gisbert
2014-01-01
Quantifying the properties of macromolecules is a prerequisite for understanding their roles in biochemical processes. One of the less-explored geometric features of macromolecules is molecular surface irregularity, or ‘roughness’, which can be measured in terms of fractal dimension (D). In this study, we demonstrate that surface roughness correlates with ligand binding potential. We quantified the surface roughnesses of biological macromolecules in a large-scale survey that revealed D values between 2.0 and 2.4. The results of our study imply that surface patches involved in molecular interactions, such as ligand-binding pockets and protein-protein interfaces, exhibit greater local fluctuations in their fractal dimensions than ‘inert’ surface areas. We expect approximately 22 % of a protein’s surface outside of the crystallographically known ligand binding sites to be ligandable. These findings provide a fresh perspective on macromolecular structure and have considerable implications for drug design as well as chemical and systems biology. PMID:26213587
Tan relations in one dimension
Barth, Marcus Zwerger, Wilhelm
2011-10-15
We derive exact relations that connect the universal C/k{sup 4}-decay of the momentum distribution at large k with both thermodynamic properties and correlation functions of two-component Fermi gases in one dimension with contact interactions. The relations are analogous to those obtained by Tan in the three-dimensional case and are derived from an operator product expansion of the one- and two-particle density matrix. They extend earlier results by Olshanii and Dunjko (2003) for the bosonic Lieb-Liniger gas. As an application, we calculate the pair distribution function at short distances and the dimensionless contact in the limit of infinite repulsion. The ground state energy approaches a universal constant in this limit, a behavior that also holds in the three-dimensional case. In both one and three dimensions, a Stoner instability to a saturated ferromagnet for repulsive fermions with zero range interactions is ruled out at any finite coupling. - Highlights: > We derive universal relations for the two-component, contact-interacting 1D Fermi gas. > These relations connect the tail of the momentum distribution to thermodynamic properties. > There is no saturated ferromagnetism at finite, repulsive couplings for the 3D model.
46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...
46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...
46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...
46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...
46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...
7 CFR 51.2750 - U.S. Extra Large Virginia.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Extra Large Virginia. 51.2750 Section 51.2750... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2750 U.S. Extra Large Virginia. “U.S. Extra Large Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia...
7 CFR 51.2750 - U.S. Extra Large Virginia.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Extra Large Virginia. 51.2750 Section 51.2750... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2750 U.S. Extra Large Virginia. “U.S. Extra Large Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...
7 CFR 51.2750 - U.S. Extra Large Virginia.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Extra Large Virginia. 51.2750 Section 51.2750... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2750 U.S. Extra Large Virginia. “U.S. Extra Large Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia...
7 CFR 51.880 - U.S. Extra Fancy Table.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Table. 51.880 Section 51.880 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... U.S. Extra Fancy Table. “U.S. Extra Fancy Table” consists of bunches of well developed grapes of...
7 CFR 51.880 - U.S. Extra Fancy Table.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Table. 51.880 Section 51.880 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.880 U.S. Extra Fancy Table. “U.S. Extra Fancy Table” consists of bunches...
7 CFR 51.880 - U.S. Extra Fancy Table.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Table. 51.880 Section 51.880 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... U.S. Extra Fancy Table. “U.S. Extra Fancy Table” consists of bunches of well developed grapes of...
Rapid Screening of MDR-TB in Cases of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Geno Type MTBDRplus
Kumari, Richa; Tripathi, Rajneesh; Pandey, Alok Prakash; Banerjee, Tuhina; Sinha, Pallavi; Anupurba, Shampa
2016-01-01
Background Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The limited data available on drug resistance in extra pulmonary tuberculosis stimulated us to design our study on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary referral hospital of North India. We performed Geno Type MTBDRplus assay in comparison with conventional drug susceptibility testing by proportion method to study the mutation patterns in rpoB, katG and inhA genes. Methods A total of 510 extra pulmonary samples were included in this study. After the smear microscopy, all the specimens were subjected for culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed on LJ media for all the MTB isolates and compared with the results of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay which was performed with the DNA isolated from the culture by conventional method. Results Of 510 specimens cultured, the total culture positivity obtained was 11.8% (60) encompassing 54 (10.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (1.2%) non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM). DST results by Geno Type MTBDRplus assay and solid culture methods were compared in 51 MTB isolates excluding the two Rif indeterminate and one invalid test. Geno Type MTBDRplus accurately identified 13 of 14 rifampicin-resistant strains, 14 of 15 isoniazid-resistant strains and 13 of 14 as multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in comparison with conventional method. Sensitivity and specificity were 92.86% and 97.30% respectively for detection of RIF resistance, 93.33% and 94.44% respectively for detection of INH resistance, 92.86% and 97.30% respectively for detection of MDR-TB, while the overall concordance of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay with conventional DST was 94.11%. The turn-around time for performing Geno Type MTBDRplus assay test was 48 hours. Conclusion The problem of MDR in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cannot be overlooked and
Bowers, E. Keith; Forsman, Anna M.; Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Johnson, L. Scott; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.
