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Sample records for extracellular signal-regulated protein

  1. Phosphorylation of the TAL1 oncoprotein by the extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J T; Cobb, M H; Baer, R

    1993-01-01

    Alteration of the TAL1 gene is the most common genetic lesion found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TAL1 encodes phosphoproteins, pp42TAL1 and pp22TAL1, that represent phosphorylated versions of the full-length (residues 1 to 331) and truncated (residues 176 to 331) TAL1 gene products, respectively. Both proteins contain the basic helix-loop-helix motif, a DNA-binding and protein dimerization motif common to several known transcriptional regulatory factors. We now report that serine residue 122 (S122) is a major phosphorylation site of pp42TAL1 in leukemic cell lines and transfected COS1 cells. In vivo phosphorylation of S122 is induced by epidermal growth factor with a rapid time course that parallels activation of the ERK/MAP2 protein kinases. Moreover, S122 is readily phosphorylated in vitro by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1. These data suggest that TAL1 residue S122 serves as an in vivo substrate for ERK/MAP2 kinases such as ERK1. Therefore, S122 phosphorylation may provide a mechanism whereby the properties of TAL1 polypeptides can be modulated by extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:8423803

  2. Glucagon receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 via cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youwei; Cypess, Aaron M.; Muse, Evan D.; Wu, Cui-Rong; Unson, Cecilia G.; Merrifield, R. B.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared a stable cell line expressing the glucagon receptor to characterize the effect of Gs-coupled receptor stimulation on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity. Glucagon treatment of the cell line caused a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and transient release of intracellular calcium. Glucagon treatment also caused rapid dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Inhibition of either PKA or MEK1/2 blocked ERK1/2 activation by glucagon. However, no significant activation of several upstream activators of MEK, including Ras, Rap1, and Raf, was observed in response to glucagon treatment. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium reduced glucagon-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In transient transfection experiments, glucagon receptor mutants that bound glucagon but failed to increase intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations showed no glucagon-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We conclude that glucagon-induced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is mediated by PKA and that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is required for maximal ERK activation. PMID:11517300

  3. Mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yingquan; Qiao, Mingqi

    2013-03-25

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs and has dominated recent studies on the pathogenesis of depression. In the present review we summarize the known roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP response element-binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant medicines. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway has potential to be used as a biological index to help diagnose depression, and as such it is considered as an important new target in the treatment of depression.

  4. Expression and activation of platelet-derived growth factor β receptor, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Gennaro; Uberti, Barbara Degli; Galiero, Giorgio; Martano, Manuela; Pirro, Antonella; Russo, Marco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Canine mammary tumours are frequent neoplasms mostly affecting intact female dogs, for which no 100% efficient therapy is available. Platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) with a potential role in human breast cancer and a series of canine tumours. In this study we demonstrated, for the first time, expression of PDGFβR and its downstream transduction molecules, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as their activated forms in canine mammary tumours by both biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry. PDGFβR was expressed and hyperphosphorylated in the majority of tumour samples and tumour derived cell lines. Additionally, both MEK and ERK were expressed and activated in cell lines as well as biopsies. TKR inhibitors (TKRi) are currently under investigation as possible therapy in human breast and several canine tumours, thus our in vivo and in vitro findings pave the way for future studies aimed at establishing a potential therapeutic employment of TKRi for the treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  5. Resting extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 expression following a continuum of chronic resistance exercise training paradigms.

    PubMed

    Galpin, Andrew J; Fry, Andrew C; Nicoll, Justin X; Moore, Christopher A; Schilling, Brian K; Thomason, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) moderates skeletal muscle growth; however, chronic responses of this protein to unique resistance exercise (RE) paradigms are yet to be explored. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the long-term response of ERK1/2 following circuit weight training (CWT), recreationally weight training (WT), powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL). Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in trained groups compared to sedentary controls. Total ERK1/2 content was lower in PL and WL compared to their controls (p ≤ 0.05). Specific trained groups displayed large (WL: pERK/total-ERK; d = 1.25) and moderate (CWT: total ERK1/2; d = 0.54) effect sizes for altered kinase expression compared to controls. The results indicate ERK1/2 expression is down-regulated after chronic RE in well-trained weightlifters and powerlifters. Lower expression of this protein may be a method in which anabolism is tightly regulated after many years of high-intensity RE.

  6. Resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and ternary complex factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rössler, Oliver G.; Glatzel, Daniel; Thiel, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Many intracellular functions have been attributed to resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and in other plants. Here, we show that resveratrol induces the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in human embryonic kidney cells. Using a chromosomally embedded Egr-1-responsive reporter gene, we show that the Egr-1 activity was significantly elevated in resveratrol-treated cells, indicating that the newly synthesized Egr-1 protein was biologically active. Stimulus-transcription coupling leading to the resveratrol-induced upregulation of Egr-1 expression and activity requires the protein kinases Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK, while MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functions as a nuclear shut-off device that interrupts the signaling cascade connecting resveratrol stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 expression. On the transcriptional level, Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, connects the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by resveratrol with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. These data were corroborated by the observation that stimulation of the cells with resveratrol increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. The SRE as well as the GC-rich DNA binding site of Egr-1 function as resveratrol-responsive elements. Thus, resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of the stimulus-regulated protein kinases Raf and ERK and the stimulus-responsive transcription factors TCF and Egr-1. - Highlights: • The plant polyphenol resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity. • The stimulation of Egr-1 requires the protein kinases ERK and Raf. • Resveratrol treatment upregulates the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. • Resveratrol-induced stimulation of Egr-1 requires ternary complex factors. • Two distinct resveratrol-responsive elements were identified.

  7. [Expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in the subcutaneous fascia of rats and their changes after acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue-mei; Yang, Chun; Yuan, Lin; Diao, Jian-xin; Zhang, Xue-quan; Huang, Yong; Dai, Jing-xing; Qiu, Xiao-zhong; Yu, Lei

    2009-04-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the subcutaneous fascia of SD rats. Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=3) including 5 acupuncture groups and a control group. The rats in the 5 acupuncture groups received electro-acupuncture therapy in the regions of the inguinal groove, and at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 36 h after the last therapy, the superfacial fascia surrounding the acupuncture point (about 1.5 cm in diameter) were collected. The fascia tissues at the corresponding sites and at the acupoint Zusanli (ST36) were obtained from the control rats. The expression of ERK1/2 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in the tissues were detected by Western blotting. ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 expressions were detected in the tissues harvested from both the acupoint and the non-acupoint in the control rats with similar expression intensities. In the rats of each acupuncture group, ERK1/2 expression was significantly increased on the acupuncture side in comparison with the control side. The normal loose connective tissue may participate in tissue proliferation and differentiation possibly via phosphorylation of ERK. Acupuncture can promote the signal transduction pathway of ERK, which can be a possible mechanism for the effect of acupuncture in modulating the physiopathological conditions.

  8. Myc-interacting protein 1 target gene profile: A link to microtubules, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelbauer, Joseph; Wei, Joyce; Tjian, Robert

    2004-01-01

    To study the role of the transcription factor Myc-interacting protein 1 (MIZ-1) in activating various target genes after induction with the microtubule disrupting agent T113242, we have used small interfering RNA duplexes (siRNAs) to knockdown the expression of MIZ-1. As expected, depletion of MIZ-1 resulted in the inhibition of T113242-dependent activation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in hepatocytes. Cells transfected with MIZ-1 siRNAs also exhibited growth arrest. In addition, inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibited T113242-induced nuclear accumulation of MIZ-1 and activation of LDLR. Gene expression microarray analysis under various induction conditions identified other T113242-activated genes affected by a decrease in MIZ-1 and inhibition of the ERK pathway. We also found that the accumulation of MIZ-1 in the nucleus is influenced by cell–cell contact and/or growth. Taken together, our studies suggest that MIZ-1 regulates a specific set of genes that includes LDLR and that the ERK pathway plays a role in the activation of target promoters by MIZ-1. PMID:14704274

  9. Apelin Increases Cardiac Contractility via Protein Kinase Cε- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perjés, Ábel; Skoumal, Réka; Tenhunen, Olli; Kónyi, Attila; Simon, Mihály; Horváth, Iván G.; Kerkelä, Risto; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Szokodi, István

    2014-01-01

    Background Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) to the positive inotropic effect of apelin. Methods and Results In isolated perfused rat hearts, apelin increased contractility in association with activation of prosurvival kinases PKC and ERK1/2. Apelin induced a transient increase in the translocation of PKCε, but not PKCα, from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, and a sustained increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the left ventricle. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation diminished the apelin-induced increase in contractility. Although pharmacological inhibition of PKC attenuated the inotropic response to apelin, it had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, the apelin-induced positive inotropic effect was significantly decreased by inhibition of MLCK, a kinase that increases myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Conclusions Apelin increases cardiac contractility through parallel and independent activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling in the adult rat heart. Additionally MLCK activation represents a downstream mechanism in apelin signaling. Our data suggest that, in addition to their role in cytoprotection, modest activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling improve contractile function, therefore these pathways represent attractive possible targets in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24695532

  10. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  11. Modulation of Brahma expression by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is associated with changes in melanoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Trivedi, Archit R; Aras, Shweta; Qi, Huiling; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2014-12-01

    Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1(BRG1) are catalytic subunits of SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. BRM is epigenetically silenced in a wide-range of tumors. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene occur frequently in melanoma and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that BRM expression is modulated by oncogenic BRAF and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Expression of oncogenic BRAF in melanocytes and melanoma cells that are wild-type for BRAF decreased BRM expression and increased BRG1 expression. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) or selective inhibition of BRAF in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF increased BRM expression and decreased BRG1 expression. Increased BRM expression was associated with increased histone acetylation on the BRM promoter. Over-expression of BRM in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF promoted changes in cell cycle progression and apoptosis consistent with a tumor suppressive role. Upon inhibition of BRAF(V600E) with PLX4032, BRM promoted survival. PLX4032 induced changes in BRM function were correlated with increased acetylation of the BRM protein. This study provides insights into the epigenetic consequences of inhibiting oncogenic BRAF in melanoma through modulation of SWI/SNF subunit expression and function.

  12. Protein Kinase A-independent Ras Protein Activation Cooperates with Rap1 Protein to Mediate Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases (ERK) by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Takahashi, Maho; Earley, Keith T; Stork, Philip J S

    2016-10-07

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1, have been proposed to mediate this activation, with either Ras or Rap1 acting in distinct cell types. Using Hek293 cells, we show that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. The roles of Ras and Rap1 were distinguished by their mechanism of activation, dependence on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and the magnitude and kinetics of their effects on ERKs. Ras was required for the early portion of ERK activation by cAMP and was activated independently of PKA. Ras activation required the Ras/Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) PDZ-GEF1. Importantly, this action of PDZ-GEF1 was disrupted by mutation within its putative cyclic nucleotide-binding domain within PDZ-GEF1. Compared with Ras, Rap1 activation of ERKs was of longer duration. Rap1 activation was dependent on PKA and required Src family kinases and the Rap1 exchanger C3G. This is the first report of a mechanism for the cooperative actions of Ras and Rap1 in cAMP activation of ERKs. One physiological role for the sustained activation of ERKs is the transcription and stabilization of a range of transcription factors, including c-FOS. We show that the induction of c-FOS by cAMP required both the early and sustained phases of ERK activation, requiring Ras and Rap1, as well as for each of the Raf isoforms, B-Raf and C-Raf.

  13. Neuronal nitric oxide contributes to neuroplasticity-associated protein expression through cGMP, protein kinase G, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Eduardo F; Iadecola, Costantino

    2011-05-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) has long been implicated in brain plasticity. However, it is unclear how this short-lived mediator contributes to the long-term molecular changes underlying neuroplasticity, which typically require activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and gene expression. To address this issue, we used a neuroplasticity model based on treatment of neuronal cultures with bicuculline and a model of experience-dependent plasticity in the barrel cortex. In neuronal cultures, NOS inhibition attenuated the bicuculline-induced activation of ERK and the expression of c-Fos, Egr-1, Arc, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins essential for neuroplasticity. Furthermore, inhibition of the NO target soluble guanylyl cyclase or of the cGMP effector kinase protein kinase G (PKG) reduced both ERK activation and plasticity-related protein expression. NOS inhibition did not affect phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a well-established ERK nuclear target, but it attenuated the nuclear accumulation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 and suppressed the activation of Elk-1, another transcription factor target of ERK. Consistent with these in vitro observations, induction of c-Fos, Egr-1, and BDNF was attenuated in the D1 cortical barrel of nNOS(-/-) mice subjected to single whisker experience. These results establish nNOS-derived NO as a key factor in the expression of proteins involved in neuroplasticity, an effect mediated through cGMP, PKG, and ERK signaling. These actions of NO do not depend on CREB phosphorylation but may involve TORC1 and Elk-1. Our data unveil a previously unrecognized link between neuronal NO and the molecular machinery responsible for the sustained synaptic changes underlying neuroplasticity.

  14. The Vaccinia Virus O1 Protein Is Required for Sustained Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Promotes Viral Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lukassen, Susanne; Späth, Michaela; Wolferstätter, Michael; Babel, Eveline; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Sustained activation of the Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in infected cells has been shown to be crucial for full replication efficiency of orthopoxviruses in cell culture. In infected cells, this pathway is mainly activated by the vaccinia virus growth factor (VGF), an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like protein. We show here that chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA), but not modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in infected human 293 cells, although both viruses direct secretion of functional VGF. A CVA mutant lacking the O1L gene (CVA-ΔO1L) demonstrated that the O1 protein was required for sustained upregulation of the ERK1/2 pathway in 293 cells as well as in other mammalian cell lines. The highly conserved orthopoxvirus O1L gene encodes a predicted 78-kDa protein with a hitherto-unknown function. CVA-ΔO1L showed reduced plaque size and an attenuated cytopathic effect (CPE) in infected cell cultures and reduced virulence and spread from lungs to ovaries in intranasally infected BALB/c mice. Reinsertion of an intact O1L gene into MVA, which in its original form harbors a fragmented O1L open reading frame (ORF), restored ERK1/2 activation in 293 cells but did not increase replication and spread of MVA in human or other mammalian cell lines. Thus, the O1 protein was crucial for sustained ERK1/2 activation in CVA- and MVA-infected human cells, complementing the autocrine function of VGF, and enhanced virulence in vivo. PMID:22171261

  15. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase disrupts latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael C; Davis, Jennifer A; Gould, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade has been implicated in a variety of associative conditioning tasks. However, the role of the MAPK-ERK cascades in modulating conditioning is less clear. The authors examined the effect of the potent and selective MAPK-ERK inhibitor SL327 on latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. The results demonstrate that 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg SL327 disrupt latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. These data provide evidence for an essential role of the MAPK-ERK cascade in tasks that modulate the strength of associative conditioning. The results are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanisms that support latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning.

  16. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  17. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  18. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  19. Cloning and characterization of mouse extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase 3 as a unique gene product of 100 kDa.

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, B; Saba-El-Leil, M K; Meloche, S

    2000-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that have a pivotal role in signal transduction. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a mouse homologue of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)3. The mouse Erk3 cDNA encodes a predicted protein of 720 residues, which displays 94% identity with human ERK3. Transcription and translation of this cDNA in vitro generates a 100 kDa protein similar to the human gene product ERK3. Immunoblot analysis with an antibody raised against a unique sequence of ERK3 also recognizes a 100 kDa protein in mouse tissues. A single transcript of Erk3 was detected in every adult mouse tissue examined, with the highest expression being found in the brain. Interestingly, expression of Erk3 mRNA is acutely regulated during mouse development, with a peak of expression observed at embryonic day 11. The mouse Erk3 gene was mapped to a single locus on central mouse chromosome 9, adjacent to the dilute mutation locus and in a region syntenic to human chromosome 15q21. Finally, we provide several lines of evidence to support the existence of a unique Erk3 gene product of 100 kDa in mammalian cells. PMID:10657254

  20. PME-1 protects extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity from protein phosphatase 2A-mediated inactivation in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Puustinen, Pietri; Junttila, Melissa R; Vanhatupa, Sari; Sablina, Anna A; Hector, Melissa E; Teittinen, Kaisa; Raheem, Olayinka; Ketola, Kirsi; Lin, Shujun; Kast, Juergen; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hahn, William C; Westermarck, Jukka

    2009-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activity is regulated by the antagonist function of activating kinases and inactivating protein phosphatases. Sustained ERK pathway activity is commonly observed in human malignancies; however, the mechanisms by which the pathway is protected from phosphatase-mediated inactivation in the tumor tissue remain obscure. Here, we show that methylesterase PME-1-mediated inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A promotes basal ERK pathway activity and is required for efficient growth factor response. Mechanistically, PME-1 is shown to support ERK pathway signaling upstream of Raf, but downstream of growth factor receptors and protein kinase C. In malignant gliomas, PME-1 expression levels correlate with both ERK activity and cell proliferation in vivo. Moreover, PME-1 expression significantly correlates with disease progression in human astrocytic gliomas (n=222). Together, these observations identify PME-1 expression as one mechanism by which ERK pathway activity is maintained in cancer cells and suggest an important functional role for PME-1 in the disease progression of human astrocytic gliomas.

  1. Pb2+ induces gastrin gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transcription factor activator protein 1 in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chien-Pin; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Joseph T; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Shiurba, Robert; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-02-01

    Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 μM lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture.

  2. Research progress of the role and mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) pathway in pathological pain*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-na; Sun, Li-hong; Wang, Min; Yan, Min

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), is an important member of ERK family, which is a subfamily of the large MAPK family. ERK5 is expressed in many tissues, including the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the spinal cord. In this review, we focus on elaborating ERK5-associated pathway in pathological pain, in which the ERK5/CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein) pathway plays a crucial role in the transduction of pain signal and contributes to pain hypersensitivity. ERK5 activation in the spinal dorsal horn occurs mainly in microglia. The activation of ERK5 can be mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We also elaborate the relationship between ERK5 activation and nerve growth factor-tyrosine kinase A (NGF-TrkA), and the connection between ERK5 activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in pathological pain in detail. PMID:27704743

  3. Blockade of ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression and inhibits allergic inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiuqin; Li, Xing; Tao, Shuhua; Xu, Minghui; Ma, Hongmei; Wang, Xiuli

    2013-07-01

    Ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein (ARMS), also known as kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), is a transmembrane protein that has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma through the nerve growth factor (NGF)/tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor signaling pathway. To investigate whether NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is activated in airway inflammation of asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The effects of Kidins220/ARMS on ERK, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung tissues following the allergic airway challenge in mice were assessed by administering anti-ARMS antibody to the mice. Pathological changes in the bronchi and lung tissues were examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α levels were determined using western blot analysis and ELISA and were found to be overexpressed in lung tissues following the allergen challenge. Moreover, after the mice were treated with anti-NGF, anti-TrkA or anti-ARMS, the levels of Kidins220/ARMS, phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α and allergen-induced airway inflammation were downregulated. These results suggested that NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-ERK signaling was activated in airway inflammation induced by the allergic airway challenge, possibly representing a new mechanism in asthma.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 inhibition and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in camptothecin-induced human colon cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minyoung; Young Kim, Sun; Kim, JongGuk; Kim, Hak-Su; Kim, Sang-Man; Kim, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Camptothecins are commonly used chemotherapeutics; in some models, they enhance signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through effects on upstream kinases. To evaluate the impact of camptothecin (CPT) on MAPKs in human colon cancer, we studied HCT116 and CaCo2 colon cancer cells. We found that HCT116 cells highly express mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1), which selectively inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas MKP1 levels were undetectable in CaCo2 cells. CPT did not affect ERK activity in CaCo2 cells, but did induce a striking increase in ERK activity in HCT116 cells in association with a corresponding decrease in MKP1. The reduction in MKP1 expression occurred at a posttranscriptional level and was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, whereas that CPT-induced downregulation of MKP1 was not due to proteasome-mediated degradation. Treatment of HCT116 cells with CPT induced a sustained activation of nuclear ERK, which was required for CPT-induced apoptosis. P38 and JNK activity were unaffected by CPT, suggesting that the effects of CPT are mediated specifically by ERK. These results suggest that targeting dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases in colon cancer cells may be a viable strategy for optimizing camptothecin-based therapeutic protocols. PMID:24005240

  5. 17 beta-estradiol induces spermatogonial proliferation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activity in the lizard (Podarcis s. sicula).

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Paolo; Colucci D'Amato, Luca; Guarino, Fabio; Salvatore, Gaetano; Angelini, Francesco

    2002-02-01

    There are always more evidences indicating that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) is necessary for normal male fertility. We have used a nonmammalian vertebrate model (the lizard Podarcis s. sicula) to investigate the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activity in the testis during the annual sexual cycle and to study whether E(2) exerts a role in the spermatogenesis through ERK1/2 activity. Immunocytochemistry analysis shows that ERK1/2 proteins are present in the nucleus of the spermatogonia (SPG), and in primary (I) spermatocytes (SPC). The annual E(2) profile shows a progressive increase during the active spermatogenesis (from April to June) and a peak in the month of August (spermatogonial mitosis). In parallel, ERK1/2 (molecular weight 44 and 42 kDa, respectively) are highly phosphorylated during the period of active spermatogenesis and in post-refractory period (August) compared with the winter stasis (from November to March). Present results demonstrate that E(2) treatment induces spermatogonial proliferation, possibly via the activation of ERK1/2, and this effect is counteracted by the antiestrogen ICI 182-780.

  6. The Novel Anticancer Drug Hydroxytriolein Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation via a Protein Kinase Cα- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guardiola-Serrano, Francisca; Beteta-Göbel, Roberto; Rodríguez-Lorca, Raquel; Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Terés, Silvia; Alvarez, Rafael; Alonso-Sande, María; Busquets, Xavier; Escribá, Pablo V

    2015-08-01

    Membrane lipid therapy is a novel approach to rationally design or discover therapeutic molecules that target membrane lipids. This strategy has been used to design synthetic fatty acid analogs that are currently under study in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. In this context, and with the aim of controlling tumor cell growth, we have designed and synthesized a hydroxylated analog of triolein, hydroxytriolein (HTO). Both triolein and HTO regulate the biophysical properties of model membranes, and they inhibit the growth of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro. The molecular mechanism underlying the antiproliferative effect of HTO involves regulation of the lipid membrane structure, protein kinase C-α and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, the production of reactive oxygen species, and autophagy. In vivo studies on a mouse model of NSCLC showed that HTO, but not triolein, impairs tumor growth, which could be associated with the relative resistance of HTO to enzymatic degradation. The data presented explain in part why olive oil (whose main component is the triacylglycerol triolein) is preventive but not therapeutic, and they demonstrate a potent effect of HTO against cancer. HTO shows a good safety profile, it can be administered orally, and it does not induce nontumor cell (fibroblast) death in vitro or side effects in mice, reflecting its specificity for cancer cells. For these reasons, HTO is a good candidate as a drug to combat cancer that acts by regulating lipid structure and function in the cancer cell membrane.

  7. Protein kinase C epsilon-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with angiotensin II stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Geng, Jing; Wang, Liqi; Su, Guohai; Zhang, Yun; Ge, Zhiming; Kang, Weiqiang

    2010-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a critical role in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes; however, the molecular mechanism, especially the signaling cascades, in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of Ang II in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Ang II rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) in a time- and dose-dependent manner via Ang II receptor-1 (AT(1)). Furthermore, Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) phosphorylation and translocation was mediated through a signal pathway that involves AT(1) and PKCepsilon, which resulted in transcriptional activation of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C) and hypertrophy. Consequently, inhibiting PKCepsilon or ERK5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced MEF2C activation and hypertrophy of rat cardiomyocytes. These data provide evidence that PKCepsilon-dependent ERK5 phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic traffic mediates Ang II-induced MEF2C activation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PKCepsilon and ERK5 may be potential targets in the treatment of pathological vascular hypertrophy associated with the enhanced renin-angiotensin system. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is not involved in μ-opioid receptor-mediated regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, JIA-MING; WU, NING; SU, RUI-BIN; LI, JIN

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the μ-opioid receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be elucidated. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) has been reported to act as a negative regulator of the ERK cascade (Raf-MEK-ERK) by binding to Raf-1 kinase. In the present study, the role of PEBP in μ-opioid receptor-mediated ERK activation was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary/μ cells and SH-SY5Y cells, as well as in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing other types of G protein-coupled receptors. The acute activation of μ-opioid receptors by morphine or (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly5-ol) enkephalin induced a rapid activation of ERK. Prolonged morphine treatment did not affect the phosphorylation level of ERK compared with control cells, but the phosphorylation level of ERK decreased markedly when cells were precipitated with naloxone following chronic morphine treatment. For the phosphorylation of PEBP, no change was identified under the designated drug treatment and exposure duration. A total of two other types of G protein-coupled receptors, including Gs-coupled dopamine D1 receptors and Gq-coupled adrenergic α1A receptors were also investigated and only the activation of adrenergic α1A receptors induced an upregulated phosphorylation of PEBP, which was protein kinase C activity dependent. Thus, PEBP did not have a significant role in μ-opioid receptor-mediated regulation of ERK. PMID:25573435

  9. ICAM-1-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Drabik, K; Van Wagoner, N J; Lee, S; Choi, C; Dong, Y; Benveniste, E N

    2000-10-15

    ICAM-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily involved in cell adhesion. ICAM-1 is aberrantly expressed by astrocytes in CNS pathologies such as multiple sclerosis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and Alzheimer's disease, suggesting a possible role for ICAM-1 in these disorders. ICAM-1 has been shown to be important for leukocyte diapedesis through brain microvessels and subsequent binding to astrocytes. However, other functional roles for ICAM-1 expression on astrocytes have not been well elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the intracellular signals generated upon ICAM-1 engagement on astrocytes. ICAM-1 ligation by a mAb to rat ICAM-1 induced mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Examination of cytokine protein production revealed that ICAM-1 ligation results in IL-6 secretion by astrocytes, whereas IL-1beta and IL-1alpha protein is expressed intracellularly in astrocytes. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ICAM-1-mediated cytokine expression in astrocytes was tested, as the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was previously shown to be activated upon ICAM-1 engagement. Our results indicate that ERK1/ERK2, as well as p38 MAPK, are activated upon ligation of ICAM-1. Studies using pharmacological inhibitors demonstrate that both p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 are involved in ICAM-1-induced IL-6 expression, whereas only ERK1/2 is important for IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expression. Our data support the role of ICAM-1 on astrocytes as an inflammatory mediator in the CNS and also uncover a novel signal transduction pathway through p38 MAPK upon ICAM-1 ligation.

  10. Adenylate cyclase, cyclic AMP and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 in airway smooth muscle: modulation by protein kinase C and growth serum.

    PubMed Central

    Moughal, N; Stevens, P A; Kong, D; Pyne, S; Pyne, N J

    1995-01-01

    Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. The probable target is the type II adenylate cyclase, which can integrate coincident signals from both PKC and Gs. Therefore, activation of Gs (by cholera-toxin pre-treatment) amplified the bradykinin-stimulated cyclic AMP signal and concurrently attenuated the partial activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) by bradykinin. We have previously demonstrated that, in order to induce full activation of ERK-2 with bradykinin, it is necessary to obliterate PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. We concluded that the cyclic AMP signal limits the magnitude of ERK-2 activation [Pyne, Moughal, Stevens, Tolan and Pyne (1994) Biochem. J. 304, 611-616]. The present study indicates that the bradykinin-stimulated ERK-2 pathway is entirely cyclic AMP-sensitive, and suggests that coincident signal detection by adenylate cyclase may be an important physiological route for the modulation of early mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, the direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity enables bradykinin to induce DNA synthesis, indicating that the PKC-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase limits entry of cells into the cell cycle. These studies suggest that the mitogenicity of an agonist may be governed, in part, by its ability to stimulate an inhibitory cyclic AMP signal pathway in the cell. The activation of adenylate cyclase by PKC appears to be downstream of phospholipase D. However, in cells that were maintained in growth serum (i.e. were not growth-arrested), bradykinin was unable to elicit a PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP response. The lesion in the signal-response coupling was not at the level of either the receptor or phospholipase D, which remain functionally operative and suggests modification occurs at either PKC or adenylate cyclase itself. These studies are discussed with

  11. Blockade of ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression and inhibits allergic inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    NI, XIUQIN; LI, XING; TAO, SHUHUA; XU, MINGHUI; MA, HONGMEI; WANG, XIULI

    2013-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein (ARMS), also known as kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), is a transmembrane protein that has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma through the nerve growth factor (NGF)/tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor signaling pathway. To investigate whether NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is activated in airway inflammation of asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The effects of Kidins220/ARMS on ERK, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung tissues following the allergic airway challenge in mice were assessed by administering anti-ARMS antibody to the mice. Pathological changes in the bronchi and lung tissues were examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α levels were determined using western blot analysis and ELISA and were found to be overexpressed in lung tissues following the allergen challenge. Moreover, after the mice were treated with anti-NGF, anti-TrkA or anti-ARMS, the levels of Kidins220/ARMS, phosphorylated ERK, IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α and allergen-induced airway inflammation were downregulated. These results suggested that NGF/TrkA-Kidins220/ARMS-ERK signaling was activated in airway inflammation induced by the allergic airway challenge, possibly representing a new mechanism in asthma. PMID:24649008

  12. Salvinorin A Pretreatment Preserves Cerebrovascular Autoregulation After Brain Hypoxic/Ischemic Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Su, Diansan; Riley, John; Armstead, William M.; Liu, Renyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia during infant congenital heart surgery is not uncommon, and may induce devastating neurologic disabilities persistent over the lifespan. Hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is thought to be an important contributor to neurological damage. No pharmacological agents have been found to prevent this. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, is thought to contribute to ischemic preconditioning. We investigated whether pretreatment with salvinorin A, the only natural non-opioid kappa receptor agonist, could preserve autoregulation of the pial artery via MAPK. Methods The response of the pial artery to hypotension and hypercapnia was monitored in piglets equipped with a closed cranial window before and after hypoxia and ischemia in the presence or absence of U0126, an inhibitor for the protein kinase upstream of ERK, sp600125, an inhibitor of c-JNK or sb203580, an inhibitor of p38. Salvinorin A (10 μg/kg IV) was administered 30 minutes before hypoxia/ischemia in salvinorin-treated animals. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected before and 30 minutes after salvinorin A administration for the measurement of MAPK. Data (n=5) were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Pial artery dilation to hypercapnia and hypotension was blunted after hypoxia/ischemia, but preserved well by pretreatment with salvinorin A. U0126, but not sp600125 or sb203580, abolished the preservative effects of salvinorin A on cerebral vascular autoregulation to hypotension and hypercapnia. The ratio of pERK/ERK in cerebrospinal fluid increased significantly in salvinorin-treated animals, which was inhibited by U0126. Conclusions Salvinorin A pretreatment preserves autoregulation of the pial artery to hypotension and hypercapnia after hypoxia/ischemia via ERK in a piglet model. PMID:22075021

  13. Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibition results in biphasic alteration of epidermal homeostasis with keratinocytic apoptosis and pigmentation disorders.

    PubMed

    Schad, Karin; Baumann Conzett, Katrin; Zipser, Marie C; Enderlin, Valérie; Kamarashev, Jivko; French, Lars E; Dummer, Reinhard

    2010-02-01

    Raf/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling pathway is constitutively activated in melanoma. AZD6244 blocks MEK1/2, inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. We focus on associated cutaneous toxicity and we attempt to understand the underlying pathophysiology and design treatment strategies. Dermatologic conditions of 22 patients with unresectable melanoma stage III/IV in a phase II trial were evaluated. Thirteen patients received AZD6244 initially, and nine patients were treated with AZD6244 following tumor progression with temozolomide. Biopsies were compared with matched controls in normal skin. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Half-side treatment of acute skin toxicity compared therapeutic options. Nineteen of 22 (86%) AZD6244-treated patients presented with cutaneous eruptions. Seventeen patients (77%) developed acute papulopustular rash. Chronic skin changes included xerosis, paronychia, and fissured fingertips, resembling cutaneous toxicity of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition. In addition, we observed reduced pigmentation of hair and skin. Histology of acute skin lesions revealed a significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes (P = 0.0008), focal neutrophilic infiltrates, destruction of the adnexal structures by neutrophils, and reduced cytokeratins. A significant proliferation shift from basal to suprabasal keratinocytes was shown in acute and chronic lesions. The number and viability of melanocytes was not affected. Corticosteroids plus antibacterial topical therapy ameliorate acute skin toxicity. AZD6244-associated skin reactions partly overlap with those observed upon epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition. Additionally, pigmentation of skin and hair is affected. The interruption of the MEK signaling pathway results in an acute keratinocyte stress response with disturbed epidermal homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue damage. Chronic adaptation controls inflammatory tissue damage but

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor-dependent Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway by DJ-1 Protein through Its Direct Binding to c-Raf Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato-Ose, Izumi; Murata, Hiroaki; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of cysteine at position 106 (Cys-106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1. Although DJ-1 requires activated Ras for its oncogenic activity and although it activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, a cell growth pathway downstream of Ras, the precise mechanism underlying activation of the ERK pathway by DJ-1 is still not known. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to the kinase domain of c-Raf but not to Ras and that Cys-106 mutant DJ-1 bound to c-Raf more weakly than did wild-type DJ-1. Co-localization of DJ-1 with c-Raf in the cytoplasm was enhanced in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated cells. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression attenuated the phosphorylation level of c-Raf in EGF-treated cells, resulting in reduced activation of MEK and ERK1/2. Although EGF-treated DJ-1 knock-out cells also showed attenuated c-Raf activation, reintroduction of wild-type DJ-1, but not C106S DJ-1, into DJ-1 knock-out cells restored c-Raf activation in a DJ-1 binding activity in a c-Raf-dependent manner. DJ-1 was not responsible for activation of c-Raf in phorbol myristate acetate-treated cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 stimulated self-phosphorylation activity of c-Raf in vitro, but DJ-1 was not a target for Raf kinase. Oxidation of Cys-106 in DJ-1 was not affected by EGF treatment. These findings showed that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the EGF/Ras/ERK pathway through targeting c-Raf. PMID:26048984

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor-dependent Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway by DJ-1 Protein through Its Direct Binding to c-Raf Protein.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato-Ose, Izumi; Murata, Hiroaki; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-07-17

    DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of cysteine at position 106 (Cys-106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1. Although DJ-1 requires activated Ras for its oncogenic activity and although it activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, a cell growth pathway downstream of Ras, the precise mechanism underlying activation of the ERK pathway by DJ-1 is still not known. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to the kinase domain of c-Raf but not to Ras and that Cys-106 mutant DJ-1 bound to c-Raf more weakly than did wild-type DJ-1. Co-localization of DJ-1 with c-Raf in the cytoplasm was enhanced in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated cells. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression attenuated the phosphorylation level of c-Raf in EGF-treated cells, resulting in reduced activation of MEK and ERK1/2. Although EGF-treated DJ-1 knock-out cells also showed attenuated c-Raf activation, reintroduction of wild-type DJ-1, but not C106S DJ-1, into DJ-1 knock-out cells restored c-Raf activation in a DJ-1 binding activity in a c-Raf-dependent manner. DJ-1 was not responsible for activation of c-Raf in phorbol myristate acetate-treated cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 stimulated self-phosphorylation activity of c-Raf in vitro, but DJ-1 was not a target for Raf kinase. Oxidation of Cys-106 in DJ-1 was not affected by EGF treatment. These findings showed that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the EGF/Ras/ERK pathway through targeting c-Raf.

  16. Effect of sod (superoxide dismutase) protein supplementation in semen extenders on motility, viability, acrosome status and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) protein phosphorylation of chilled stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Cocchia, N; Pasolini, M P; Mancini, R; Petrazzuolo, O; Cristofaro, I; Rosapane, I; Sica, A; Tortora, G; Lorizio, R; Paraggio, G; Mancini, A

    2011-04-15

    New studies are underway to find new methods for supporting longer storage of cooled stallion semen. It is known that high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause sperm pathology. The metalloprotein superoxide dismutase (SOD) is responsible for H(2)O(2) and O(2) production, by dismutation of superoxide radicals. The aim of this study is to assess the quality of chilled stallion semen processed with extenders containing SOD at different concentrations as antioxidant additives. A total of 80 ejaculates collected from 5 standardbred stallions was divided into 5 aliquots treated as: native semen (control 1); native semen diluted 1:3 with Kenney semen extender (control 2); spermatozoa diluted after centrifugation in extender without (control 3) or with SOD at 25 IU/ml (experimental 1) or 50 IU/ml (experimental 2). Each sample was analyzed for motility, viability and acrosome status, immediately after semen preparation and again after storage at 5 °C for 24 h, 48 h and 7 2h. Acrosome integrity was evaluated by Chlortetracycline (CTC) and Fluorescent-labeled peanut lectin agglutinin (PNA-FITC conjugated staining). A proteomic approach of quantifying extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of oxidative stress. In all samples sperm progressive motility and sperm acrosomal integrity showed a significant reduction between fresh and cooled spermatozoa at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Quality parameters of sperm were significantly higher (Progressive Motility P < 0.01; Viability P < 0.001) in aliquots supplemented with SOD. ERK phosphorylation was statistically higher (P < 0.01) in aliquots without SOD. The Authors concluded that addition of SOD to semen extenders improves the quality of chilled equine semen and reduces ERK activation.

  17. Effects of resistance exercise intensity on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling has been shown to be increased after heavy resistance exercise and suggested to play a role in the hypertrophic adaptations that are known to occur with training. However, the role that ERK1/2 may play in response to lower intensities of resistance exercise is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance exercise intensity on ERK1/2 activity in human skeletal muscle. Twelve recreationally active men completed separate bouts of single-legged resistance exercise with 8-10 repetitions (reps) at 80-85% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (85%) and 18-20 reps at 60-65% 1RM (65%) in a randomized crossover fashion. For both resistance exercise sessions, vastus lateralis biopsies and blood draws were taken immediately before exercise (PRE) and at 30 minutes (30MPST), 2 hours (2HRPST), and 6 hours (6HRPST) post exercise, with an additional blood draw occurring immediately after exercise (POST). The phosphorylated levels of pIGF-1R, pMEK1, pERK1/2, and activated Elk-1 were assessed by phosphoELISA, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses used a 2 × 4 (muscle responses) and 2 × 5 (serum responses) multivariate analysis of variance on delta values from baseline (p < 0.05). Both exercise intensities significantly increased the activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, ERK1/2, and Elk-1, with peak activity occurring at 2HRPST (p < 0.001). However, 65% resulted in a preferential increase in IGF-1R and Elk-1 activation when compared with 85% (p < 0.05). No differences were observed for serum IGF-1 levels regardless of intensity and time. These findings demonstrate that resistance exercise upregulates ERK1/2 signaling in a manner that does not appear to be preferentially dependent on exercise intensity.