2015-01-01
Despite keen interest in extra-pair mating in birds, its adaptive significance remains unresolved. Here, we use a multi-year dataset to test whether traits of a female’s social mate influence her propensity to produce extra-pair offspring in a population of house wrens, and whether producing extra-pair young has consequences for a female’s fitness through effects on offspring survival. Females were most likely to produce extra-pair offspring when paired with old males and when paired with males on poor-quality territories, although this latter effect was marginally non-significant. Among offspring, the cutaneous immunity of within-pair young decreased as the age of their sires increased, but cutaneous immunity of extra-pair young was not affected by the age of their extra-pair sires or by the age of the males rearing them. Extra-pair offspring were more likely than within-pair offspring to return as breeding adults to the local population, with extra-pair sons being more likely to return as a breeder for multiple years. Our findings support the hypothesis that females produce extra-pair offspring to enhance their inclusive fitness beyond what they are capable of given the male with which they are socially paired. PMID:26258950
International dimensions of Colombian violence.
Franco, S
2000-01-01
Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia, as demonstrated by current homicide rates (the highest in the world), the strong effect of violence on the health care sector, and the forceful displacement of citizens, among other factors. This violence has international dimensions and consequences: inequity resulting from the political-economic system and increased by the neoliberal adjustments; the international traffic of drugs and weapons; exile and forceful displacement of persons into bordering countries; and frequent violations of human rights and humanitarian international rights. The international community can play a role in the search for a solution to this problem, as the author discusses in terms of contributions made in the past and those that could be made in the near future. Colombian violence can be viewed as a problem, a message, and a challenge for international public health, and the author suggests specific areas in which international public health could contribute to the study and solution of this complex situation.
Kolmogorov Flow in Three Dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.; Woodruff, Stephen L.
1996-01-01
A numerical study of the long-time evolution of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence forced at a single long-wavelength Fourier mode, i.e., a Kolmogorov flow, has been completed. The boundary conditions are periodic in three dimensions and the forcing is effected by imposing a steady, two-dimensional, sinusoidal shear velocity which is directed along the x-direction and varies along the z-direction. A comparison with experimental data shows agreement with measured cross-correlations of the turbulent velocity components which lie in the mean-flow plane. A statistical analysis reveals that the shear-driven turbulence studied here has significant spectral anisotropy which increases with wave number.
Ambitwistor Strings in Four Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, Yvonne; Lipstein, Arthur E.; Mason, Lionel
2014-08-01
We develop ambitwistor string theories for four dimensions to obtain new formulas for tree-level gauge and gravity amplitudes with arbitrary amounts of supersymmetry. Ambitwistor space is the space of complex null geodesics in complexified Minkowski space, and in contrast to earlier ambitwistor strings, we use twistors rather than vectors to represent this space. Although superficially similar to the original twistor string theories of Witten, Berkovits, and Skinner, these theories differ in the assignment of world sheet spins of the fields, rely on both twistor and dual twistor representatives for the vertex operators, and use the ambitwistor procedure for calculating correlation functions. Our models are much more flexible, no longer requiring maximal supersymmetry, and the resulting formulas for amplitudes are simpler, having substantially reduced moduli. These are supported on the solutions to the scattering equations refined according to helicity and can be checked by comparison with corresponding formulas of Witten and of Cachazo and Skinner.
Ethical Dimensions and Filial Caregiving
McCarty, Ellen F.; Hendricks, Constance S.; Hendricks, Denisha L.; McCarty, Kathleen M.
2013-01-01
The elderly are growing rapidly today as life expectancy increases. As this longevity has increased, so has the need for filial caregivers. While much has been written about caregiving stress, little has been written regarding the ethical dimensions of filial responsibility and daughter and son caregivers’ perceptions of responsibility and moral demands. This paper will address the concept of family caregiving and contextual family characteristics. Family characteristics will expand awareness of the interrelationship value between the nature of the prior filial relationship, image of caregiving, and ethical views that underscore acceptance of the filial obligation. An explanation of both the interview process and selected measurements that speak to ethical perspective, sense of caregiving image, and expectations of filial caregiving will also be addressed. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate how adult children may be helped in an anticipatory and proactive manner as more and more adult children take on parent care for longer durations of time. PMID:23459516
Three Extra Mirror or Sequential Families: Case for a Heavy Higgs Boson and Inert Doublet
Martinez, Homero; Melfo, Alejandra; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran
2011-05-13
We study the possibility of the existence of extra fermion families and an extra Higgs doublet. We find that requiring the extra Higgs doublet to be inert leaves space for three extra families, allowing for mirror fermion families and a dark matter candidate at the same time. The emerging scenario is very predictive: It consists of a standard model Higgs boson, with a mass above 400 GeV, heavy new quarks between 340 and 500 GeV, light extra neutral leptons, and an inert scalar with a mass below M{sub Z}.
Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion.
El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara
2015-10-01
Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302
Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion
El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara
2015-01-01
Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302
Sturge-Weber syndrome: oral and extra-oral manifestations.
Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Dwivedi, Rahul; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh
2015-01-01
Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, congenital, neuro-oculo-cutaneous disorder which is characterised extra-orally by unilateral port wine stains on the face, glaucoma, seizures and mental retardation, and intra-orally by ipsilateral gingival haemangioma which frequently affects the maxilla or mandible. In the present case, a 15-year-old female patient presented with a port wine stain on the right side of the face and glaucoma of the right eye, and intra-orally with gingival haemangioma on the right side of the maxilla. PMID:25766438
Dynamically Downscaling Precipitation from Extra-Tropical Cyclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champion, A.; Hodges, K.; Bengtsson, L.
2012-04-01
Recent flooding events experienced by the UK and Western Europe have highlighted the potential disruption caused by precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones. The question as to the effect of a warming climate on these events also needs to be addressed to determine whether such events will become more frequent or more intense in the future. The changes in precipitation can be addressed through the use of Global Climate Models (GCMs), however the resolution of GCMs are often too coarse to drive hydrological models, required to investigate any flooding that may be associated with the precipitation. The changes to the precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones are investigated by tracking cyclones in two resolutions of the ECHAM5 GCM, T213 and T319 for 20th and 21st century climate simulations. It is shown that the intensity of extreme precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones is predicted to increase in a warmer climate at both resolutions. It was also found that the increase in resolution shows an increase in the number of extreme events for several fields, including precipitation; however it is also seen that the magnitude of the response is not uniform across the seasons. The tails of the distributions are investigated using Extreme Value Theory (EVT) using a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD) with a Peaks over Threshold (POT) method, calculating return periods for given return levels. From the cyclones identified in the T213 resolution of the GCM a small number of cyclones were selected that pass over the UK, travelling from the South-West to the North-East. These are cyclones that are more likely to have large amounts of moisture associated with them and therefore potentially being associated with large precipitation intensities. Four cyclones from each climate were then selected to drive a Limited Area Model (LAM), to gain a more realistic representation of the precipitation associated with each extra-tropical cyclone. The
APOLLO 9: Dave scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Dave Scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities around the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.
Extra-cardiac stimulators: what do cardiologists need to know?
Guinand, Alexandre; Noble, Stéphane; Frei, Angela; Renard, Julien; Tramer, Martin R; Burri, Haran
2016-09-01
For several decades, treating patients with pacemakers has been the privilege of cardiologists. However, in the last 30 years, researchers have found new targets for electrical stimulation in different clinical subspecialities, such as deep brain stimulation (for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and some psychiatric illnesses); spinal cord stimulation (for refractory angina, chronic pain, and peripheral artery disease); and sacral (for diverse urologic and proctologic conditions), vagal (for epilepsy), and phrenic nerve stimulation (for sleep apnoea). The purpose of this article is to familiarize cardiologists with these 'extra-cardiac pacemakers' and to discuss potential issues that must be addressed when these patients undergo cardiac procedures. PMID:27234870
Medicare extra: a comprehensive benefit option for Medicare beneficiaries.
Davis, Karen; Moon, Marilyn; Cooper, Barbara; Schoen, Cathy
2005-01-01
The proposed Part E, Medicare Extra, outlined in this paper adds a comprehensive benefit option to Medicare, eliminating the need for beneficiaries to purchase a private drug plan and Medigap supplemental coverage. Financed by a budget-neutral beneficiary premium, it has the advantages of greater simplicity, efficiency, and value without adding to federal costs. Beneficiaries now enrolled in Medigap plans would save money, as could employers by choosing a lower-cost alternative to current retiree health plans. Eliminating some of the excess payments to Medicare Advantage plans would yield savings that could be used to help finance premium subsidies for low-income beneficiaries.
Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hetesi, Zsolt
2010-03-01
The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.
Machado, Anaïs; Bodiguel, Hugues; Beaumont, Julien; Clisson, Gérald; Colin, Annie
2016-07-01
We study flows of hydrolized polyacrylamide solutions in two dimensional porous media made using microfluidics, for which elastic effects are dominant. We focus on semi-dilute solutions (0.1%-0.4%) which exhibit a strong shear thinning behavior. We systematically measure the pressure drop and find that the effective permeability is dramatically higher than predicted when the Weissenberg number is greater than about 10. Observations of the streamlines of the flow reveal that this effect coincides with the onset of elastic instabilities. Moreover, and importantly for applications, we show using local measurements that the mean flow is modified: it appears to be more uniform at high Weissenberg number than for Newtonian fluids. These observations are compared and discussed using pore network simulations, which account for the effect of disorder and shear thinning on the flow properties. PMID:27478522
Magnetic Bubble Expansion as an Experimental Model for Extra-Galactic Radio Lobes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynn, Alan; Zhang, Yue; Hsu, Scott
2010-11-01
The Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) is conducting laboratory experiments to address outstanding nonlinear plasma physics issues related to how magnetic energy and helicity carried by extra-galactic jets interacts with the intergalactic medium to form radio lobe structures. Experiments are being conducted in the 4 meter long, 50 cm diameter HELCAT linear plasma device at UNM. A pulsed magnetized coaxial gun (˜10 kV, ˜100 kA, ˜2 mWb) forms and injects magnetized plasma bubbles perpendicularly into a lower pressure weakly magnetized background plasma formed by a helicon and/or hot cathode source in HELCAT. Ideal MHD simulations show that an MHD shock develops ahead of the bubble as it propagates, and that the bubble develops asymmetries due to the background field [1]. Experimental data from plasma bubble injection into a background plasma, particularly magnetic probe measurements, will be discussed. [4pt] [1] W. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 072905 (2008).
Extra-column dispersion of macromolecular solutes in aqueous-phase size-exclusion chromatography.
Grznárová, G; Polakovic, M; Acai, P; Görner, T
2004-06-18
A set of dextran standards was used to study the extra-column dispersion in conventional chromatographic equipment at a broad range of molecular weights, different mobile phase flow rates and connecting tube lengths and diameters. All known correlations for the tube dispersion at laminar flow, including those for short tubes, overestimated the values of the variance of the outlet concentration signal. The difference increased with the solute molecular weight and the flow rate. It was assumed that the discrepancy was due to the effect of natural convection invoked by the density differences of the injected dextran solutions and water. A suitable approximation of the relative band spreading was suggested in a form of a power function of the Reynolds and Schmidt numbers. A significant decrease of the dispersion was observed when the chromatography tubing was coiled into a circle. This decrease was successfully predicted combining the existing correlations for long coiled tubes and short straight tubes.