  18. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  19. The suppressive effect of an intra-prefrontal cortical infusion of BDNF on cocaine-seeking is Trk receptor and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Timothy W; Shi, Xiangdang; Sun, Wei-Lun; McGinty, Jacqueline F

    2011-01-19

    Cocaine-mediated neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortical-nucleus accumbens pathway underlie drug-seeking in animals with a cocaine self-administration (SA) history. Neuroplasticity in the cortico-accumbens pathway is regulated, in part, by the expression and availability of neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF. We have previously demonstrated that infusion of BDNF into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) immediately after the last of 10 cocaine SA sessions attenuates contextual, cue- and cocaine prime-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking (Berglind et al., 2007) and normalizes cocaine-induced disruption of glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (Berglind et al., 2009). In the present study, the suppressive effect of intra-dmPFC BDNF on cocaine-seeking is shown to depend on Trk receptor-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the dmPFC. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, K252a, and the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibitor, U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene), prevented BDNF's suppressive effects on cocaine-seeking. Vehicle-infused rats with a cocaine SA history showed significant decreases in ERK and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not Akt, phosphorylation after the final cocaine SA session that were reversed by intra-dmPFC BDNF. Additionally, BDNF's ability to normalize cocaine-mediated decreases in ERK and CREB phosphorylation was blocked by U0126, demonstrating that ERK/MAPK activation mediated the behavioral effects. This study elucidates a mechanism whereby BDNF/TrkB (tropomyosin receptor kinase B) activates ERK-regulated CREB phosphorylation in the dmPFC to counteract the neuroadaptations induced by cocaine SA and subsequent relapse to cocaine-seeking.

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation in spinal cord contributes to pain hypersensitivity in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Ling, Bing-Yu; Xu, Lan; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2014-02-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. The symptom of pain can become a major factor that decreases the quality of life of patients with diabetes, while effective treatment is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the changes of pain threshold in the early stage of diabetes in db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that (1) db/db mice (with a leptin receptor-null mutation and characterized by obesity and hyperglycemia) showed hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli at the early stage of diabetes; (2) phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), but not total ERK in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in db/db mice significantly increased compared with wild-type mice. The increased pERK immunoreactivity occurred in both NeuN-expressing neurons and GFAP-expressing astrocytes, but not in Iba-1-expressing microglia; (3) both single and consecutive (for 5 days) intrathecal injections of U0126 (2 nmol per day), a selective MEK (an ERK kinase) inhibitor beginning at 8 weeks of age, attenuated the bilateral mechanical allodynia in the von-Frey test and heat hyperalgesia in Hargreave's test; and (4) db/db mice also displayed increased nocifensive behavior during the formalin test, and this was blocked by intrathecal injection of U0126. Also, the expression of pERK1 and pERK2 was upregulated following the formalin injection. Our results suggested that the activation of ERK in spinal neurons and astrocytes is correlated with pain hypersensitivity of the type 2 diabetes animal model. Inhibiting the ERK pathway may provide a new therapy for pain control in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Reversing multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activity

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, SIYUAN; WANG, YALI; RUAN, WENWEN; WANG, XIAOMIN; PAN, CHAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is involved in conventional reversal methods and whether the inhibitors of the ERK signaling pathway reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The sensitivities of SMMC7721 and BEL7402, and the MDR SMMC7721/Adriamycin (ADM) and BEL7402/ADM HCC cell lines to ADM were evaluated by CellTiter-Glo® luminescent cell viability assay through calculating the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ADM. In addition, the expression levels of ERK1/2 and phosphorylated (p)ERK1/2 were determined by western blot analysis subsequent to treatment of the cells with PD98059, an MEK inhibitor, or sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor. The results revealed that the ADM IC50 for the SMMC7721/ADM cells was 16.44 times higher than that of the SMMC7721 cells (P<0.05), and the ADM IC50 for the BEL7402/ADM cells was 20.34 times higher than that of the BEL7402 cells (P<0.05). Following treatment with PD98059 or sorafenib, the expression levels of pERK1/2 in the MDR cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent to treatment with 5 μM PD98059, the ADM IC50 values for the SMMC7721/ADM and BEL7402/ADM cells were reduced to 0.8±0.056 and 1.583±0.284 μg/ml, respectively. Following treatment with 2.5 μM sorafenib, the ADM IC50 values for the SMMC7721/ADM and BEL7402/ADM cells were reduced to 0.264±0.049 and 1.099±0.135 μg/ml, respectively. Subsequent to incubation with 4 μg/ml cyclosporine A (CsA), a classic MDR reversal agent, the ADM IC50 values in the SMMC7721/ADM and BEL7402/ADM cells were reduced to 0.349±0.023 and 0.427±0.039 μg/ml, respectively. CsA treatment also increased the expression levels of pERK1/2 without affecting the total ERK1/2 levels. Therefore, the inhibition of ERK signaling pathway activity may be an important method to reverse the MDR of HCC cells, but is not unique. PMID:25295120

  2. 5-HT1A receptor-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is modulated by regulator of G protein signaling protein 19.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Terauchi, Akiko; Yee, Christopher H; Umemori, Hisashi; Traynor, John R

    2014-09-01

    The 5-HT1A receptor is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates G proteins of the Gαi/o family. 5-HT1A receptors expressed in the raphe, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are implicated in the control of mood and are targets for anti-depressant drugs. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are members of a large family that play important roles in signal transduction downstream of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The main role of RGS proteins is to act as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) to dampen or negatively regulate GPCR-mediated signaling. We have shown that a mouse expressing Gαi2 that is insensitive to all RGS protein GAP activity has an anti-depressant-like phenotype due to increased signaling of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, thus implicating the 5-HT1A receptor-Gαi2 complex as an important target. Here we confirm that RGS proteins act as GAPs to regulate signaling to adenylate cyclase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of the 5-HT1A receptor, using RGS-insensitive Gαi2 protein expressed in C6 cells. We go on to use short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to show that RGS19 is responsible for the GAP activity in C6 cells and also that RGS19 acts as a GAP for 5-HT1A receptor signaling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary hippocampal neurons. In addition, in both cell types the synergy between 5-HT1A receptor and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 in stimulating the MAPK pathway is enhanced following shRNA reduction of RGS19 expression. Thus RGS19 may be a viable new target for anti-depressant medications.

  3. Altered Levels of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Proteins in Postmortem Frontal Cortex of Individuals with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Wang, Yun; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jianling; Chen, Guang; Guitart, Xavier; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway has been implicated in processes such as neuronal plasticity and resilience in psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BPD), and schizophrenia. The extent of the possible involvement of this pathway in psychiatric disorders remains unknown, as does its potential utility as a pharmacological target for the future development of novel therapeutics. Methods Western blot analyses were used to measure levels of different proteins—Rap1, B-Raf, MEK1, MEK2, ERK1/2, RSK1, CREB, NSE, and beta-actin—in the postmortem frontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia, MDD, and BPD, as well as healthy non-psychiatric controls. Results Levels of most studied protein members of the ERK cascade were lower in individuals with psychiatric disorders than controls; differences between psychiatric groups were not statistically significant. In general, protein levels were lower in individuals with schizophrenia than in those with BPD or MDD, but protein levels varied across groups. Limitations The small number of individuals in each diagnostic group may limit our interpretation of the results. Factors such as postmortem interval, medication status at time of death, and mood state at time of death may also have influenced the findings. Discussion The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ERK pathway is implicated in reduced neuronal plasticity associated with the course of these psychiatric illnesses. The results warrant an expanded investigation into the activity of other members of this pathway as well as other brain areas of interest. PMID:19913919

  4. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Protein Kinase, and Calcineurin Regulate Transient Receptor Potential M3 (TRPM3) Induced Activation of AP-1.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Andrea; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald

    2017-01-23

    Stimulation of transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) cation channels with pregnenolone sulfate induces an influx of Ca(2+) ions into the cells and a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, leading to the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active mutant of the Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin attenuated pregnenolone sulfate-induced AP-1 activation in TRPM3-expressing cells. Likewise, expression of the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin reduced AP-1 activity in the cells following stimulation of TRPM3 channels. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 has been shown to attenuate TRPM3-mediated AP-1 activation. Here, we show that pregnenolone sulfate-induced stimulation of TRPM3 triggers the phosphorylation and activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2). Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that stimulation of ERK1/2 is essential for the activation of AP-1 in cells expressing stimulated TRPM3 channels. ERK1/2 is required for the activation of the transcription factor c-Jun, a key component of the AP-1 transcription factor, and regulates c-Fos promoter activity. In addition, we identified c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) as a second signal transducer of activated TRPM3 channels. Together, the data show that calcineurin and the protein kinases ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 are important regulators within the signaling cascade connecting TRPM3 channel stimulation with increased AP-1-regulated transcription. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Ras-Induced and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 and 2 Phosphorylation-Dependent Isomerization of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP)-PEST by PIN1 Promotes FAK Dephosphorylation by PTP-PEST ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanhua; Yang, Weiwei; Xia, Yan; Hawke, David; Liu, David X.; Lu, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST is a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration. However, the mechanism by which PTP-PEST is regulated in response to oncogenic signaling to dephosphorylate its substrates remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that activated Ras induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2-dependent phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at S571, which recruits PIN1 to bind to PTP-PEST. Isomerization of the phosphorylated PTP-PEST by PIN1 increases the interaction between PTP-PEST and FAK, which leads to the dephosphorylation of FAK Y397 and the promotion of migration, invasion, and metastasis of v-H-Ras-transformed cells. These findings uncover an important mechanism for the regulation of PTP-PEST in activated Ras-induced tumor progression. PMID:21876001

  6. Ras-induced and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 phosphorylation-dependent isomerization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST by PIN1 promotes FAK dephosphorylation by PTP-PEST.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhua; Yang, Weiwei; Xia, Yan; Hawke, David; Liu, David X; Lu, Zhimin

    2011-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST is a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration. However, the mechanism by which PTP-PEST is regulated in response to oncogenic signaling to dephosphorylate its substrates remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that activated Ras induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2-dependent phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at S571, which recruits PIN1 to bind to PTP-PEST. Isomerization of the phosphorylated PTP-PEST by PIN1 increases the interaction between PTP-PEST and FAK, which leads to the dephosphorylation of FAK Y397 and the promotion of migration, invasion, and metastasis of v-H-Ras-transformed cells. These findings uncover an important mechanism for the regulation of PTP-PEST in activated Ras-induced tumor progression.

  7. Small G Proteins Rac1 and Ras Regulate Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase 5 (PP5)·Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Complexes Involved in the Feedback Regulation of Raf1*

    PubMed Central

    Mazalouskas, Matthew D.; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Weber, David J.; Zimmer, Danna B.; Honkanen, Richard E.; Wadzinski, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, PPP5C) is known to interact with the chaperonin heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular signaling cascades that control diverse cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and apoptosis. Here, we identify PP5 in stable complexes with extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Studies using mutant proteins reveal that the formation of PP5·ERK1 and PP5·ERK2 complexes partially depends on HSP90 binding to PP5 but does not require PP5 or ERK1/2 activity. However, PP5 and ERK activity regulates the phosphorylation state of Raf1 kinase, an upstream activator of ERK signaling. Whereas expression of constitutively active Rac1 promotes the assembly of PP5·ERK1/2 complexes, acute activation of ERK1/2 fails to influence the phosphatase-kinase interaction. Introduction of oncogenic HRas (HRasV12) has no effect on PP5-ERK1 binding but selectively decreases the interaction of PP5 with ERK2, in a manner that is independent of PP5 and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) activity, yet paradoxically requires ERK2 activity. Additional studies conducted with oncogenic variants of KRas4B reveal that KRasL61, but not KRasV12, also decreases the PP5-ERK2 interaction. The expression of wild type HRas or KRas proteins fails to reduce PP5-ERK2 binding, indicating that the effect is specific to HRasV12 and KRasL61 gain-of-function mutations. These findings reveal a novel, differential responsiveness of PP5-ERK1 and PP5-ERK2 interactions to select oncogenic Ras variants and also support a role for PP5·ERK complexes in regulating the feedback phosphorylation of PP5-associated Raf1. PMID:24371145

  8. Targeting of a novel Ca+2/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is essential for extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated signaling in differentiated smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Marganski, William A; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Je, Hyun-Dong; Gallant, Cynthia; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2005-09-16

    Subcellular targeting of kinases controls their activation and access to substrates. Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is known to regulate differentiated smooth muscle cell (dSMC) contractility, the importance of targeting in this regulation is not clear. The present study investigated the function in dSMCs of a novel variant of the gamma isoform of CaMKII that contains a potential targeting sequence in its association domain (CaMKIIgamma G-2). Antisense knockdown of CaMKIIgamma G-2 inhibited extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation, myosin phosphorylation, and contractile force in dSMCs. Confocal colocalization analysis revealed that in unstimulated dSMCs CaMKIIgamma G-2 is bound to a cytoskeletal scaffold consisting of interconnected vimentin intermediate filaments and cytosolic dense bodies. On activation with a depolarizing stimulus, CaMKIIgamma G-2 is released into the cytosol and subsequently targeted to cortical dense plaques. Comparison of phosphorylation and translocation time courses indicates that, after CaMKIIgamma G-2 activation, and before CaMKIIgamma G-2 translocation, vimentin is phosphorylated at a CaMKII-specific site. Differential centrifugation demonstrated that phosphorylation of vimentin in dSMCs is not sufficient to cause its disassembly, in contrast to results in cultured cells. Loading dSMCs with a decoy peptide containing the polyproline sequence within the association domain of CaMKIIgamma G-2 inhibited targeting. Furthermore, prevention of CaMKIIgamma G-2 targeting led to significant inhibition of ERK activation as well as contractility. Thus, for the first time, this study demonstrates the importance of CaMKII targeting in dSMC signaling and identifies a novel targeting function for the association domain in addition to its known role in oligomerization.

  9. Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and tristetraprolin (TTP) comprehensively regulate injury-induced immediate early gene (IEG) response in in vitro liver organ culture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Doan Duy Hai; Koch, Alexandra; Saran, Shashank; Armbrecht, Marcel; Ewald, Florian; Koch, Martina; Wahlicht, Tom; Wirth, Dagmar; Braun, Armin; Nashan, Björn; Gaestel, Matthias; Tamura, Teruko

    2016-05-01

    Differentiated hepatocytes are long-lived and normally do not undergo cell division, however they have the unique capacity to autonomously decide their replication fate after liver injury. In this context, the key players of liver regeneration immediately after injury have not been adequately studied. Using an in vitro liver culture system, we show that after liver injury, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were activated within 15 min and continued to be phosphorylated for more than 2h. Both p38MAPK and Erk1/2 were activated at the edge of the cut as well as on the liver surface where the mesothelial cell sheet expresses several cytokines. Notably, in human liver Erk1/2 was also activated under the mesothelial cell sheet shortly after liver resections. Furthermore, in in vitro liver slice culture immediate early genes (IEGs) were upregulated within 1-2 h and the S phase marker proliferation-cell-nuclear-antigen (PCNA) appeared 24 h after injury. Although Erk1/2 was activated after injury, in MK2 depleted liver a set of IEGs, such as Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc and proliferation marker gene Ki67 were not induced. In addition, in immortalized hepatocyte cells, THLE-2, the same subset of genes was upregulated upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. The protein level of tristetraprolin (TTP), a substrate for MK2 that plays a role in mRNA degradation, was increased in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. In this context, the depletion of TTP gene rescued Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc upregulation in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. These data imply that MK2 pathway is positively involved in Erk1/2 induced IEG response after liver injury. These data also suggest that in vitro liver culture may be a useful tool for measuring the proliferation potential of hepatocytes in individual liver.

  10. Pharmacological Activation Gi/o Protein Increases Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Production through Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway in Primary Cultured Rat Cortical Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Matsumoto, Chie; Azuma, Honami; Taki, Sayaka; Takebayashi, Minoru; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Morioka, Norimitsu

    2017-01-01

    A significant reduction of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, clarification of the mechanism of GDNF production, and modulating brain GDNF levels could be a novel therapeutic approach. A previous study demonstrated that antidepressant amitriptyline-induced GDNF production was significantly inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gi/o protein inhibitor in astrocytes, the main source of GDNF in the brain. However, it is not known whether direct activation of Gi/o protein might induce GDNF expression, and what mechanisms might be involved after Gi/o protein activation. The current study investigated Gi/o protein-initiated GDNF production in rat cortical astrocytes using activators that directly activate Gi/o protein, mastoparan and compound48/80. Treatment of astrocytes with either mastoparan or compound48/80 increased GDNF mRNA expression at 3 and 6 h, and GDNF protein release at 24 h. Treatment of astrocyte with either mastoparan or compound48/80 increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression as well as GDNF. Mastoparan and compound48/80-induced GDNF mRNA expression were significantly inhibited by not only PTX, but also fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor. In fact, both FGFR substrate2α (FRS2α) and ERK phosphorylation were increased by treatment with either mastoparan or compound48/80, and these were significantly blocked by PTX. Thus, direct, receptor-independent Gi/o protein activation increases GDNF production through FGFR/ERK signaling pathway. The current results indicate a critical role of Gi/o signaling in the regulation of GDNF expression in astrocytes.

  11. 8-Amino-adenosine induces loss of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and Akt kinase: role in induction of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Ma, Chunguang; Gandhi, Varsha; Platanias, Leonidas C; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2005-04-01

    Multiple myeloma is a slowly proliferating B-cell malignancy that accumulates apoptosis-resistant and replication-quiescent cell populations, posing a challenge for current chemotherapeutics that target rapidly replicating cells. Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in need of new therapeutic approaches. The purine nucleoside analogue, 8-amino-adenosine (8-NH2-Ado), exhibits potent activity in preclinical studies, inducing apoptosis in several multiple myeloma cell lines. This cytotoxic effect requires phosphorylation of 8-NH2-Ado to its triphosphate form, 8-amino-ATP, and results in a concomitant loss of endogenous ATP levels. Here, we show the novel effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of key cellular signaling molecules. Multiple myeloma cells treated with 8-NH2-Ado exhibit a dramatic loss of phosphorylation of several important signaling proteins, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt kinase. Cells depleted of ATP independent of 8-NH2-Ado do not exhibit the same decrease in phosphorylation of vital cellular proteins. Therefore, the significant shifts in endogenous ATP pools caused by 8-NH2-Ado treatment cannot account for the changes in phosphorylation levels. Instead, 8-NH2-Ado may influence the activity of select regulatory protein kinases and/or phosphatases, with preliminary data suggesting that protein phophatase 2A activity is affected by 8-NH2-Ado. The distinctive effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of cellular proteins is a novel phenomenon for a nucleoside analogue drug and is unique to 8-NH2-Ado among this class of drugs. The kinetics of 8-NH2-Ado-mediated changes in phosphorylation levels of critical prosurvival and apoptosis-regulating proteins suggests that the modulation of these proteins by dephosphorylation at early time points may be an important mechanistic step in 8-NH2-Ado-induced apoptosis.

  12. Rapid Turnover of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 3 by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Defines a Novel Paradigm of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulation during Cellular Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Philippe; Rodier, Geneviève; Pelletier, Stéphane; Pellerin, Johanne; Meloche, Sylvain

    2003-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are stable enzymes that are mainly regulated by phosphorylation and subcellular targeting. Here we report that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3), unlike other MAP kinases, is an unstable protein that is constitutively degraded in proliferating cells with a half-life of 30 min. The proteolysis of ERK3 is executed by the proteasome and requires ubiquitination of the protein. Contrary to other protein kinases, the catalytic activity of ERK3 is not responsible for its short half-life. Instead, analysis of ERK1/ERK3 chimeras revealed the presence of two destabilization regions (NDR1 and -2) in the N-terminal lobe of the ERK3 kinase domain that are both necessary and sufficient to target ERK3 and heterologous proteins for proteasomal degradation. To assess the physiological relevance of the rapid turnover of ERK3, we monitored the expression of the kinase in different cellular models of differentiation. We observed that ERK3 markedly accumulates during differentiation of PC12 and C2C12 cells into the neuronal and muscle lineage, respectively. The accumulation of ERK3 during myogenic differentiation is associated with the time-dependent stabilization of the protein. Terminal skeletal muscle differentiation is accompanied by cell cycle withdrawal. Interestingly, we found that expression of stabilized forms of ERK3 causes G1 arrest in NIH 3T3 cells. We propose that ERK3 biological activity is regulated by its cellular abundance through the control of protein stability. PMID:12808096

  13. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and protein kinase C activation induces the invasion of highly metastatic breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eun, So Young; Ko, Young Shin; Park, Sang Won; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hye Jung

    2015-07-01

    Tumor metastasis is considered the main cause of mortality in cancer patients, thus it is important to investigate the differences between high- and low-metastatic cancer cells. Our previous study showed that the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 released higher levels of ATP and exhibited higher P2Y2R activity compared with the low-metastatic breast cancer cell line MCF-7. In addition, P2Y2R activation by ATP released from MDA-MB-231 cells induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, lysyl oxidase secretion and collagen crosslinking, generating a receptive microenvironment for pre-metastatic niche formation. Thus, in the present study, we investigated which P2Y2R-related signaling pathways are involved in the invasion of breast cancer cells. The highly metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 showed higher invasion than MCF-7 and T47D cells at a basal level, which was abolished through P2Y2R knockdown or in the presence of apyrase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides. MDA-MB-231 cells also showed high levels of mesenchymal markers, such as Snail, Vimentin and N-cadherin, but not the epithelial marker E-cadherin and this expression was inhibited through ATP degradation or P2Y2R knockdown. Moreover, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB231 cells exhibited higher ERK and PKC phosphorylation levels than T47D and MCF-7 cells and upregulated phospho-ERK and -PKC levels in MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly downregulated by apyrase or P2Y2R knockdown. Specific inhibitors of ERK, PKC and PLC markedly reduced the invasion and levels of mesenchymal marker expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggest that over-activated ERK and PKC pathways are involved in the P2Y2R-mediated invasion of breast cancer cells.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1act/tubulin interaction is an important determinant of mitotic stability in cultured HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia-Ning; Shafee, Norazizah; Vickery, Larry; Kaluz, Stefan; Ru, Ning; Stanbridge, Eric J

    2010-07-15

    Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a major role in neoplastic cell transformation. Using a proteomics approach, we identified alpha tubulin and beta tubulin as proteins that interact with activated MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), a central MAPK regulatory kinase. Confocal analysis revealed spatiotemporal control of MEK1-tubulin colocalization that was most prominent in the mitotic spindle apparatus in variant HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Peptide arrays identified the critical role of positively charged amino acids R108, R113, R160, and K157 on the surface of MEK1 for tubulin interaction. Overexpression of activated MEK1 caused defects in spindle arrangement, chromosome segregation, and ploidy. In contrast, chromosome polyploidy was reduced in the presence of an activated MEK1 mutant (R108A, R113A) that disrupted interactions with tubulin. Our findings indicate the importance of signaling by activated MEK1-tubulin in spindle organization and chromosomal instability. (c)2010 AACR.

  15. Transferrin receptor 2 and HFE regulate furin expression via mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) signaling. Implications for transferrin-dependent hepcidin regulation

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Maura; Luscieti, Sara; Gandini, Valentina; Maccarinelli, Federica; Finazzi, Dario; Silvestri, Laura; Roetto, Antonella; Arosio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background Impaired regulation of hepcidin in response to iron is the cause of genetic hemochromatosis associated with defects of HFE and transferrin receptor 2. However, the role of these proteins in the regulation of hepcidin expression is unclear. Design and Methods Hepcidin expression, SMAD and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) phosphorylation and furin expression were analyzed in hepatic HepG2 cells in which HFE and transferrin receptor 2 were down-regulated or expressed, or furin activity specifically inhibited. Furin expression was also analyzed in the liver of transferrin receptor 2 null mice. Results We showed that the silencing of HFE and transferrin receptor 2 reduced both Erk phosphorylation and furin expression, that the exogenous expression of the two enhanced the induction of phosphoErk1/2 and furin by holotransferrin, but that this did not occur when the pathogenic HFE mutant C282Y was expressed. Furin, phosphoErk1/2 and phosphoSMAD1/5/8 were down-regulated also in transferrin receptor 2-null mice. Treatment of HepG2 cells with an inhibitor of furin activity caused a strong suppression of hepcidin mRNA, probably due to the inhibition of bone morphogenic protein maturation. Conclusions The data indicate that transferrin receptor 2 and HFE are involved in holotransferrin-dependent signaling for the regulation of furin which involved Erk phosphorylation. Furin in turn may control hepcidin expression. PMID:20634490

  16. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  17. Structure-Based Assignment of Ile, Leu, and Val Methyl Groups in the Active and Inactive Forms of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Warner, Lisa R; Latham, Michael P; Ahn, Natalie G; Pardi, Arthur

    2015-07-21

    Resonance assignments are the first step in most NMR studies of protein structure, function, and dynamics. Standard protein assignment methods employ through-bond backbone experiments on uniformly (13)C/(15)N-labeled proteins. For larger proteins, this through-bond assignment procedure often breaks down due to rapid relaxation and spectral overlap. The challenges involved in studies of larger proteins led to efficient methods for (13)C labeling of side chain methyl groups, which have favorable relaxation properties and high signal-to-noise. These methyls are often still assigned by linking them to the previously assigned backbone, thus limiting the applications for larger proteins. Here, a structure-based procedure is described for assignment of (13)C(1)H3-labeled methyls by comparing distance information obtained from three-dimensional methyl-methyl nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) spectroscopy with the X-ray structure. The Ile, Leu, or Val (ILV) methyl type is determined by through-bond experiments, and the methyl-methyl NOE data are analyzed in combination with the known structure. A hierarchical approach was employed that maps the largest observed "NOE-methyl cluster" onto the structure. The combination of identification of ILV methyl type with mapping of the NOE-methyl clusters greatly simplifies the assignment process. This method was applied to the inactive and active forms of the 42-kDa ILV (13)C(1)H3-methyl labeled extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), leading to assignment of 60% of the methyls, including 90% of Ile residues. A series of ILV to Ala mutants were analyzed, which helped confirm the assignments. These assignments were used to probe the local and long-range effects of ligand binding to inactive and active ERK2.

  18. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase, receptor interacting protein, and reactive oxygen species regulate shikonin-induced autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Zhang, Zhenxing; Chen, Yicheng; Shu, Hong-Bing; Li, Wenhua

    2014-09-05

    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese medicinal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, shows potential to be a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Our previous data demonstrate that high doses (about 6 μM) of shikonin induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Here, we discovered that a low dose of shikonin (2.5 μM) and a short treatment time (12h) induced autophagy, as evidenced by the upregulation of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II, the formation of acidic autophagic vacuoles (AVOs), and the punctate fluorescence pattern of GFP-LC3 protein. Next, we investigated the mechanism and found reactive oxygen species accumulation after shikonin treatment. The reactive oxygen species scavengers NAC and Tiron completely blocked autophagy. We further found activation of ERK by generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of RIP pathway, which are at least partially connected to shikonin-induced autophagy. Moreover, experiments in vivo revealed similar results: shikonin caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and phospho-ERK and thus induced autophagy in a tumor xenograft model. These findings suggest that shikonin is an inducer of autophagy and may be a promising clinical antitumor drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nicotine shifts the temporal activation of hippocampal protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 to enhance long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Gould, Thomas J; Wilkinson, Derek S; Yildirim, Emre; Poole, Rachel L F; Leach, Prescott T; Simmons, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    Acute nicotine enhances hippocampus-dependent learning through nicotine binding to β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but it is unclear if nicotine is targeting processes involved in short-term memory (STM) leading to a strong long-term memory (LTM) or directly targeting LTM. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of nicotine on learning are unknown. Previous research indicates that protein kinase A (PKA), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and protein synthesis are crucial for LTM. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of nicotine on STM and LTM and the involvement of PKA, ERK1/2, and protein synthesis in the nicotine-induced enhancement of hippocampus-dependent contextual learning in C57BL/6J mice. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired contextual conditioning assessed at 4 h but not 2 h post-training, delineating time points for STM (2 h) and LTM (4 h and beyond). Nicotine enhanced contextual conditioning at 4, 8, and 24 h but not 2 h post-training, indicating nicotine specifically enhances LTM but not STM. Furthermore, nicotine did not rescue deficits in contextual conditioning produced by anisomycin, suggesting that the nicotine enhancement of contextual conditioning occurs through a protein synthesis-dependent mechanism. In addition, inhibition of dorsal hippocampal PKA activity blocked the effect of acute nicotine on learning, and nicotine shifted the timing of learning-related PKA and ERK1/2 activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Thus, the present results suggest that nicotine specifically enhances LTM through altering the timing of PKA and ERK1/2 signaling in the hippocampus, and suggests that the timing of PKA and ERK1/2 activity could contribute to the strength of memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sigma-1 receptor stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of CaM kinase II, protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yui; Ikuno, Tatsuya; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2011-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is one of the most abundant neurosteroids synthesized de novo in the CNS. We here found that sigma-1 receptor stimulation by DHEA improves cognitive function through phosphorylation of synaptic proteins in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mouse hippocampus. We have previously reported that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were impaired in OBX mouse hippocampus. OBX mice were administered once a day for 7-8 days with DHEA (30 or 60 mg/kg p.o.) 10 days after operation. The spatial, cognitive and conditioned fear memories in OBX mice were significantly improved as assessed by Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance task, respectively. DHEA also improved impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation in OBX mice. Notably, DHEA treatment restored PKCα (Ser-657) autophosphorylation and NR1 (Ser-896) and myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Ser-152/156) phosphorylation to the control levels in the hippocampal CA1 region. Likewise, DHEA treatment improved CaMKIIα (Thr-286) autophosphorylation and GluR1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation to the control levels in the CA1 region. Furthermore, DHEA treatment improved ERK and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (Ser-133) phosphorylation to the control levels. Finally, NE-100, sigma-1 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the DHEA-induced improvement of memory-related behaviors and CaMKII, PKC and ERK phosphorylation in CA1 region. Taken together, sigma-1 receptor stimulation by DHEA ameliorates OBX-induced impairment in memory-related behaviors and long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region through activation of CaMKII, PKC and ERK. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Novel human neutrophil agonistic properties of arsenic trioxide: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or c-jun NH2-terminal MAPK but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Girard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and for inducing apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in promyelocytes and cancer cells. We recently reported that ATO induces neutrophil apoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not ATO recruits MAPKs in neutrophils, as well as to further investigate its agonistic properties. We found that ATO activates p38 and that, unlike H2O2, this response was not inhibited by exogenous catalase. Also, we demonstrated that ATO-induced p38 activation occurs before H2O2 generation and without a calcium burst. We next established that ATO recruits c-jun NH2-terminal (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk-1/2). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO occurs by a MAPK-independent mechanism. In contrast, the ability of ATO to enhance adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, release, and activity of gelatinase and degranulation of secretory, specific, and gelatinase, but not azurophilic granules, is dependent upon activation of p38 and/or JNK. This is the first study establishing that ATO possesses important agonistic properties in human neutrophils. Given the central role of neutrophils in various inflammatory disorders, we propose that ATO might have broader therapeutic implications in clinics, especially for regulating inflammation.

  2. In vitro and in vivo radiosensitization with AZD6244 (ARRY-142886), an inhibitor of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Joo; Brown, Aaron P.; Asano, Hiroaki; Mandler, Mariana; Burgan, William E.; Carter, Donna; Camphausen, Kevin; Citrin, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is important for cell proliferation, survival and differentiation and is frequently upregulated in cancers. The MAPK pathway is also activated after exposure to ionizing radiation. We investigated the effects of AZD6244 (ARRY-142886), an inhibitor of MEK1/2, on radiation response. Experimental Design The effects of AZD6244 on the in vitro radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines (A549, MiaPaCa2 and DU145) was evaluated using clonogenic assays. DNA damage repair was evaluated using γH2AX and mitotic catastrophe was measured using nuclear fragmentation. Cell cycle effects were measured with flow cytometry. Growth delay was used to evaluate the effects of AZD6244 on in vivo tumor radiosensitivity. Results Exposure of each cell line to AZD6244 prior to irradiation (IR) resulted in an increase in radiosensitivity with dose enhancement factors (DEF) at a surviving fraction of 0.1 ranging from 1.16 to 2.0. No effects of AZD6244 on radiation-induced apoptosis or persistence of γH2AX foci after IR were detected. Cells treated with AZD6244 had an increased mitotic index and decreased Chk1 phosphorylation at 1 and 3 hours after IR. Mitotic catastrophe was increased in cells receiving both AZD6244 and IR compared to the single treatments. In vivo studies revealed that AZD6244 administration to mice bearing A549 tumor xenografts resulted in a greater than additive increase in radiation-induced tumor growth delay (DEF of 3.38). Conclusions These results indicate that AZD6244 can enhance tumor cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this effect involves an increase in mitotic catastrophe. PMID:19366835

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Gita; Mahalingam, S.

    2009-10-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  4. Post-exercise impact of ingested whey protein hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in rat skeletal muscle: activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Fumika; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Nakai, Yuji; Abe, Keiko; Kawahata, Keiko; Ikegami, Shuji

    2014-06-28

    We have previously shown that whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) causes a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than does a mixture of amino acids that is identical in amino acid composition. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of WPH on gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a 2 h swimming exercise were administered either a carbohydrate-amino acid diet or a carbohydrate-WPH diet immediately after exercise. At 1 h after exercise, epitrochlearis muscle mRNA was sampled and subjected to DNA microarray analysis. We found that ingestion of WPH altered 189 genes after considering the false discovery rate. Among the up-regulated genes, eight Gene Ontology (GO) terms were enriched, which included key elements such as Cd24, Ccl2, Ccl7 and Cxcl1 involved in muscle repair after exercise. In contrast, nine GO terms were enriched in gene sets that were down-regulated by the ingestion of WPH, and these GO terms fell into two clusters, 'regulation of ATPase activity' and 'immune response'. Furthermore, we found that WPH activated two upstream proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which might act as key factors for regulating gene expression. These results suggest that ingestion of WPH, compared with ingestion of a mixture of amino acids with an identical amino acid composition, induces greater changes in the post-exercise gene expression profile via activation of the proteins ERK1/2 and HIF-1α.

  5. Aurintricarboxylic acid protects against cell death caused by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages by decreasing inducible nitric-oxide synthase induction via IkappaB kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Chin-Ju; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ching-Wen; Lin, Wan Wan

    2002-07-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms involved in cell protection by aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), an endonuclease inhibitor, high nitric oxide (NO)-induced macrophage apoptosis was studied. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, a high level of NO production accompanied by cell apoptosis was apparent with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Direct NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) also dramatically induced cell death, with an EC(50) of 1 mM. Coincubation of ATA (1-500 microM) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells resulted in a striking reduction of NO production and cell apoptosis, whereas only a partial cell protection was achieved in response to SNP. This suggests that abrogation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent NO production might contribute to ATA protection of LPS-treated cells. Immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ATA down-regulated iNOS protein through transcriptional inhibition of iNOS gene expression but was unrelated to iNOS protein stability. ATA not only inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation through impairment of the targeting and degradation of IkappaBs but also reduced LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. These actions of ATA were not caused by the influence on LPS binding to macrophage membrane. Kinase assays indicated that ATA inhibited IkappaB kinase (IKK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a direct interaction between ATA and these signaling molecules. Taken together, these results provide novel action targets of ATA and indicate that ATA protection of macrophages from LPS-mediated cell death is primarily the result of its inhibition of NO production, which closely relates to the inactivation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and inhibition of IKK, ERK and p38 MAPK.

  6. Nobiletin induces inhibitions of Ras activity and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling to suppress cell proliferation in C6 rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Koichi; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Fukunaga, Kohji; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Ras, a small G-protein, physiologically directs cell proliferation and cell cycle via regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. Dysregulation of Ras/MEK/ERK signaling has been reported to cause tumorigenesis and gliomas. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-tumor cells action. However, it remains elusive whether nobiletin could affect Ras activity. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nobiletin suppresses the proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity in C6 glioma cells, a rat glioma cell line. First, Ras pull-down assay showed that nobiletin inhibits Ras activity in a concentration-dependent manner in C6 cells. Second, farnesyltransferase inhibitor I, a Ras inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, induced an inhibition of the cell proliferation in C6 cells, while the cell proliferation was inhibited by nobiletin as well. Third, western blotting revealed that nobiletin showed inhibitory effects on MEK and ERK phopsphorylation levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, such an inhibitory effect on the level of ERK phosphorylation by nobiletin was appreciably prevented by Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of conventional protein kinase Cs (PKCs) showing Ca(2+)-sensitivity, while GF109203X, a general inhibitor for PKCs, and BAPTA, a cell-permeable Ca(2+) chelator, to a lesser extent, suppressed a reduction of the phosphorylation. These findings suggest that the proliferation of C6 cells is Ras- and MEK/ERK signaling-dependent, and that nobiletin suppresses the cell proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity and MEK/ERK signaling cascade probably via a Ca(2+)-sensitive PKC-dependent mechanism. Thus, the natural compound has potential to be a therapeutic agent for glioma.

  7. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors sensitize reduced glucocorticoid response mediated by TNF{alpha} in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Kenji . E-mail: knjond@ps.toyaku.ac.jp; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kawakubo, Yo; Inoue, Shota; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2006-12-08

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} was not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.