Generating Reduced Tests for FSMs with Extra States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simão, Adenilso; Petrenko, Alexandre; Yevtushenko, Nina
We address the problem of generating tests from a deterministic Finite State Machine to provide full fault coverage even if the faults may introduce extra states in the implementations. It is well-known that such tests should include the sequences in the so-called traversal set, which contains all sequences of length defined by the number of extra states. Therefore, the only apparent opportunity to produce shorter tests is to find within a test suite a suitable arrangement of the sequences in the inescapable traversal set. We observe that the direct concatenation of the traversal set to a given state cover, suggested by all existing generation methods with full fault coverage, results in extensive test branching, when a test has to be repeatedly executed to apply all the sequences of the traversal set. In this paper, we state conditions which allow distributing these sequences over several tests. We then utilize these conditions to elaborate a method, called SPY-method, which shortens tests by avoiding test branching as much as possible. We present the results of the experimental comparison of the proposed method with an existing method which indicate that the resulting save can be up to 40%.
Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.
Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C
2012-07-10
Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.
Personal Cooling for Extra-Vehicular Activities on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pu, Zhengxiang; Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis; Recio, Jose; Rini, Dan; Trevino, Luis
2004-01-01
Extra-vehicular activities (EVA) on Mars will require suits with sophisticated thermal control systems so that astronauts can work comfortably for extended periods of time. Any use of consumables such as water that cannot be easily replaced should be of particular concern. In this aspect the EVA suits for Mars environment need to be different from the current Space Shuttle Extra Vehicular Mobility Units (EMU) that depend on water sublimation into space for removing heat from suits. Moreover, Mars environment is quite different from what a typical EMU may be exposed to. These variations call for careful analysis and innovative engineering for design and fabrication of an appropriate thermal control system. This paper presents a thermal analysis of astronaut suits for EVA with medium metabolic intensity under a typical hot and a nominal cold environment on Mars. The paper also describes possible options that would allow conservation of water with low usage of electrical power. The paper then presents the conceptual design of a portable cooling unit for one such solution.
Experience with carprofen in extra-articular inflammatory processes.
Gotter, G
1982-01-01
Carprofen is a new non-steroidal compound with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties. Eighty patients with different types of extra-articular inflammatory processes such as periarthritis humero-scapularis, tendinitis, bursitis, etc., were studied by means of two double-blind protocol designs comparing carprofen 150 and 300 mg daily, either as a b.i.d. or a t.i.d. administration, for two weeks. The criteria to determine the therapeutic properties of the compound was based on the improvement of spontaneous pain, pain with movement and functional limitation. Evolution of symptoms showed that either 150 or 300 mg carprofen administered as a b.i.d. schedule, were equally effective (chi 2 test between groups was not significant). According to a t.i.d. schedule results were better with 300 mg. General tolerance was excellent and only 15% of the patients receiving 300 mg complained of side-effects, such as nausea, mild dermatitis, acidity and insomnia. In conclusion, carprofen 150 or 300 mg has a good therapeutical activity in extra-articular inflammatory processes, employing either a b.i.d. or a t.i.d. schedule. PMID:6983966
On some trees having partition dimension four
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ida Bagus Kade Puja Arimbawa, K.; Baskoro, Edy Tri
2016-02-01
In 1998, G. Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang introduced the notion of partition dimension of a graph. Since then, the study of this graph parameter has received much attention. A number of results have been obtained to know the values of partition dimensions of various classes of graphs. However, for some particular classes of graphs, finding of their partition dimensions is still not completely solved, for instances a class of general tree. In this paper, we study the properties of trees having partition dimension 4. In particular, we show that, for olive trees O(n), its partition dimension is equal to 4 if and only if 8 ≤ n ≤ 17. We also characterize all centipede trees having partition dimension 4.
Changes in fractal dimension during aggregation.
Chakraborti, Rajat K; Gardner, Kevin H; Atkinson, Joseph F; Van Benschoten, John E
2003-02-01
Experiments were performed to evaluate temporal changes in the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during flocculation of an initially monodisperse suspension of latex microspheres. Particle size distributions and aggregate geometrical information at different mixing times were obtained using a non-intrusive optical sampling and digital image analysis technique, under variable conditions of mixing speed, coagulant (alum) dose and particle concentration. Pixel resolution required to determine aggregate size and geometric measures including the fractal dimension is discussed and a quantitative measure of accuracy is developed. The two-dimensional fractal dimension was found to range from 1.94 to 1.48, corresponding to aggregates that are either relatively compact or loosely structured, respectively. Changes in fractal dimension are explained using a conceptual model, which describes changes in fractal dimension associated with aggregate growth and changes in aggregate structure. For aggregation of an initially monodisperse suspension, the fractal dimension was found to decrease over time in the initial stages of floc formation.
The international dimensions of neuroethics.
Lombera, Sofia; Illes, Judy
2009-08-01
Neuroethics, in its modern form, investigates the impact of brain science in four basic dimensions: the self, social policy, practice and discourse. In this study, we analyzed a set of 461 peer-reviewed articles with neuroethics content, published by authors from 32 countries. We analyzed the data for: (1) trends in the development of international neuroethics over time, and (2) how challenges at the intersection of ethics and neuroscience are viewed in countries that are considered developed by International Monetary Fund (IMF) standards, and in those that are developing. Our results demonstrate a steady increase in global participation in neuroethics from 1989 to 2005, characterized by an increase in numbers of articles published specifically on neuroethics, journals publishing these articles, and countries contributing to the literature. The focus from all countries was on the practice of brain science and the amelioration of neurological disease. Indicators of technology creation and diffusion in developing countries were specifically correlated with increases in publications concerning policy implications of brain science. Neuroethics is an international endeavor and, as such, should be sensitive to the impact that context has on acceptance and use of technological innovation.
Invariant imbedding in two dimensions
Faber, V.; Seth, D.L.; Wing, G.M.
1988-01-01
J. Corones has noted that the doubling and addition formulas of invariant imbedding can be extended conceptually to very general situations. All that is needed is a black box ''process'' with n ''ports.'' The /ital i/th port has vector input I/sub i/ and vector output J/sub i/. Addition formulas result when two or more of these processes are joined together to form a new process in some regular way. For example, four congruent squares can be juxtaposed to form a larger square. At each join, the output of one process becomes the input of the other and vice versa. (We always suppose the join to occur at one or more ports.) Addition formulas result from the combination of these shared quantities. Corones has thus pointed out that invariant imbedding is not, as is sometimes asserted, an inherently one-dimensional (1-D) method, but works conceptually in any number of dimensions; some previous work that is conceptually along these lines, with references to other such works, can be found in Refs. 2-4. The details can, of course, become very complicated. We shall show that the method is computationally feasible for certain two-dimensional (2-D) problems. To conform to the thrust of these proceedings, we shall usually phrase our discussions in terms of transport theory rather than speaking of more abstract processes. 7 refs., 13 figs.
Contagion Shocks in One Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Rosado, Jesus; Short, Martin B.; Wang, Li
2015-02-01
We consider an agent-based model of emotional contagion coupled with motion in one dimension that has recently been studied in the computer science community. The model involves movement with a speed proportional to a "fear" variable that undergoes a temporal consensus averaging based on distance to other agents. We study the effect of Riemann initial data for this problem, leading to shock dynamics that are studied both within the agent-based model as well as in a continuum limit. We examine the behavior of the model under distinguished limits as the characteristic contagion interaction distance and the interaction timescale both approach zero. The limiting behavior is related to a classical model for pressureless gas dynamics with "sticky" particles. In comparison, we observe a threshold for the interaction distance vs. interaction timescale that produce qualitatively different behavior for the system - in one case particle paths do not cross and there is a natural Eulerian limit involving nonlocal interactions and in the other case particle paths can cross and one may consider only a kinetic model in the continuum limit.
Optoacoustic imaging in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deán-Ben, X. L.; Gottschalk, Sven; Fehm, Thomas F.; Razansky, Daniel
2015-03-01
We report on an optoacoustic imaging system capable of acquiring volumetric multispectral optoacoustic data in real time. The system is based on simultaneous acquisition of optoacoustic signals from 256 different tomographic projections by means of a spherical matrix array. Thereby, volumetric reconstructions can be done at high frame rate, only limited by the pulse repetition rate of the laser. The developed tomographic approach presents important advantages over previously reported systems that use scanning for attaining volumetric optoacoustic data. First, dynamic processes, such as the biodistribution of optical biomarkers, can be monitored in the entire volume of interest. Second, out-of-plane and motion artifacts that could degrade the image quality when imaging living specimens can be avoided. Finally, real-time 3D performance can obviously save time required for experimental and clinical observations. The feasibility of optoacoustic imaging in five dimensions, i.e. real time acquisition of volumetric datasets at multiple wavelengths, is reported. In this way, volumetric images of spectrally resolved chromophores are rendered in real time, thus offering an unparallel imaging performance among the current bio-imaging modalities. This performance is subsequently showcased by video-rate visualization of in vivo hemodynamic changes in mouse brain and handheld visualization of blood oxygenation in deep human vessels. The newly discovered capacities open new prospects for translating the optoacoustic technology into highly performing imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical practice with multiple applications envisioned, from cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics to neuroimaging and ophthalmology.
Parity anomalies in gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions
Rao, S.; Yahalom, R.
1986-01-01
We show that the introduction of massless fermions in an abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions does not lead to any parity anomaly despite a non-commutativity of limits in the structure function of the odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor. However, parity anomaly does exist in non-abelian theories due to a conflict between gauge invariance under large gauge transformations and the parity symmetry. 6 refs.
What dimensions underlie cluster B personality disorders?
Looper, K J; Paris, J
2000-01-01
This report presents a conceptual model of the relationships between personality dimensions and the four personality disorders listed in the B cluster on axis II. The hypothesis will be developed that while impulsivity is the common dimension underlying all four disorders, differences between the categories reflect the severity of impulsive traits, interactions with other personality dimensions, the effects of gender, and the influence of culture. Clinical and research implications of the model are then described.
Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J
2015-06-01
The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio.