  9. PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, R; Zúñiga, A; Ullrich, A

    1998-01-01

    Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by controlling the phosphorylation of specific residues. We report the physical and functional association of ERK1/2 with the PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Upon binding, the N-terminal domains of PTP-SL and STEP were phosphorylated by ERK1/2, whereas these PTPs dephosphorylated the regulatory phosphotyrosine residues of ERK1/2 and inactivated them. A sequence of 16 amino acids in PTP-SL was identified as being critical for ERK1/2 binding and termed kinase interaction motif (KIM) (residues 224-239); it was shown to be required for phosphorylation of PTP-SL by ERK1/2 at Thr253. Co-expression of ERK2 with catalytically active PTP-SL in COS-7 cells impaired the EGF-induced activation of ERK2, whereas a PTP-SL mutant, lacking PTP activity, increased the ERK2 response to EGF. This effect was dependent on the presence of the KIM on PTP-SL. Furthermore, ERK1/2 activity was downregulated in 3T3 cells stably expressing PTP-SL. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a conserved ERK1/2 interaction motif within the cytosolic non-catalytic domains of PTP-SL and STEP, which is required for the regulation of ERK1/2 activity and for phosphorylation of the PTPs by these kinases. Our findings suggest that PTP-SL and STEP act as physiological regulators of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:9857190

  10. Oxidative stress induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cystic fibrosis lung epithelial cells: Potential mechanism for excessive IL-8 expression.

    PubMed

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Criq, Vinciane Saint; Bonvin, Elise; Roque, Telma; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Gruenert, Dieter C; Clement, Annick; Jacquot, Jacky; Tabary, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal disease caused by defective function of the cftr gene product, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that leads to oxidative damage and excessive inflammatory response in lungs of CF patients. We here report the effects of oxidative stress (hyperoxia, 95% O(2)) on the expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-8 and CXCR1/2 receptors in two human CF lung epithelial cell lines (IB3-1, with the heterozygous F508del/W1282X mutation and CFBE41o- with the homozygous F508del/F508del mutation) and two control non-CF lung epithelial cell lines (S9 cell line derived from IB3-1 after correction with wtCFTR and the normal bronchial cell line 16HBE14o-). Under oxidative stress, the expression of IL-8 and CXCR1/2 receptors was increased in CF, corrected and normal lung cell lines. The effects of oxidative stress were also investigated by measuring the transcription nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activities. Under oxidative stress, no increase of NF-kappaB activation was observed in CF lung cells in contrast to that observed in normal and corrected CF lung cells. The signalling of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases was further studied. We demonstrated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and AP-1 activity was markedly enhanced in CF but not non-CF lung cells under oxidative stress. Consistently, inhibition of ERK1/2 in oxidative stress-exposed CF lung cells strongly decreased both the IL-8 production and CXCR1/2 expression. Therefore, targeting of ERK1/2 MAP kinase may be critical to reduce oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in lungs of CF patients.

  11. Interactions and phosphorylation of postsynaptic density 93 (PSD-93) by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Xue, Bing; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2012-07-17

    Postsynaptic density 93 (PSD-93) is a protein enriched at postsynaptic sites. As a key scaffolding protein, PSD-93 forms complexes with the clustering of various synaptic proteins to construct postsynaptic signaling networks and control synaptic transmission. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a prototypic member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family known as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This kinase, especially ERK2 isoform, noticeably resides in peripheral structures of neurons, such as dendritic spines and postsynaptic density areas, in addition to its distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus, although little is known about specific substrates of ERK at synaptic sites. In this study, we found that synaptic PSD-93 is a direct target of ERK. This was demonstrated by direct protein-protein interactions between purified ERK2 and PSD-93 in vitro. The accurate ERK2-binding region seems to locate at an N-terminal region of PSD-93. In adult rat striatal neurons in vivo, native ERK from synaptosomal fractions also associated with PSD-93. In phosphorylation assays, active ERK2 phosphorylated PSD-93. An accurate phosphorylation site was identified at a serine site (S323). In striatal neurons, immunoprecipitated PSD-93 showed basal phosphorylation at an ERK-sensitive site. Our data provide evidence supporting PSD-93 as a new substrate of the synaptic species of ERK. ERK2 possesses the ability to interact with PSD-93 and phosphorylate PSD-93 at a specific site. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Capsaicin- and mustard oil-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation in sensory neurons in vivo: effects of neurokinins 1 and 2 receptor antagonists and of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid; Schuligoi, Rufina

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of primary sensory neurons with capsaicin or mustard oil leads to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) via activation of transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) or TRPA1, respectively. p-ERK1/2 was determined by Western immunoblotting in the dorsal root ganglia and in the sciatic nerve of rats following either systemic or perineural capsaicin treatment, or mustard oil application to the hind paw skin. To investigate the possible involvement of neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) and NK(2) receptors as well as of nitric oxide, the selective antagonists, SR140333 for NK(1) and SR48968 for NK(2), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), were employed. The increase of p-ERK1/2 after systemic capsaicin treatment was markedly attenuated by SR140333, while only the increase in the dorsal root ganglia was impaired by SR48968; in contrast, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase had no effect. Perineural capsaicin induced an increase in p-ERK1/2 in the ipsilateral sciatic nerve and in the dorsal root ganglia. This effect was not influenced by SR140333 or L-NAME. We found for the first time that mustard oil application to the hind paw skin caused an increase in p-ERK1/2 in the sciatic nerve and in the dorsal root ganglia and only the phosphorylation in the latter was attenuated by SR140333 while L-NAME showed no effect. From the present results, it may be assumed that capsaicin- or mustard oil-induced p-ERK1/2 in sensory neurons is not solely directly linked to TRPV1 or TRPA1 channels, but under certain conditions NK(1)- and NK(2)-mediated mechanisms are involved.

  13. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) by perifused thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Mutiara, Sandra; Purwana, Indri Nuryani; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2008-12-16

    We investigated the pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and the induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) under various stimulation conditions in pituitary GH3 cells. In static culture, ERK activation by continuous TRH was maximal at 10 min and persisted for up to 60 min, with a return to the basal level by 2h. Stimulation with continuous TRH in perifused cells resulted in a similar level of ERK phosphorylation. MKP-1 was expressed 60 min following either static or perifused, continuous TRH stimulation. When cells were stimulated with pulsatile TRH every 30 min, ERK activation was maximal at 10 min and returned to its baseline level by 30 min. ERK was phosphorylated again with each subsequent pulse. Pulsatile TRH did not induce MKP-1. Prolactin promoter activity following continuous, static TRH stimulation was higher than that following perifused TRH stimulation. TRH at a frequency of one pulse every 30 min increased prolactin promoter activity similar to that of perifused, continuous TRH stimulation. Additionally, changes in pulse frequency resulted in alterations in the level of prolactin promoter. Following static stimulation, a 10 min exposure to TRH was sufficient to obtain full activation of the prolactin promoter. Additionally, a 5-10 min exposure of TRH was sufficient to maintain ERK activation. A single 5-min pulse of TRH stimulation resulted in low activation of the prolactin promoter. ERK activation was necessary for prolactin gene transcription; however, prolactin gene transcription is not entirely determined by the strength or duration of TRH-induced ERK activation.

  14. Cigarette Smoke-Related Hydroquinone Induces Filamentous Actin Reorganization and Heat Shock Protein 27 Phosphorylation through p38 and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marianne; Cousins, Scott W.; Csaky, Karl G.; Striker, Gary; Marin-Castaño, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-derived membranous debris named blebs, may accumulate and contribute to sub-RPE deposit formation, which is the earliest sign of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Oxidative injury to the RPE might play a significant role in AMD. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We previously reported that hydroquinone (HQ), a major pro-oxidant in cigarette smoke, foodstuff, and atmospheric pollutants, induces actin rearrangement and membrane blebbing in RPE cells as well as sub-RPE deposits in mice. Here, we show for the first time that phosphorylated Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), a key regulator of actin filaments dynamics, is up-regulated in RPE from patients with AMD. Also, HQ-induced nonlethal oxidative injury led to Hsp27mRNA up-regulation, dimer formation, and Hsp27 phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, we found that a cross talk between p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mediates HQ-induced Hsp27 phosphorylation and actin aggregate formation, revealing ERK as a novel upstream mediator of Hsp27 phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrated that Hsp25, p38, and ERK phosphorylation are increased in aging C57BL/6 mice chronically exposed to HQ, whereas Hsp25 expression is decreased. Our data suggest that phosphorylated Hsp27 might be a key mediator in AMD and HQ-induced oxidative injury to the RPE, which may provide helpful insights into the early cellular events associated with actin reorganization and bleb formation involved in sub-RPE deposits formation relevant to the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:20651235

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-negative aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia with high P-glycoprotein activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Perkovic, Sanja; Basic-Kinda, Sandra; Gasparovic, Vladimir; Krznaric, Zeljko; Babel, Jaksa; Ilic, Ivana; Aurer, Igor; Batinic, Drago

    2012-07-11

    Aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia (ANKL) is a rare type of disease with fulminant course and poor outcome. The disease is more prevalent among Asians than in other ethnic groups and shows strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression associated with multidrug resistance. Here we present a case of a 47 year old Caucasian female with a prior medical history of azathioprine treated ulcerative colitis who developed EBV-negative form of ANKL. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly, fever and nausea with peripheral blood and bone marrow infiltration with up to 70% of atypical lymphoid cells positive for cCD3, CD2, CD7, CD56, CD38, CD45, TIA1 and granzyme B, and negative for sCD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD34 and CD123 indicative of ANKL. Neoplastic CD56(+) NK-cells showed high level of P-glycoprotein expression and activity, but also strong expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) MAP kinase. The patient was treated with an intensive polychemotherapy regimen designed for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, but one month after admission developed sepsis, coma and died of cardiorespiratory arrest. We present additional evidence that, except for the immunophenotype, leukaemic NK-cells resemble normal NK-cells in terms of P-gp functional capacity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 signalling molecule. In that sense drugs that block P-glycoprotein activity and activated signalling pathways might represent new means for targeted therapy.

  16. Prevention of tumour cell apoptosis associated with sustained protein kinase B phosphorylation is more sensitive to regulation by insulin signalling than stimulation of proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christoph; Ghirlanda, Claudia; Niessen, Markus

    2017-03-18

    Insulin controls blood glucose while insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 is an important growth factor. Interestingly, both hormones have overlapping bioactivities and can activate the same intracellular signal transduction cascades. Growth control (mainly by IGF1) and metabolic function (predominantly by insulin) are believed to depend on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), respectively. Therefore, insulin analogues that are used to normalize blood glucose are tested for their ability to preferentially activate Akt/PKB but not ERK1/2 and mitogenesis. Growth hormone, IGF1, and hyperinsulinemia are associated with increased risk of growth progression of some cancer types. To test if continuous exposure to insulin can favour tumour growth, we studied insulin/IGF1-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB by Western blotting, inhibition of apoptosis by ELISA, and induction of proliferation by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in Saos-2/B10 osteosarcoma cells. IGF1 and insulin both induced proliferation and prevented apoptosis effectively. Regulation of apoptosis was far more sensitive than regulation of proliferation. IGF1 and insulin activated PKB (Akt/PKB) rapidly and consistently maintained its phosphorylation. Activation of ERK1/2 was only observed in response to IGF1. Loss of p-Akt/PKB (but not of p-ERK1/2) was associated with increased apoptosis, and protection from apoptosis was lost when activation of Akt/PKB was inhibited. These findings in Saos-2/B10 cells were also replicated in the A549 cell line, originally derived from a human lung carcinoma. Therefore, IGF1 and insulin more likely (at lower concentrations) enhance tumour cell survival than proliferation, via activation and maintenance of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and p-Akt/PKB.

  17. Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is regulated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 and by nerve growth factor retrograde signaling in colonic afferent neurons in colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sharon J; Grider, John R; Gulick, Melisa A; Xia, Chun-mei; Shen, Shanwei; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in sensory neuronal activation in response to visceral inflammation. Here we report that BDNF up-regulation in the primary afferent neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a rat model of colitis is mediated by the activation of endogenous extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) 5 and by nerve growth factor (NGF) retrograde signaling. At 7 days of colitis, the expression level of BDNF is increased in conventional neuronal tracing dye Fast Blue labeled primary afferent neurons project to the distal colon. In these neurons, the phosphorylation (activation) level of ERK5 is also increased. In contrast, the level of phospho-ERK1/2 is not changed in the DRG during colitis. Prevention of the ERK5 activation in vivo with an intrathecal application of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuates the colitis-induced increases in BDNF expression in the DRG. Further studies show that BDNF up-regulation in the DRG is triggered by NGF retrograde signaling which also involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathways. Application of exogenous NGF exclusively to the compartment containing DRG nerve terminals in an ex vivo ganglia-nerve preparation has markedly increased the BDNF expression level in the DRG neuronal cell body that is placed in a different compartment; this BDNF elevation is attenuated by U0126, PD98059 and a specific ERK5 inhibitor BIX02188. These results demonstrate the mechanisms and pathways by which BDNF expression is elevated in primary sensory neurons following visceral inflammation that is mediated by increased activity of ERK5 and is likely to be triggered by the elevated NGF level in the inflamed viscera. PMID:22921460

  18. Functional status and relationships of melanocortin 1 receptor signaling to the cAMP and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 pathways in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Cecilia; Journé, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José C

    2012-12-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a major determinant of skin phototype frequently mutated in melanoma, is a Gs protein-coupled receptor that regulates pigment production in melanocytes. MC1R stimulation activates cAMP synthesis and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) ERK1 and ERK2. In human melanocytes, ERK activation by MC1R relies on cAMP-independent transactivation of the c-KIT receptor. Thus MC1R functional coupling to the cAMP and ERK pathways may involve different structural requirements giving raise to biased effects of skin cancer-associated mutations. We evaluated the impact of MC1R mutations on ERK activation, cAMP production and agonist binding. We found that MC1R mutations impair cAMP production much more often than ERK activation, suggesting less stringent requirements for functional coupling to the ERK pathway. We examined the crosstalk of the cAMP and ERK pathways in HBL human melanoma cells (wild-type for MC1R, NRAS and BRAF). ERK activation by constitutively active upstream effectors or pharmacological inhibition had little effect on MC1R-stimulated cAMP synthesis. High cAMP levels were compatible with normal ERK activation but, surprisingly, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin abolished ERK activation by MC1R, most likely by a cAMP-independent mechanism. These results indicate little crosstalk of the cAMP and ERK pathways in HBL melanoma cells. Finally, we studied cAMP accumulation in a panel of 22 human melanoma cell lines stimulated with MC1R agonists or forskolin. cAMP synthesis was often inhibited, even in cells wild-type for MC1R and NRAS. Therefore, the cAMP pathway is more frequently impaired in melanoma than could be predicted by the MC1R or NRAS genotype.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Is Regulated by IκB Kinase-Induced Proteolysis of NF-κB1 p105†

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, S.; Robinson, M. J.; Hugunin, M.; Ley, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The MEK kinase TPL-2 (also known as Cot) is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in macrophages and consequent upregulation of genes involved in innate immune responses. In resting cells, TPL-2 forms a stoichiometric complex with NF-κB1 p105, which negatively regulates its MEK kinase activity. Here, it is shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary macrophages causes the release of both long and short forms of TPL-2 from p105 and that TPL-2 MEK kinase activity is restricted to this p105-free pool. Activation of TPL-2, MEK, and ERK by LPS is also demonstrated to require proteasome-mediated proteolysis. p105 is known to be proteolysed by the proteasome following stimulus-induced phosphorylation of two serines in its PEST region by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Expression of a p105 point mutant, which is not susceptible to signal-induced proteolysis, in RAW264.7 macrophages impairs LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and its subsequent activation of MEK. Furthermore, expression of wild-type but not mutant p105 reconstitutes LPS stimulation of MEK and ERK phosphorylation in primary NF-κB1-deficient macrophages. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of IKK inhibits LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and TPL-2 activation. These data show that IKK-induced p105 proteolysis is essential for LPS activation of TPL-2, thus revealing a novel function of IKK in the regulation of the ERK MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15485931

  20. Epstein-Barr virus-negative aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia with high P-glycoprotein activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Perkovic, Sanja; Basic-Kinda, Sandra; Gasparovic, Vladimir; Krznaric, Zeljko; Babel, Jaksa; Ilic, Ivana; Aurer, Igor; Batinic, Drago

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia (ANKL) is a rare type of disease with fulminant course and poor outcome. The disease is more prevalent among Asians than in other ethnic groups and shows strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression associated with multidrug resistance. Here we present a case of a 47 year old Caucasian female with a prior medical history of azathioprine treated ulcerative colitis who developed EBV-negative form of ANKL. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly, fever and nausea with peripheral blood and bone marrow infiltration with up to 70% of atypical lymphoid cells positive for cCD3, CD2, CD7, CD56, CD38, CD45, TIA1 and granzyme B, and negative for sCD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD34 and CD123 indicative of ANKL. Neoplastic CD56+ NK-cells showed high level of P-glycoprotein expression and activity, but also strong expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) MAP kinase. The patient was treated with an intensive polychemotherapy regimen designed for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, but one month after admission developed sepsis, coma and died of cardiorespiratory arrest. We present additional evidence that, except for the immunophenotype, leukaemic NK-cells resemble normal NK-cells in terms of P-gp functional capacity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 signalling molecule. In that sense drugs that block P-glycoprotein activity and activated signalling pathways might represent new means for targeted therapy. PMID:23087805

  1. Distinct Kinetic and Spatial Patterns of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Human Nicotinic Acid Receptor GPR109A*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Deng, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chun; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Linjie; Shi, Ying; Huang, Haishan; Zhou, Naiming

    2011-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) has been widely used as a lipid-lowering drug for several decades, and recently, orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR109A has been identified as a receptor for niacin. Mechanistic investigations have shown that, upon niacin activation, GPR109A couples to a Gi protein and inhibits adenylate cyclase activity, leading to inhibition of liberation of free fatty acid. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GPR109A signaling remain largely unknown. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing GPR109A and A431 cells, which are a human epidermoid cell line with high levels of endogenous expression of functional GPR109A receptors, we found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by niacin was rapid, peaking at 5 min, and was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. Furthermore, time course experiments with different kinase inhibitors demonstrated that GPR109A induced ERK1/2 activation via the matrix metalloproteinase/epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation pathway at both early and later time points (2–5 min); this pathway was distinct from the PKC pathway-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation that occurs at early time points (≤2 min) in response to niacin. Overexpression of Gβγ subunit scavengers βARK1-CT and the Gα subunit of transducin led to a significant reduction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a critical role for βγ subunits in GPR109A-activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Using arrestin-2/3-specific siRNA and an internalization-deficient GPR109A mutant, we found that arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 were not involved in GPR109A-mediated ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that upon binding to niacin GPR109A receptors initially activate Gi, leading to dissociation of the Gβγ subunit from activated Gi, and subsequently induce ERK1/2 activation via two distinct pathways, one PKC-dependent pathway occurring at a peak time of ≤2 min and the other matrix metalloproteinase

  2. Operant ethanol self-administration increases extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in reward-related brain regions: selective regulation of positive reinforcement in the prefrontal cortex of C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Faccidomo, Sara; Salling, Michael C; Galunas, Christina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) is activated by ethanol in reward-related brain regions. Accordingly, systemic inhibition of ERK1/2 potentiates ethanol reinforcement. However, the brain region(s) that mediate this effect are unknown. Objective To pharmacologically inhibit ERK1/2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAC) and amygdala (AMY) prior to ethanol or sucrose self-administration, and evaluate effects of operant ethanol self-administration on ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2). Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were trained to lever press on a fixed-ratio-4 schedule of 9% ethanol+2% sucrose (ethanol) or 2% sucrose (sucrose) reinforcement. Mice were sacrificed immediately after the 30th self-administration session and pERK1/2 immunoreactivity was quantified in targeted brain regions. Additional groups of mice were injected with SL 327 (0–1.7 μg/side) in PFC, NAC or AMY prior to self-administration. Results pERK1/2 immunoreactivity was significantly increased by operant ethanol (g/kg=1.21 g/kg; BAC=54.9 mg/dl) in the PFC, NAC (core and shell), and AMY (central nucleus) as compared to sucrose. Microinjection of SL 327 (1.7 μg) into the PFC selectively increased ethanol self-administration. Intra-NAC injection of SL 327 had no effect on ethanol- but suppressed sucrose-reinforced responding. Intra-AMY microinjection of SL 327 had no effect on either ethanol- or sucrose-reinforced responding. Locomotor activity was unaffected under all conditions. Conclusions Operant ethanol self-administration increases pERK1/2 activation in the PFC, NAC and AMY. However, ERK1/2 activity only in the PFC mechanistically regulates ethanol self-administration. These data suggest that ethanol-induced activation of ERK1/2 in the PFC is a critical pharmacological effect that mediates the reinforcing properties of the drug. PMID:26123321

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  4. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in forebrain neurones contributes to osmoregulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dine, Julien; Ducourneau, Vincent R R; Fénelon, Valérie S; Fossat, Pascal; Amadio, Aurélie; Eder, Matthias; Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Voisin, Daniel L

    2014-04-01

    Vasopressin secretion from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) is crucial for body fluid homeostasis. Osmotic regulation of MNC activity involves the concerted modulation of intrinsic mechanosensitive ion channels, taurine release from local astrocytes as well as excitatory inputs derived from osmosensitive forebrain regions. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) are mitogen-activated protein kinases that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular post-translational and transcriptional responses, leading to changes in intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic function. Here, we investigated whether ERK activation (i.e. phosphorylation) plays a role in the functioning of forebrain osmoregulatory networks. We found that within 10 min after intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic saline (3 m, 6 m) in rats, many phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones were observed in osmosensitive forebrain regions, including the MNC containing supraoptic nuclei. The intensity of ERK labelling was dose-dependent. Reciprocally, slow intragastric infusions of water that lower osmolality reduced basal ERK phosphorylation. In the supraoptic nucleus, ERK phosphorylation predominated in vasopressin neurones vs. oxytocin neurones and was absent from astrocytes. Western blot experiments confirmed that phosphoERK expression in the supraoptic nucleus was dose dependent. Intracerebroventricular administration of the ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U 0126 before a hyperosmotic challenge reduced the number of both phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones and Fos expressing neurones in osmosensitive forebrain regions. Blockade of ERK phosphorylation also reduced hypertonically induced depolarization and an increase in firing of the supraoptic MNCs recorded in vitro. It finally reduced hypertonically induced vasopressin release in the bloodstream. Altogether, these findings identify ERK phosphorylation as a new element contributing to the osmoregulatory mechanisms of

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  6. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in forebrain neurones contributes to osmoregulatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dine, Julien; Ducourneau, Vincent R R; Fénelon, Valérie S; Fossat, Pascal; Amadio, Aurélie; Eder, Matthias; Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Voisin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin secretion from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) is crucial for body fluid homeostasis. Osmotic regulation of MNC activity involves the concerted modulation of intrinsic mechanosensitive ion channels, taurine release from local astrocytes as well as excitatory inputs derived from osmosensitive forebrain regions. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) are mitogen-activated protein kinases that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular post-translational and transcriptional responses, leading to changes in intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic function. Here, we investigated whether ERK activation (i.e. phosphorylation) plays a role in the functioning of forebrain osmoregulatory networks. We found that within 10 min after intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic saline (3 m, 6 m) in rats, many phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones were observed in osmosensitive forebrain regions, including the MNC containing supraoptic nuclei. The intensity of ERK labelling was dose-dependent. Reciprocally, slow intragastric infusions of water that lower osmolality reduced basal ERK phosphorylation. In the supraoptic nucleus, ERK phosphorylation predominated in vasopressin neurones vs. oxytocin neurones and was absent from astrocytes. Western blot experiments confirmed that phosphoERK expression in the supraoptic nucleus was dose dependent. Intracerebroventricular administration of the ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U 0126 before a hyperosmotic challenge reduced the number of both phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones and Fos expressing neurones in osmosensitive forebrain regions. Blockade of ERK phosphorylation also reduced hypertonically induced depolarization and an increase in firing of the supraoptic MNCs recorded in vitro. It finally reduced hypertonically induced vasopressin release in the bloodstream. Altogether, these findings identify ERK phosphorylation as a new element contributing to the osmoregulatory mechanisms of

  7. Lovastatin inhibits the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway in immortalized rat brain neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo-Guisado, Maria Isabel; GarcíA-Román, Natalia; García-MaríN, Luis Jesús; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bragado, Maria Julia; Lorenzo, Maria Jesús

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts. In the present study, we analysed the intracellular signal transduction pathways by which lovastatin induces neuroblast apoptosis. We showed that lovastatin efficiently inhibited Ras activation, which was associ-ated with a significant decrease in ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Lovastatin also decreased CREB phosphorylation and CREB-mediated gene expression. The effects of lovastatin on the Ras/ERK1/2/CREB pathway were time- and concentration-dependent and fully prevented by meva-lonate. In addition, we showed that two MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] inhibitors, PD98059 and PD184352, were poor inducers of apoptosis in serum-treated neuroblasts. However, these inhibitors significantly increased apop-tosis induced by lovastatin treatment. Furthermore, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of both MEK and phosphoinos-itide 3-kinase activities was able to induce neuroblast apoptosis with similar efficacy as lovastatin. Our results suggest that lovast-atin triggers neuroblast apoptosis by regulating several signalling pathways, including the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway. These findings might also contribute to elucidate the intracellular mechanisms involved in the central nervous system side effects associated with statin therapy. PMID:16952276

  8. Clarifying binding difference of ATP and ADP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 by using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is a promising target for designs and development of anticancer drugs. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann method were applied to study binding difference of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results prove that the binding ability of ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is stronger than that of ADP. Principal component analysis performed by using molecular dynamics trajectories suggests that binding of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 change motion directions of two helices α1 and α2. Residue-based free energy decomposition method was adopted to calculate contributions of separate residues to associations of ADP and ATP with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. The results show that ADP and ATP produce strong CH-π interactions with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154. In addition, five hydrogen bonding interactions of ADP and ATP with residues Lys52, Gln103, Asp104, and Met106 also stabilize bindings of ADP and ATP to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. Overall, the CH-π interactions of ATP with five residues Ile29, Val37, Ala50, Leu105, and Leu154 are stronger than ADP. This study is expected to contribute a significant theoretical hint for designs of anticancer drugs targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  10. Cadmium activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Mio; Inamura, Hisako; Matsumura, Ken-ichi; Matsuoka, Masato

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium exposure induces ERK5 phosphorylation in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced CREB and c-Fos phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ERK5 activation by cadmium exposure may play an anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the phosphorylation and functionality of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), a recently identified member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, ERK5 phosphorylation increased markedly, but the level of total ERK5 was unchanged. ERK5 phosphorylation following CdCl{sub 2} exposure was rapid and transient, similar to the time course of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of HK-2 cells with the MAPK/ERK kinase 5 inhibitor, BIX02189, suppressed CdCl{sub 2}-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The CdCl{sub 2}-induced increase of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1), as well as the accumulation of mobility-shifted c-Fos protein, were suppressed by BIX02189 treatment. Furthermore, BIX02189 treatment enhanced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and increased the level of cytoplasmic nucleosomes in HK-2 cells exposed to CdCl{sub 2}. These findings suggest that ERK5 pathway activation by CdCl{sub 2} exposure might induce the phosphorylation of cell survival-transcription factors, such as CREB, ATF-1, and c-Fos, and may exert a partial anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells.

  11. Cell Surface Expression of the Major Amyloid-β Peptide (Aβ)-degrading Enzyme, Neprilysin, Depends on Phosphorylation by Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK) and Dephosphorylation by Protein Phosphatase 1a*

    PubMed Central

    Kakiya, Naomasa; Saito, Takashi; Nilsson, Per; Matsuba, Yukio; Tsubuki, Satoshi; Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Saido, Takaomi C.

    2012-01-01

    Neprilysin is one of the major amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-degrading enzymes, the expression of which declines in the brain during aging. The decrease in neprilysin leads to a metabolic Aβ imbalance, which can induce the amyloidosis underlying Alzheimer disease. Pharmacological activation of neprilysin during aging therefore represents a potential strategy to prevent the development of Alzheimer disease. However, the regulatory mechanisms mediating neprilysin activity in the brain remain unclear. To address this issue, we screened for pharmacological regulators of neprilysin activity and found that the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophins 3 and 4 reduce cell surface neprilysin activity. This decrease was mediated by MEK/ERK signaling, which enhanced phosphorylation at serine 6 in the neprilysin intracellular domain (S6-NEP-ICD). Increased phosphorylation of S6-NEP-ICD in primary neurons reduced the levels of cell surface neprilysin and led to a subsequent increase in extracellular Aβ levels. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1a, tautomycetin, induced extensive phosphorylation of the S6-NEP-ICD, resulting in reduced cell surface neprilysin activity. In contrast, activation of protein phosphatase-1a increased cell surface neprilysin activity and lowered Aβ levels. Taken together, these results indicate that the phosphorylation status of S6-NEP-ICD influences the localization of neprilysin and affects extracellular Aβ levels. Therefore, maintaining S6-NEP-ICD in a dephosphorylated state, either by inhibition of protein kinases involved in its phosphorylation or by activation of phosphatases catalyzing its dephosphorylation, may represent a new approach to prevent reduction of cell surface neprilysin activity during aging and to maintain physiological levels of Aβ in the brain. PMID:22767595

  12. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial memory and decreases extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhiwei; Peng, Xuwen; Fang, Jidong

    2004-08-20

    Loss of sleep may result in memory impairment. However, little is known about the biochemical basis for memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is involved in memory consolidation in different tasks. Phosphorylation of ERK is necessary for its activation and is an important step in mediating neuronal responses to synaptic activities. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on memory and ERK phosphorylation in the brain. Rats were trained in Morris water maze to find a hidden platform (a spatial task) or a visible platform (a nonspatial task) after 6 h TSD or spontaneous sleep. TSD had no effect on spatial learning, but significantly impaired spatial memory tested 24 h after training. Nonspatial learning and memory were not impaired by TSD. Phospho-ERK levels in the hippocampus were significantly reduced after 6 h TSD compared to the controls and returned to the control levels after 2 h recovery sleep. Total ERK1 and ERK2 were slightly increased after 6 h TSD and returned to the control levels after 2 h recovery sleep. These alterations were not observed in the cortex after TSD. Protein phosphotase-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-2, which dephosphorylates phospho-ERK, were also measured, but they were not altered by TSD. The impairments of both spatial memory and ERK phosphorylation indicate that the hippocampus is vulnerable to sleep loss. These results are consistent with the idea that decreased ERK activation in the hippocampus is involved in sleep deprivation-induced spatial memory impairment.

  13. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  14. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  15. Dynamic expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat liver tissue during hepatic fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chang-Chun; Zheng, Yi-Lin; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhan-Kui; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) is activated and associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation in fibrotic rat liver tissue. METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson’s trichrome method. ERK1 mRNA in rat liver tissue was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while the distribution of ERK1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERK1 protein was detected by Western blotting analysis. The number of activated HSCs was quantified after alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. RESULTS: With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive staining cells of α-SMA increased obviously, and mainly resided in the portal ducts. Fiber septa and perisinuses were accompanied with proliferating bile ducts. The positive staining areas of the rat livers in model groups 1-4 wk after ligation of common bile duct (12.88% ± 2.63%, 22.65% ± 2.16%, 27.45% ± 1.86%, 35.25% ± 2.34%, respectively) were significantly larger than those in the control group (5.88% ± 1.46%, P < 0.01). With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive cells of ERK1 increased a lot, and were mainly distributed in portal ducts, fiber septa around the bile ducts, vascular endothelial cells and perisinusoidal cells. Western blotting analysis displayed that the expression of ERK1 and ERK2 protein was up-regulated during the model course, and its level was the highest 4 wk after operation, being 3.9-fold and 7.2-fold higher in fibrotic rat liver than in controls. ERK1 mRNA was expressed in normal rat livers as well, which was up-regulated two days after BDL and reached the highest 4 wk after BDL. The expression of ERK1 was positively correlated with α-SMA expression (r = 0.958,P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of ERK1 protein and mRNA is greatly increased in fibrotic rat liver tissues, which may play a

  16. Calcium-independent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 by cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that cyclic strain induces extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation in endothelial cells (EC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ca2+ on the activation of ERK1/2. Bovine aortic EC were pretreated with a chelator of extracellular Ca2+, ethylaneglycol-bis(aminoethylether)-tetra-acetate (EGTA), a depleter of Ca2+ pools, 2,5-Di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ), or a Ca2+ channel blocker, GdCl3, and subjected to an average 10 % strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for 10 min. BHQ and GdCl3 did not inhibit the strain-induced ERK1/2 activation. Chelation of normal extracellular Ca2+ (1.8 mM) medium with EGTA (3 mM) acutely stimulated baseline phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2, thereby obscuring any strain-induced activation of ERK1/2. However, in EC preincubated for 24 hours in Ca2+-free medium, elevated baseline phosphorylation was minimally activated by EGTA (200 microM) such that cyclic strain stimulated ERK1/2 in the presence or absence of BHQ. These results suggest a Ca2+ independence of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway by cyclic strain. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Calcium-independent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 by cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that cyclic strain induces extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation in endothelial cells (EC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ca2+ on the activation of ERK1/2. Bovine aortic EC were pretreated with a chelator of extracellular Ca2+, ethylaneglycol-bis(aminoethylether)-tetra-acetate (EGTA), a depleter of Ca2+ pools, 2,5-Di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ), or a Ca2+ channel blocker, GdCl3, and subjected to an average 10 % strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for 10 min. BHQ and GdCl3 did not inhibit the strain-induced ERK1/2 activation. Chelation of normal extracellular Ca2+ (1.8 mM) medium with EGTA (3 mM) acutely stimulated baseline phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2, thereby obscuring any strain-induced activation of ERK1/2. However, in EC preincubated for 24 hours in Ca2+-free medium, elevated baseline phosphorylation was minimally activated by EGTA (200 microM) such that cyclic strain stimulated ERK1/2 in the presence or absence of BHQ. These results suggest a Ca2+ independence of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway by cyclic strain. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 modulates the antioxidant response by transcriptionally controlling Sirtuin 1 expression in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Royuela, Nuria; Rathore, Moeez G; Allende-Vega, Nerea; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Fajas, Lluis; Ramachandran, Bindu; Gulick, Tod; Villalba, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cell metabolism differs from that of non-transformed cells in the same tissue. This specific metabolism gives tumor cells growing advantages besides the effect in increasing anabolism. One of these advantages is immune evasion mediated by a lower expression of the mayor histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates both mayor histocompatibility complex class I expression and metabolic activity. However, the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. We show here that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates the transcription of the NADH(+)-dependent histone deacetylase silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirtuin 1) in leukemic Jurkat T cells. This involves the activation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 and its binding to the sirt1 promoter. In addition, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 is required for T cell receptor-induced and oxidative stress-induced full Sirtuin 1 expression. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 induces the expression of promoters containing the antioxidant response elements through a Sirtuin 1-dependent pathway. On the other hand, down modulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 expression impairs the anti-oxidant response. Notably, the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 inhibitor BIX02189 induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia tumor cells without affecting T cells from healthy donors. Our results unveil a new pathway that modulates metabolism in tumor cells. This pathway represents a promising therapeutic target in cancers with deep metabolic layouts such as acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation during cardiac hypertrophy reduces sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) transcription

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Joseph, Leroy C.; Gurin, Michael I.; Thorp, Edward B.; Morrow, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic cardiac hypertrophy can lead to heart failure, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. SERCA2 is critical for normal cardiac calcium handling and function and SERCA2 mRNA and protein levels are reduced by cardiac hypertrophy. We hypothesized that Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation during hypertrophy reduced SERCA2 transcription. Using a neonatal rat ventricular myocyte model of hypertrophy, we found that pharmacologic inhibitors of ERK activation preserve SERCA2 mRNA levels during hypertrophy. ERK activation is sufficient to reduce SERCA2 mRNA. We determined that ERK represses SERCA2 transcription via nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkB), and activation of NFkB is sufficient to reduce SERCA2 mRNA in cardiomyocytes. This work establishes novel connections between ERK, NFkB, and SERCA2 repression during cardiac hypertrophy. This mechanism may have implications for the progression of hypertrophy to heart failure. PMID:25008120

  20. Nicotine Shifts the Temporal Activation of Hippocampal Protein Kinase A and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 to Enhance Long-Term, but not Short-term, Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Yildirim, Emre; Poole, Rachel L. F.; Leach, Prescott T.; Simmons, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute nicotine enhances hippocampus-dependent learning through nicotine binding to β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but it is unclear if nicotine is targeting processes involved in short-term memory (STM) leading to a strong long-term memory (LTM) or directly targeting LTM. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of nicotine on learning are unknown. Previous research indicates that protein kinase A (PKA), extracellular regulated signaling kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and protein synthesis are crucial for LTM. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of nicotine on STM and LTM and the involvement of PKA, ERK1/2, and protein synthesis in the nicotine-induced enhancement of hippocampus-dependent contextual learning in C57BL/6J mice. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired contextual conditioning assessed at 4 hours but not 2 hours post-training, delineating time points for STM (2 hours) and LTM (4 hours and beyond). Nicotine enhanced contextual conditioning at 4, 8, and 24 hours but not 2 hours post-training, indicating nicotine specifically enhances LTM but not STM. Furthermore, nicotine did not rescue deficits in contextual conditioning produced by anisomycin, suggesting that the nicotine enhancement of contextual conditioning occurs through a protein synthesis-dependent mechanism. In addition, inhibition of dorsal hippocampal PKA activity blocked the effect of acute nicotine on learning and nicotine shifted the timing of learning-related PKA and ERK1/2 activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Thus, the present results suggest that nicotine specifically enhances LTM through altering the timing of PKA and ERK1/2 signaling in the hippocampus, and suggests that the timing of PKA and ERK1/2 activity could contribute to the strength of memories. PMID:24457151

  1. Sprouty-related Ena/Vasodilator-stimulated Phosphoprotein Homology 1-Domain-containing Protein (SPRED1), a Tyrosine-Protein Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 11 (SHP2) Substrate in the Ras/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Quintanar-Audelo, Martina; Yusoff, Permeen; Sinniah, Saravanan; Chandramouli, Sumana; Guy, Graeme R.

    2011-01-01

    SHP2 is a tyrosine phosphatase involved in the activation of the Ras/ERK signaling pathway downstream of a number of receptor tyrosine kinases. One of the proposed mechanisms involving SHP2 in this context is to dephosphorylate and inactivate inhibitors of the Ras/ERK pathway. Two protein families bearing a unique, common domain, Sprouty and SPRED proteins, are possible candidates because they have been reported to inhibit the Ras/ERK pathway upon FGF activation. We tested whether any of these proteins are likely substrates of SHP2. Our findings indicate that Sprouty2 binds to the C-terminal tail of SHP2, which is an unlikely substrate binding site, whereas SPRED proteins bind to the tyrosine phosphatase domain that is known to be the binding site for its substrates. Overexpressed SHP2 was able to dephosphorylate SPREDs but not Sprouty2. Finally, we found two tyrosine residues on SPRED1 that are required, when phosphorylated, to inhibit Ras/ERK activation and identified Tyr-420 as a specific dephosphorylation target of SHP2. The evidence obtained indicates that SPRED1 is a likely substrate of SHP2, whose tyrosine dephosphorylation is required to attenuate the inhibitory action of SPRED1 in the Ras/ERK pathway. PMID:21531714

  2. A Network of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Links G Protein-Coupled Receptors to the c-jun Promoter: a Role for c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase, p38s, and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Marinissen, Maria Julia; Chiariello, Mario; Pallante, Michael; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    1999-01-01

    The expression of the c-jun proto-oncogene is rapidly induced in response to mitogens acting on a large variety of cell surface receptors. The resulting functional activity of c-Jun proteins appears to be critical for cell proliferation. Recently, we have shown that a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represented by the m1 muscarinic receptor, can initiate intracellular signaling cascades that result in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) and that the activation of JNK but not of MAPK correlated with a remarkable increase in the expression of c-jun mRNA. Subsequently, however, we obtained evidence that GPCRs can potently stimulate the activity of the c-jun promoter through MEF2 transcription factors, which do not act downstream from JNK. In view of these observations, we set out to investigate further the nature of the signaling pathway linking GPCRs to the c-jun promoter. Utilizing NIH 3T3 cells, we found that GPCRs can activate the c-jun promoter in a JNK-independent manner. Additionally, we demonstrated that these GPCRs can elevate the activity of novel members of the MAPK family, including ERK5, p38α, p38γ, and p38δ, and that the activation of certain kinases acting downstream from MEK5 (ERK5) and MKK6 (p38α and p38γ) is necessary to fully activate the c-jun promoter. Moreover, in addition to JNK, ERK5, p38α, and p38γ were found to stimulate the c-jun promoter by acting on distinct responsive elements. Taken together, these results suggest that the pathway linking GPCRs to the c-jun promoter involves the integration of numerous signals transduced by a highly complex network of MAPK, rather than resulting from the stimulation of a single linear protein kinase cascade. Furthermore, our findings suggest that each signaling pathway affects one or more regulatory elements on the c-jun promoter and that the transcriptional response most likely results from the temporal integration

  3. Neuromedin U type 1 receptor stimulation of A-type K+ current requires the βγ subunits of Go protein, protein kinase A, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiming; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Xinghong; Wang, Fen; Tao, Jin

    2012-05-25

    Although neuromedin U (NMU) has been implicated in analgesia, the detailed mechanisms still remain unclear. In this study, we identify a novel functional role of NMU type 1 receptor (NMUR1) in regulating the transient outward K(+) currents (I(A)) in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found that NMU reversibly increased I(A) in a dose-dependent manner, instead the sustained delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(DR)) was not affected. This NMU-induced I(A) increase was pertussis toxin-sensitive and was totally reversed by NMUR1 knockdown. Intracellular application of GDPβS (guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)), QEHA peptide, or a selective antibody raised against the Gα(o) or Gβ blocked the stimulatory effects of NMU. Pretreatment of the cells with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor or ERK inhibitor abolished the NMU-induced I(A) response, whereas inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or PKC had no such effects. Exposure of DRG neurons to NMU markedly induced the phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK), whereas p-JNK or p-p38 was not affected. Moreover, the NMU-induced p-ERK increase was attenuated by PKA inhibition and activation of PKA by foskolin would mimic the NMU-induced I(A) increase. Functionally, we observed a significant decrease of the firing rate of neuronal action potential induced by NMU and pretreatment of DRG neurons with 4-AP could abolish this effect. In summary, these results suggested that NMU increases I(A) via activation of NMUR1 that couples sequentially to the downstream activities of Gβγ of the G(o) protein, PKA, and ERK, which could contribute to its physiological functions including neuronal hypoexcitability in DRG neurons.

  4. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, NF-kappa B, and cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein in lung neutrophils occurs by differing mechanisms after hemorrhage or endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, E; Arcaroli, J; Shenkar, R

    2001-01-01

    Acute lung injury is frequently associated with sepsis or blood loss and is characterized by a proinflammatory response and infiltration of activated neutrophils into the lungs. Hemorrhage or endotoxemia result in activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and NF-kappa B in lung neutrophils as well as increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and macrophage-inflammatory peptide-2, by these cells. Activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway occurs in stress responses and is involved in CREB activation. In the present experiments, hemorrhage or endotoxemia produced increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2 and ERK2 (p42), but not of ERK1 (p44), in lung neutrophils. ERK1, ERK2, and MEK1/2 were not activated in peripheral blood neutrophils after hemorrhage or endotoxemia. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase led to further increase in the activation of MEK1/2 and ERK2 in lung neutrophils after hemorrhage, but not after endotoxemia. Alpha-adrenergic blockade before hemorrhage resulted in increased activation in lung neutrophils of MEK1/2, ERK1, ERK2, and CREB, but decreased activation of NF-kappa B. In contrast, alpha-adrenergic blockade before endotoxemia was associated with decreased activation of MEK1/2, ERK2, and CREB, but increased activation of NF-kappa B. Beta-adrenergic blockade before hemorrhage did not alter MEK1/2 or ERK1 activation in lung neutrophils, but decreased activation of ERK2 and CREB, while increasing activation of NF-kappa B. Beta-adrenergic inhibition before endotoxemia did not affect activation of MEK1/2, ERK1, ERK2, CREB, or NF-kappa B. These data indicate that the pathways leading to lung neutrophil activation after hemorrhage are different from those induced by endotoxemia.

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase involved in NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Ping; Liu, Xin-Feng; Liu, Huai-Jun; Xu, Ge-Lin; Ma, Yu-Ping

    2008-03-28

    Compelling evidence has shown that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is widely expressed in many tissues, including the brain. In the present work, we investigated the temporospatial alterations of ERK1 immunoreactivity in hippocampus and perifocal cortex, and the expression involved in NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect. We demonstrated that ERK1 expression was first increased in hippocampal CA3/DG 1 h after reperfusion, then it was also increased 6 h after reperfusion in other brain regions, with a peak at day 1-3, and then gradually decreased to basal level at day 14. The expression of caspase-3 was strongly increased 1 h after reperfusion, with peak demonstrated at 3d. NGF/VEGF significantly inhibited the expression of ERK1 and caspase-3. These results suggest that ERK1 signaling pathway may be involved in neuronal cell death and NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect and there appeared an association between ERK and caspase-3. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway might therefore provide an efficient way to prevent neuronal cell death after ischemic cerebral injuries.

  6. Sex differences in fear extinction and involvements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shingo; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Haruna; Sutoh, Chihiro; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorders, are disproportionately prevalent in females. However, the biological mechanism underlying these sex differences in the prevalence rate remains unclear. In the present study, we examined sex differences in fear memory, fear extinction, and spontaneous recovery of fear. We investigated the presence of sex differences in recent and remote fear memory in mice using contextual fear conditioning, as well as sex differences in spontaneous recovery of fear memory using a consecutive fear extinction paradigm. We examined the number of fear extinction days required to prevent spontaneous recovery of fear in either sex. We investigated whether ovariectomy affected fear extinction and spontaneous recovery. We also measured the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex following fear extinction sessions. In our results, we found no sex difference in recent or remote fear memory. However, females required more fear extinction sessions compared to males to prevent spontaneous recovery. Within-extinction freezing also differed between males and females. Moreover, females required more extinction sessions than males to increase ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Our data suggest that contextual fear extinction was unstable in females compared to males and that such sex differences may be related to the ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus.

  7. Expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat kidneys exposed to high +Gz

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Youn Wha

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high gravitational acceleration forces acting along the body axis from the head to the feet (+Gz) severely reduces blood flow to the visceral organs, including the kidneys. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) figures predominantly in mediating kidney cell responses to a wide variety of stress-related stimuli. Though previous studies have shown the activation of ERK in some experimental models, the regulation of ERK associated with +Gz exposure has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high +Gz exposure on ERK activation in the kidneys. Using a small animal centrifuge, eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to +10Gz or +13Gz three times for 3 minutes each. The bilateral kidneys were obtained from each rat, and the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In the control group, the collecting duct epithelium displayed faint cytoplasmic staining with no nuclear staining of p-ERK. By contrast, rats exposed to +10Gz showed strong nuclear staining intensity for p-ERK. In the renal papilla, the epithelial cells of collecting ducts and thin segments of the loop of Henle exhibited strong nuclear immunoreactivity for p-ERK. Rats exposed to +13Gz also showed the same staining intensity and distribution of p-ERK expression as that of rats exposed to +10Gz. This study is the first to describe +Gz exposure-induced alteration in the expression of p-ERK in the kidneys. Our finding suggests that high +Gz exposure leads to the activation of ERK in the renal papilla. PMID:23198944

  8. Haloperidol and Clozapine Differentially Affect the Expression of Arrestins, Receptor Kinases, and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Benovic, Jeffrey L.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two arrestins and four GRKs following chronic (21 days) treatment with haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) or clozapine (20 mg/kg i.p.) 2 or 24 h after the last injection in 11 brain regions. Haloperidol decreased GRK3 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transiently down-regulated GRK5 in globus pallidus and caudal caudate-putamen. Clozapine also caused a short-term suppression of the GRK5 expression in the caudal caudate-putamen and globus pallidus, but, unlike haloperidol, elevated GRK5 in the caudal caudate-putamen after 24 h. Unlike haloperidol, clozapine decreased arrestin2 and GRK3 in hippocampus and GRK3 in globus pallidus but increased arrestin2 in the core of nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral caudate-putamen and GRK2 in prefrontal cortex. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, induced long-term activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transient in prefrontal cortex. The data demonstrate that haloperidol and clozapine differentially affect the expression of arrestins and GRKs and ERK activity, which may play a role in determining their clinical profile. PMID:18178904

  9. NPNT is Expressed by Osteoblasts and Mediates Angiogenesis via the Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kuek, Vincent; Yang, Zhifan; Chim, Shek Man; Zhu, Sipin; Xu, Huazi; Chow, Siu To; Tickner, Jennifer; Rosen, Vicki; Erber, Wendy; Li, Xiucheng; An, Qin; Qian, Yu; Xu, Jiake

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in bone development and remodeling and is mediated by a plethora of potential angiogenic factors. However, data regarding specific angiogenic factors that are secreted within the bone microenvironment to regulate osteoporosis is lacking. Here, we report that Nephronectin (NPNT), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat superfamily proteins and a homologue of EGFL6, is expressed in osteoblasts. Intriguingly, the gene expression of NPNT is reduced in the bone of C57BL/6J ovariectomised mice and in osteoporosis patients. In addition, the protein levels of NPNT and CD31 are also found to be reduced in the tibias of OVX mice. Exogenous addition of mouse recombinant NPNT on endothelial cells stimulates migration and tube-like structure formation in vitro. Furthermore, NPNT promotes angiogenesis in an ex vivo fetal mouse metatarsal angiogenesis assay. We show that NPNT stimulates the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) in endothelial cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 impaired NPNT-induced endothelial cell migration, tube-like structure formation and angiogenesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NPNT is a paracrine angiogenic factor and may play a role in pathological osteoporosis. This may lead to new targets for treatment of bone diseases and injuries. PMID:27782206

  10. NPNT is Expressed by Osteoblasts and Mediates Angiogenesis via the Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase.

    PubMed

    Kuek, Vincent; Yang, Zhifan; Chim, Shek Man; Zhu, Sipin; Xu, Huazi; Chow, Siu To; Tickner, Jennifer; Rosen, Vicki; Erber, Wendy; Li, Xiucheng; An, Qin; Qian, Yu; Xu, Jiake

    2016-10-26

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in bone development and remodeling and is mediated by a plethora of potential angiogenic factors. However, data regarding specific angiogenic factors that are secreted within the bone microenvironment to regulate osteoporosis is lacking. Here, we report that Nephronectin (NPNT), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat superfamily proteins and a homologue of EGFL6, is expressed in osteoblasts. Intriguingly, the gene expression of NPNT is reduced in the bone of C57BL/6J ovariectomised mice and in osteoporosis patients. In addition, the protein levels of NPNT and CD31 are also found to be reduced in the tibias of OVX mice. Exogenous addition of mouse recombinant NPNT on endothelial cells stimulates migration and tube-like structure formation in vitro. Furthermore, NPNT promotes angiogenesis in an ex vivo fetal mouse metatarsal angiogenesis assay. We show that NPNT stimulates the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) in endothelial cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 impaired NPNT-induced endothelial cell migration, tube-like structure formation and angiogenesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NPNT is a paracrine angiogenic factor and may play a role in pathological osteoporosis. This may lead to new targets for treatment of bone diseases and injuries.

  11. Sex differences in contextual fear conditioning are associated with differential ventral hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Gresack, J E; Schafe, G E; Orr, P T; Frick, K M

    2009-03-17

    Although sex differences have been reported in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, including contextual fear memories, the underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to such differences are not well understood. The present study examined the extent to which sex differences in contextual fear conditioning are related to differential activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK), a protein kinase critically involved in memory formation. We first show that male rats exhibit more long-term retention of contextual fear conditioning than female rats. During a tone test, females spent more time freezing than males, although both sexes exhibited robust retention of auditory fear learning. Using Western blot analysis, we then show that phosphorylated ERK levels in ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus are higher in males than females, relative to same-sex controls, 60 minutes after fear conditioning. Post-conditioning increases in ERK activation were observed in the amygdala in both males and females, suggesting a selective effect of sex on hippocampal ERK activation. Together, these findings suggest that differential activation of the ERK signal transduction pathway in male and female rats, particularly in the ventral hippocampus, is associated with sex differences in contextual fear.

  12. Homocysteine-NMDA receptor mediated activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2009-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and neurological abnormalities. However the underlying cellular mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine can promote neuronal death is not clear. In the present study we have examined the role of NMDA receptor mediated activation of the extracellular-signal regulated mitogen activated protein (ERK MAP) kinase pathway in homocysteine-dependent neurotoxicity. The study demonstrates that in neurons L-homocysteine-induced cell death is mediated through activation of NMDA receptors. The study also shows that homocysteine-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation and resultant Ca2+ influx leads to rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation attenuates homocysteine mediated neuronal cell death thereby demonstrating that activation of ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway is an intermediate step that couples homocysteine mediated NMDA receptor stimulation to neuronal death. The findings also show that cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), a pro-survival transcription factor and a downstream target of ERK, is only transiently activated following homocysteine exposure. The sustained activation of ERK but a transient activation of CREB together suggest that exposure to homocysteine initiates a feedback loop that shuts off CREB signaling without affecting ERK phosphorylation and thereby facilitates homocysteine mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19508427

  13. Induction of vascular permeability: beta PIX and GIT1 scaffold the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by PAK.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Rebecca; Reutershan, Jörg; Scott, David; Sanders, John; Ley, Klaus; Schwartz, Martin Alexander

    2007-06-01

    Increased permeability of blood vessels is an important component of inflammation, but in some circumstances it contributes to tissue injury and organ failure. Previous work showed that p21-activated kinase (PAK) is a critical regulator of endothelial cell-cell junctions through effects on myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell contractility. We now show that blocking PAK function inhibits fluid leak in a mouse model of acute lung injury. In cultured endothelial cells, induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation by PAK is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk). Erk in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse lung is activated in a PAK-dependent manner in several cell types, most prominently vascular endothelium. Activation of Erk requires the integrity of the complex between PAK, PIX, and GIT1. Several means of disrupting this complex inhibit stimulation of vascular permeability in vitro. A cell-permeant peptide that blocks binding of PAK to PIX inhibits LPS-induced fluid leak in the mouse lung injury model. We conclude that the PAK-PIX-GIT1 complex is critical for Erk-dependent myosin phosphorylation and vascular permeability.

  14. Porcine circovirus type 2 replication is impaired by inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Liu Jue

    2009-03-30

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging and important swine disease. We have recently shown that PCV2 induces nuclear factor kappa B activation and its activation is required for active replication, but the other cellular factors involved in PCV2 replication are not well defined. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) which served as an important component of cellular signal transduction pathways has been shown to regulate many viral infections. In this report, we show that PCV2 activates ERK1/2 in PCV2-infected PK15 cells dependent on viral replication. The PCV2-induced ERK1/2 leads to phosphorylation of the ternary complex factor Elk-1, which kinetically paralleled ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of ERK activation with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced viral progeny release. Investigations into the mechanism of ERK1/2 regulation revealed that inhibition of ERK activation leads to decreased viral transcription and lower virus protein expression. These data indicate that the ERK signaling pathway is involved in PCV2 infection and beneficial to PCV2 replication in the cultured cells.

  15. Neuropeptide Y and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediate injury-induced neuroregeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen Cosgrove

    2011-01-01

    In the olfactory epithelium (OE), injury induces ATP release, and subsequent activation of P2 purinergic receptors by ATP promotes neuroregeneration by increasing basal progenitor cell proliferation. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATP-induced increases in OE neuroregeneration have not been established. In the present study, the roles of neuroproliferative factors neuropeptide Y (NPY) and fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2), and p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) on ATP-mediated increases of neuroregeneration in the OE were investigated. ATP increased basal progenitor cell proliferation in the OE via activation of P2 purinergic receptors in vitro and in vivo as monitored by incorporation of 5′-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into DNA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels. ATP induced p44/42 ERK activation in globose basal cells (GBC) but not horizontal basal cells (HBC). ATP differentially regulated p44/42 ERK over time in the OE both in vitro and in vivo with transient inhibition (5–15 min) followed by activation (30 min – 1 hr) of p44/42 ERK. In addition, ATP indirectly activated p44/42 ERK in the OE via ATP-induced NPY release and subsequent activation of NPY Y1 receptors in the basal cells. There were no synergistic effects of ATP and NPY or FGF2 on OE neuroregeneration. These data clearly have implications for the pharmacological modulation of neuroregeneration in the olfactory epithelium. PMID:22154958

  16. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  17. N-Terminal Ubiquitination of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 3 and p21 Directs Their Degradation by the Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Philippe; Rodier, Geneviève; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Meloche, Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an unstable mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue that is constitutively degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in proliferating cells. Here we show that a lysineless mutant of ERK3 is still ubiquitinated in vivo and requires a functional ubiquitin conjugation pathway for its degradation. Addition of N-terminal sequence tags of increasing size stabilizes ERK3 by preventing its ubiquitination. Importantly, we identified a fusion peptide between the N-terminal methionine of ERK3 and the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin in vivo by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. These findings demonstrate that ERK3 is conjugated to ubiquitin via its free NH2 terminus. We found that large N-terminal tags also stabilize the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 but not that of substrates ubiquitinated on internal lysine residues. Consistent with this observation, lysineless p21 is ubiquitinated and degraded in a ubiquitin-dependent manner in intact cells. Our results suggests that N-terminal ubiquitination is a more prevalent modification than originally recognized. PMID:15226418

  18. Chrysin inhibits human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yun-Shi; Feng, Gan-Zhu; Du, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an increased mass of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, has been shown to exert multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, as well as the potency to ameliorate asthma in animal models. The objective of the present study was to identify the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of chrysin. The impact of chrysin on basal and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was investigated. Furthermore, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was evaluated in HASMCs. The results revealed that chrysin significantly inhibited basal as well as PDGF-induced HASMC proliferation, most likely through the suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, chrysin did not significantly reduce PDGF-induced apoptosis of HASMCs. The present study indicated that chrysin may be a promising medication for controlling airway remodeling and clinical manifestations of asthma.

  19. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for evaluating extracellular signal-regulated kinase docking domain inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengming; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Luo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    We have recently identified several novel ATP-independent inhibitors that target the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) protein and inhibit substrate phosphorylation. To further characterize these compounds, we describe the use of C. elegans as a model organism. C. elegans is recognized as a versatile and cost effective model for use in drug development. These studies take advantage of the well characterized process of vulva development and egg laying, which requires MPK-1, the homolog to human ERK2. It is shown that treatment of C. elegans eggs or larvae prior to vulva formation with a previously identified lead compound (76) caused up to 50% reduction in the number of eggs produced from the adult worm. In contrast, compound 76 had no effect on egg laying in young adult or adult worms with fully formed vulva. The reduction in egg laying by the test compound was not due to effects on C. elegans life span, general toxicity, or non-specific stress. However, compound 76 did show selective inhibition of phosphorylation of LIN-1, a MPK-1 substrate essential for vulva precursor cell formation. Moreover, compound 76 inhibited cell fusion necessary for vulva maturation and reduced the multivulva phenotype in LET-60 (Ras) mutant worms that have constitutive activation of MPK-1. These findings support the use of C. elegans as a model organism to evaluate the selectivity and specificity of novel ERK targeted compounds. PMID:19105050

  20. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for evaluating extracellular signal-regulated kinase docking domain inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengming; Mackerell, Alexander D; Luo, Yuan; Shapiro, Paul

    2008-12-01

    We have recently identified several novel ATP-independent inhibitors that target the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) protein and inhibit substrate phosphorylation. To further characterize these compounds, we describe the use of C. elegans as a model organism. C. elegans is recognized as a versatile and cost effective model for use in drug development. These studies take advantage of the well characterized process of vulva development and egg laying, which requires MPK-1, the homolog to human ERK2. It is shown that treatment of C. elegans eggs or larvae prior to vulva formation with a previously identified lead compound (76) caused up to 50% reduction in the number of eggs produced from the adult worm. In contrast, compound 76 had no effect on egg laying in young adult or adult worms with fully formed vulva. The reduction in egg laying by the test compound was not due to effects on C. elegans life span, general toxicity, or non-specific stress. However, compound 76 did show selective inhibition of phosphorylation of LIN-1, a MPK-1 substrate essential for vulva precursor cell formation. Moreover, compound 76 inhibited cell fusion necessary for vulva maturation and reduced the multivulva phenotype in LET-60 (Ras) mutant worms that have constitutive activation of MPK-1. These findings support the use of C. elegans as a model organism to evaluate the selectivity and specificity of novel ERK targeted compounds.

  1. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-11-01

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses.

  2. Sustained activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway protects cells from photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhimin; Singh, Gurmit; Rainbow, Andrew J

    2002-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy in which a photosensitizer selectively accumulates in tumor cells and is subsequently activated by light of a specific wavelength. The activation of the photosensitizer leads to cytotoxic photoproducts that result in tumor regression. PDT can lead to several cellular responses including cell cycle arrest, necrosis, and apoptosis, as well as trigger many signaling pathways. It has been suggested that extracellular signal-activated protein kinases (ERKs), one subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases, play a crucial role in the cellular response to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, the role of ERKs in the cell survival after PDT is less clear. We have examined the response of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK1/2 in PDT-resistant (LFS087) and PDT-sensitive (GM38A) cells after Photofrin-mediated PDT. ERK1/2 activity was induced rapidly in both cell types after PDT. The PDT-induced ERK1/2 activity was transient in GM38A cells and by 3 h had returned to a level significant lower than basal levels, whereas the induction of ERK1/2 was sustained in LFS087 cells and lasted for at least 11 h. Blocking of the sustained ERK activity with PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase, significantly decreased cell survival of LFS087 after PDT. PDT also induced the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, MKP-1, but reduced Raf-1 protein levels in both cell types. In GM38A cells, the substantially induced levels of MKP-1 correlated with the transient activation of ERK1/2 by PDT, and both basal and induced levels of MKP-1 were substantially greater in GM38 compared with Li Fraumeni syndrome cells. These observations suggest that sustained ERK1/2 activation protects cells from Photofrin-mediated phototoxicity and that the duration of ERK1/2 activation is regulated by MKP-1. In addition, the activation of ERK1/2 by Photofrin-mediated PDT is Raf-1 independent.

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) pathway and reactive oxygen species regulate tyrosine phosphorylation in capacitating boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Awda, Basim J; Buhr, Mary M

    2010-11-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) family of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is identified for the first time in boar sperm and is associated with capacitation and tyrosine phosphorylation (tyr-P). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate this signal transduction. Western immunoblotting detected the ERK pathway components RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 in extracts from fresh boar spermatozoa and determined that their phosphoprotein profiles differed in a capacitation-dependent fashion. Capacitation was accompanied by appearance of two new ERKs (158 and 161 kDa) and disappearance of others. Capacitation was verified with increased tyr-P, which was inhibited by a 30-min pre-exposure of fresh boar sperm to a xanthine/xanthine oxidase ROS-generating system prior to the capacitating incubation; ROS pre-exposure also affected the phosphorylation of RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2. Preincubating sperm with inhibitors of the ERK components with or without the ROS generator affected subsequent capacitation. Inhibiting ERK1/2 inhibited tyr-P of capacitated boar spermatozoa proteins of 172, 97, and 66 kDa (P ≤ 0.04); with ROS, this inhibition increased (P < 0.002) and tyr-P of 111 kDa declined (P < 0.028). Pre-exposure to ROS plus MEK1/2 inhibitor prevented capacitation-induced tyr-P of proteins of 187 (P < 0.01) and 112 kDa (P < 0.04) versus capacitation with or without ROS. Therefore, ERK1/2 components of the MAPK pathway significantly regulate boar sperm capacitation, and RAF1 and MEK1/2 may have some lesser influence through crosstalk with different pathways. ROS affect RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 and could influence the sequential events of boar sperm capacitation.

  4. α1A-Adrenergic Receptor Induces Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 through Endocytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; He, Kangmin; Yang, Xinxing; Xu, Ning; Liang, Zhangyi; Xu, Ming; Zhao, Xinsheng; Han, Qide; Zhang, Youyi

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate mitogen-activated protein kinases through a number of distinct pathways in cells. Increasing evidence has suggested that endosomal signaling has an important role in receptor signal transduction. Here we investigated the involvement of endocytosis in α1A-adrenergic receptor (α1A-AR)-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Agonist-mediated endocytic traffic of α1A-AR was assessed by real-time imaging of living, stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293A cells (HEK-293A). α1A-AR was internalized dynamically in cells with agonist stimulation, and actin filaments regulated the initial trafficking of α1A-AR. α1A-AR-induced activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK was sensitive to disruption of endocytosis, as demonstrated by 4°C chilling, dynamin mutation and treatment with cytochalasin D (actin depolymerizing agent). Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and C-Raf by α1A-AR was not affected by 4°C chilling or cytochalasin D treatment. U73122 (a phospholipase C [PLC] inhibitor) and Ro 31–8220 (a PKC inhibitor) inhibited α1B-AR- but not α1A-AR-induced ERK1/2 activation. These data suggest that the endocytic pathway is involved in α1A-AR-induced ERK1/2 activation, which is independent of Gq/PLC/PKC signaling. PMID:21738688

  5. Prohibitin (PHB) inhibits apoptosis in rat granulosa cells (GCs) through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the Bcl family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thompson, Winston E; Welch, Crystal; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development is tightly regulated by crosstalk between cell death and survival signals, which include both endocrine and intra-ovarian regulators. Whether the follicle ultimately ovulates or undergoes atresia is dependent on the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is abundantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and associated with GC differentiation and apoptosis. The current study was designed to characterize the regulation of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors in undifferentiated rat GCs (gonadotropin independent phase) governed by PHB. Microarray technology was initially employed to identify potential apoptosis-related genes, whose expression levels within GCs were altered by either staurosporine (STS) alone or STS in presence of ectopically over-expressed PHB. Next, immunoblot studies were performed to examine the expression patterns of selective Bcl-2 family members identified by the microarray analysis, which are commonly regulated in the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. These studies were designed to measure protein levels of Bcl2 family in relation to expression of the acidic isoform (phosphorylated) PHB and the components of MEK-Erk1/2 pathway. These studies indicated that over-expression of PHB in undifferentiated GCs inhibit apoptosis which concomitantly results in an increased level of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bclxl, reduced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and inhibition of caspase-3 activity. In contrast, silencing of PHB expression resulted in change of mitochondrial morphology from the regular reticular network to a fragmented form, which enhanced sensitization of these GCs to the induction of apoptosis. Collectively, these studies have provided new insights on the PHB-mediated anti-apoptotic mechanism, which occurs in undifferentiated GCs through a PHB → Mek-Erk1

  6. Platycodin D triggers autophagy through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Tang, Zheng-Hai; Xu, Wen-Shan; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Ya-Fang; Chang, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao; Chen, Yi; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2015-02-15

    Platycodin D (PD), isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb named Platycodonis Radix, is a triterpenoid saponin with well-known anti-tumor effects. In this study, we provided reliable evidence that PD triggered autophagy in a number of cell lines in vitro. PD-triggered autophagy was identified by observation of cytoplasmic vacuole, up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II), and accumulation of autophagosomes. The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may be not involved in PD-triggered autophagy, as evidenced by the increased phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308), mTOR (Ser2448), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (Ser371), and ULK1 (Ser757). However, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated after PD treatment. The decreased ERK phosphorylation caused by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of MEK, suppressed the expression of LC3-II compared with PD treatment alone, suggesting that ERK pathway may have a critical function in PD-triggered autophagy. In addition, the PD-induced proliferative inhibition and apoptosis were enhanced when pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) or bafilomycin A1 (BAF), indicating that PD may trigger a protective autophagy in HepG2 cells. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report that PD triggers autophagy in a series of cell lines and ERK activation is important for PD-triggered autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The combined treatment with PD and CQ or BAF may be a promising regimen for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resveratrol reduces oxidation and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    King, Robert E; Kent, Kyle D; Bomser, Joshua A

    2005-01-15

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate wine consumption and antioxidant-rich diets may protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly. Development of AMD and other retinal diseases, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), is associated with oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a cell layer responsible for maintaining the health of the retina by providing structural and nutritional support. We hypothesize that resveratrol, a red wine polyphenol, may be responsible, in part, for the health benefits of moderate red wine consumption on retinal disease. To test this hypothesis, the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of resveratrol were examined in a human RPE cell line (designated ARPE-19). Cell proliferation was determined using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, intracellular oxidation was assessed by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade was measured by immunoblotting. Treatment with 50 and 100 micromol/L resveratrol significantly reduced proliferation of RPE cells by 10% and 25%, respectively (P<0.05). This reduction in proliferation was not associated with resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity. Resveratrol (100 micromol/L) inhibited basal and H2O2-induced intracellular oxidation and protected RPE cells from H2O2-induced cell death. The observed reduction in cell proliferation was associated with inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinase/ERK (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) activities at concentrations of resveratrol as low as 5 micromol/L. These results suggest that resveratrol can reduce oxidative stress and hyperproliferation of the RPE.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in cultured feline ileal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Ju; Lee, Tai Sang; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Min, Young Sil; Shin, Chang Yell; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2005-01-01

    H(2)O(2) has been shown to act as a signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions such as apoptosis and proliferation. In the present study, we characterized the effects of H(2)O(2) on the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and examined the factors involved in the process of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by H(2)O(2) in ileal smooth muscle cells (ISMC). ISMC were cultured and exposed to H(2)O(2). Western blot analysis was performed with phosphospecific MAP kinase antibodies. Potent activation of ERK and moderate activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase occurred within 30 min of 1 mM H(2)O(2) treatment. However, p38 MAP kinase was not activated by H(2)O(2). The activation of ERK by H(2)O(2) was reduced by the mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase inhibitor PD98059 [2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one], Ras inhibitor S-farnesylthiosalicylic acid, removal of extracellular Ca(2+), depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+) pool by thapsigargin, or pretreatment of ISMC with the calmodulin antagonist W-7. Also, H(2)O(2)-induced ERK activation was attenuated by a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin 51, but not by down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or by a PKC inhibitor, GF109203X [3-[1-(dimethylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-4-(indol-3-yl)maleimide hydrochloride]. Growth factor receptor antagonist suramin pretreatment inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced ERK activation, highlighting a role for growth factor receptors in this activation. Furthermore, the ERK activation by H(2)O(2) was blocked by pretreatment with either N-acetyl-cysteine, o-phenanthroline, or mannitol indicating that metal-catalyzed free radical formation may mediate the initiation of signal transduction by H(2)O(2). These data suggest that short-term stimulation with H(2)O(2) activates the signaling pathways of cell mitogenic effects which are thought to be a protective

  9. Different Expression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) 1/2 and Phospho-Erk Proteins in MBA-MB-231 and MCF-7 Cells after Chemotherapy with Doxorubicin or Docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Taherian, Aliakbar; Mazoochi, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Curative treatment of breast cancer patients using chemotherapy often fails as a result of intrinsic or acquired resistance of the tumor to the drug. ERK is one of the main components of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, which mediates signal from cell surface receptors to transcription factors to regulate different gene expression. In this study, cytotoxicity and the expression of Erk1/2 and phospho-ERK was compared in MDA-MB-231 (ER-) and MCF-7 (ER+) cell lines after treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) or docetaxel (DOCT). Cell cytotoxicity of DOX or DOCT was calculated using MTT assay. Immonofluorescent technique was used to show MDR-1 protein in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after treatment with DOX or DOCT. The expression of ERK1/2 and phpspho-ERK was assayed with immunoblotting. Comparing IC50 values showed that MDA-MB-231 cells are more sensitive than MCF-7 cells to DOX or DOCT. Immonofluorescent results confirmed the expression of MDR-1 in these two cell lines after DOX or DOCT treatment. In MDA-MB-231 cells the expression of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK was decreased after DOX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast in MCF-7 cells the expression of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK was increased after DOX treatment. DOCT treatment demonstrated the same result with less significant differences than DOX. The heterogeneity seen in cell lines actually reflects the heterogeneity of breast cancers. That is why, patients categorized in one group respond differently to a single treatment. These results emphasize the importance of a more accurate classification and a more specific treatment of breast cancer subtypes.

  10. p53 Protein-mediated Up-regulation of MAP Kinase Phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) Contributes to the Establishment of the Cellular Senescent Phenotype through Dephosphorylation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Chi, Yuan; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Xiling; Yao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrest is one of the essential features of cellular senescence. At present, the precise mechanisms responsible for the establishment of the senescence-associated arrested phenotype are still incompletely understood. Given that ERK1/2 is one of the major kinases controlling cell growth and proliferation, we examined the possible implication of ERK1/2. Exposure of normal rat epithelial cells to etoposide caused cellular senescence, as manifested by enlarged cell size, a flattened cell body, reduced cell proliferation, enhanced β-galactosidase activity, and elevated p53 and p21. Senescent cells displayed a blunted response to growth factor-induced cell proliferation, which was preceded by impaired ERK1/2 activation. Further analysis revealed that senescent cells expressed a significantly higher level of mitogen-activated protein phosphatase 3 (MKP-3, a cytosolic ERK1/2-targeted phosphatase), which was suppressed by blocking the transcriptional activity of the tumor suppressor p53 with pifithrin-α. Inhibition of MKP-3 activity with a specific inhibitor or siRNA enhanced basal ERK1/2 phosphorylation and promoted cell proliferation. Apart from its role in growth arrest, impairment of ERK1/2 also contributed to the resistance of senescent cells to oxidant-elicited cell injury. These results therefore indicate that p53-mediated up-regulation of MKP-3 contributes to the establishment of the senescent cellular phenotype through dephosphorylating ERK1/2. Impairment of ERK1/2 activation could be an important mechanism by which p53 controls cellular senescence. PMID:25414256

  11. The Amino-terminal Domain of the Androgen Receptor Co-opts Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Docking Sites in ELK1 Protein to Induce Sustained Gene Activation That Supports Prostate Cancer Cell Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Rayna; Patki, Mugdha; Chari, Venkatesh; Dakshnamurthy, Selvakumar; McFall, Thomas; Saxton, Janice; Kidder, Benjamin L.; Shaw, Peter E.; Ratnam, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    The ETS domain transcription factor ELK1 is in a repressive association with growth genes and is transiently activated through phosphorylation by ERK1/2. In prostate cancer (PCa) cells the androgen receptor (AR) is recruited by ELK1, via its amino-terminal domain (A/B), as a transcriptional co-activator, without ELK1 hyper-phosphorylation. Here we elucidate the structural basis of the interaction of AR with ELK1. The ELK1 polypeptide motifs required for co-activation by AR versus those required for activation of ELK1 by ERK were systematically mapped using a mammalian two-hybrid system and confirmed using a co-immunoprecipitation assay. The mapping precisely identified the two ERK-docking sites in ELK1, the D-box and the DEF (docking site for ERK, FXFP) motif, as the essential motifs for its cooperation with AR(A/B) or WTAR. In contrast, the transactivation domain in ELK1 was only required for activation by ERK. ELK1-mediated transcriptional activity of AR(A/B) was optimal in the absence of ELK1 binding partners, ERK1/2 and serum-response factor. Purified ELK1 and AR bound with a dissociation constant of 1.9 × 10−8 m. A purified mutant ELK1 in which the D-box and DEF motifs were disrupted did not bind AR. An ELK1 mutant with deletion of the D-box region had a dominant-negative effect on androgen-dependent growth of PCa cells that were insensitive to MEK inhibition. This novel mechanism in which a nuclear receptor impinges on a signaling pathway by co-opting protein kinase docking sites to constitutively activate growth genes could enable rational design of a new class of targeted drug interventions. PMID:27793987

  12. Measurement of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in an undergraduate teaching laboratory with ALPHAscreen technology.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L

    2009-03-17

    Teaching the practical aspects of signal transduction to large undergraduate classes can be challenging when there is only a finite time frame in which to engage in laboratory activities. This teaching resource describes the use of bead-based ALPHAscreen technology for a class of 300 second-year biochemistry students, exposing the next generation of researchers to cutting-edge technology. Although in this case phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 were measured, this technology is applicable to the measurement of many different signaling components. This resource provides a practical guide for instructors and exemplifies how such traditionally high-throughput research technologies can be used as teaching tools.