Regenerative hair waves in aging mice and extra-follicular modulators Follistatin, Dkk1 and Sfrp4
Chen, Chih-Chiang; Murray, Philip J.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Plikus, Maksim V; Chang, Yun-Ting; Lee, Oscar K.; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng Ming
2014-01-01
Hair cycling is modulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to hair follicles. Cycling defects lead to conditions such as aging associated alopecia. Recently we demonstrated that mouse skin exhibits regenerative hair waves, reflecting a coordinated regenerative behavior in follicle populations. Here, we use this model to explore the regenerative behavior of aging mouse skin. Old mice (>18 months) tracked over several months show that with progressing age hair waves slow down, wave propagation becomes restricted, and hair cycle domains fragment into smaller domains. Transplanting aged donor mouse skin to a young host can restore donor cycling within a 3mm range of the interface, suggesting that changes are due to extra-cellular factors. Therefore, hair stem cells in aged skin can be re-activated. Molecular studies show that extra-follicular modulators Bmp2, Dkk1, and Sfrp4 increase in early anagen. Further, we identify follistatin as an extra-follicular modulator which is highly expressed in late telogen and early anagen. Indeed follistatin induces hair wave propagation and its level decreases in aging mice. We present an excitable medium model to simulate the cycling behavior in aging mice and illustrate how the inter-organ macro-environment can regulate the aging process by integrating both “activator” and “inhibitor” signals. PMID:24618599
Origin of Everything and the 21 Dimensions of the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loev, Mark
2009-03-01
The Dimensions of the Universe correspond with the Dimensions of the human body. The emotion that is a positive for every dimension is Love. The negative emotion that effects each dimension are listed. All seven negative emotions effect Peace, Love and Happiness. 21st Dimension: Happiness Groin & Heart 20th Dimension: Love Groin & Heart 19th Dimension: Peace Groin & heart 18th Dimension: Imagination Wave Eyes Anger 17th Dimension: Z Wave / Closed Birth 16th Dimension: Electromagnetic Wave Ears Anger 15th Dimension: Universal Wave Skin Worry 14th Dimension: Lover Wave Blood Hate 13th Dimension: Disposal Wave Buttocks Fear 12th Dimension: Builder Wave Hands Hate 11th Dimension: Energy Wave Arms Fear 10th Dimension: Time Wave Brain Pessimism 9th Dimension: Gravity Wave Legs Fear 8th Dimension: Sweet Wave Pancreas Fear 7th Dimension: File Wave Left Lung Fear 6th Dimension: Breathing Wave Right Lung Fear 5th Dimension: Digestive Wave Stomach Fear 4th Dimension: Swab Wave Liver Guilt 3rd Dimension: Space Wave Face Sadness 2nd Dimension: Line Wave Mouth Revenge 1st Dimension: Dot Wave Nose Sadness The seven deadly sins correspond: Anger Hate Sadness Fear Worry Pessimism Revenge Note: Guilt is fear
Micromagnetics at submicron dimensions (abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slonczewski, J. C.
1997-04-01
We represent the state of a circa 10-nm thick submicron dimensioned magnetic film with a superposition of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic pseudovortices. The effective intervortex exchange-stiffness potential and local magnetization angle at a complex distance z=x+iy from the kth vortex center are given by the real and imaginary parts respectively, of the function -wklnz. Each of the four corners of the rectangle has a stationary quarter vortex with negative winding (wk=-1). Two mobile semivortices with winding wk=+1 and N and S magnetic poles lie at general positions X1 and X2, respectively, along edges of the rectangle. The approximate boundary condition of vanishing M-component normal to each edge is satisfied by repeated reflections which generate a periodic extension of this vortex array to a lattice filling all of a 2D space. The internal energy V(X1,X2) is principally composed of the inter vortex exchange stiffness. Given this function, numerical evaluation of the integrated moment m=m(X1,X2) provides the functional dependence of V on m as parametrized by (X1,X2). The function V(X1,X2) has four equal minima representing states with the N and S vortices located at diagonally opposite corners, in agreement with direct numerical simulations. Therefore, the predicted hysteresis behavior of our vortex model has significantly more complex transitions than those of a uniaxial single-domain particle having only two minima. Our employment of but two variables, rather than the continuum of straightforward micromagnetics, makes possible a more insightful analysis of the smallscale structures used in storage and memory.
Dimensioning of nearby substations interconnected ground system
Sobral, S.T. ); Costa, V.S. ); Campos, M.S.; Goldman, B. ); Mukhedkar, D. )
1988-10-01
This paper deals with the ground mat dimensioning of two or more neighbor interconnected substations, a situation that is very common in the Electrical Industry. The paper recalls that the external ground circuits connected to the ground grid of each substation can drastically reduce the percentage of total ground current injected into the soil through the mat (from 40% up to 2% of the total fault current). The paper presents a set of specific calculation procedures to deal with nearby interconnected ground mats. These procedures correspond to a particular illustration of the general ''Decoupled Method'' (3,4,5), showing how to apply its 8 sequencial steps to solve this type of circuit. The paper shows that the electric neighborhood of nearby substations depends on the ''Space Constant'' (or ''Characteristic Length'') of the ground circuits interconnecting them such as transmission line ground-wires, power cable sheaths, etc. This paper complements also Ref. (3,4), introducing the complete derivation of useful expressions used to solve lumped parameter ladder circuits of any size (from one pi to an infinite number of pis). The derivation of these expressions also used in (3,4) were not included in these References due to lack of space. In the paper it is also shown a simple procedure to determine the suitable number of ACSR ground-wire spans near a substation necessary to allow a reduction of the ground grid conductor extension.