  13. Modulation of Agrin-induced Acetylcholine Receptor Clustering by Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases 1 and 2 in Cultured Myotubes*

    PubMed Central

    Rimer, Mendell

    2010-01-01

    Agrin released by motoneurons induces and/or maintains acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and other aspects of postsynaptic differentiation at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. Agrin acts by binding and activating a receptor complex containing LDL receptor protein 4 (Lrp4) and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). Two critical downstream components of this signaling cascade, Dox-7 and rapsyn, have been identified. However, additional intracellular essential elements remain unknown. Prior observations by others and us suggested antagonistic interactions between agrin and neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) signaling in cultured myotubes and developing muscle fibers in vivo. A hallmark of Nrg-1 signaling in skeletal muscle cells is the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). ERK1/2 are also activated in most cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a classical inhibitor of agrin-induced AChR clustering in myotubes. Here, it was investigated whether agrin activates ERK1/2 directly and whether such activation modulates agrin-induced AChR clustering. Agrin induced a rapid but transient activation of ERK1/2 in myotubes that was Lrp4/MuSK-dependent. However, blocking this ERK1/2 activation did not prevent but potentiated AChR clustering induced by agrin. ERK1/2 activation was dispensable for Nrg-1-mediated inhibition of the AChR clustering activity of agrin, but was indispensable for such activity by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Together, these results suggest agrin-induced activation of ERK1/2 is a negative modulator of agrin signaling in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:20696763

  14. Phosphorylation of TPL-2 on Serine 400 Is Essential for Lipopolysaccharide Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Macrophages▿

    PubMed Central

    Robinson , M. J.; Beinke , S.; Kouroumalis, A.; Tsichlis, P. N.; Ley, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) kinase is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and for upregulation of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. LPS activation of ERK requires TPL-2 release from associated NF-κB1 p105, which blocks TPL-2 access to its substrate, the ERK kinase MEK. Here we demonstrate that TPL-2 activity is also regulated independently of p105, since LPS stimulation was still needed for TPL-2-dependent activation of ERK in Nfkb1−/− macrophages. In wild-type macrophages, LPS induced the rapid phosphorylation of serine (S) 400 in the TPL-2 C-terminal tail. Mutation of this conserved residue to alanine (A) blocked the ability of retrovirally expressed TPL-2 to induce the activation of ERK in LPS-stimulated Nfkb1−/− macrophages. TPL-2S400A expression also failed to reconstitute LPS activation of ERK and induction of TNF in Map3k8−/− macrophages, which lack endogenous TPL-2. Consistently, the S400A mutation was found to block LPS stimulation of TPL-2 MEK kinase activity. Thus, induction of TPL-2 MEK kinase activity by LPS stimulation of macrophages requires TPL-2 phosphorylation on S400, in addition to its release from NF-κB1 p105. Oncogenic C-terminal truncations of TPL-2 that remove S400 could promote its transforming potential by eliminating this critical control step. PMID:17709378

  15. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in social behavior circuits during resident-intruder aggression tests

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Crean, Katie K.; Fry, William H. D.; Sweeney, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Using a variety of experimental methods, a network of brain areas regulating aggressive behaviors has been outlined in several groups of vertebrates. However, aggressive behavior expressed in different contexts is associated with different patterns of activity across hypothalamic and limbic brain regions. Previous studies in rodents demonstrated that short day photoperiods reliably increase both male and female aggression versus long day photoperiods. Here we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to examine the effect of photoperiod on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK) in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus) during resident-intruder tests. Phosphorylated ERK (pERK) can alter neuronal activity in the short term and in the long term acts as a transcription factor. In the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) males tested in aggression tests had more phosphorylated ERK (pERK) positive cells when housed in short days but not long days. This result was replicated in western blot analyses from microdissected BNST samples. In the medial amygdala, immunostaining and western analyses showed that pERK expression also was generally increased in short days. Immunostaining was also used to examine phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). CREB can be phosphorylated by pERK as well as other kinases and functions primarily as a transcription factor. Intriguingly, aggressive interactions reduced the number of cells stained positive for phosphorylated CREB in the infralimbic cortex, ventral lateral septum and MEA. This effect was observed in mice housed in long days but not short days. Overall, these data suggest that different (but overlapping) networks of aggressive behavior operate under different environmental conditions. PMID:19874872

  16. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway is differentially involved in beta-agonist-induced hypertrophy in slow and fast muscles.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Zeng, C; Ricome, A; Hannon, K M; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E

    2007-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling beta-adrenergic receptor agonist (BA)-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy are not well known. We presently report that BA exerts a distinct muscle- and muscle fiber type-specific hypertrophy. Moreover, we have shown that pharmacologically or genetically attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in muscle fibers resulted in decreases (P < 0.05) in fast but not slow fiber type-specific reporter gene expressions in response to BA exposure in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these data, forced expression of MAPK phosphatase 1, a nuclear protein that dephosphorylates ERK1/2, in fast-twitch skeletal muscle ablated (P < 0.05) the hypertrophic effects of BA feeding (clenbuterol, 20 parts per million in water) in vivo. Further analysis has shown that BA-induced phosphorylation and activation of ERK occurred to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in fast myofibers than in slow myofibers. Analysis of the basal level of ERK activity in slow and fast muscles revealed that ERK1/2 is activated to a greater extent in fast- than in slow-twitch muscles. These data indicate that ERK signaling is differentially involved in BA-induced hypertrophy in slow and fast skeletal muscles, suggesting that the increased abundance of phospho-ERK1/2 and ERK activity found in fast-twitch myofibers, compared with their slow-twitch counterparts, may account, at least in part, for the fiber type-specific hypertrophy induced by BA stimulation. These data suggest that fast myofibers are pivotal in the adaptation of muscle to environmental cues and that the mechanism underlying this change is partially mediated by the MAPK signaling cascade.

  17. Low concentrations of paraquat induces early activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, protein kinase B, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 pathways: role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in paraquat-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Niso-Santano, Mireia; Morán, José M; García-Rubio, Lourdes; Gómez-Martín, Ana; González-Polo, Rosa A; Soler, Germán; Fuentes, José M

    2006-08-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide with a potential risk to induce parkinsonism due to its demonstrated neurotoxicity and its strong structural similarity to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), a well-known neurotoxin which causes a clinical syndrome similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, at present very little is known about the signaling pathways activated by paraquat in any cell system. In this study, we have investigated the effect of paraquat on extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and protein kinase B (PKB) activation in E18 cells. Low concentrations of paraquat stimulated very early increases in ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and PKB phosphorylation. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY 294002 (2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) inhibited early paraquat-induced increases in PKB phosphorylation. Furthermore, early paraquat-mediated increases in ERK1/2 activation were sensitive to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor PD 98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone), whereas JNK1/2 responses were blocked by the JNK1/2 inhibitor SP 600125 (anthra[1-9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one). Pretreatment with wortmannin, LY 294002, or PD 98059 had no effect on paraquat cell death in E18 cells. In contrast, SP 600125 significantly decreased paraquat-induced cell death in E18 cells. In conclusion, we have shown that low concentrations of paraquat stimulate robust very early increases in ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and PKB phosphorylation in E18 cells. Furthermore, the data presented clearly suggest that inhibition of the JNK1/2 pathway protects E18 cells from paraquat-induced cell death and support the fact that inhibition of early activation of JNK1/2 can constitute a potential strategy in PD treatment.

  18. Both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways regulate activation of E-twenty-six (ETS)-like transcription factor 1 (Elk-1) in U138 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mut, Melike; Lule, Sevda; Demir, Ozlem; Kurnaz, Isil Aksan; Vural, Imran

    2012-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma. In our study, the EGFR was stimulated with EGF in human U138 glioblastoma cells. We show that the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway phosphorylated the E twenty-six (ETS)-like transcription factor 1 (Elk-1) mainly at serine 383 residue. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, UO126 and ERK inhibitor II, FR180204 blocked the Elk-1 phosphorylation and activation. The phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was also involved in the Elk-1 activation. Activation of the Elk-1 led to an increased survival and a proliferative response with the EGF stimulation in the U138 glioblastoma cells. Knocking-down the Elk-1 using an RNA interference technique caused a decrease in survival of the unstimulated U138 glioblastoma cells and also decreased the proliferative response to the EGF stimulation. The Elk-1 transcription factor was important for the survival and proliferation of U138 glioblastoma cells upon the stimulation of EGFR with EGF. The MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways regulated this response via activation of the Elk-1 transcription factor. The Elk-1 may be one of the convergence points for pathways located downstream of EGFR in glioblastoma cells. Utilization of the Elk-1 as a therapeutic target may lead to a novel strategy in treatment of glioblastoma.

  19. Nicotine promotes gastric tumor growth and neovascularization by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed

    Shin, Vivian Y; Wu, William K K; Ye, Yi-Ni; So, Wallace H L; Koo, Marcel W L; Liu, Edgar S L; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2004-12-01

    Early studies revealed that cigarette smoke promotes gastric cancer growth through the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Nicotine, one of the active ingredients in cigarette smoke, has detrimental effects in the stomach. To date, there is no direct evidence to validate the effect of nicotine on gastric tumor growth and its carcinogenic mechanism(s). We therefore investigated whether nicotine could promote tumor growth and neovascularization in vivo, and the biological mechanism(s) in connection with the signaling cascade involving COX-2 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). Athymic nude mice, with gastric cancer cells (AGS) orthotopically implanted into the gastric wall, treated with nicotine (50 or 200 microg/ml) in their drinking water for 3 months developed larger tumor areas than mice in the control group. Nicotine further increased proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and microvessel density by 70 and 30%, respectively, with concomitant activation of ERK phosphorylation, COX-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the tumors. Intraperitoneal administration of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236, 2 mg/kg) prevented the nicotine-induced tumor growth and neovascularization dose-dependently. Consistent with our animal model, an in vitro study also demonstrated that incubation with nicotine (50-200 microg/ml) for 5 h stimulated cell proliferation dose-dependently and increased COX-2 expression, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and VEGF release, as well as activation of ERK phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors (U0126 or PD98059) attenuated COX-2 expression and subsequent PGE(2) release by nicotine. Furthermore, the stimulatory action of nicotine on cancer cell growth and angiogenic factor VEGF production was suppressed by inhibitors of MEK (U0126) and COX-2 (SC-236). These findings reveal a direct promoting action of nicotine on the growth of

  20. Neuroprotection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against hypoxic injury in vitro requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hui; Luo, Xiaoli; Li, Shengfu; Yu, Dan; Hua, Jiping; Mu, Dezhi; Mao, Meng

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine asphyxia is one of the major contributors for perinatal death, mental and physical disorders of surviving children. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) provides a promising solution to hypoxic injury due to its survival-promoting effects. In an attempt to identify possible molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective role of BDNF, we studied extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3-K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. We demonstrated that BDNF protected cortical neurons against hypoxic injury in vitro via activation of both the ERK and PI-3-K pathways but not the p38 MAPK pathway. We also showed that both hypoxic stimuli and exogenous BDNF treatment phosphorylated the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and that CREB phosphorylation induced by BDNF was mediated via the ERK pathway in cultured cortical neurons.

  1. Shenmai injection inhibiting the extracellular signal regulated kinase-induced human airway smooth muscle proliferation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-min; Ma, Li-jun; Zhang, Luo-xian; Wu, Ji-zhen

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the proliferation of sensitized human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and the effect of Shenmai Injection (SMI) on HASMCs. The HASMCs cultured in vitro were divided into three groups: (1) control group; (2) sensitized group: containing 10% asthmatic serum; (3) SMI group: further divided into three different concentration subgroups interferred with 10 microL/mL, 50 microL/mL, and 100 microL/mL SMI, respectively. The proliferation of HASMCs was detected using MTT method, the expression of proliferating cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) in HASMCs was detected using immunocytochemical staining, and the expression of phosphoration-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) protein was detected using Western-blot. After passive sensitization,: the optical density value (A A(490) value) of HASMCs was significantly increased from 0.366+/-0.086 to 0.839+/- 0.168 (P<0.05). In addition, the expression of PCNA was significantly increased from 28.7%+/-5.9% in the control group to 69.8%+/-7.5% in the sensitized group (P<0.05). At the same time, the expression of p-ERK1/2 in passively sensitized HASMCs was significantly increased compared with the control group (all P<0.05). After application of 10 microL/mL, 50 microL/mL, and 100 microL/mL SMI to the cultured media of passively sensitized group, the A(570) value was significantly decreased from 0.839+/-0.168 to 0.612+/-0.100, 0.412+/-0.092, and 0.339+/-0.077, respectively (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of PCNA was significantly decreased from 69.8%+/-7.5% to 57.8%+/-6.2%, 40.7%+/-5.4%, and 26.1%+/-5.2%, respectively. At the same time, the expression of p-ERK1/2 in each SMI group was significantly decreased compared with the sensitized group (all P<0.05). ERK signal transduction pathway may be involved in the airway remodeling in asthma. The expression of ERK can be inhibited by SMI in a dose-dependent manner, thus preventing the proliferation of

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 control claudin-2 expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney strain I and II cells.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Joshua H; Li, Shixiong; Arisco, Amy; Balkovetz, Daniel F

    2005-02-04

    The tight junction of the epithelial cell determines the characteristics of paracellular permeability across epithelium. Recent work points toward the claudin family of tight junction proteins as leading candidates for the molecular components that regulate paracellular permeability properties in epithelial tissues. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) strain I and II cells are models for the study of tight junctions and based on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) contain "tight" and "leaky" tight junctions, respectively. Overexpression studies suggest that tight junction leakiness in these two strains of MDCK cells is conferred by expression of the tight junction protein claudin-2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation by hepatocyte growth factor treatment of MDCK strain II cells inhibited claudin-2 expression and transiently increased TER. This process was blocked by the ERK 1/2 inhibitor U0126. Transfection of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase into MDCK strain II cells also inhibited claudin-2 expression and increased TER. MDCK strain I cells have higher levels of active ERK 1/2 than do MDCK strain II cells. U0126 treatment of MDCK strain I cells decreased active ERK 1/2 levels, induced expression of claudin-2 protein, and decreased TER by approximately 20-fold. U0126 treatment also induced claudin-2 expression and decreased TER in a high resistance mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (94D). These data show for the first time that the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway negatively controls claudin-2 expression in mammalian renal epithelial cells and provide evidence for regulation of tight junction paracellular transport by alterations in claudin composition within tight junction complexes.

  3. Food restriction increases NMDA receptor-mediated calcium-calmodulin kinase II and NMDA receptor/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated cyclic amp response element-binding protein phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens upon D-1 dopamine receptor stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Haberny, S L; Carr, K D

    2005-01-01

    Biological drive states exert homeostatic control in part by increasing the reinforcing effects of environmental incentive stimuli. An apparent by-product of this adaptive response is the enhanced acquisition of drug self-administration behavior in food-restricted (FR) animals. While previous research has demonstrated increased central sensitivity to rewarding effects of abused drugs and direct dopamine (DA) receptor agonists in FR subjects, the underlying neurobiology is not well understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the D-1 DA receptor agonist, SKF-82958 produces a stronger activation of striatal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in FR relative to ad libitum (AL) fed rats. The main purpose of the present study was to characterize the involvement and mechanisms of interaction between NMDA receptor function and the augmented cellular responses to D-1 DA receptor stimulation in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of FR rats. In experiment 1, Western immunoblotting was used to demonstrate that i.c.v. injection of SKF-82958 (20 microg) produces greater phosphorylation of the NMDA NR1 subunit and calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II) in NAc of FR as compared with AL rats. In experiment 2, pretreatment of subjects with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased SKF-82958-induced activation of CaMK II, ERK1/2 and CREB, and reversed the augmenting effect of FR on activation of all three proteins. In experiment 3, pretreatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor SL-327 (60 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed SKF-82958- induced activation of ERK1/2 and reversed the augmenting effect of FR on CREB activation. These results point to specific neuroadaptations in the NAc of FR rats whereby D-1 DA receptor stimulation leads to increased NMDA NR1 subunit phosphorylation and consequent increases in NMDA receptor-dependent CaMK II and ERK1

  4. Constitutive hypophosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 and down-regulation of c-Jun in human gastric adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Sung, Joseph Joe Yiu; Yu Le; Li Zhijie; Chu, Kent Man; Cho, C.H.

    2008-08-22

    Hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases-1/2 (ERK1/2) is known to promote cancer cell proliferation. We therefore investigated the constitutive phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and the expression of its downstream targets c-Fos, c-Jun, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in biopsied human gastric cancer tissues. Results showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Jun expression were significantly lowered in gastric cancer compared with the non-cancer adjacent tissues. The expression of c-Fos, however, was not altered while COX-2 was significantly up-regulated. To conclude, we demonstrate that hypophosphorylation of ERK1/2 may occur in gastric cancer. Such discovery may have implication in the application of pathway-directed therapy for this malignant disease.

  5. Erythropoietin inhibits osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells by Janus kinase- and extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2-mediated release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Krügel, K; Wurm, A; Linnertz, R; Pannicke, T; Wiedemann, P; Reichenbach, A; Bringmann, A

    2010-02-17

    The volume homeostasis of retinal glial cells is mediated by an autocrine purinergic mechanism of ion channel opening which is activated in response to a decrease in the extracellular osmolarity. Here, we show that erythropoietin (EPO) prevents the osmotic swelling of glial somata in retinal slices and of isolated glial cells from control and diabetic rats, with a half-maximal effect at approximately 0.01 nM. The downstream signaling evoked by EPO includes a release of vascular endothelial growth factor from the cells which was blocked by Janus kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 inhibitors. Transactivation of kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (KDR/flk-1) evokes a calcium-dependent, exocytotic release of glutamate, followed by activation of group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors which results in calcium-independent release of ATP and adenosine from the cells. The final step in this cascade is the activation of adenosine A(1) receptors which results in protein kinase A- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated opening of potassium and chloride channels. EPO receptor protein was immunohistochemically localized to the inner retina and photoreceptor inner segments. In isolated glial cells, EPO receptor protein is selectively localized to fibers which traverse the inner nuclear layer in situ. Inhibition of glial swelling might contribute to the neuroprotective action of EPO in the retina under pathological conditions.

  6. Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK 1/2) in the Locus Coeruleus Contributes to Pain-Related Anxiety in Arthritic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gisela; Miguelez, Cristina; Neto, Fani; Mico, Juan Antonio; Ugedo, Luisa; Berrocoso, Esther

    2017-06-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that the Locus Coeruleus plays a role in pain-related anxiety. Indeed, we previously found that prolonged arthritis produces anxiety-like behavior in rats, along with enhanced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (a marker of plasticity) in the Locus Coeruleus. However, it is unknown how this effect correlates with the electrophysiological activity of Locus Coeruleus neurons or pain-related anxiety. Using the complete Freund's adjuvant model of monoarthritis in male Sprague-Dawley rats, we studied the behavioral attributes of pain and anxiety as well as Locus Coeruleus electrophysiology in vivo 1 (MA1W) and 4 weeks (MA4W) after disease induction. The manifestation of anxiety in MA4W was accompanied by dampened tonic Locus Coeruleus activity, which was coupled to an exacerbated evoked Locus Coeruleus response to noxious stimulation of the inflamed and healthy paw. When a mitogen-activating extracellular kinase inhibitor was administered to the contralateral Locus Coeruleus of MA4W, the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 levels in the Locus Coeruleus were restored and the exaggerated evoked response was blocked, reversing the anxiogenic-like behavior while pain hypersensitivity remained unaltered. As phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 blockade in the Locus Coeruleus relieved anxiety and counteracted altered LC function, we propose that phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in the Locus Coeruleus plays a crucial role in pain-related anxiety.

  7. Role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signal transduction cascade in alpha(2) adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in porcine palmar lateral vein.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E

    2001-07-01

    The mechanism of alpha(2) adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction is unknown, but may involve activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, and/or a protein tyrosine kinase. Recently the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) cascade, often an event downstream of tyrosine kinase activation, has been shown to mediate vasoconstriction to a variety of agents. The aim of this present study was to determine the involvement of the Erk signal transduction cascade in alpha(2) adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction, and to confirm the involvement of activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, and protein tyrosine kinase. Contractions to the alpha(2) adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 in the porcine palmar lateral vein in vitro were reduced 70 - 80% by the MEK inhibitors PD98059 (10 - 50 microM) and U0126 (10 - 50 microM), indicating the involvement of the Erk signal transduction cascade. Immunoblots also demonstrated an increase in the phosphorylated (activated) form of Erk in palmar lateral vein segments after contraction with UK14304, which was inhibited by PD98059 and U0126. The calcium channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil, or removal of extracellular calcium inhibited UK14304-induced contractions and phosphorylation of Erk, demonstrating the importance of an influx of extracellular calcium. UK14304-induced contractions were inhibited by PP2 (1 - 10 microM), a selective inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinases, but not by PP3, an inactive analogue. PP2 also prevented the phosphorylation of Erk by UK14304. These data demonstrate that alpha(2) adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the porcine palmar lateral vein is dependent upon activation of the Erk signal transduction cascade, which is downstream of an influx of extracellular calcium, and activation of Src tyrosine kinases.

  8. Possible role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in regulation of Sox9 mRNA expression in chondrocytes under hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kensuke; Kirkham, Jennifer; Bonass, William A

    2007-12-01

    The potential involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in chondrocyte mechanotransduction was tested in bovine chondrocyte-agarose constructs under hydrostatic loading. Results suggested that the ERK pathway may be inhibited by hydrostatic pressure-induced mechanotransduction and may also be a negative regulator of Sox9 mRNA expression, which is an important modulator of chondrocyte function.

  9. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus suppresses hepatitis B virus replication by enhancing extracellular signal-regulated Kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Li, Junru; Tang, Yuan; Lin, Lin; Xie, Zhanglian; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Liyun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2017-09-16

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As the clinical utility of current therapies is limited, the development of new therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of HBV infection is imperative. Fucoidan is a natural sulfated polysaccharide that extracted from different species of brown seaweed, which was reported to exhibit various bioactivities. However, it remains unclear whether fucoidan influences HBV replication or not. The HBV-infected mouse model was established by hydrodynamic injection of HBV replicative plasmid, and the mice were treated with saline or fucoidan respectively. Besides, we also tested the inhibitory effect of fucoidan against HBV infection in HBV-transfected cell lines. The result showed that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus decreased serum HBV DNA, HBsAg and HBeAg levels and hepatic HBcAg expression in HBV-infected mice. Moreover, fucoidan treatment also suppressed intracellular HBcAg expression and the secretion of the HBV DNA as well as HBsAg and HBeAg in HBV-expressing cells. Furthermore, we proved that the inhibitory activity by fucoidan was due to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and the subsequent production of type I interferon. Using specific inhibitor of ERK pathway abrogated the fucoidan-mediated inhibition of HBV replication. This study highlights that fucoidan might be served as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of HBV infection.

  10. 6-demethoxynobiletin, a nobiletin-analog citrus flavonoid, enhances extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12D cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Junko; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Degawa, Masakuni; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone isolated from citrus peels, has the potential to improve cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that the generation of intraneuronal amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers is an early event in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ oligomers cause deficits in the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling which is critical for consolidation of the memory. Our previous studies revealed that nobiletin activated ERK signaling and subsequent cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcription. In this study, the effects of five nobiletin analogs, 6-demethoxynobiletin, tangeretin, 5-demethylnobiletin, sinensetin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin, isolated from citrus peels were assessed on ERK phosphorylation in PC12D cells, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. PC12D cells were treated with nobiletin or its analogs, and the cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting using an antibody specific to phosphorylated ERK. 6-Demethoxynobiletin markedly enhanced ERK phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. These results may be useful in developing drugs and functional foods using citrus peels for the treatment of dementia including AD.

  11. Dexmedetomidine post-treatment induces neuroprotection via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rats with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Han, R.; Zuo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dexmedetomidine, a sedative agent, provides neuroprotection when administered during or before brain ischaemia. This study was designed to determine whether dexmedetomidine post-treatment induces neuroprotection against subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and the mechanisms for this effect. Methods Subarachnoid haemorrhage was induced by endovascular perforation to the junction of the right middle and anterior cerebral arteries in adult rats. Dexmedetomidine was applied immediately or 2 h after onset of SAH. Neurological outcome was evaluated 2 days after SAH. Right frontal cortex area 1 was harvested 24 h after SAH for western blotting. Results Subarachnoid haemorrhage reduced neurological scores and increased brain oedema and blood–brain barrier permeability. These effects were attenuated by dexmedetomidine post-treatment. Neuroprotection by dexmedetomidine was abolished by PD98095, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Phospho-ERK, the activated form of ERK, was increased by dexmedetomidine; this activation was inhibited by PD98095. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine post-treatment provides neuroprotection against SAH. This effect appears to be mediated by ERK. PMID:26865131

  12. Traditional Chinese medicine suppresses left ventricular hypertrophy by targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinases signaling pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Duan, Lian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie; Li, Xiaoke

    2017-02-22

    Chinese herbal medicine Bu-Shen-Jiang-Ya decoction (BSJYD) is reported to be beneficial for hypertension. Over expression of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) pathway plays an important role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study aimed to observe effects of BSJYD on LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and explore its possible mechanism on regulation of ERK pathway. Sixty 12-week-old SHRs were randomly allocated into 5 groups: BSJYD high dose group, middle dose group, low dose group, captopril group, and control group. Besides, a control group of Wistar-Kyoto rats was established. All rats were treated for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), pathology, and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. Western blotting and Real-time PCR were used to assess the expressions of BDNF, Ras, ERK1/2, and c-fox levels. SBP and HR were significantly decreased compared with the control group and LVMI was markedly improved by BSJYD treatment in a dose-dependent manner. BSJYD inhibited the expression of BDNF, Ras, ERK1/2, and c-fox mRNA in LVH. In conclusion, BSJYD suppressed hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the expression of ERK pathway. These changes in gene expression may be a possible mechanism by which BSJYD provides myocardial protection from hypertension.

  13. Gravity loading induces adenosine triphosphate release and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mai; Arakawa, Toshiya; Okayama, Miki; Shitara, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Takuma, Taishin

    2014-11-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) receives mechanical stress (MS) from dental occlusion or orthodontic tooth movement. Mechanical stress is thought to be a trigger for remodeling of the PDL and alveolar bone, although its signaling mechanism is still unclear. So we investigated the effect of MS on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in PDL cells. Mechanical stress was applied to human PDL cells as centrifugation-mediated gravity loading. Apyrase, Ca(2+)-free medium and purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists were utilized to analyze the contribution of purinergic receptors to ERK phosphorylation. Gravity loading and ATP increased ERK phosphorylation by 5 and 2.5 times, respectively. Gravity loading induced ATP release from PDL cells by tenfold. Apyrase and suramin diminished ERK phosphorylation induced by both gravity loading and ATP. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions the phosphorylation by gravity loading was partially decreased, whereas ATP-induced phosphorylation was unaffected. Receptors P2Y4 and P2Y6 were prominently expressed in the PDL cells. Gravity loading induced ATP release and ERK phosphorylation in PDL fibroblasts, and ATP signaling via P2Y receptors was partially involved in this phosphorylation, which in turn would enhance gene expression for the remodeling of PDL tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Drug-induced alterations in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway: implications for reinforcement and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haifeng; Li, Yanqin; Wang, Xi; Lu, Lin

    2008-02-01

    Drug addiction, characterized by high rates of relapse, is recognized as a kind of neuroadaptive disorder. Since the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical to neuroplasticity in the adult brain, understanding the role this pathway plays is important for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drug addiction and relapse. Here, we review previous literatures that focus on the effects of exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine, morphine, and alcohol on ERK signaling in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system; these alterations of ERK signaling have been thought to contribute to the drug's rewarding effects and to the long-term maladaptation induced by drug abuse. We then discuss the possible upstreams of the ERK signaling pathway activated by exposure of drugs of abuse and the environmental cues previously paired with drugs. Finally, we argue that since ERK activation is a key molecular process in reinstatement of conditioned place preference and drug self-administration, the pharmacological manipulation of the ERK pathway is a potential treatment strategy for drug addiction.

  15. Pleiotrophin promotes microglia proliferation and secretion of neurotrophic factors by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jiayin; Ding, Minghui; Zhang, Aiwu; Xiao, Zijian; Qi, Weiwei; Luo, Ning; Di, Wei; Tao, Yuqian; Fang, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an effective neuroprotective factor and its expression is strikingly increased in microglia after ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, whether PTN could provide neurotrophic support to neurons by regulating microglia function is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PTN was induced in microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. PTN promoted the proliferation of microglia by enhancing the G1 to S phase transition. PTN also stimulated the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in microglia, but did not upregulate the expression of proinflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS. Mechanistically, we found that PTN increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in microglia in both concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. In addition, ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abolished the proliferation and G1 to S phase transition of microglia stimulated by PTN, and inhibited the production of BDNF, CNTF and NGF induced by PTN. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that PTN-ERK1/2 pathway plays important role in regulating microglia growth and secretion of neurotrophic factors. These findings provide new insight into the neuroprotective role of PTN and suggest that PTN is a new target for therapeutic intervention of stroke.

  16. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus contributes to morphine physical dependence in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Zheng, Tian-Fang; Wei, Jing-Qiu; Liu, He; Chen, Yu-Feng; Wang, Jia-You; Zhang, Li-Cai

    2013-05-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) may influence actual composition of the CSF for non-synaptic signal transmission via releasing or absorbing bioactive substances, which distributes and localizes in the ventral periaqueductal central gray of the brainstem. Previous studies demonstrated that CSF-CN was involved in neuropathic pain and morphine dependence. Thus, to identify whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) distributed in the CSF-CN and its function on the formation and development of morphine physical dependence, morphine withdrawal-like behavioral test and immunofluorescent technique were used in this research. Morphine was subcutaneously injected by an intermittent and escalating procedure to induce physical dependence, which was measured by withdrawal symptoms. In this study, we found that horseradish peroxidase-conjugated toxin subunit B/p-ERK5 double-labeled neurons expressed in the CSF-CN of normal rats. ERK5 signaling pathway was remarkably activated by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the CSF-CN. Moreover, selective attenuation of p-ERK5 expression in the CSF-CN by lateral ventricle injection of BIX02188 could significantly relieve morphine withdrawal symptom. These findings confirmed that the activation of p-ERK5 in the CSF-CN might contribute to morphine physical dependence.

  17. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in spinal astrocytes and microglia contributes to cancer-induced bone pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-W; Li, T-T; Zhao, J; Mao-Ying, Q-L; Zhang, H; Hu, S; Li, Q; Mi, W-L; Wu, G-C; Zhang, Y-Q; Wang, Y-Q

    2012-08-16

    Cancer pain, especially cancer-induced bone pain, affects the quality of life of cancer patients, and current treatments for this pain are limited. The present study demonstrates that spinal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in glial cells plays a crucial role in cancer-induced bone pain. From day 4 to day 21 after the intra-tibia inoculation with Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells, significant mechanical allodynia was observed as indicated by the decrease of mechanical withdrawal thresholds in the von Frey hair test. Intra-tibia inoculation with carcinoma cells induced a vast and persistent (>21 D) activation of ERK in the bilateral L2-L3 and L4-L5 spinal dorsal horn. The increased pERK1/2-immunoreactivity was observed in both Iba-1-expressing microglia and GFAP-expressing astrocytes but not in NeuN-expressing neurons. A single intrathecal injection of the selective MEK (ERK kinase) inhibitors PD98059 (10 μg) on day 12 and U0126 (1.25 and 3 μg) on day 14, attenuated the bilateral mechanical allodynia in the von Frey hair test. Altogether, our results suggest that ERK activation in spinal microglia and astrocytes is correlated with the onset of allodynia and is important for allodynia maintenance in the cancer pain model. This study indicated that inhibition of the ERK pathway may provide a new therapy for cancer-induced bone pain.

  18. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Involvement in the Enhancement of Contextual Fear Conditioning by Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Contextual fear conditioning is enhanced by nicotine, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) has been shown to play an integral role in the formation of contextual fear memories. As such, it is possible that ERK 1/2 is involved in the enhancement of contextual fear conditioning by nicotine. To determine whether ERK 1/2 plays a role in this enhancement, a dose of SL327 (a selective, systemic ERK 1/2 inhibitor) that is subthreshold for inhibiting contextual fear conditioning was coadministered with nicotine prior to training, testing, or both training and testing of contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. When administered prior to training, this subthreshold dose of SL327 attenuated the enhancement of contextual fear conditioning by nicotine to levels similar to those of vehicle-treated animals. When administered prior to testing, the subthreshold dose of SL327 did not significantly alter conditioning. These results suggest that activation of ERK 1/2 by nicotine during acquisition leads to an enhancement of contextual fear conditioning. PMID:17907844

  19. Genistein modulates prostate epithelial cell proliferation via estrogen- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingya; Clubbs, Elizabeth A; Bomser, Joshua A

    2006-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of soy is associated with a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Genistein, the most abundant isoflavone present in soy, is thought to be responsible, in part, for these anticancer effects. The present study examined the effects of genistein on cellular proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activity and apoptosis in a nontumorigenic human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1). Low concentrations of genistein (0-12.5 micromol/L) significantly increased cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activity (P<.01) in RWPE-1 cells, while higher concentrations (50 and 100 micromol/L) of genistein significantly inhibited cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activity (P<.001). A similar biphasic effect of genistein on MEK1 activity, an ERK1/2 kinase, was also observed. Pretreatment of cells with a MEK1 inhibitor (PD 098059) significantly blocked genistein-induced proliferation and ERK1/2 activity (P<.01). In addition, treatment of cells with ICI 182,780, a pure antiestrogen, inhibited genistein-induced RWPE-1 proliferation and ERK1/2 signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that genistein modulates RWPE-1 cell proliferation and signal transduction via an estrogen-dependent pathway involving ERK1/2 activation.

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine suppresses left ventricular hypertrophy by targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinases signaling pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Duan, Lian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie; Li, Xiaoke

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine Bu-Shen-Jiang-Ya decoction (BSJYD) is reported to be beneficial for hypertension. Over expression of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) pathway plays an important role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study aimed to observe effects of BSJYD on LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and explore its possible mechanism on regulation of ERK pathway. Sixty 12-week-old SHRs were randomly allocated into 5 groups: BSJYD high dose group, middle dose group, low dose group, captopril group, and control group. Besides, a control group of Wistar-Kyoto rats was established. All rats were treated for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), pathology, and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. Western blotting and Real-time PCR were used to assess the expressions of BDNF, Ras, ERK1/2, and c-fox levels. SBP and HR were significantly decreased compared with the control group and LVMI was markedly improved by BSJYD treatment in a dose-dependent manner. BSJYD inhibited the expression of BDNF, Ras, ERK1/2, and c-fox mRNA in LVH. In conclusion, BSJYD suppressed hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the expression of ERK pathway. These changes in gene expression may be a possible mechanism by which BSJYD provides myocardial protection from hypertension. PMID:28225023

  1. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated fear conditioning and possible involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kotaro; Tsuji, Minoru; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-18

    Fear conditioning is a valuable behavioral paradigm for studying the neural basis of emotional learning and memory. The present study examined the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) signaling on the serotonin (5-HT)7 receptor-mediated fear conditioning. Conditioning was performed in a trial in which a tone was followed by an electrical foot-shock. Context- and tone-dependent fear were examined in tests conducted 24 and 48h after conditioning, respectively. The selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist 2a-[4-(4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl)butyl]-2a,3,4,-tetrahydrobenzo(c,d)indol-2-(1H)-one (DR4004) (5mg/kg), when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) immediately after conditioning, caused a significant decrease in both context- and tone-dependent fear responses (freezing behavior). A significant increase in ERK activity was observed in the amygdala of mice that displayed context- or tone-dependent fear responses, and these changes were also inhibited by the administration of DR4004 (5mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after conditioning. In contrast, the increase in hippocampal ERK activity in mice that displayed context-dependent fear responses was further enhanced by the administration of DR4004 (5mg/kg, i.p.). These results suggest that 5-HT7 receptor-mediated ERK signaling may play a significant role in the processes of emotional learning and memory.

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 signaling in the hippocampal dentate gyrus mediates the antidepressant effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Nicole; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Human and animal studies suggest that testosterone may have antidepressant effects. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of testosterone within the hippocampus, an area that is fundamental in the etiology of depression. The effects of testosterone replacements in gonadectomized adult male rats were investigated using the sucrose preference and forced swim tests. We explored possible effects of testosterone on hippocampal neurogenesis and gene expression of stress-related molecules. Through the use of viral vectors, we pursued the antidepressant molecular mechanism(s) of testosterone in mediating anhedonia and manipulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) expression in the dentate gyrus in gonadectomized rats with testosterone replacements. Testosterone had antidepressant effects, likely mediated by aromatization to estrogen metabolites, in the sucrose preference and forced swim tests despite having no effects on hippocampal cell proliferation or survival. We found a testosterone-dependent regulation of hippocampal ERK2 expression. Functionally, reducing ERK2 activity within the dentate gyrus induced anhedonia in gonadectomized rats receiving testosterone supplementation, whereas the overexpression of ERK2 rescued this behavior in gonadectomized rats. These results implicate a role for ERK2 signaling within the dentate gyrus area of the hippocampus as a key mediator of the antidepressant effects of testosterone. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epimorphin promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis through activation of focal adhesion kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/matrix metalloproteinase-9 axis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ya-Li; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Jun-Nian; Fu, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Feng; Wang, Yun-Fang; Yan, Xin-Long; Xu, Ying-Chen; Zeng, Quan; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2011-11-01

    The high incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly the result of frequent metastasis and tumor recurrence. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving HCC metastasis are still not fully understood. It has been demonstrated that tumor stroma cells contribute to primary tumor growth and metastasis. Within the HCC environment, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) can release a number of molecules and enhance cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in a paracrine manner. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that epimorphin (EPM; also called syntaxin-2), an extracellular protein, is strongly elevated in activated HSCs within tumor stroma. We show that knockdown of EPM expression in HSCs substantially abolishes their effects on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Ectopic expression of EPM in HCC cancer cells enhances their invasiveness; we demonstrate that the cells expressing EPM have markedly increased metastasis potential. Furthermore, EPM-mediated invasion and metastasis of cancer cells is found to require up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) through the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) axis. Our results show that EPM, secreted by activated HSCs within HCC stroma, promotes invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by activating MMP-9 expression through the FAK-ERK pathway. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Retinoic acid receptors inhibit AP1 activation by regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and CBP recruitment to an AP1-responsive promoter.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, Madjid; Brand, Céline; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-07-01

    Retinoids exhibit antineoplastic activities that may be linked to retinoid receptor-mediated transrepression of activating protein 1 (AP1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of fos- and jun-related proteins. Here we show that transcriptional activation of an AP1-regulated gene through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway (MAPK(ERK)) is characterized, in intact cells, by a switch from a fra2-junD dimer to a junD-fosB dimer loading on its promoter and by simultaneous recruitment of ERKs, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and RNA polymerase II. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) receptor (RAR) was tethered constitutively to the AP1 promoter. AP1 transrepression by retinoic acid was concomitant to glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation, negative regulation of junD hyperphosphorylation, and to decreased RNA polymerase II recruitment. Under these conditions, fra1 loading to the AP1 response element was strongly increased. Importantly, CBP and ERKs were excluded from the promoter in the presence of atRA. AP1 transrepression by retinoids was RAR and ligand dependent, but none of the functions required for RAR-mediated transactivation was necessary for AP1 transrepression. These results indicate that transrepressive effects of retinoids are mediated through a mechanism unrelated to transcriptional activation, involving the RAR-dependent control of transcription factors and cofactor assembly on AP1-regulated promoters.

  5. Retinoic Acid Receptors Inhibit AP1 Activation by Regulating Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and CBP Recruitment to an AP1-Responsive Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Benkoussa, Madjid; Brand, Céline; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Retinoids exhibit antineoplastic activities that may be linked to retinoid receptor-mediated transrepression of activating protein 1 (AP1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of fos- and jun-related proteins. Here we show that transcriptional activation of an AP1-regulated gene through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway (MAPKERK) is characterized, in intact cells, by a switch from a fra2-junD dimer to a junD-fosB dimer loading on its promoter and by simultaneous recruitment of ERKs, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and RNA polymerase II. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) receptor (RAR) was tethered constitutively to the AP1 promoter. AP1 transrepression by retinoic acid was concomitant to glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation, negative regulation of junD hyperphosphorylation, and to decreased RNA polymerase II recruitment. Under these conditions, fra1 loading to the AP1 response element was strongly increased. Importantly, CBP and ERKs were excluded from the promoter in the presence of atRA. AP1 transrepression by retinoids was RAR and ligand dependent, but none of the functions required for RAR-mediated transactivation was necessary for AP1 transrepression. These results indicate that transrepressive effects of retinoids are mediated through a mechanism unrelated to transcriptional activation, involving the RAR-dependent control of transcription factors and cofactor assembly on AP1-regulated promoters. PMID:12052862

  6. Distinct Roles for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in the Structure and Production of a Primate Gammaherpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Evonne N.

    2012-01-01

    During their progression from intranuclear capsids to mature trilaminar virions, herpesviruses incorporate an extensive array of viral as well as a smaller subset of cellular proteins. Our laboratory previously reported that rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a close homolog of the human pathogen Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is comprised of at least 33 different virally encoded proteins. In the current study, we found that RRV infection activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and nascent virions preferentially incorporated the activated form of ERK2 (pERK2) into the tegument. This was evident even in the face of greatly diminished stores of intracellular ERK2, suggesting a clear bias toward the incorporation of pERK2 into the RRV particle. Similar to earlier findings with KSHV, activation of ERK was essential for the production of lytic viral proteins and virions. Knockdown of intracellular ERK, however, failed to inhibit virus production, likely due to maintenance of residual pools of intracellular pERK2. Paradoxically, selective knockdown of ERK1 enhanced virion production nearly 5-fold and viral titers more than 10-fold. These data are the first to implicate ERK1 as a negative regulator of lytic replication in a herpesvirus and the first to demonstrate the incorporation of an activated signaling molecule within a herpesvirus. Together, the results further our understanding of how herpesviruses interact with host cells during infection and demonstrate how this family of viruses can exploit cellular signal transduction pathways to modulate their own replication. PMID:22740395

  7. Pattern-dependent role of NMDA receptors in action potential generation: consequences on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meilan; Adams, J Paige; Dudek, Serena M

    2005-07-27

    Synaptic long-term potentiation is maintained through gene transcription, but how the nucleus is recruited remains controversial. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 with synaptic stimulation has been shown to require NMDA receptors (NMDARs), yet stimulation intensities sufficient to recruit action potentials (APs) also appear to be required. This has led us to ask the question of whether NMDARs are necessary for AP generation as they relate to ERK activation. To test this, we examined the effects of NMDAR blockade on APs induced with synaptic stimulation using whole-cell current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices. NMDAR antagonists were found to potently inhibit APs generated with 5 and 100 Hz synaptic stimulation. Blockade of APs and ERK activation could be overcome with the addition of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, indicating that APs are sufficient to activate signals such as ERK in the nucleus and throughout the neuron in the continued presence of NMDAR antagonists. Interestingly, no effects of the NMDAR antagonists were observed when theta-burst stimulation (TBS) was used. This resistance to the antagonists is conferred by temporal summation during the bursts. These results clarify findings from a previous study showing that ERK activation induced with TBS is resistant to 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, in contrast to that induced with 5 or 100 Hz stimulation, which is sensitive. By showing that NMDAR blockade inhibits AP generation, we demonstrate that a major role that NMDARs play in cell-wide and nuclear ERK activation is through their contribution to action potential generation.

  8. The noble gas argon modifies extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling in neurons and glial cells.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Rossaint, Rolf; Haase, Hajo; Al Kassam, Hussam; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Beyer, Cordian; Coburn, Mark

    2012-01-15

    Recently, the noble gas argon has been identified as a potent neuroprotective agent, but little is known about its cellular effects. In this in vitro study, we investigated argon's influence on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, a ubiquitous enzyme with numerous functions in cell proliferation and survival. Primary neuronal and astroglial cell cultures and the microglial cell line BV-2 were exposed to 50 vol.% argon. Further possible effects were studied following stimulation of microglia with 50 ng/ml LPS. ERK 1/2 activation was assessed by phosphorylation state-specific western blotting, cytokine levels by real-time PCR and western blotting. Total phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity was examined with p-nitrophenylphosphate. After 30 min exposure, argon significantly activated ERK 1/2 signaling in microglia. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 was also found in astrocytes and neurons following argon exposure, but it lacked statistical significance. In microglia, argon did not substantially interfere with LPS-induced ERK1/2 activation and inflammatory cytokine induction. Addition of the MEK-Inhibitor U0126 abolished the induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Cellular phosphatase activity and the inactivation of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 were not altered by argon. In conclusion, argon enhanced ERK 1/2 activity in microglia via the upstream kinase MEK, probably through a direct mode of activation. ERK 1/2 signaling in astrocytes and neurons in vitro was also influenced, although not with statistical significance. Whether ERK 1/2 activation by argon affects cellular functions like differentiation and survival in the brain in vivo will have to be determined in future experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PB1 Domain-Dependent Signaling Complex Is Required for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Uhlik, Mark T.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    MEKK2, MEK5, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) are members of a three-kinase cascade for the activation of ERK5. MEK5 is the only MAP2K to express a PB1 domain, and we have shown that it heterodimerizes with the PB1 domain of MEKK2. Here we demonstrate the MEK5 PB1 domain is a scaffold that also binds ERK5, functionally forming a MEKK2-MEK5-ERK5 complex. Reconstitution assays and CFP/YFP imaging (fluorescence resonance energy transfer [FRET]) measuring YFP-MEKK2/CFP-MEK5 and CFP-MEK5/YFP-ERK5 interactions define distinct MEK5 PB1 domain binding sites for MEKK2 and ERK5, with a C-terminal extension of the PB1 domain contributing to ERK5 binding. Stimulus-dependent CFP/YFP FRET in combination with mutational analysis was used to define MEK5 PB1 domain residues critical for the interaction of MEKK2/MEK5 and MEK5/ERK5 required for activation of the ERK5 pathway in living cells. Fusion of the MEK5 PB1 domain to the N terminus of MEK1 confers ERK5 regulation by a MAP2K normally regulating only ERK1/2. The MEK5 PB1 domain confers stringent MAP3K regulation of ERK5 relative to more promiscuous MAP3K control of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. PMID:16507987

  10. Early postnatal stress alters extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the corticolimbic system modulating emotional circuitry in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shuhei; Saito, Yasuhiro; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Otani, Satoru; Hiraide, Sachiko; Shimamura, Kei-ichi; Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated whether early life stress alters the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway that underlies fear retrieval and fear extinction based on a contextual fear conditioning paradigm, using a juvenile stress model. Levels of phospho-ERK (pERK), the active form of ERK, increased after fear retrieval in the hippocampal CA1 region but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). ERK activation in the CA1 following fear retrieval was not observed in adult rats who received aversive footshock (FS) stimuli during the second postnatal period (2wFS), which exhibited low levels of freezing. In fear extinction, pERK levels in the CA1 were increased by repeated extinction trials, but they were not altered after extinction retrieval. In contrast, pERK levels in the mPFC did not change during extinction training, but were enhanced after extinction retrieval. These findings were compatible in part with electrophysiological data showing that synaptic transmission in the CA1 field and mPFC was enhanced during extinction training and extinction retrieval, respectively. ERK activation in the CA1 and mPFC associated with extinction processes did not occur in rats that received FS stimuli during the third postnatal period (3wFS), which exhibited sustained freezing behavior. The repressed ERK signaling and extinction deficit observed in the 3wFS group were ameliorated by treatment with the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist D-cycloserine. These findings suggest that early postnatal stress induced the downregulation of ERK signaling in distinct brain regions through region-specific regulation, which may lead to increased behavioral abnormalities or emotional vulnerabilities in adulthood.

  11. Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in the Amygdale Modulates Fentanyl-Induced Hypersensitivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Yin, Pingping; Chen, Jian; Li, Chenhong; Liu, Jieqiong; Rambojan, Hemanshu; Luo, Fang

    2017-02-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with use of opioids in perioperative and chronic pain management. The mechanism underlying this paradoxical phenomenon needs to be fully elucidated. Laterocapsular division of the central nucleus of amygdale (CeLC) has emerged as an important brain center for pain modulation, so we hypothesize that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in CeLC may modulate OIH through strengthening synaptic transmission between neurons in the CeLC. Phospho-ERK in CeLC was first found to be increased significantly in OIH rats induced by repeated subcutaneous injection of fentanyl. Blockade of this fentanyl-induced ERK activation by microinjection of U0126, an ERK inhibitor, into the CeLC reversed the behavioral hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro whole-cell recordings evaluating the change in synaptic transmission found that the frequency as well as amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded on CeLC neurons from OIH rats were fundamentally increased and were completely reversed by acutely applied U0126 (10 μM in the recording well). In vivo microinjection of U0126 into the CeLC reversed the spinal long-term potentiation in OIH rats. These results showed that fentanyl-induced hypersensitivity may occur partly through the mechanism of ERK activation and followed by the strengthening of synaptic transmission in CeLC neurons. This study provides evidence that ERK in the laterocapsular division of the CeLC is a key contributor to the development of fentanyl-induced hypersensitivity. Targeting the superspinal central CeLC can inhibit spinal long-term potentiation and alleviate behavioral hyperreflexia induced by fentanyl. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and endothelin-1 production in human endothelial cells exposed to vibration

    PubMed Central

    White, Charles R; Haidekker, Mark A; Stevens, Hazel Y; Frangos, John A

    2004-01-01

    Hand–arm vibration syndrome is a vascular disease of occupational origin and a form of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Chronic exposure to hand-held vibrating tools may cause endothelial injury. This study investigates the biomechanical forces involved in the transduction of fluid vibration in the endothelium. Human endothelial cells were exposed to direct vibration and rapid low-volume fluid oscillation. Rapid low-volume fluid oscillation was used to simulate the effects of vibration by generating defined temporal gradients in fluid shear stress across an endothelial monolayer. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and endothelin-1 (ET-1) release were monitored as specific biochemical markers for temporal gradients and endothelial response, respectively. Both vibrational methods were found to phosphorylate ERK1/2 in a similar pattern. At a fixed frequency of fluid oscillation where the duration of each pulse cycle remained constant, ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased with the increasing magnitude of the applied temporal gradient. However, when the frequency of flow oscillation was increased (thus decreasing the duration of each pulse cycle), ERK1/2 phosphorylation was attenuated across all temporal gradient flow profiles. Fluid oscillation significantly stimulated ET-1 release compared to steady flow, and endothelin-1 was also attenuated with the increase in oscillation frequency. Taken together, these results show that both the absolute magnitude of the temporal gradient and the frequency/duration of each pulse cycle play a role in the biomechanical transduction of fluid vibrational forces in endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study reports for the first time a link between the ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway and transmission of vibrational forces in the endothelium. PMID:14724194

  13. Involvement of activation of NADPH oxidase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in renal cell injury induced by zinc.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Kawai, Yoshiko; Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-05-01

    Zinc is employed as a supplement; however, zinc-related nephropathy is not generally known. In this study, we investigated zinc-induced renal cell injury using a pig kidney-derived cultured renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK(1), with proximal kidney tubule-like features, and examined the involvement of free radicals and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cell injury. The LLC-PK(1) cells showed early uptake of zinc (30 microM), and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an index of cell injury, was observed 24 hr after uptake. Three hours after zinc exposure, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased. An antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), inhibited a zinc-related increase in ROS generation and zinc-induced renal cell injury. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), inhibited a zinc-related increase in ROS generation and cell injury. We investigated translocation from the cytosol fraction of the p67(phox) subunit, which is involved in the activation of NADPH oxidase, to the membrane fraction, and translocation was induced 3 hr after zinc exposure. We examined the involvement of ERK1/2 in the deterioration of zinc-induced renal cell injury, and the association between ERK1/2 and an increase in ROS generation. Six hours after zinc exposure, the activation (phosphorylation) of ERK1/2 was observed. An antioxidant, DPPD, inhibited the zinc-related activation of ERK1/2. An MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, almost completely inhibited zinc-related cell injury (the release of LDH), but did not influence ROS generation. These results suggest that early intracellular uptake of zinc by LLC-PK(1) cells causes the activation of NADPH oxidase, and that ROS generation by the activation of the enzyme leads to the deterioration of renal cell injury via the activation of ERK1/2.

  14. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the ventral tegmental area mediates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Zhong, Peng; Sun, Dalong; Liu, Qing-song

    2011-08-03

    Drugs of abuse such as cocaine induce long-term synaptic plasticity in the reward circuitry, which underlies the formation of drug-associated memories and addictive behavior. We reported previously that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by reducing the strength of GABAergic inhibition and that endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression at inhibitory synapses (I-LTD) constitutes a mechanism for cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition. The present study investigated the downstream signaling mechanisms and functional consequences of I-LTD in the VTA in the rat. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling has been implicated in long-term synaptic plasticity, associative learning, and drug addiction. We tested the hypothesis that VTA ERK activity is required for I-LTD and cocaine-induced long-term synaptic plasticity and behavioral effects. We show that the activation of receptors required for I-LTD increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibitors of ERK activation blocked I-LTD. We further demonstrate that ERK mediates cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition and facilitation of LTP induction. Finally, we show that cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training (15 mg/kg; four pairings) increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the VTA, while bilateral intra-VTA injections of a CB(1) antagonist or an inhibitor of ERK activation attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the acquisition, but not the expression, of CPP to cocaine. Our study has identified the CB(1) and ERK signaling cascade as a key mediator of several forms of cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and provided evidence linking long-term synaptic plasticity in the VTA to rewarding effects of cocaine.

  15. A novel role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase in maintaining long-term memory-relevant excitability changes.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Matsliah, Sivan Ida; Brosh, Inbar; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2007-11-14

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination-trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after learning. Such enhanced intrinsic excitability is mediated by long-term reduction in the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP), which is generated by repetitive spike firing. AHP reduction is attributable to decreased conductance of a calcium-dependent potassium current, the sI(AHP). We have previously shown that such learning-induced AHP reduction is maintained by PKC activation. However, the molecular machinery underlying such long-lasting modulation of intrinsic excitability is yet to be fully described. Here we examine whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase I/II (ERKI/II) pathway, which is known to be crucial in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity processes, is instrumental for the long-term maintenance of learning-induced AHP reduction. PD98059 or UO126, which selectively block MEK, the upstream kinase of ERK, increased the AHP in neurons from trained rats but not in neurons from naive and pseudo-trained rats. Consequently, the differences in AHP amplitude and neuronal adaptation between neurons from trained rats and controls were abolished. This effect was not mediated by modulation of basic membrane properties. In accordance with its effect on neuronal excitability, the level of activated ERK in the membranal fraction was significantly higher in piriform cortex samples taken from trained rats. In addition, the PKC activator OAG (1-oleoyl-20acety-sn-glycerol), which was shown to reduce the AHP in neurons from control rats, had no effect on these neurons in the presence of PD98059. Our data show that ERK has a key role in maintaining long-lasting learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

  16. Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK 1/2) in the Locus Coeruleus Contributes to Pain-Related Anxiety in Arthritic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Gisela; Miguelez, Cristina; Neto, Fani; Mico, Juan Antonio; Ugedo, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is increasing evidence suggesting that the Locus Coeruleus plays a role in pain-related anxiety. Indeed, we previously found that prolonged arthritis produces anxiety-like behavior in rats, along with enhanced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (a marker of plasticity) in the Locus Coeruleus. However, it is unknown how this effect correlates with the electrophysiological activity of Locus Coeruleus neurons or pain-related anxiety. Methods: Using the complete Freund’s adjuvant model of monoarthritis in male Sprague-Dawley rats, we studied the behavioral attributes of pain and anxiety as well as Locus Coeruleus electrophysiology in vivo 1 (MA1W) and 4 weeks (MA4W) after disease induction. Results: The manifestation of anxiety in MA4W was accompanied by dampened tonic Locus Coeruleus activity, which was coupled to an exacerbated evoked Locus Coeruleus response to noxious stimulation of the inflamed and healthy paw. When a mitogen-activating extracellular kinase inhibitor was administered to the contralateral Locus Coeruleus of MA4W, the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 levels in the Locus Coeruleus were restored and the exaggerated evoked response was blocked, reversing the anxiogenic-like behavior while pain hypersensitivity remained unaltered. Conclusion: As phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 blockade in the Locus Coeruleus relieved anxiety and counteracted altered LC function, we propose that phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in the Locus Coeruleus plays a crucial role in pain-related anxiety. PMID:28158734

  17. Agonist-induced activation of histamine H3 receptor signals to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 through PKC-, PLD-, and EGFR-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiangru; Ye, Lingyan; Liao, Yuan; Jin, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Bing; Sun, Yi; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naiming

    2016-04-01

    The histamine H3 receptor (H3R), abundantly expressed in the central and the peripheral nervous system, has been recognized as a promising target for the treatment of various important CNS diseases including narcolepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The H3R acts via Gi/o -proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and modulate MAPK activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for H3R mediation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) remain to be elucidated. In this study, using HEK293 cells stably expressing human H3R and mouse primary cortical neurons endogenously expressing mouse H3R, we found that the H3R-mediated activation of ERK1/2 was significantly blocked by both the pertussis toxin and the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Upon stimulation by H3R agonist histamine or imetit, H3R was shown to rapidly induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation via PLC/PKC-, PLDs-, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation-dependent pathways. Furthermore, it was also indicated that while the βγ-subunits play a key role in H3R-activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, β-arrestins were not required for ERK1/2 activation. In addition, when the cultured mouse cortical neurons were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation conditions (OGD), imetit exhibited neuroprotective properties through the H3R. Treatment of cells with the inhibitor UO126 abolished these protective effects. This suggests a possible neuroprotective role of the H3R-mediated ERK1/2 pathway under hypoxia conditions. These observations may provide new insights into the pharmacological effects and the physiological functions modulated by the H3R-mediated activation of ERK1/2. Histamine H3 receptors are abundantly expressed in the brain and play important roles in various CNS physiological functions. However, the underlying mechanisms for H3R-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 remain largely unknown. Here

  18. Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.

  19. Decursin inhibits growth of human bladder and colon cancer cells via apoptosis, G1-phase cell cycle arrest and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Se-Jung; Choi, Young Deuk; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2010-04-01

    Decursin, a pyranocoumarin isolated from the Korean Angelica gigas root, has demonstrated anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we found that decursin inhibited cell viability in cultured human urinary bladder cancer 235J cells and colon cancer HCT116 cells. The inhibited proliferation was due to apoptotic induction, because both cells treated with decursin dose-dependently showed a sub-G1 phase accumulation and an increased cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex. Cell death caused by decursin was also associated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic molecules cytochrome c, caspase 3 and Bax. Treatment of both types of cancer cells with decursin resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as revealed by FACS analyses. In addition, decursin increased protein levels of p21WAF1 with a decrease in cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Furthermore, decursin induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in both cancer cell lines, with the notable exceptions of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. Finally, pretreatment with ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 reversed decursin-induced p21WAF1 expression and decursin-inhibited cell growth. Thus, these findings suggest that decursin has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bladder and colon cancer.

  20. Nerve Growth Factor Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling To Enhance Neurite Outgrowth in Developing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew R.; Johnson, William M.; Pilat, Jennifer M.; Kiselar, Janna; DeFrancesco-Lisowitz, Alicia; Zigmond, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is key to the formation of functional circuits during neuronal development. Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), increase neurite outgrowth in part by altering the function and expression of Ca2+-permeable cation channels. Here we report that transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is an intracellular Ca2+-permeable TRPV channel upregulated by NGF via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway to augment neurite outgrowth. TRPV2 colocalized with Rab7, a late endosome protein, in addition to TrkA and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in neurites, indicating that the channel is closely associated with signaling endosomes. In line with these results, we showed that TRPV2 acts as an ERK substrate and identified the motifs necessary for phosphorylation of TRPV2 by ERK. Furthermore, neurite length, TRPV2 expression, and TRPV2-mediated Ca2+ signals were reduced by mutagenesis of these key ERK phosphorylation sites. Based on these findings, we identified a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ERK controls TRPV2-mediated Ca2+ signals in developing neurons and further establish TRPV2 as a critical intracellular ion channel in neuronal function. PMID:26416880

  1. IκB Kinase 2 Regulates TPL-2 Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 by Direct Phosphorylation of TPL-2 Serine 400

    PubMed Central

    Roget, Karine; Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Gantke, Thorsten; Yang, Huei-Ting; Janzen, Julia; Morrice, Nick; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) functions as a MEK-1/2 kinase, which is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and for inducing the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β. In unstimulated cells, association of TPL-2 with NF-κB1 p105 prevents TPL-2 phosphorylation of MEK-1/2. LPS stimulation of TPL-2 MEK-1/2 kinase activity requires TPL-2 release from p105. This is triggered by IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) phosphorylation of the p105 PEST region, which promotes p105 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. LPS activation of ERK-1/2 additionally requires transphosphorylation of TPL-2 on serine 400 in its C terminus, which controls TPL-2 signaling to ERK-1/2 independently of p105. However, the identity of the protein kinase responsible for TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation remained unknown. In the present study, we show that TPL-2 serine 400 phosphorylation is mediated by IKK2. The IKK complex therefore regulates two of the key regulatory steps required for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2, underlining the close linkage of ERK-1/2 MAP kinase activation to upregulation of NF-κB-dependent transcription. PMID:22988300

  2. Resistin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is inhibited by apelin through the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in H9c2 embryonic rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Wei; Zheng, Xian; Cheng, Guan-Chang; Ye, Qun-Hui; Deng, Yong-Zhi; Wu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    It has been reported that resistin induces, whereas apelin inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of apelin inhibiting resistin-induced cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of apelin on resistin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. H9c2 cells were used in the present study, and cell surface area and protein synthesis were evaluated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of hypertrophic markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). In addition, western blotting was conducted to examine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Following treatment of H9c2 cells with resistin, cell surface area, protein synthesis, and BNP and β-MHC mRNA expression levels were increased. Subsequent to co-treatment of H9c2 cells with apelin and resistin, lead to the inhibition of resistin-induced hypertrophic effects by apelin. In addition, treatment with resistin increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, whereas pretreatment with apelin decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was increased by resistin. These results indicate that resistin-induced cardiac hypertrophy is inhibited by apelin via inactivation of ERK1/2 cell signaling.

  3. Oxytocin in the regulation of social behaviours in medial amygdala-lesioned mice via the inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Shanshan; Wu, Zhe; Feng, Yu; Zhao, Chuansheng; Zhang, Chaodong

    2015-05-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of behavioural deficits among patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in ASD remain unclear. In the present study, a murine model with ASD-like phenotypes was induced by intra-medial amygdala injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate, and it was used to investigate the role of OXT in behaviour regulation. Behavioural tests were performed to verify the ASD-like phenotypes of N-methyl-d-aspartate-treated mice, and the results showed that mice with bilateral medial amygdala lesions presented significant behavioural deficits, including impaired learning and memory and increased anxiety and depression. We also observed a notably decreased level of OXT in both the plasma and the hypothalamus of medial amygdala-lesioned mice, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated. Further studies demonstrated that the administration of OXT alleviated ASD-like symptoms and significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK; the inhibitory effect was similar to that of U0126, an ERK signalling inhibitor. In addition, OXT administration modulated the expression of downstream proteins of the ERK signalling pathway, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding and c-fos. Taken together, our data indicate that OXT plays an important role in ameliorating behavioural deficits in an ASD-like mouse model, which was mediated by inhibiting the ERK signalling pathway and its downstream proteins.

  4. Role of TCR-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the regulation of early IL-4 expression in naive CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Patricia J; Brogdon, Jennifer L; Bottomly, Kim

    2003-03-01

    Although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation influences IL-4 production in various experimental systems, its role during Th differentiation is unclear. In this study, we show that Erk plays a critical role in IL-4 expression during TCR-induced Th differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells. Stimulation of CD4(+) T cells with a high affinity peptide resulted in sustained Erk activation and Th1 differentiation. However, reduction of Erk activity led to a dramatic increase in IL-4 production and Th2 generation. Analysis of RNA and nuclear proteins of CD4(+) T cells 48 h after stimulation revealed that this was due to early IL-4 expression. Interestingly, transient Erk activation resulted in altered AP-1 DNA binding activity and the induction of an AP-1 complex that was devoid of Fos protein and consisted of Jun-Jun dimers. These data show that in the presence of a strong TCR signal, IL-4 expression can be induced in naive CD4(+) T cells by altering the strength of Erk activation. In addition, these data suggest that TCR-induced Erk activation is involved in the regulation of IL-4 expression by altering the composition of the AP-1 complex and its subsequent DNA binding activity.

  5. Heparanase Enhances the Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway to Activate Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Babitz, Stephen K.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2012-01-01

    ERK signaling regulates proliferation, survival, drug resistance, and angiogenesis in cancer. Although the mechanisms regulating ERK activation are not fully understood, we previously demonstrated that ERK phosphorylation is elevated by heparanase, an enzyme associated with aggressive behavior of many cancers. In the present study, myeloma cell lines expressing either high or low levels of heparanase were utilized to determine how heparanase stimulates ERK signaling. We discovered that the insulin receptor was abundant on cells expressing either high or low levels of heparanase, but the receptor was highly phosphorylated in heparanase-high cells compared with heparanase-low cells. In addition, protein kinase C activity was elevated in heparanase-high cells, and this enhanced expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), the principle intracellular substrate for phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Blocking insulin receptor function with antibody or a small molecule inhibitor or knockdown of IRS-1 expression using shRNA diminished heparanase-mediated ERK activation in the tumor cells. In addition, up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway by heparanase and the resulting ERK activation were dependent on heparanase retaining its enzyme activity. These results reveal a novel mechanism whereby heparanase enhances activation of the insulin receptor signaling pathway leading to ERK activation and modulation of myeloma behavior. PMID:23048032

  6. Sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in port-wine stain blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbin; Chernova, Margarita; Gao, Lin; Sun, Victor; Liu, Huaxu; Jia, Wangcun; Langer, Stephanie; Wang, Gang; Mihm, Martin C; Nelson, J Stuart

    2014-11-01

    Port-wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation but the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. We sought to investigate the activation status of various kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AKT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70 ribosomal S6 kinase, and phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit, in PWS biopsy tissues. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 19 skin biopsy samples from 11 patients with PWS. c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase in pediatric and adult PWS blood vessels were consecutively activated. Activation of AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was found in many adult hypertrophic PWS blood vessels but not in infants. Phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit showed strong activation in nodular PWS blood vessels. Infantile PWS sample size was small. Our data suggest a subsequent activation profile of various kinases during different stages of PWS: (1) c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases are firstly and consecutively activated in all PWS tissues, which may contribute to both the pathogenesis and progressive development of PWS; (2) AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are subsequently activated, and are involved in the hypertrophic development of PWS blood vessels; and (3) phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit is activated in the most advanced stage of PWS and may participate in nodular formation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential expression of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues and cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Weiguo; Fang, Dejian; Ye, Dongping; Zou, Longqiang; Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Xu, Jiake

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • ERK5 involved in NP cells. • ERK5 involved in NP tissue. • It was important modulator. - Abstract: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and regulates a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, necrosis, apoptosis and degeneration. However, the expression of ERK5 and its role in degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) is hitherto unknown. In this study, we observed the differential expression of ERK5 in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues by using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Treatment of NP cells with Pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α decreased ERK5 gene expression as well as NP marker gene expression; including the type II collagen and aggrecan. Suppression of ERK5 gene expression in NP cells by ERK5 siRNA resulted in decreased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK5 activation by BIX02188 (5 μM) decreased the gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in NP cells. Our results document the expression of ERK5 in degenerated nucleus pulposus tissues, and suggest a potential involvement of ERK5 in human degenerated nucleus pulposus.

  8. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) to look for evidence that interneurons expressing GRP were activated following intradermal injection of chloroquine into the calf, in mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in these cells. Results Injection of chloroquine resulted in numerous Fos- or phospho-ERK (pERK) positive cells in the somatotopically appropriate part of the superficial dorsal horn. The proportion of all neurons in this region that showed Fos or pERK was 18% and 21%, respectively. However, among the GRP–EGFP, only 7% were Fos-positive and 3% were pERK-positive. As such, GRP–EGFP cells were significantly less likely than other neurons to express Fos or to phosphorylate ERK. Conclusions Both expression of Fos and phosphorylation of ERK can be used to identify dorsal horn neurons activated by chloroquine injection. However, these results do not support the hypothesis that interneurons expressing GRP are critical components in the itch pathway. PMID:27270268

  9. Induced Expression of Rnd3 Is Associated with Transformation of Polarized Epithelial Cells by the Raf–MEK–Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen H.; Zegers, Mirjam M. P.; Woodrow, Melissa; Rodriguez-Viciana, Pablo; Chardin, Pierre; Mostov, Keith E.; McMahon, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells transformed by oncogenic Ras and Raf exhibit cell multilayering and alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. The changes in the actin cytoskeleton comprise a loss of actin stress fibers and enhanced cortical actin. Using MDCK cells expressing a conditionally active form of Raf, we have explored the molecular mechanisms that underlie these observations. Raf activation elicited a robust increase in Rac1 activity consistent with the observed increase in cortical actin. Loss of actin stress fibers is indicative of attenuated Rho function, but no change in Rho-GTP levels was detected following Raf activation. However, the loss of actin stress fibers in Raf-transformed cells was preceded by the induced expression of Rnd3, an endogenous inhibitor of Rho protein function. Expression of Rnd3 alone at levels equivalent to those observed following Raf transformation led to a substantial loss of actin stress fibers. Moreover, cells expressing activated RhoA failed to multilayer in response to Raf. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK activation prevented all of the biological and biochemical changes described above. Consequently, the data are consistent with a role for induced Rnd3 expression downstream of the Raf–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in epithelial oncogenesis. PMID:11094087

  10. Induction of Apoptosis in Starfish Eggs Requires Spontaneous Inactivation of MAPK (Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase) Followed by Activation of p38MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kayoko; Chiba, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) prevents DNA replication and parthenogenesis in maturing oocytes. After the meiotic cell cycle in starfish eggs, MAPK activity is maintained until fertilization. When eggs are fertilized, inactivation of MAPK occurs, allowing development to proceed. Without fertilization, highly synchronous apoptosis of starfish eggs starts 10 h after germinal vesicle breakdown, which varies according to season and individual animals. For induction of the apoptosis, MAPK should be activated for a definite period, called the MAPK-dependent period, during which eggs develop competence to die, although the exact duration of the period was unclear. In this study, we show that the duration of the MAPK-dependent period was ∼8 h. Membrane blebbing occurred ∼2 h after the MAPK-dependent period. Surprisingly, when MAPK was inhibited by U0126 after the MAPK-dependent period, activation of caspase-3 occurred earlier than in the control eggs. Thus, inactivation of MAPK is a prerequisite for apoptosis. Also, even in the absence of the inhibitor, MAPK was inactivated spontaneously when eggs began to bleb, indicating that inactivation of MAPK after the MAPK-dependent period acts upstream of caspase-3. Inactivation of MAPK also resulted in the activation of p38MAPK, which may contribute to apoptotic body formation. PMID:14699071

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured under hypoxia escape from senescence via down-regulation of p16 and extracellular signal regulated kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yonghui; Kato, Tomohisa; Furu, Moritoshi; Nasu, Akira; Kajita, Yoichiro; Mitsui, Hiroto; Ueda, Michiko; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakayama, Tomitaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya

    2010-01-15

    Hypoxia has been considered to affect the properties of tissue stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Effects of long periods of exposure to hypoxia on human MSCs, however, have not been clearly demonstrated. MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions (20% pO{sub 2}) ceased to proliferate after 15-25 population doublings, while MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% pO{sub 2}) retained the ability to proliferate with an additional 8-20 population doublings. Most of the MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions were in a senescent state after 100 days, while few senescent cells were found in the hypoxic culture, which was associated with a down-regulation of p16 gene expression. MSCs cultured for 100 days under hypoxic conditions were superior to those cultured under normoxic conditions in the ability to differentiate into the chondro- and adipogenic, but not osteogenic, lineage. Among the molecules related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was significantly down-regulated by hypoxia, which helped to inhibit the up-regulation of p16 gene expression. Therefore, the hypoxic culture retained MSCs in an undifferentiated and senescence-free state through the down-regulation of p16 and ERK.

  12. Modulation of Presynaptic Plasticity and Learning by the H-ras/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Synapsin I Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Steven A.; Elgersma, Ype; Murphy, Geoffrey G.; Jaarsma, Dick; van Woerden, Geeske M.; Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; Cui, Yijun; LeBoutillier, Janelle C.; Marrone, Diano F.; Choi, Esther S.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Petit, Ted L.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Silva, Alcino J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular and cellular studies of the mechanisms underlying mammalian learning and memory have focused almost exclusively on postsynaptic function. We now reveal an experience-dependent presynaptic mechanism that modulates learning and synaptic plasticity in mice. Consistent with a presynaptic function for endogenous H-ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, we observed that, under normal physiologic conditions in wild-type mice, hippocampus-dependent learning stimulated the ERK-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I, and MEK (MAP kinase kinase)/ERK inhibition selectively decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs. By generating transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of H-ras (H-rasG12V), which is abundantly localized in axon terminals, we were able to increase the ERK-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I. This resulted in several presynaptic changes, including a higher density of docked neurotransmitter vesicles in glutamatergic terminals, an increased frequency of miniature EPSCs, and increased paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, we observed facilitated neurotransmitter release selectively during high-frequency activity with consequent increases in long-term potentiation. Moreover, these mice showed dramatic enhancements in hippocampus-dependent learning. Importantly, deletion of synapsin I, an exclusively presynaptic protein, blocked the enhancements of learning, presynaptic plasticity, and long-term potentiation. Together with previous invertebrate studies, these results demonstrate that presynaptic plasticity represents an important evolutionarily conserved mechanism for modulating learning and memory. PMID:16237176

  13. Wnt5a-Dopamine D2 Receptor Interactions Regulate Dopamine Neuron Development via Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sehyoun; Choi, Mi-hyun; Chang, Min Seok; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) plays an important role in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal development, particularly coupled with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Wnt5a protein is known to regulate the development of dopaminergic neurons. We analyzed the effect of Wnt5a on dopaminergic neuron development in mesencephalic primary cultures from wild-type (WT) and D2R knock-out (D2R−/−) mice. Treatment with Wnt5a increased the number and neuritic length of dopamine neurons in primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures from WT mice, but not from D2R−/− mice. The effect of Wnt5a was completely blocked by treatment with D2R antagonist or inhibitors of MAPK or EGFR. Wnt5a-mediated ERK activation in mesencephalic neuronal cultures was inhibited by treatment of D2R antagonist and EGFR inhibitors in WT mice. However, these regulations were not observed for D2R−/− mice. Co-immunoprecipitation and displacement of [3H]spiperone from D2R by Wnt5a demonstrated that Wnt5a could bind with D2R. This interaction was confirmed by GST pulldown assays demonstrating that the domain including transmembrane domain 4, second extracellular loop, and transmembrane domain 5 of D2R binds to Wnt5a. These results suggest that the interaction between D2R and Wnt5a has an important role in dopamine neuron development in association with EGFR and the ERK pathway. PMID:21454669

  14. Integrin-mediated Ras–Extracellular Regulated Kinase (ERK) Signaling Regulates Interferon γ Production in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mainiero, Fabrizio; Gismondi, Angela; Soriani, Alessandra; Cippitelli, Marco; Palmieri, Gabriella; Jacobelli, Jordan; Piccoli, Mario; Frati, Luigi; Santoni, Angela

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that integrin engagement results in the activation of biochemical signaling events important for regulating different cell functions, such as migration, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and specific gene expression. Here, we report that β1 integrin ligation on human natural killer (NK) cells results in the activation of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Formation of Shc–growth factor receptor–bound protein 2 (Grb2) and Shc–proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2–Grb2 complexes are the receptor-proximal events accompanying the β1 integrin–mediated Ras activation. In addition, we demonstrate that ligation of β1 integrins results in the stimulation of interferon γ (IFN-γ) production, which is under the control of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 2 activation. Overall, our data indicate that β1 integrins, by delivering signals capable of triggering IFN-γ production, may function as NK-activating receptors. PMID:9763606

  15. Involvement of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathway in the regulation of ERCC-1 mRNA levels by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwon, W; Park, D; Bernier, M

    1998-01-01

    Expression of DNA repair enzymes, which includes ERCC-1, might be under the control of hormonal and growth factor stimulation. In the present study it was observed that insulin increased ERCC-1 mRNA levels both in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human insulin receptors (HIRc cells) and in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the increase in ERCC-1 gene expression in HIRc cells, we used a variety of pharmacological tools known to inhibit distinct signalling pathways. None of these inhibitors affected the amount of ERCC-1 mRNA in unstimulated cells. The pretreatment of cells with two chemically unrelated phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, failed to block the doubling of ERCC-1 mRNA content by insulin. Similarly, inhibition of pp70 S6 kinase by rapamycin had no apparent effects on this insulin response. In contrast, altering the p21(ras)-dependent pathway with either manumycin, an inhibitor of Ras farnesylation, or PD98059, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase, suppressed the induction of ERCC-1 mRNA by insulin (P<0.001). Furthermore inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis negatively regulated the expression of this insulin-regulated gene (P<0.005). These results suggest that insulin enhances ERCC-1 mRNA levels by the activation of the Ras-ERK-dependent pathway without the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/pp70 S6 kinase. PMID:9531502

  16. Ambroxol inhalation ameliorates LPS-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shui-juan; Jiang, Juan-xia; Ren, Qian-qian; Jia, Yong-liang; Shen, Jian; Shen, Hui-juan; Lin, Xi-xi; Lu, Hong; Xie, Qiang-min

    2016-03-15

    Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, is shown to exert several pharmacological activities, including secretolytic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Oral and intravenous administration of ambroxol is useful for the airway inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its potential in inhalation therapy for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucous hypersecretion and inflammatory response. In the present study, we compared the pharmacological effects of ambroxol by inhalation with intravenous administration and preliminarily explored its mechanism of action. Our results demonstrated that ambroxol administered by inhalation inhibited MUC5AC expression, reduced glycosaminoglycan levels, enhanced the function of mucociliary clearance and promoted sputum excretion, suggesting that ambroxol increases expectoration of sputum by reducing its viscosity. Moreover, ambroxol significantly alleviated LPS-induced the influx of inflammatory cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) expression in lung tissues, and inhibited increases in the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, CCL-2 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), KC (keratinocyte cell protein) and interleukin (IL)-1β in lung tissues. The secretolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled ambroxol at a dose of 7.5 mg/ml was comparable to that of ambroxol at 20 mg/ml i.v. and dexamethasone at 0.5 mg/kg i.p. In addition, we found that ambroxol dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced increases in the mRNA expression of MUC5AC, TNF-α, and IL-1β in human bronchial epithelial cell (NCI-H292) by inhibiting the Erk signaling pathway. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of ambroxol in inhalation therapy for the airway inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Desnitro-imidacloprid activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade via the nicotinic receptor and intracellular calcium mobilization in N1E-115 cells.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2002-11-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is the principal neonicotinoid (the only major new class of synthetic insecticides of the past three decades). The excellent safety profile of IMI is not shared with a metabolite, desnitro-IMI (DNIMI), which displays high toxicity to mammals associated with agonist action at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in brain. This study examines the hypothesis that IMI, DNIMI, and (-)-nicotine activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade via primary interaction with the alpha4beta2 nAChR in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. These three nicotinic agonists induce phosphorylation of ERK (p44/p42) in a concentration-dependent manner with an optimal incubation period of 30 min. DNIMI (1 microM)-induced ERK activation is blocked by nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine but not by alpha-bungarotoxin and muscarinic antagonist atropine. This activation is prevented by intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM but not by removal of external Ca(2+) using EGTA and Ca(2+)-free medium. 2-Aminoethoxy-diphenylborate, a blocker for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, inhibits DNIMI-induced ERK activation but a high level of ryanodine (to block ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release) does not. The inhibitor U-73122 for phospholipase C (to suppress IP(3) production) prevents ERK activation evoked by DNIMI. Inhibitors for protein kinase C (PKC) (GF109203X) and ERK kinase (PD98059) block this activation whereas an inhibitor (H-89) for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase does not. Thus, neonicotinoids activate the ERK cascade triggered by primary action at the alpha4beta2 nAChR with an involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization possibly mediated by IP(3). It is further suggested that intracellular Ca(2+) activates a sequential pathway from PKC to ERK.