Spacetimes foliated by nonexpanding and Killing horizons: Higher dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewandowski, Jerzy; Szereszewski, Adam; Waluk, Piotr
2016-09-01
The theory of nonexpanding horizons (NEHs) geometry and the theory of near-horizon geometries (NHGs) are two mathematical relativity frameworks generalizing the black hole theory. From the point of view of the NEHs theory, a NHG is just a very special case of a spacetime containing a NEH of many extra symmetries. It can be obtained as the Horowitz limit of a neighborhood of an arbitrary extremal Killing horizon. An unexpected relation between the two of them was discovered in the study of spacetimes foliated by a family of NEHs. The class of four-dimensional NHG solutions (either vacuum or coupled to a Maxwell field) was found as a family of examples of spacetimes admitting a NEH foliation. In the current paper, we systematically investigate geometries of the NEHs foliating a spacetime for arbitrary matter content and in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. We find that each horizon belonging to the foliation satisfies a condition that may be interpreted as an invitation for a transversal NEH to exist and to admit the structure of an extremal isolated horizon. Assuming the existence of a transversal extremal isolated horizon, we derive all the spacetime metrics satisfying the vacuum Einstein's equations. In this case, the NEHs become bifurcated Killing horizons.
Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhonen, P. M.; Linna, R. P.
2016-01-01
Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β ≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β ≈1.36 . This value can be explained by our derivation of β =4 /3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics.
Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study
Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria
2006-01-01
Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis. PMID:16737523
Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions.
Suhonen, P M; Linna, R P
2016-01-01
Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β≈1.36. This value can be explained by our derivation of β=4/3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics.
Quality Dimensions of Internet Search Engines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xie, M.; Wang, H.; Goh, T. N.
1998-01-01
Reviews commonly used search engines (AltaVista, Excite, infoseek, Lycos, HotBot, WebCrawler), focusing on existing comparative studies; considers quality dimensions from the customer's point of view based on a SERVQUAL framework; and groups these quality expectations in five dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and…
Four Essential Dimensions of Workplace Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hopwood, Nick
2014-01-01
Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of…
Unconscious Evaluation of Faces on Social Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Lorna H.; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint
2012-01-01
It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and…
Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ural, Alattin
2014-01-01
The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…
An Inventory of Listening Competency Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolvin, Andrew D.; Cohen, Steven D.
2012-01-01
This article proposes the use of a one-page listening inventory sheet that helps students explore five dimensions of listening competency: cognitive, affective, behavioral, contextual, and ethical. After crafting their own responses, students will have the opportunity to engage in a class discussion about the impact of various dimensions of…
49 CFR 178.360-3 - Dimensions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dimensions. 178.360-3 Section 178.360-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-3 Dimensions. (a) The inside diameter of the...
49 CFR 178.360-3 - Dimensions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions. 178.360-3 Section 178.360-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-3 Dimensions. (a) The inside...
Understanding Dimensions of Organizational Evaluation Capacity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bourgeois, Isabelle; Cousins, J. Bradley
2013-01-01
Organizational evaluation capacity building has been a topic of increasing interest in recent years. However, the actual dimensions of evaluation capacity have not been clearly articulated through empirical research. This study sought to address this gap by identifying the key dimensions of evaluation capacity in Canadian federal government…
Quantum Field Theory in (0 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2007-01-01
We show that many of the key ideas of quantum field theory can be illustrated simply and straightforwardly by using toy models in (0 + 1) dimensions. Because quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions is equivalent to quantum mechanics, these models allow us to use techniques from quantum mechanics to gain insight into quantum field theory. In…
[Vertical dimension in the Begg technic].
Demange, C; Dion, J G
1989-01-01
This data of 25 treated cases in BEGG technic show, with RICKETTS analysis, a small augmentation of vertical dimensions during treatment. During retention, four of five factors improved. No correlation have been found between increase rate of vertical dimensions, treatment duration, and initial typology.
Extra-solar Oort cloud encounters and planetary impact rates
Stern, A.
1987-01-01
Upper limits are estimated to the number density of extra-solar Oort clouds (ESOC) through which the solar system might pass and to the probable number of attendant planetary impacts by comets. All stars are assumed to have Oort clouds. The model is based on the observed stellar spatial density and the ratio of the total number density to the observed number density. It is estimated that 486 close stellar passages and 12,160 ESOC encounters may have occurred. Each encounter would have produced a shower of hyperbolic comets, with the results of 1-3 ESOC impacts with the earth. It is concluded that the great majority of terrestrial cratering events by comets have and will come from solar Oort cloud comets. 19 references.
Extra oral cementation of implant prosthesis: a case report.
Singh, Rita; Mahesh, Lanka; Shukla, Sagrika
2013-12-01
Extraoral cementation is a technique that utilizes a stock abutment and a laboratory fabricated crown that is cemented extra orally; the advantage of this technique is that the retained excess luting agent during intraoral cementation, which can be a source of bacterial retention and cannot be observed radio graphically and is not possible to remove with explorer all the time, does not get accumulated and can be trimmed off easily before the final placement of the crown. Thus this technique allows no retention of luting cement, providing better soft tissue contours, no soft tissue inflammation, no retention of plaque and no bone loss. In short it prevents implant failure related to retained cement around implants. This technique provides overall health of peri-implant soft tissues as compared to conventional technique of crown placement where cement retention is a common problem, leading to implant failures.
Toward a hyperspectral optical signature of extra virgin olive oil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.
2007-05-01
Italian extra virgin olive oils bearing labels of certified area of origin were considered. Their multispectral digital signature was measured by means of absorption spectroscopy in the 200-1700 nm spectral range. The instrumentation was a fiber optic-based, cheap, and compact device. The spectral data were processed by means of multivariate analysis and plotted on a 2D classification map. The map showed sharp clusters according to the geographical origin of the oils, thus demonstrating the potentials of UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy for optical fingerprinting. Then, the spectral data were correlated to the content of the most important fatty acids. The good fitting achieved demonstrated that the optical fingerprinting can be used also for predicting nutritional and chemical parameters.
Extra-long Float-zones Induced by Thermocapillary Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Ju; Steen, Paul H.
1996-11-01
A model problem is posed to study the influence of flow on the interfacial stability of a nearly cylindrical liquid bridge for lengths near its circumference (the Plateau-Rayleigh limit). Zero gravity is assumed. The flow is generated by a shear stress imposed on the deformable interface. The symmetry of the imposed stress mimics the thermocapillary effect induced on a float-zone by a ring heater (i.e. a full zone). Numerical solutions, complemented by a bifurcation analysis, show that bridges substantially longer than the Plateau-Rayleigh limit are possible. An interaction of the first two capillary instabilities through the stress-induced pressure gradient is responsible. Time-periodic standing waves are also predicted in certain parameter ranges. Motivation comes from extra-long float-zones observed in MEPHISTO space lab experiments (June 1994).
The Wide Area VISTA Extra-Galactic Survey (WAVES)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J.; Meyer, M.; Power, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.
The "Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey" (WAVES) is a 4MOST Consortium Design Reference Survey which will use the VISTA/4MOST facility to spectroscopically survey ˜ 2 million galaxies to r AB < 22 mag. WAVES consists of two interlocking galaxy surveys ("WAVES-Deep" and "WAVES-Wide"), providing the next two steps beyond the highly successful 1M galaxy Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 250k Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. WAVES will enable an unprecedented study of the distribution and evolution of mass, energy, and structures extending from 1-kpc dwarf galaxies in the local void to the morphologies of 200-Mpc filaments at z ˜ 1. A key aim of both surveys will be to compare comprehensive empirical observations of the spatial properties of galaxies, groups, and filaments, against state-of-the-art numerical simulations to distinguish between various Dark Matter models.
Burns: bone-anchored, extra-oral implantology.
Gentile, Pietro; Bottini, Davide J; Colicchia, Gianfranco M; Trimarco, Anna; Cervelli, Valerio
2008-01-01
Extra-oral implants represent a valid alternative technique in aesthetic reconstruction of the craniofacial district in oncology surgery. Two female patients were selected; they were treated from December 2001 to June 2007 by implanting auricular epithesis. The age range was 27 years. They shared the same diagnosis: burns of the auricle-temporal region. The deformity in the auricle region and the complete absence of the pinna convinced the authors to choose this reconstructive method. Most patients showed a good stability of fixtures, epithesis and perimplants soft tissue, in some cases there has been a delay in the time to healing soft tissue perimplant and only one patient has removed the plant after 5 years cancer recurrence. No complications were observed, including bleeding and infections, in the postsurgery period. No report was made in any case of lesion of the facial nerve having the fixtures being positioned in the back and above the point of emergency.
Ramegowda, Jalaja Koppa; Salam, Mohammed Abdul; Nayak, Vasant; Zaveri, Shabber
2015-01-01
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumour with survival of 9–17 months after diagnosis. Radical surgical resection by extra-pleural pneumonectomy combined with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy has shown to improve patient survival and better microscopic tumour control. Anaesthetic management of this procedure is challenging due to the complex pathophysiological changes associated with prolonged duration of surgery, one- lung ventilation, haemodynamic instability due to major blood loss, temperature variations including heat loss during pneumonectomy and rapid rise in temperature during hyperthermic chemotherapy, cardiac arrhythmias due to exposure to heated chemotherapeutics, cisplatin toxicity and acid-base changes. Intra-operative management involves protective ventilation, regulation of temperature and haemodynamics along with prevention of complications associated with ‘heated chemotherapeutics’. Thorough pre-operative assessment and preparation, advanced intra-operative monitoring with prompt corrective interventions, will help in improved patient outcome in the immediate post-operative period. We present one such case done for the 1st time in India. PMID:26903675
Angioplasty or Stenting of Extra- and Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenoses
Hauth, Elke A.M.; Gissler, H. Martin; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.
2004-01-15
Purpose: To determine the feasibility and safety of angioplasty or angioplasty and stenting of extra- and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: In 16 consecutive patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age 61 years, range 49-74 years) 16 stenotic VAs were treated with angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting. Eleven stenoses were localized in V1 segment,1 stenosis in V2 segment and 4 stenoses in V4 segment of VA. Fourteen VA stenoses were symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic. The etiology of the stenoses was atherosclerotic in all cases. Results:Angioplasty was performed in 8 of 11 V1 and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. In 3 of 11 V1 segments and 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA we combined angioplasty with stenting. The procedures were successfully performed in 14 of 16 VAs (87%). Complications were asymptomatic vessel dissection resulting in vessel occlusion in 1 of 11 V1 segments and asymptomatic vessel dissection in 2 of 4 V4 segments of the VA. One patient died in the 24-hr period after the procedure because of subarachnoid hemorrhage as a complication following vessel perforation of the treated V4 segment. Conclusion: Angioplasty orangioplasty and stenting of extracranial VA stenoses can be performed with a high technical success rate and a low complication rate. In intracranial VA stenosis the procedure is technically feasible but complications can be life-threatening. The durability and procedural complication rates of primary stenting without using predilation in extra- and intracranial VA stenosis should be defined in the future.