  18. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and Akt contribute to triclosan-stimulated proliferation of JB6 Cl 41-5a cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Beland, Frederick A; Chen, Si; Fang, Jia-Long

    2015-08-01

    Triclosan is a broad spectrum anti-bacterial agent widely used in many personal care products, household items, medical devices, and clinical settings. Human exposure to triclosan is mainly through oral and dermal routes. In previous studies, we found that sub-chronic dermal exposure of B6C3F1 mice to triclosan induced epidermal hyperplasia and focal necrosis; however, the mechanisms for these responses remain elusive. In this study, using mouse epidermis-derived JB6 Cl 41-5a cells, we found that triclosan stimulated cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Enhanced cell proliferation was demonstrated by a substantial increase in the percentage of BrdU-positive cells, an elevation in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin A, and a reduction in the protein level of p27(Kip1). Western blotting analysis revealed that triclosan induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p38, and Akt. Pre-treatment of the cells with PD184352, an inhibitor of the upstream kinase MEK1/2, or with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, blocked triclosan-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt, respectively, and substantially suppressed triclosan-stimulated cell proliferation, whereas the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 inhibitor SB203580 had little to no effect on triclosan-stimulated cell proliferation. The phosphorylation activation of ERK1/2 and Akt was further confirmed on the skin of mice dermally administered triclosan. These data suggest that the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt is involved in triclosan-stimulated proliferation of JB6 Cl 41-5a cells.

  19. Phenotypic change in trigeminal ganglion neurons associated with satellite cell activation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation is involved in lingual neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Mikuzuki, Lou; Saito, Hiroto; Katagiri, Ayano; Okada, Shinji; Sugawara, Shiori; Kubo, Asako; Ohara, Kinuyo; Lee, Jun; Toyofuku, Akira; Iwata, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injuries remain a common and complex clinical problem. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation, associated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and neuropeptide expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are known to be involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain related to trigeminal nerve injury. However, the involvement of these molecules in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in lingual nerve crush (LNC) rats was observed in SGCs. To evaluate the role of neuron-SGC interactions under neuropathic pain, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (IR), phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2)-IR and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-IR cells in the TG were studied in LNC rats. The number of CGRP-IR neurons and neurons encircled with pERK1/2-IR SGCs was significantly larger in LNC rats compared with sham rats. The percentage of large-sized CGRP-IR neurons was significantly higher in LNC rats. The number of CGRP-IR neurons, neurons encircled with pERK1/2-IR SGCs, and neurons encircled with GFAP-IR SGCs was decreased following CGRP receptor blocker CGRP8-37 or mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1 inhibitor PD98059 administration into the TG after LNC. Reduced thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation to the tongue in LNC rats were also significantly recovered following CGRP8-37 or PD98059 administration. The present findings suggest that CGRP released from TG neurons activates SGCs through ERK1/2 phosphorylation and TG neuronal activity is enhanced, resulting in the tongue hypersensitivity associated with lingual nerve injury. The phenotypic switching of large myelinated TG neurons expressing CGRP may account for the pathogenesis of tongue neuropathic pain. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Chrysophanic acid reduces testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats by suppressing 5α-reductase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Youn, Dong-Hyun; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jung, Yunu; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Sethi, Gautam; Seok Ahn, Kwang; Um, Jae-Young

    2017-02-07

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common chronic diseases in male population, of which incidence increases gradually with age. In this study, we investigated the effect of chrysophanic acid (CA) on BPH. BPH was induced by a 4-week injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Four weeks of further injection with vehicle, TP, TP + CA, TP + finasteride was carried on. In the CA treatment group, the prostate weight was reduced and the TP-induced histological changes were restored as the normal control group. CA treatment suppressed the TP-elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression. In addition, 5α-reductase, a crucial factor in BPH development, was suppressed to the normal level close to the control group by CA treatment. The elevated expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α and steroid receptor coactivator 1 by TP administration were also inhibited in the CA group when compared to the TP-induced BPH group. Then we evaluated the changes in three major factors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase chain during prostatic hyperplasia; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). While ERK was elevated in the process of BPH, JNK and p38 was not changed. This up-regulated ERK was also reduced as normal by CA treatment. Further in vitro studies with RWPE-1 cells confirmed TP-induced proliferation and elevated AR, PSA and p-ERK were all reduced by CA treatment. Overall, these results suggest a potential pharmaceutical feature of CA in the treatment of BPH.

  1. Antimelanogenic effect of ginsenoside Rg3 through extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Woo Jin; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Ga-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng has been used to prolong longevity and is believed to be useful for improving skin complexion. Ginsenosides are the most active components isolated from ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) in particular has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative, antitumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of G-Rg3 to inhibit melanogenesis. Methods The effects of G-Rg3 on melanin contents and the protein levels of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) were evaluated. Melanogenesis-regulating signaling molecules such as Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were also examined to explore G-Rg3-induced antimelanogenic mechanisms. Results G-Rg3 was found to significantly inhibit the synthesis of melanin in normal human epidermal melanocytes and B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of cellular tyrosinase and the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP1 were all reduced, whereas ERK was strongly activated. PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK) attenuated the G-Rg3-induced inhibition of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity. Conclusion Taken together, these results showed that G-Rg3 induces the activation of ERK, which accounts for its antimelanogenic effects. G-Rg3 may be a promising safe skin-whitening agent, adding to the long list of uses of P. ginseng for the enhancement of skin beauty. PMID:26199555

  2. Effect of D-cycloserine in conjunction with fear extinction training on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in rat

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subhash C.; Hillman, Brandon G.; Prakash, Anand; Ugale, Rajesh R; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2013-01-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS) is currently under clinical trials for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and has been found to augment fear extinction in rodents and exposure therapy in humans. However, the molecular mechanism of DCS action in these multiple modalities remains unclear. Here, we describe the effect of DCS administration, alone or in conjunction with extinction training, on neuronal activity (c-fos) and neuronal plasticity (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, pERK) markers using immunohistochemistry. We found that intraperitoneal administration of DCS in untrained young rats (24–28 days old) increased c-fos and pERK-stained neurons in both the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and reduced pERK levels in the lateral nucleus (CeL) of the central amygdala (CeA). Moreover, DCS administration significantly increased GluA1, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B expression in mPFC. In a separate set of animals, we found that DCS facilitated fear extinction and increased pERK levels in IL, PL, intercalated cells and CeL, compared to saline control. In synaptoneurosomal preparation, we found that extinction training increased iGluR protein expression in the mPFC, compared to context animals. No significant difference in protein expression was observed between extinction-saline and extinction-DCS groups in the mPFC. In contrast, in the amygdala DCS in conjunction with extinction training led to an increase in iGluR subunit expression, compared to extinction-saline group. Our data suggest that the efficacy of DCS in neuropsychiatric disorders may be partly due to its ability to affect neuronal activity and signaling in the mPFC and amygdala subnuclei. PMID:23551217

  3. Spatial Phosphoprotein Profiling Reveals a Compartmentalized Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Switch Governing Neurite Growth and Retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yingchun; Yang, Feng; Fu, Yi; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xining; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Zhao, Rui; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pertz, Olivier C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Orton, Daniel J.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2011-05-20

    Abstract - Brain development and spinal cord regeneration require neurite sprouting and growth cone navigation in response to extension and collapsing factors present in the extracellular environment. These external guidance cues control neurite growth cone extension and retraction processes through intracellular protein phosphorylation of numerous cytoskeletal, adhesion, and polarity complex signaling proteins. However, the complex kinase/substrate signaling networks that mediate neuritogenesis have not been investigated. Here, we compare the neurite phosphoproteome under growth and retraction conditions using neurite purification methodology combined with mass spectrometry. More than 4000 non-redundant phosphorylation sites from 1883 proteins have been annotated and mapped to signaling pathways that control kinase/phosphatase networks, cytoskeleton remodeling, and axon/dendrite specification. Comprehensive informatics and functional studies revealed a compartmentalized ERK activation/deactivation cytoskeletal switch that governs neurite growth and retraction, respectively. Our findings provide the first system-wide analysis of the phosphoprotein signaling networks that enable neurite growth and retraction and reveal an important molecular switch that governs neuritogenesis.

  4. A Screen for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Primed Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Substrates Identifies the p53 Inhibitor iASPP

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Crystal; Liao, Gangling; Goodwin, C. Rory; Hu, Jianfei; Xie, Zhi; dos Reis, Thaila F.; Newman, Rob; Rho, Heesool; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) LANA protein is essential for the replication and maintenance of virus genomes in latently KSHV-infected cells. LANA also drives dysregulated cell growth through a multiplicity of mechanisms that include altering the activity of the cellular kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). To investigate the potential impact of these changes in enzyme activity, we used protein microarrays to identify cell proteins that were phosphorylated by the combination of ERK and GSK-3. The assays identified 58 potential ERK-primed GSK-3 substrates, of which 23 had evidence for in vivo phosphorylation in mass spectrometry databases. Two of these, SMAD4 and iASPP, were selected for further analysis and were confirmed as ERK-primed GSK-3 substrates. Cotransfection experiments revealed that iASPP, but not SMAD4, was targeted for degradation in the presence of GSK-3. iASPP interferes with apoptosis induced by p53 family members. To determine the importance of iASPP to KSHV-infected-cell growth, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells were treated with an iASPP inhibitor in the presence or absence of the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Drug inhibition of iASPP activity induced apoptosis in BC3 and BCBL1 PEL cells but did not induce poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in virus-negative BJAB cells. The effect of iASPP inhibition was additive with that of Nutlin-3. Interfering with iASPP function is therefore another mechanism that can sensitize KSHV-positive PEL cells to cell death. IMPORTANCE KSHV is associated with several malignancies, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The KSHV-encoded LANA protein is multifunctional and promotes both cell growth and resistance to cell death. LANA is known to activate ERK and limit the activity of another kinase, GSK-3. To discover ways in which LANA manipulation of these two kinases might impact PEL cell survival, we screened a human

  5. Phosphorylation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK)-1/2 Is Associated with the Downregulation of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ during Polymicrobial Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jennifer M; Hake, Paul W; Denenberg, Alvin; Nowell, Marchele; Piraino, Giovanna; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is a ligand-activated transcription factor and regulates inflammation. Posttranslational modifications regulate the function of PPARγ, potentially affecting inflammation. PPARγ contains a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) site, and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 leads to inhibition of PPARγ. This study investigated the kinetics of PPARγ expression and activation in parenchymal and immune cells in sepsis using the MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-1 inhibitor, an upstream kinase of ERK1/2. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to polymicrobial sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture. Rats received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 (5 mg/kg) 30 min before cecal ligation and puncture. Rats were euthanized at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 18 h after cecal ligation and puncture. Control animals used were animals at time 0 h. Lung, plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected for biochemical assays. In vehicle-treated rats, polymicrobial sepsis resulted in significant lung injury. In the lung and PBMCs, nuclear levels of PPARγ were decreased and associated with an increase in phosphorylated PPARγ and phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Treatment with the MEK1 inhibitor increased the antiinflammatory plasma adipokine adiponectin, restored PPARγ expression in PBMCs and lung, and decreased lung injury. The inflammatory effects of sepsis cause changes in PPARγ expression and activation, in part, because of phosphorylation of PPARγ by ERK1/2. This phosphorylation can be reversed by ERK1/2 inhibition, thereby improving lung injury. PMID:20809049

  6. Phosphorylation of Rac1 T108 by Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor: a Novel Mechanism To Regulate Rac1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has implicated Rho GTPases, including Rac1, in many aspects of cancer development. Recent findings suggest that phosphorylation might further contribute to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Interestingly, sequence analysis of Rac1 shows that Rac1 T108 within the 106PNTP109 motif is likely an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation site and that Rac1 also has an ERK docking site, 183KKRKRKCLLL192 (D site), at the C terminus. Indeed, we show here that both transfected and endogenous Rac1 interacts with ERK and that this interaction is mediated by its D site. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Rac1 is threonine (T) phosphorylated in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF-induced Rac1 threonine phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of ERK. Moreover, mutant Rac1 with the mutation of T108 to alanine (A) is not threonine phosphorylated in response to EGF. In vitro ERK kinase assay further shows that pure active ERK phosphorylates purified Rac1 but not mutant Rac1 T108A. We also show that Rac1 T108 phosphorylation decreases Rac1 activity, partially due to inhibiting its interaction with phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). T108 phosphorylation targets Rac1 to the nucleus, which isolates Rac1 from other guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and hinders Rac1's role in cell migration. We conclude that Rac1 T108 is phosphorylated by ERK in response to EGF, which plays an important role in regulating Rac1. PMID:24043306

  7. PACAP stimulation of maturational gonadotropin secretion in goldfish involves extracellular signal-regulated kinase, but not nitric oxide or guanylate cyclase, signaling.

    PubMed

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Mitchell, Gabriel; Uretsky, Aubrey D; Kwong, Patrick; Grey, Caleb L; Meints, Amanda N; Booth, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    In goldfish, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity is present in gonadotropes and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) mediates GnRH stimulation of gonadotropin release and synthesis. In this study, we tested the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and ERK in mediating PACAP-stimulated maturational gonadotropin (GTH-II) release from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. In static incubation experiments, PACAP-induced GTH-II release was unaffected by two inhibitors of NOS synthase, AGH and 1400W; whereas addition of a NO donor, SNAP, elevated GTH-II secretion. In perifusion experiments, neither NOS inhibitors (AGH, 1400W and 7-Ni) nor NO scavengers (PTIO and rutin hydrate) attenuated the GTH-II response to pulse applications of PACAP. In addition, the GTH-II responses to PACAP and the NO donor SNP were additive while PTIO blocked SNP action. Although dibutyryl cGMP increased GTH-II secretion in static incubation, inhibition of guanylate cyclase (GC), a known down-stream target for NO signaling, did not reduce the GTH-II response to pulse application of PACAP. On the other hand, GTH-II responses to PACAP in perifusion were attenuated in the presence of two inhibitors of ERK kinase (MEK), U 0126 and PD 98059. These results suggest that although increased availability of NO and cGMP can lead to increased GTH-II secretion, MEK/ERK signaling, rather than NOS/NO/GC activation, mediates PACAP action on GTH-II release in goldfish.

  8. Extracellular signal regulated kinase and SMAD signaling both mediate the angiotensin II driven progression towards overt heart failure in homozygous TGR(mRen2)27.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Rudolf A; Pokharel, Saraswati; Flesch, Markus; van Kampen, Derk A; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; Boomsma, Frans; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Pinto, Yigal M

    2004-10-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II is a key player in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Its effects are thought to be transferred at least in part by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1, and the Smad pathway. In this study we sought to elucidate whether Ang II related effects on LV dysfunction and fibrosis in vivo are mediated via MAPK or rather via Smad stimulation. We treated homozygous REN2 rats (7-11 weeks) with placebo, Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker or tyrphostin A46 (TYR), an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase that blocks extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. REN2 rats had LV hypertrophy (LVH) and LV dysfunction that progressed to heart failure between 10 and 13 weeks. Blood pressure normalized over time. Renin, N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (N-ANP), and ERK were activated while p38 MAPK was not. Treatment with AT1 receptor blockade prevented LVH and right ventricular hypertrophy, normalized systolic and diastolic d P/d t, N-ANP levels, and reduced collagen apposition. Similarly, TYR reduced LVH, N-ANP levels, and collagen apposition. Myocardial ERK activation did not depend on AT1 receptor signaling as it was not affected by AT1 receptor blockade. TYR abolished myocardial ERK activity. Smad2 activation was inhibited by AT1 receptor blockade but was unaltered by TYR. Ang II induced LV remodeling and fibrosis are dependent on both ERK and Smad2 activation. This process is prevented by both AT1 receptor blockade and TYR, and therefore inhibition of either pathway is equally efficacious in restoring LV function and architecture.

  9. Acquisition and expression of conditioned taste aversion differentially affects extracellular signal regulated kinase and glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Roberto; Fenu, Sandro; Scheggi, Simona; Vinci, Stefania; Rosas, Michela; Falqui, Andrea; Gambarana, Carla; De Montis, M Graziella; Acquas, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK) in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1) and Thr(34)- and Thr(75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated) PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32). CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1) in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr(34)- and p-Thr(75)-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr(34)- and p-Thr(75-DARPP-32) levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity.

  10. Acquisition and expression of conditioned taste aversion differentially affects extracellular signal regulated kinase and glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Roberto; Fenu, Sandro; Scheggi, Simona; Vinci, Stefania; Rosas, Michela; Falqui, Andrea; Gambarana, Carla; De Montis, M. Graziella; Acquas, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK) in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1) and Thr34- and Thr75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32). CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1) in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity. PMID:24847227

  11. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Is an Endogenous Signal Retaining the Nuclear Constitutive Active/Androstane Receptor (CAR) in the Cytoplasm of Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Chika; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) is sequestered in the cytoplasm of liver cells before its activation by therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics such as phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) in mouse liver, the regulatory mechanism of which remains poorly understood. Given the finding that epidermal growth factor repressed PB activation of CAR-mediated transcription (Mol Pharmacol 65:172–180, 2004), here we investigated the regulatory role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated signal in sequestering CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse primary hepatocytes. HGF treatment effectively repressed the induction of endogenous CYP2b10 gene by PB and TCPOBOP in mouse primary hepatocytes. On the other hand, inhibition by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(methyl-thio)butadiene (U0126) of an HGF downstream kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) induced the Cyp2b10 gene and up-regulated the CAR-regulated promoter activity in the absence of TCPOBOP. HGF treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in the cytosol, thus decreasing the TCPOBOP-induced nuclear accumulation of CAR. In contrast, U0126 dephosphorylated ERK1/2 and increased nuclear CAR accumulation in the absence of TCPOBOP. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the HGF-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is the endogenous signal that sequesters CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse primary hepatocytes. PMID:17314319

  12. Extracellular-signal regulated kinase 8 of Trypanosoma brucei uniquely phosphorylates its proliferating cell nuclear antigen homolog and reveals exploitable properties

    PubMed Central

    Valenciano, Ana L.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Mackey, Zachary B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Trypanosoma brucei subspecies T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodesiense are vector-borne pathogens that cause sleeping sickness also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), which is fatal if left untreated. The drugs that treat HAT are ineffective and cause toxic side effects. One strategy for identifying safer and more effective HAT drugs is to therapeutically exploit essential gene targets in T. brucei. Genes that make up a basic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network are present in T. brucei. Tb927.10.5140 encodes an essential MAPK that is homologous to the human extracellular-signal regulated kinase 8 (HsERK8) which forms a tight complex with the replication factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to stabilize intracellular PCNA levels. Here we demonstrate that (TbPCNA) is uniquely phos-phorylated on serine (S) and threonine (T) residues in T. brucei and that TbERK8 phosphorylates TbPCNA at each of these residues. The ability of an ERK8 homolog to phosphorylate a PCNA homolog is a novel biochemical property that is first demonstrated here in T. brucei and may be unique to this pathogen. We demonstrate that the potent HsERK8 inhibitor Ro318220, has an IC50 for TbERK8 that is several hundred times higher than its reported IC50 for HsERK8. This indicated that the active sites of TbERK8 and HsERK8 can be selectively inhibited, which provides a rational basis for discovering inhibitors that specifically target this essential parasite MAPK to kill the parasite. PMID:27589575

  13. Phosphorylation of Nuclear Phospholipase C β1 by Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates the Mitogenic Action of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Aimin; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Marmy-Conus, Nelly; Pearson, Richard B.; Seok, Oh Yong; Cocco, Lucio; Gilmour, R. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that a phosphoinositide (PI) cycle which is operationally distinct from the classical plasma membrane PI cycle exists within the nucleus, where it is involved in both cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the regulation of the nuclear PI cycle. Here, we report that nucleus-localized phospholipase C (PLC) β1, the key enzyme for the initiation of this cycle, is a physiological target of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) caused rapid nuclear translocation of activated ERK and concurrently induced phosphorylation of nuclear PLC β1, which was completely blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD 98059. Coimmunoprecipitation detected a specific association between the activated ERK and PLC β1 within the nucleus. In vitro studies revealed that recombinant PLC β1 could be efficiently phosphorylated by activated mitogen-activated protein kinase but not by PKA. The ERK phosphorylation site was mapped to serine 982, which lies within a PSSP motif located in the characteristic carboxy-terminal tail of PLC β1. In cells overexpressing a PLC β1 mutant in which serine 982 is replaced by glycine (S982G), IGF-I failed to activate the nuclear PI cycle, and its mitogenic effect was also markedly attenuated. Expression of S982G was found to inhibit ERK-mediated phosphorylation of endogenous PLC β1. This result suggests that ERK-evoked phosphorylation of PLC β1 at serine 982 plays a critical role in the activation of the nuclear PI cycle and is also crucial to the mitogenic action of IGF-I. PMID:11287604

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-enhanced tubular epithelium proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Bo-Ron; Hsiao, Michael; Ho, Wen-Yu; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2015-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 confers transient resistance against oxidative damage, including renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We investigated the potential protective effect of HO-1 induction in a mouse model of renal IRI induced by bilateral clamping of the kidney arteries. The mice were randomly assigned to five groups to receive an intraperitoneal injection of PBS, hemin (an HO-1 inducer, 100μmol/kg), hemin+ZnPP (an HO-1 inhibitor, 5mg/kg), hemin+PD98059 (a MEK-ERK inhibitor, 10mg/kg) or a sham operation. All of the groups except for the sham-operated group underwent 25min of ischemia and 24 to 72h of reperfusion. Renal function and tubular damage were assessed in the mice that received hemin or the vehicle treatment prior to IRI. The renal injury score and HO-1 protein levels were evaluated via H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. Hemin-preconditioned mice exhibited preserved renal cell function (BUN: 40±2mg/dl, creatinine: 0.53±0.06mg/dl), and the tubular injury score at 72h (1.65±0.12) indicated that tubular damage was prevented. Induction of HO-1 induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. However, these effects were abolished with ZnPP treatment. Kidney function (BUN: 176±49mg/dl, creatinine: 1.54±0.39mg/dl) increased, and the tubular injury score (3.73±0.09) indicated that tubular damage also increased with ZnPP treatment. HO-1-induced tubular epithelial proliferation was attenuated by PD98059. Our findings suggest that HO-1 preconditioning promotes ERK1/2 phosphorylation and enhances tubular recovery, which subsequently prevents further renal injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Mediates Phosphorylation of Tropomyosin-1 to Promote Cytoskeleton Remodeling in Response to Oxidative Stress: Impact on Membrane Blebbing

    PubMed Central

    Houle, François; Rousseau, Simon; Morrice, Nick; Luc, Mario; Mongrain, Sébastien; Turner, Christopher E.; Tanaka, Sakae; Moreau, Pierre; Huot, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative stress induces in endothelial cells a quick and transient coactivation of both stress-activated protein kinase-2/p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases. We found that inhibiting the ERK pathway resulted, within 5 min of oxidative stress, in a misassembly of focal adhesions characterized by mislocalization of key proteins such as paxillin. The focal adhesion misassembly that followed ERK inhibition with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD098059 (2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone) or with a kinase negative mutant of ERK in the presence of H2O2 resulted in a quick and intense membrane blebbing that was associated with important damage to the endothelium. We isolated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis a PD098059-sensitive phosphoprotein of 38 kDa that we identified, by mass spectrometry, as tropomyosin-1. In fact, H2O2 induced a time-dependent phosphorylation of tropomyosin that was sensitive to inhibition by PD098059 and UO126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butanediane). Tropomyosin phosphorylation was also induced by expression of a constitutively activated form of MEK1 (MEKCA), which confirms that its phosphorylation resulted from the activation of ERK. In unstimulated cells, tropomyosin-1 was found diffuse in the cells, whereas it quickly colocalized with actin and stress fibers upon stimulation of ERK by H2O2 or by expression of MEKCA. We propose that phosphorylation of tropomyosin-1 downstream of ERK by contributing to formation of actin filaments increases cellular contractility and promotes the formation of focal adhesions. Incidentally, ML-7 (1-[5iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]homopiperazine, HCl), an inhibitor of cell contractility, inhibited phosphorylation of tropomyosin and blocked the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions, which also led to membrane blebbing in the presence of oxidative stress. Our finding that tropomyosin-1 is phosphorylated

  16. Acidic pH stimulates the production of the angiogenic CXC chemokine, CXCL8 (interleukin-8), in human adult mesenchymal stem cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB pathways.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, David S; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Makhijani, Nalini S; Yamaguchi, Dean T

    2008-07-01

    Blood vessel injury results in limited oxygen tension and diffusion leading to hypoxia, increased anaerobic metabolism, and elevated production of acidic metabolites that cannot be easily removed due to the reduced blood flow. Therefore, an acidic extracellular pH occurs in the local microenvironment of disrupted bone. The potential role of acidic pH and glu-leu-arg (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines in early events in bone repair was studied in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) treated with medium of decreasing pH (7.4, 7.0, 6.7, and 6.4). The cells showed a reciprocal increase in CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) mRNA levels as extracellular pH decreased. At pH 6.4, CXCL8 mRNA was induced >60x in comparison to levels at pH 7.4. hMSCs treated with osteogenic medium (OGM) also showed an increase in CXCL8 mRNA with decreasing pH; although, at a lower level than that seen in cells grown in non-OGM. CXCL8 protein was secreted into the medium at all pHs with maximal induction at pH 6.7. Inhibition of the G-protein-coupled receptor alpha, G(alphai), suppressed CXCL8 levels in response to acidic pH; whereas phospholipase C inhibition had no effect on CXCL8. The use of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction inhibitors indicated that the pH-dependent increase in CXCL8 mRNA is due to activation of ERK and p38 pathways. The JNK pathway was not involved. NF-kappaB inhibition resulted in a decrease in CXCL8 levels in hMSCs grown in non-OGM. However, OGM-differentiated hMSCs showed an increase in CXCL8 levels when treated with the NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC, a pyrrolidine derivative of dithiocarbamate.

  17. Acupuncture combined with curcumin disrupts platelet-derived growth factor β receptor/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling and stimulates extracellular matrix degradation in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zi-Li; Ma, Jin; Kong, De-Song; Ni, Guang-Xia; Wang, Ai-Yun; Chen, Wen-Xing; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shi-Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture treatment has been increasingly used to treat chronic liver diseases. We previously reported that acupuncture combined with curcumin, a natural antifibrotic compound, could remarkably attenuate liver fibrosis in chemically intoxicated rats, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of acupuncture combined with curcumin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling and extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation in the fibrotic liver. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into control, model, sham, acupuncture, curcumin and combination treatment groups. During the establishment of fibrosis using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), acupuncture at LR3, LR14, BL18 and ST36 and/or curcumin treatment by mouth were performed simultaneously. After treatment, serum PDGF levels were measured. Protein and mRNA expression of key effectors in PDGF pathway and fibrinolysis in the liver was determined. Acupuncture combined with curcumin potently reduced serum PDGF levels and selectively disrupted the PDGF-βR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Combination treatment also significantly repressed expression of connective tissue growth factor and upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, promoting fibrinolysis in the fibrotic liver. The beneficial effects of acupuncture and its combination with curcumin could be attributed to the disruption of PDGF-βR/ERK pathway and stimulated ECM degradation in the fibrotic liver. Acupuncture treatment significantly enhanced curcumin effects at the molecular level. These findings may provide molecular insights into the potential of acupuncture combined with curcumin for prevention of hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activity reverses endotoxin-induced hypotension via decreased nitric oxide production in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunctan, B; Korkmaz, B; Dogruer, Z N; Tamer, L; Atik, U; Buharalioglu, C K

    2007-07-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leads to oxidative stress and decreased total antioxidant capacity, which is responsible for high mortality from several inflammatory diseases such as endotoxic shock. Among reactive nitrogen species, nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) during endotoxemia is the major cause of vascular hyporeactivity, hypotension and multiple organ failure. This study was conducted to determine if mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) contributes to endotoxin-induced hypotension as well as vascular inflammation and oxidative stress via NO production. In conscious male Wistar rats, injection of endotoxin (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) caused a decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 4h and increased levels of nitrite in serum, aorta and mesenteric artery. These effects of endotoxin were prevented by selective inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by MAPK kinase (MEK1/2) with U0126 (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.; 1h after endotoxin). Endotoxin also caused an increase in protein levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in aorta which was abolished by U0126. Selective inhibition of iNOS with phenylene-1,3-bis[ethane-2-isothiourea] dihydrobromide (1,3-PBIT) (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.; 1h after endotoxin) did not change the endotoxin-induced increase in ERK1/2 activity. Myeloperoxidase activity was increased in aorta and decreased in mesenteric artery by endotoxin, which was reversed by U0126. Endotoxin-induced decrease in one of the products of lipid peroxidation, malonedialdehyde (MDA) was prevented by U0126 in mesenteric artery; however, U0126 caused a further decrease in the levels of MDA in aorta. These data suggest that increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MEK1/2 contributes to the endotoxin-induced hypotension via NO production rat aorta and mesenteric artery. It is likely that ERK1/2 mediates the effect of endotoxin on MPO activity in a different degree in the tissues

  19. E6201 [(3S,4R,5Z,8S,9S,11E)-14-(ethylamino)-8, 9,16-trihydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-3,4,9,19-tetrahydro-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecine-1,7(8H)-dione], a novel kinase inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-1 and MEK kinase-1: in vitro characterization of its anti-inflammatory and antihyperproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masaki; Chow, Jesse; Muramoto, Kenzo; Chiba, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujita, Masanori; Obaishi, Hiroshi; Tai, Kenji; Mizui, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Isao; Young, Donna; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yuan J; Shirota, Hiroshi; Gusovsky, Fabian

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study is to identify a novel inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties for the treatment of psoriasis. Compound f152A1 [(3S,5Z,8S,11E)-8,9,16-trihydroxy-14-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4,9,10-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[c][1]oxacyclotetradecine1,7(8H)-dione] was identified as the main active metabolite with strong inhibitory activity against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) transcription in a fraction originated from the fermentation broth of the fungus Curvularia verruculosa. Although active in cell-based assays, f152A1 was unstable in plasma and liver microsome preparations, thus limiting its pharmaceutical utilization. To improve the metabolic properties of f152A1, a medicinal chemistry program was undertaken, resulting in the generation of over 400 analogs of f152A1. Eventually, E6201 [(3S,4R,5Z,8S,9S,11E)-14-(ethylamino)-8,9,16-trihydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-3,4,9,19-tetrahydro-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecine-1,7(8H)-dione] was identified as a promising analog in this series. In the present study, we characterized the in vitro activities of E6201 and discovered that the compound inhibits lipopolysaccharide-activated TNFalpha reporter activity in THP-1-33 cells with an IC(50) value of 50 nM and selectively inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-1 and MEK kinase-1 in cell-free biochemical assays. In addition, E6201 showed inhibitory activity in several other cell-based systems: 1) phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPKs; 2) nuclear factor-kappaB and activated protein-1 activation in various cell types; 3) interleukin (IL)-2 production from human lymphocytes; 4) hyperproliferation of human keratinocytes; 5) IL-8 production from human keratinocytes; and 6) proinflammatory cytokine production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Based on the data presented here, E6201 may be beneficial for treatment of inflammatory and hyperproliferative diseases such as psoriasis

  20. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Sigma-1 receptor stimulation protects retinal ganglion cells from ischemia-like insult through the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Brett H; Park, Yong; Ma, Hai-Ying; Dibas, Adnan; Ellis, Dorette Z; Clark, Abbot F; Yorio, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (σ-1) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine if σ-1 receptor stimulation with pentazocine could promote neuroprotection under conditions of an ischemia-like insult (oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)) through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK)1/2. Primary RGCs were isolated from P3-P7 Sprague-Dawley rats and purified by sequential immunopanning using Thy1.1 antibodies. RGCs were cultured for 7 days before subjecting the cells to an OGD insult (0.5% oxygen in glucose-free medium) for 6 h. During the OGD, RGCs were treated with pentazocine (σ-1 receptor agonist) with or without BD 1047 (σ-1 receptor antagonist). In other experiments, primary RGCs were treated with pentazocine in the presence or absence of an MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD098059. Cell survival/death was assessed by staining with the calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer reagent. Levels of pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, and beta tubulin expression were determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining. RGCs subjected to OGD for 6 h induced 50% cell death in primary RGCs (p < 0.001) and inhibited pERK1/2 expression by 65% (p < 0.001). Cell death was attenuated when RGCs were treated with pentazocine under OGD (p < 0.001) and pERK1/2 expression was increased by 1.6 fold (p < 0.05) compared to OGD treated RGCs without pentazocine treatment. The co-treatment of PD098059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) with pentazocine significantly abolished the protective effects of pentazocine on the RGCs during this OGD insult. Activation of the σ-1 receptor is a neuroprotective target that can protect RGCs from an ischemia-like insult. These results also established a direct relationship between σ-1 receptor stimulation and the neuroprotective effects of the ERK1/2 pathway in purified RGCs subjected to OGD. These findings suggest that activation of

  2. Expression of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 5 and Ankyrin Repeat Domain 1 in Composite Pheochromocytoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma Detected Incidentally in the Adult Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Shinta; Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Ito, Hiromi; Naito, Sei; Kato, Tomoyuki; Nagaoka, Akira; Kato, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Obara, Yutaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko

    Composite pheochromocytoma (cPC) is extremely rare, arising in the adrenal medulla as a mixture of PC and other tumors of neural origin. We herein report on a case of adrenal incidentaloma post-operatively diagnosed as cPC with ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL). The PC component had 7 points on the PASS, a Ki-67 index of 5.1%, a focal absence of sustentacular cells, and no genetic aberrations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. The GNBL component exhibited no N-myc amplification. Tumor cells of both components were stained positively for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 and ankyrin repeat domain 1. The aberrant activation of growth signaling may play a role in the marginal malignancy of cPC.

  3. Expression of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 5 and Ankyrin Repeat Domain 1 in Composite Pheochromocytoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma Detected Incidentally in the Adult Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Shinta; Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Ito, Hiromi; Naito, Sei; Kato, Tomoyuki; Nagaoka, Akira; Kato, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Obara, Yutaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Composite pheochromocytoma (cPC) is extremely rare, arising in the adrenal medulla as a mixture of PC and other tumors of neural origin. We herein report on a case of adrenal incidentaloma post-operatively diagnosed as cPC with ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL). The PC component had 7 points on the PASS, a Ki-67 index of 5.1%, a focal absence of sustentacular cells, and no genetic aberrations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. The GNBL component exhibited no N-myc amplification. Tumor cells of both components were stained positively for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 and ankyrin repeat domain 1. The aberrant activation of growth signaling may play a role in the marginal malignancy of cPC. PMID:27980262

  4. Expression of novel neurotrophin-1/B-cell stimulating factor-3 (NNT-1/BSF-3) in murine pituitary folliculostellate TtT/GF cells: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced stimulation of NNT-1/BSF-3 is mediated by protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Vlotides, George; Zitzmann, Kathrin; Hengge, Sabine; Engelhardt, Dieter; Stalla, Gunter K; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2004-02-01

    Novel neurotrophin-1/B cell stimulating factor-3 (NNT-1/BSF-3) is a gp130 cytokine potently stimulating corticotroph proopiomelanocortin gene expression and ACTH secretion by a Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT)-dependent mechanism. In the current study, we examined the regulation of NNT-1/BSF-3 mRNA expression in murine pituitary folliculostellate TtT/GF cells using Northern blot technique. A 5- to 9-fold and a 4- to 7-fold induction in NNT-1/BSF-3 mRNA expression was observed between 2 and 6 h stimulation with the protein kinase C (PKC) stimulus phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (100 nm) and the protein kinase A (PKA) stimulus Bu(2)cAMP (5 mm), respectively. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-38, 50 nm) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, 50 nm) also stimulated NNT-1/BSF-3 mRNA expression 5- to 9-fold between 2 and 6 h. Preincubation with PKC and PKA inhibitors such as H-7 (20 microm), GF109203X (50 microm), and H-89 (50 microm) decreased the stimulatory effects of PACAP and VIP. Both PACAP-38 and VIP also rapidly induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and their stimulatory effect on NNT-1/BSF-3 mRNA expression was reduced by the MAPK kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 (10 microm). Dexamethasone (10(-7) m) was a potent inhibitor of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced NNT-1/BSF-3 expression. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated TtT/GF cells to express the short and the hop variant but not the hip variant of the PACAP-1 receptor (PAC1-R). In addition, TtT/GF cells express the VIP/PACAP-2 receptor (VPAC2-R). In summary, NNT-1/BSF-3 is expressed in pituitary folliculostellate TtT/GF cells and induced by PKC-, PKA-, and ERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. The novel gp130 cytokine NNT-1/BSF-3 derived from folliculostellate cells might act as a paracrine neuroimmunoendocrine modulator of pituitary corticotroph function.

  5. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin E2, RHE: rice hull extract, ROS: reactive oxygen species, TNF

  6. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion: This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. SUMMARY Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin

  7. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. PMID:27466283

  8. Grape seed extract triggers apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species and calcium increase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase involvement.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Morabito, Caterina; Guarnieri, Simone; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-09-14

    Grape seed extract (GSE) from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the mechanism(s) supporting the apoptotic process, we analysed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular Ca2+ handling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Upon exposure to GSE, ROS and intracellular Ca2+ levels increased in Caco-2 cells, concomitantly with ERK inactivation. As ERK activity is thought to be essential for promoting survival pathways, inhibition of this kinase is likely to play a relevant role in GSE-mediated anticancer effects. Indeed, pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, reversed GSE-induced apoptosis, and promoted ERK phosphorylation. This effect was strengthened by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-mediated inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx. ROS and Ca2+ influx inhibition, in turn, increased ERK phosphorylation, and hence almost entirely suppressed GSE-mediated apoptosis. These data suggested that GSE triggers a previously unrecognised ERK-based mechanism, involving both ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ increase, eventually leading to apoptosis in cancer cells.

  9. EGFL6 Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis through the Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Shek Man; Qin, An; Tickner, Jennifer; Pavlos, Nathan; Davey, Tamara; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for bone development, growth, and repair. It is influenced by the local bone environment that involves cross-talks between endothelial cells and adjacent bone cells. However, data regarding factors that directly contribute to angiogenesis by bone cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that EGFL6, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat superfamily proteins, induces angiogenesis by a paracrine mechanism in which EGFL6 is expressed in osteoblastic-like cells but promotes migration and angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EGFL6 is secreted in culture medium as a homodimer protein. Using scratch wound healing and transwell assays, we found that conditioned medium containing EGFL6 potentiates SVEC (a simian virus 40-transformed mouse microvascular endothelial cell line) endothelial cell migration. In addition, EGFL6 promotes the endothelial cell tube-like structure formation in Matrigel assays and angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, we show that EGFL6 recombinant protein induces phosphorylation of ERK in SVEC endothelial cells. Inhibition of ERK impaired EGFL6-induced ERK activation and endothelial cell migration. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that osteoblastic-like cells express EGFL6 that is capable of promoting endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via ERK activation. Thus, the EGLF6 mediates a paracrine mechanism of cross-talk between vascular endothelial cells and osteoblasts and might offer an important new target for the potential treatment of bone diseases, including osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, and fracture healing. PMID:21531721

  10. EGFL6 promotes endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Chim, Shek Man; Qin, An; Tickner, Jennifer; Pavlos, Nathan; Davey, Tamara; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2011-06-24

    Angiogenesis is required for bone development, growth, and repair. It is influenced by the local bone environment that involves cross-talks between endothelial cells and adjacent bone cells. However, data regarding factors that directly contribute to angiogenesis by bone cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that EGFL6, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat superfamily proteins, induces angiogenesis by a paracrine mechanism in which EGFL6 is expressed in osteoblastic-like cells but promotes migration and angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EGFL6 is secreted in culture medium as a homodimer protein. Using scratch wound healing and transwell assays, we found that conditioned medium containing EGFL6 potentiates SVEC (a simian virus 40-transformed mouse microvascular endothelial cell line) endothelial cell migration. In addition, EGFL6 promotes the endothelial cell tube-like structure formation in Matrigel assays and angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, we show that EGFL6 recombinant protein induces phosphorylation of ERK in SVEC endothelial cells. Inhibition of ERK impaired EGFL6-induced ERK activation and endothelial cell migration. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that osteoblastic-like cells express EGFL6 that is capable of promoting endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via ERK activation. Thus, the EGLF6 mediates a paracrine mechanism of cross-talk between vascular endothelial cells and osteoblasts and might offer an important new target for the potential treatment of bone diseases, including osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, and fracture healing.

  11. Identification of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 as a new interaction partner of cyclin D3

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Maoyun; Wei Yuanyan; Yao Luyang; Xie Jianhui; Chen Xiaoning; Wang Hanzhou; Jiang Jianhai; Gu Jianxin . E-mail: jxgu@shmu.edu.cn

    2006-02-03

    Cyclin D3, like cyclin D1 and D2 isoforms, is a crucial component of the core cell cycle machinery in mammalian cells. It also exhibits its unique properties in many other physiological processes. In the present study, using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified ERK3, an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as a cyclin D3 binding partner. GST pull-down assays showed that cyclin D3 interacts directly and specifically with ERK3 in vitro. The binding of cyclin D3 and ERK3 was further confirmed in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopic analysis. Moreover, carboxy-terminal extension of ERK3 was responsible for its association with intact cyclin D3. These findings further expand distinct roles of cyclin D3 and suggest the potential activity of ERK3 in cell proliferation.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone Stimulates Endothelial Proliferation and Angiogenesis through Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2-Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongmin; Iruthayanathan, Mary; Homan, Laurie L.; Wang, Yiqiang; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Yao; Dillon, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates a plasma membrane receptor on vascular endothelial cells and phosphorylates ERK 1/2. We hypothesize that ERK1/2-dependent vascular endothelial proliferation underlies part of the beneficial vascular effect of DHEA. DHEA (0.1–10 nm) activated ERK1/2 in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) by 15 min, causing nuclear translocation of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylation of nuclear p90 ribosomal S6 kinase. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was dependent on plasma membrane-initiated activation of Gi/o proteins and the upstream MAPK kinase because the effect was seen with albumin-conjugated DHEA and was blocked by pertussis toxin or PD098059. A 15-min incubation of BAECs with 1 nm DHEA (or albumin-conjugated DHEA) increased endothelial proliferation by 30% at 24 h. This effect was not altered by inhibition of estrogen or androgen receptors or nitric oxide production. There was a similar effect of DHEA to increase endothelial migration. DHEA also increased the formation of primitive capillary tubes of BAECs in vitro in solubilized basement membrane. These rapid DHEA-induced effects were reversed by the inhibition of either Gi/o-proteins or ERK1/2. Additionally, DHEA enhanced angiogenesis in vivo in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. These findings indicate that exposure to DHEA, at concentrations found in human blood, causes vascular endothelial proliferation by a plasma membrane-initiated activity that is Gi/o and ERK1/2 dependent. These data, along with previous findings, define an important vascular endothelial cell signaling pathway that is activated by DHEA and suggest that this steroid may play a role in vascular function. PMID:18079198

  13. α2β1 Integrin Promotes Chemoresistance against Doxorubicin in Cancer Cells through Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK)*

    PubMed Central

    Naci, Dalila; El Azreq, Mohammed-Amine; Chetoui, Nizar; Lauden, Laura; Sigaux, François; Charron, Dominique; Al-Daccak, Reem; Aoudjit, Fawzi

    2012-01-01

    The role and the mechanisms by which β1 integrins regulate the survival and chemoresistance of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) still are poorly addressed. In this study, we demonstrate in T-ALL cell lines and primary blasts, that engagement of α2β1 integrin with its ligand collagen I (ColI), reduces doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, whereas fibronectin (Fn) had no effect. ColI but not Fn inhibited doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. ColI but not Fn also prevented doxorubicin from down-regulating the levels of the prosurvival Bcl-2 protein family member Mcl-1. The effect of ColI on Mcl-1 occurred through the inhibition of doxorubicin-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Mcl-1 knockdown experiments showed that the maintenance of Mcl-1 levels is essential for ColI-mediated T-ALL cell survival. Furthermore, activation of MAPK/ERK, but not PI3K/AKT, is required for ColI-mediated inhibition of doxorubicin-induced JNK activation and apoptosis and for ColI-mediated maintenance of Mcl-1 levels. Thus, our study identifies α2β1 integrin as an important survival pathway in drug-induced apoptosis of T-ALL cells and suggests that its activation can contribute to the generation of drug resistance. PMID:22457358

  14. Xanthohumol inhibits the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway and suppresses cell growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sławińska-Brych, Adrianna; Zdzisińska, Barbara; Dmoszyńska-Graniczka, Magdalena; Jeleniewicz, Witold; Kurzepa, Jacek; Gagoś, Mariusz; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2016-05-16

    Aberrant activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has been frequently observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and its important role in cancer progression and malignant transformation has been documented. Hence, the ERK1/2 kinase cascade becomes a potential molecular target in cancer treatment. Xanthohumol (XN, a prenylated chalcone derived from hope cones) is known to possess a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and anticancer activities. In our studies, the MTT and BrdU assays revealed that XN demonstrated greater antiproliferative activity against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells than against the lung adenocarcinoma H1563 cell line. We observed that XN was able to suppress the activities of ERK1/2 and p90RSK kinases, followed by inhibition of phosphorylation and activation of the CREB protein. Additionally, the XN treatment of the cancer cells caused upregulation of key cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 as well as downregulation of cyclin D1. As a result, the cytotoxic effect of XN was attributed to the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induction of apoptosis indicated by increased caspase-3 activity. Thus, XN might be a promising anticancer drug candidate against lung carcinomas.

  15. Mode of regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the pancreatic beta-cell line MIN6 and their implication in the regulation of insulin gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, C; Poitout, V; Marie, J C; Martin-Perez, J; Roisin, M P; Fagard, R

    1999-01-01

    Physiological concentrations of glucose that lead to Ca2+ entry and insulin secretion activate extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) in the MIN6 pancreatic beta-cell line. Here we show that this activation is inhibited by the down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases. In contrast with results obtained in other cell types, neither the epidermal growth factor activity nor the Src family protein tyrosine kinases seem to be involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ERKs. inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases by vanadate leads to the activation of ERKs. As observed in the response to glucose, this activation is dependent on Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus the activation of ERKs in response to glucose depends on PKC and possibly on a tyrosine kinase/tyrosine phosphatase couple. To define the role of ERK activation by glucose we studied the regulation of transcription of the insulin gene. We found that this transcription is regulated in the MIN6 cells in the same range of glucose concentration as in primary islets, and that specific inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, the direct activator of ERK, impaired the response of the insulin gene to glucose. This was observed by analysis of the transfected rat insulin I gene promoter activity and a Northern blot of endogenous insulin mRNA. PMID:10229678

  16. Mode of regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the pancreatic beta-cell line MIN6 and their implication in the regulation of insulin gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Benes, C; Poitout, V; Marie, J C; Martin-Perez, J; Roisin, M P; Fagard, R

    1999-05-15

    Physiological concentrations of glucose that lead to Ca2+ entry and insulin secretion activate extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) in the MIN6 pancreatic beta-cell line. Here we show that this activation is inhibited by the down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases. In contrast with results obtained in other cell types, neither the epidermal growth factor activity nor the Src family protein tyrosine kinases seem to be involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ERKs. inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases by vanadate leads to the activation of ERKs. As observed in the response to glucose, this activation is dependent on Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus the activation of ERKs in response to glucose depends on PKC and possibly on a tyrosine kinase/tyrosine phosphatase couple. To define the role of ERK activation by glucose we studied the regulation of transcription of the insulin gene. We found that this transcription is regulated in the MIN6 cells in the same range of glucose concentration as in primary islets, and that specific inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, the direct activator of ERK, impaired the response of the insulin gene to glucose. This was observed by analysis of the transfected rat insulin I gene promoter activity and a Northern blot of endogenous insulin mRNA.

  17. Role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway in driving tricalcium silicate-induced proliferation and biomineralization of human dental pulp cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong; Wu, Tiantian; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Lifen; Jiang, Long; Peng, Weiwei; Chang, Jiang; Zhu, Yaqin

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in regulating tricalcium silicate (C3S)-driven proliferation and biomineralization of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) in vitro. Human DPCs were cultured in C3S-containing medium and compared with untreated controls. Cell viability was measured by the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium assay. Biomineralization was assessed by staining calcium deposits on the extracellular matrix with von Kossa and alizarin red S stains. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 was evaluated by immunoblotting. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was used to assess the role of this pathway on stage of the cell cycle and mineralization-dependent gene expressions of hDPCs by using flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test, with significance set at P < .05. The viability and biomineralization of hDPCs were promoted by C3S extracts (P < .05). Phosphorylated ERK1/2 strongly appeared after hDPCs were cultured in the C3S extracts for 30 minutes. Moreover, inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway in C3S-treated hDPCs decreased proliferation and the expression of mineralization-dependent genes, including collagen type I, dentin sialophosphoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin (P < .05). C3S stimulated the proliferation and biomineralization of hDPCs in vitro, with the ERK1/2 pathway playing a key role in the regulation of these effects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide potentiates interleukin-1{beta}-induced nitric oxide production via enhancement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sun-Oh; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Oh, Gi-Su; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Lee, Bok-Soo; Lee, Seoul; Kim, Du Yong; Rhew, Hyun Yul; Lee, Kang-Min; Chung, Hun-Taeg . E-mail: htchung@wonkwang.ac.kr

    2006-07-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and nitric oxide (NO) are endogenously synthesized from L-cysteine and L-arginine, respectively. They might constitute a cooperative network to regulate their effects. In this study, we investigated whether H{sub 2}S could affect NO production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}). Although H{sub 2}S by itself showed no effect on NO production, it augmented IL-{beta}-induced NO production and this effect was associated with increased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. IL-1{beta} activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and this activation was also enhanced by H{sub 2}S. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by the selective inhibitor U0126 inhibited IL-1{beta}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation, iNOS expression, and NO production either in the absence or presence of H{sub 2}S. Our findings suggest that H{sub 2}S enhances NO production and iNOS expression by potentiating IL-1{beta}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation through a mechanism involving ERK1/2 signaling cascade in rat VSMCs.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase activation enhances object recognition memory in mice through phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the cortex and the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Canto de Souza, Lucas; Provensi, Gustavo; Vullo, Daniela; Carta, Fabrizio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Costa, Alessia; Schmidt, Scheila Daiane; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Supuran, Claudiu T; Blandina, Patrizio

    2017-05-15

    Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity. We provided also the first evidence that d-phenylalanine administration rapidly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, a critical step for memory formation, in the cortex and the hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. Effects elicited by d-phenylalanine were completely blunted by co-administration of acetazolamide, but not of 1-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl-ethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium perchlorate ((C18),) a CA inhibitor that, differently from acetazolamide, does not cross the blood brain barrier. Our results strongly suggest that brain but not peripheral CAs activation potentiates memory as a result of ERK pathway enhanced activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tissue kallikrein induces SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhengyu; Yang, Qi; Cui, Mei; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hong; Dong, Qiang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TK promotes EGFR phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK activates ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. • TK mediates SH-SY5Y cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway. - Abstract: Tissue kallikrein (TK) is well known to take most of its biological functions through bradykinin receptors. In the present study, we found a novel signaling pathway mediated by TK through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human SH-SY5Y cells. We discovered that TK facilitated the activation of EGFR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 cascade. Interestingly, not p38 but ERK1/2 phosphorylation was severely compromised in cells depleted of EGFR. Nevertheless, impairment of signaling of ERK1/2 seemed not to be restricted to EGFR phosphorylation. We also observed that TK stimulation could induce SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, which was reduced by EGFR down-regulation or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Overall, our findings provided convincing evidence that TK could mediate cell proliferation via EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway in vitro.

  1. BRAF, KIT and NRAS mutations and expression of c-KIT, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated AKT in Japanese melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the status of gene mutation and activation of growth signal in melanoma of Japanese patients in vivo, we analyzed the mutation of BRAF exon 15, NRAS exon 2, and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, 17 and 18 in melanoma cells obtained by laser capture microdissection, and performed direct sequencing in 20 cases of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and 17 cases of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). In the study of the mutation of BRAF, pyrosequencing was also done. To examine the cell proliferation signaling, immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), phosphorylated AKT (phosphorylated AKT) and c-KIT was done. The mutation of BRAF p.V600E was detected in 13 cases of ALM (65.0%) and 12 cases of SSM (70.6%). No NRAS mutation was found in all cases. The mutation in exons 9, 11, and 18 of KIT was detected in nine cases. The mutation of BRAF and KIT showed no correlation with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor thickness, ulceration and histology. pERK and pAKT was observed in small population of melanoma cells and there was no correlation with gene mutation. Our results indicate that the mutations of BRAF and KIT exist in Japanese melanoma patients, however, the cell growth signaling may be regulated by not only these mutated genes, but by other unknown regulatory factors, which may affect the prognosis of melanoma.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure persistently impairs N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the mouse dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.; Allan, Andrea M.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Caldwell, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is the central input region to the hippocampus and is known to play an important role in learning and memory. Previous studies have shown that prenatal alcohol is associated with hippocampal-dependent learning deficits and a decreased ability to elicit long term potentiation (LTP) in the DG in adult animals. Given that activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is required for various forms of learning and memory, as well as LTP, in hippocampal regions, including the DG, we hypothesized that fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) adult animals would have deficits in hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent ERK1/2 activation. We used immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry techniques to detect NMDA-stimulated ERK1/2 activation in acute hippocampal slices prepared from adult FAE mice. We present the first evidence linking prenatal alcohol exposure to deficits in NMDA receptor-dependent ERK1/2 activation specifically in the DG of adult offspring. This deficit may account for the LTP deficits previously observed in the DG, as well as the life-long cognitive deficits, associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:19317851

  3. Emblica officinalis exerts wound healing action through up-regulation of collagen and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2).

    PubMed

    Sumitra, Miriyala; Manikandan, Panchatcharam; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Mahendran, Panchatcharam; Suguna, Lonchin

    2009-01-01

    During wound healing, the wound site is rich in oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, mostly contributed by neutrophils and macrophages. Ascorbic acid and tannins of low molecular weight, namely emblicanin A (2,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-2-keto-glucono-delta-lactone) and emblicanin B (2,3,4,6-bis-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-2-keto-glucono-delta-lactone) present in Emblica officinalis (emblica), have been shown to exhibit a very strong antioxidant action. We proposed that addition of these antioxidants to the wound microenvironment would support the repair process. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy of emblica on dermal wound healing in vivo. Full-thickness excision wounds were made on the back of the rat and topical application of emblica accelerated wound contraction and closure. Emblica increased cellular proliferation and cross-linking of collagen at the wound site, as evidenced by an increase in the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, along with an increase in DNA, type III collagen, acid-soluble collagen, aldehyde content, shrinkage temperature and tensile strength. Higher levels of tissue ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase support the fact that emblica application promotes antioxidant activity at the wound site. In summary, this study provides firm evidence to support that topical application of emblica represents a feasible and productive approach to support dermal wound healing.

  4. Distribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1- and 2-activated neurons in the rat periaqueductal gray matter after noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Magda; Moscheni, Claudia; Gagliano, Nicoletta

    2005-05-01

    The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), the midbrain region made up of neuronal columns encircling the cerebral aqueduct, plays a key role in nociception. As the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 are activated after noxious stimulation, we analyzed the distribution of ERK-activated neurons in the PAG after visceral noxious stimulation. Ether- and urethane-anesthetized rats received an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid or were left untreated and were perfused after 2 hr. Serial sections immunoreacted with an antibody selective for the activated ERKs. Significant ERK activation occurred only in the ether-anesthetized noxious stimulated rats. In these rats, we evaluated the number of ERK-activated neurons and their density as the ratio of the number of immunolabeled neurons to the extension of the region where they were located. ERK-activated neurons were more numerous in the lateral (LPAG) and ventrolateral (VLPAG) columns, but without significant differences. No ERK activation was seen in neurons of the most rostral PAG. The ERK-activated neurons were significantly denser at the intermediate level of the PAG. At the caudal level, they were denser in the LPAG and VLPAG columns, and in the DPAG column at the intermediate and rostral level. These findings suggest that noxious stimulation activates ERKs in neurons involved in the different functional activities related to nociception, overlapping in the PAG columns, and strengthens the role of PAG in integration.

  5. Preventive Effects of a Kampo Medicine, Kakkonto, on Inflammatory Responses via the Suppression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Hiroyuki; Urano, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease is accompanied by inflammation of the gingiva and destruction of periodontal tissues, leading to alveolar bone loss in severe clinical cases. The chemical mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-)6 and IL-8 have been known to play important roles in inflammatory responses and tissue degradation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a kampo medicine, kakkonto (TJ-1), on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-6, and IL-8 by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Kakkonto concentration dependently suppressed LPS-induced PGE2 production but did not alter basal PGE2 levels. In contrast, kakkonto significantly increased LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. Kakkonto decreased cyclooxygenase- (COX-)1 activity to approximately 70% at 1 mg/mL but did not affect COX-2 activity. Kakkonto did not affect cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), annexin1, or LPS-induced COX-2 expression. Kakkonto suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which is known to lead to ERK activation and cPLA2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that kakkonto decreased PGE2 production by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation which leads to inhibition of cPLA2 phosphorylation and its activation. Therefore, kakkonto may be useful to improve gingival inflammation in periodontal disease. PMID:24693448

  6. Apelin: an endogenous peptide essential for cardiomyogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Ning-Kun; Fang, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Lian-Ru

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence has shown that apelin/APJ system functions as a critical mediator of cardiac development as well as cardiovascular function. Here, we investigated the role of apelin in the cardiomyogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord in vitro. In this research, we used RNA interference methodology and gene transfection technique to regulate the expression of apelin in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells and induced cells with a effective cardiac differentiation protocol including 5-azacytidine and bFGF. Four weeks after induction, induced cells assumed a stick-like morphology and myotube-like structures except apelin-silenced cells and the control group. The silencing expression of apelin in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells decreased the expression of several critical cardiac progenitor transcription factors (Mesp1, Mef2c, NKX2.5) and cardiac phenotypes (cardiac α-actin, β-MHC, cTnT, and connexin-43). Meanwhile, endogenous compensation of apelin contributed to differentiating into cells with characteristics of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Further experiment showed that exogenous apelin peptide rescued the cardiomyogenic differentiation of apelin-silenced mesenchymal stem cells in the early stage (1-4 days) of induction. Remarkably, our experiment indicated that apelin up-regulated cardiac specific genes in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells via activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and 5. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Mepivacaine-induced contraction involves phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase through activation of the lipoxygenase pathway in isolated rat aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Min; Ok, Seong-Ho; Sung, Hui-Jin; Eun, So Young; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Soo Hee; Kang, Sebin; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Bae, Sung Il; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2013-04-01

    Mepivacaine is an aminoamide local anesthetic with an intermediate duration that intrinsically produces vasoconstriction both in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the arachidonic acid metabolic pathways involved in mepivacaine-induced contraction, and elucidated the associated cellular mechanism with a particular focus on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in endothelium-denuded rat aorta. Isolated rat thoracic aortic rings were suspended for isometric tension recording. Cumulative mepivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: quinacrine dihydrochloride, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, phenidone, AA-861, indomethacin, NS-398, SC-560, fluconazole, PD 98059, and verapamil. Mepivacaine-induced ERK phosphorylation, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells were detected by Western blot analysis in the presence or absence of inhibitors. Mepivacaine produced tonic contraction in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. Quinacrine dihydrochloride, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, phenidone, AA-861, NS-398, PD 98059, and verapamil attenuated mepivacaine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. However, fluconazole had no effect on mepivacaine-induced contraction. PD 98059, quinacrine dihydrochloride, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, AA-861, phenidone, and indomethacin attenuated mepivacaine-induced ERK phosphorylation. Mepivacaine upregulated 5-LOX and COX-2 expression. These results suggest that mepivacaine-induced contraction involves ERK activation, which is primarily mediated by the 5-LOX pathway and in part by the COX-2 pathway.

  8. Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 Activity Is Not Required in Mammalian Cells during Late G2 for Timely Entry into or Exit from Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Mio; Mikhailov, Alexei V.; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity is reported to be required in mammalian cells for timely entry into and exit from mitosis (i.e., the G2-mitosis [G2/M] and metaphase-anaphase [M/A] transitions). However, it is unclear whether this involvement reflects a direct requirement for ERK1/2 activity during these transitions or for activating gene transcription programs at earlier stages of the cell cycle. To examine these possibilities, we followed live cells in which ERK1/2 activity was inhibited through late G2 and mitosis. We find that acute inhibition of ERK1/2 during late G2 and through mitosis does not affect the timing of the G2/M or M/A transitions in normal or transformed human cells, nor does it impede spindle assembly, inactivate the p38 stress-activated checkpoint during late G2 or the spindle assembly checkpoint during mitosis. Using CENP-F as a marker for progress through G2, we also show that sustained inhibition of ERK1/2 transiently delays the cell cycle in early/mid-G2 via a p53-dependent mechanism. Together, our data reveal that ERK1/2 activity is required in early G2 for a timely entry into mitosis but that it does not directly regulate cell cycle progression from late G2 through mitosis in normal or transformed mammalian cells. PMID:17035635

  9. Short-term anesthesia inhibits formalin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex but not in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tochiki, Keri K; Maiarù, Maria; Miller, James R C; Hunt, Stephen P; Géranton, Sandrine M

    2015-08-14

    The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) has been implicated in the negative affective response to injury, and importantly, it has been shown that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the rACC contributes to the full expression of the affective component of pain in rodents. In this study, we investigated whether administration of anesthesia at the time of injury could reduce phosphorylated-ERK (PERK) expression in the rACC, which might eliminate the negative affective component of noxious stimulation. Intraplantar hindpaw formalin stimulation, an aversive event in the awake animal, was given with or without general isoflurane anesthesia, and PERK expression was subsequently quantified in the rACC using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, as numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of spinal ERK signaling in the regulation of nociceptive behaviour, we also examined PERK in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Formalin injection with and without short-term (<10 min) general isoflurane anesthesia induced the same level of PERK expression in spinal cord laminae I-II. However, PERK expression was significantly inhibited across all laminae of the rACC in animals anesthetized during formalin injection. The effect of anesthesia was such that levels of PERK were the same in formalin and sham treated anesthesized animals. This study is the first to demonstrate that isoflurane anesthesia can inhibit formalin-induced PERK in the rACC and therefore might eliminate the unpleasantness of restraint associated with awake hindpaw injection.

  10. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) cells is involved in the maintenance of sleep in rats

    PubMed Central

    Desarnaud, Frank; Macone, Brian W.; Datta, Subimal

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that receptor-mediated excitation and inhibition of brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) neurons are critically involved in the regulation of sleep-wake states. However, the molecular mechanisms operating within the PPT controlling sleep-wake states remain relatively unknown. This study was designed to examine sleep-wake state-associated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) transduction changes in the PPT of freely moving rats. The results of this study demonstrate that the levels of ERK1/2 expression, phosphorylation, and activity in the PPT increased with increased amount of time spent in sleep. The sleep-associated increases in ERK1/2 expression, phosphorylation, and activity were not observed in the cortex, or in the immediately adjacent medial pontine reticular formation. The results of regression analyses revealed significant positive relationships between the levels of ERK1/2 expression, phosphorylation, and activity in the PPT and amounts of time spent in slow-wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and total sleep. Additionally, these regression analyses revealed significant negative relationships between the levels of ERK1/2 expression, phosphorylation, and activity in the PPT and amounts of time spent in wakefulness. Collectively, these results, for the first time, suggest that the increased ERK1/2 signaling in the PPT is associated with maintenance of sleep via suppression of wakefulness. PMID:21166678

  11. Repositioning of amprenavir as a novel extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 inhibitor and apoptosis inducer in MCF-7 human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenchun; Li, Xin; Li, Tongyu; Wang, Hailian; Shi, Wei; Qi, Ping; Li, Chunyang; Chen, Jie; Bao, Jinku; Huang, Guodong; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Computational drug repositioning by virtually screening existing drugs for additional therapeutic usage could efficiently accelerate anticancer drug discovery. Herein, a library of 1447 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecule drugs was screened in silico for inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). Then, in vitro kinase assay demonstrated amprenavir, a HIV-1 protease inhibitor, as a potential kinase inhibitor of ERK2. The in vivo kinase assay indicated that amprenavir could inhibit ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of BimEL at Ser69. Amprenavir could suppress this phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells, which may further facilitate the association of BimEL with several pro-survival molecules. Additionally, inhibition of ERK2-BimEL signaling pathway by amprenavir could contribute to its anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity in MCF-7 cells. Finally, in vivo tumor growth and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that amprenavir remarkably suppressed tumor proliferation and induce apoptosis in MCF-7 xenografts. Taken together, amprenavir can effectively inhibit the kinase activity of ERK2, and thus induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in human MCF-7 cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, making amprenavir a promising candidate for future anticancer therapeutics.

  12. Neurotrophins elevate cAMP to reach a threshold required to overcome inhibition by MAG through extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent inhibition of phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Nikulina, Elena; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T

    2003-12-17

    Inhibitors of regeneration in myelin, such as myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), play an important role in preventing regeneration after CNS injury. Elevation of cAMP, either with dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) or by priming with a variety of neurotrophins, overcomes inhibition by MAG and myelin. However, activation of cAMP is not generally regarded as a signaling pathway for neurotrophins. Here we show that the NGF-like neurotrophins overcome inhibition by MAG by activating tyrosine kinase receptors. We also show that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) by BDNF is required to overcome inhibition by MAG, and that activated Erk transiently inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), the enzyme that hydrolyzes cAMP. Inhibition of PDE4 then allows cAMP to increase and so initiates the pathway to overcome inhibition. Furthermore, we also show that basal levels of Erk activation and basal cAMP levels contribute to the effects of db-cAMP by pushing the combined levels of cAMP above a threshold required to overcome inhibition. Together, these results not only show how NGF-like neurotrophins can elevate cAMP and overcome inhibition but also point to a novel mechanism of cross talk in neurons from the Erk to the cAMP signaling pathways.

  13. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum L bulbs offer nephroprotection by attenuating vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shiju, T M; Rajkumar, R; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.

  14. Extracellular matrix proteins of dentine.

    PubMed

    Butler, W T; Ritchie, H H; Bronckers, A L

    1997-01-01

    Bone and dentine extracellular matrix proteins are similar, consisting primarily of type I collagen, acidic proteins and proteoglycans. Although collagen forms the lattice for deposition of calcium and phosphate for formation of carbonate apatite, the non-collagenous proteins are believed to control initiation and growth of the crystals. Despite this similarity, dentine contains three unique proteins apparently absent from bone and other tissue: dentine phosphophoryn (DPP), dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentine sialoprotein (DSP). DPP and DMP1 are acidic phosphoproteins probably involved in the control of mineralization processes. DPP may localize in gap regions of collagen and initiate apatite crystal formation by binding large quantities of calcium in a conformation that promotes this process. Extensive studies have been conducted in our laboratory on the nature, biosynthesis, localization and gene structure of DSP. Immunolocalization studies showed that rat DSP, a 53 kDa sialic acid-rich glycoprotein, was synthesized by young and mature odontoblasts, and by dental pulp cells and pre-ameloblasts, but not by ameloblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or other cell types. The cDNA sequence indicated that DSP was a 366-residue protein with several potential N-glycosylation sites, as well as phosphorylation sites, but that the amino acid sequence was dissimilar to that of other known proteins. Northern blot analysis detected several mRNA species near 4.6 and 1.5 kb, indicative of alternative splicing events. Evidence for two DSP genes was obtained, further complicating this picture. Recent in situ hybridization studies utilizing rat and mouse molars and incisors indicated that DSP mRNA was expressed by young odontoblasts and odontoblasts in animals of all ages. Transcripts were also observed in pre-ameloblasts. The expression of DSP mRNA ceased when these cells matured to become secretory ameloblasts. DSP transcripts were not detected in osteoblasts or other cell

  15. Platelet-rich plasma stimulates human dermal fibroblast proliferation via a Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomoya; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a high concentration of several growth factors and contributes to soft-tissue engineering and wound healing. However, the effect of PRP on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and responses is unknown. This was investigated in the present study using PRP prepared from the whole human blood using the double-spin method. Human dermal fibroblast cultures were established from skin samples collected during plastic surgery. Platelet concentration and growth factor levels in PRP were estimated, and a cell proliferation assay was carried out after PRP treatment. The role of Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the effects of PRP was investigated in human dermal fibroblasts by suppressing ERK1/2 expression with an inhibitor or by short interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown, and assessing ERK1/2 phosphorylation by western blotting as well as proliferation in PRP-treated cells. We found that PRP stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation, which was suppressed by ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment (P < 0.01). ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in the presence of PRP, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 blocked cell proliferation normally induced by PRP treatment (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that PRP induces human dermal fibroblast proliferation via activation of ERK1/2 signaling. Our findings provide a basis for the development of agents that can promote wound healing and can be applied to soft-tissue engineering.

  16. A Mortalin/HSPA9-Mediated Switch in Tumor-Suppressive Signaling of Raf/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pui-Kei; Hong, Seung-Keun; Veeranki, Sudhakar; Karkhanis, Mansi; Starenki, Dmytro; Plaza, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, a common hallmark of tumorigenesis, can trigger innate tumor-suppressive mechanisms, which must be inactivated for carcinogenesis to occur. This innate tumor-suppressive signaling may provide a potential therapeutic target. Here we report that mortalin (HSPA9/GRP75/PBP74) is a novel negative regulator of Raf/MEK/ERK and may provide a target for the reactivation of tumor-suppressive signaling of the pathway in cancer. We found that mortalin is present in the MEK1/MEK2 proteome and is upregulated in human melanoma biopsy specimens. In different MEK/ERK-activated cancer cell lines, mortalin depletion induced cell death and growth arrest, which was accompanied by increased p21CIP1 transcription and MEK/ERK activity. Remarkably, MEK/ERK activity was necessary for mortalin depletion to induce p21CIP1 expression in B-RafV600E-transformed cancer cells regardless of their p53 status. In contrast, in cell types exhibiting normal MEK/ERK status, mortalin overexpression suppressed B-RafV600E- or ΔRaf-1:ER-induced MEK/ERK activation, p21CIP1 expression, and cell cycle arrest. Other HSP70 family chaperones could not effectively replace mortalin for p21CIP1 regulation, suggesting a unique role for mortalin. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying p21CIP1 regulation in MEK/ERK-activated cancer and identify mortalin as a molecular switch that mediates the tumor-suppressive versus oncogenic result of dysregulated Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. Our study also demonstrates that p21CIP1 has dual effects under mortalin-depleted conditions, i.e., mediating cell cycle arrest while limiting cell death. PMID:23959801

  17. The effect of active and passive intravenous cocaine administration on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miszkiel, Joanna; Detka, Jan; Cholewa, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Ewa; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    According to a current hypothesis of learning processes, recent papers pointed out to an important role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in drug addiction. We employed the Western blotting techniques to examine the ERK activity immediately after cocaine iv self-administration and in different drug-free withdrawal periods in rats. To distinguish motivational vs. pharmacological effects of the psychostimulant intake, a "yoked" procedure was used. Animals were decapitated after 14 daily cocaine self-administration sessions or on the 1st, 3rd or 10th extinction days. At each time point the activity of the ERK was assessed in several brain structures, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Passive, repeated iv cocaine administration resulted in a 45% increase in ERK phosphorylation in the hippocampus while cocaine self-administration did not change brain ERK activity. On the 1st day of extinction, the activity of the ERK in the prefrontal cortex was decreased in rats with a history of cocaine chronic intake: by 66% for "active" cocaine group and by 35% for "yoked" cocaine group. On the 3rd day the reduction in the ERK activity (25-34%) was observed in the hippocampus for both cocaine-treated groups, and also in the nucleus accumbens for "yoked" cocaine group (40%). On the 10th day of extinction there was no significant alteration in ERK activity in any group of rats. Our findings suggest that cortical ERK is involved in cocaine seeking behavior in rats. They also indicate the time and regional adaptations in this enzyme activity after cocaine withdrawal.

  18. Leukaemia inhibitory factor mediated proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells is dependent on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Golla Jaya; Suman, Pankaj; Morales Prieto, Diana M; Markert, Udo R; Gupta, Satish K

    2011-01-01

    Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the cytokines that is indispensable for embryo implantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in LIF-mediated proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Stimulation of HTR-8/SVneo cells with LIF (50 ng mL(-1)) resulted in an increase in cell proliferation (P < 0.05) via increased transition of cells to the G(2)/M phase of cell cycle. Stimulation with LIF resulted in the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 Tyr(705) and ERK1/2, but inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling by pretreatment of cells with U0126 (10 µM) for 2h resulted in abrogation of LIF-mediated increases in G(2)/M transition, with a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in absolute cell numbers compared with control. Although STAT3 silencing had no effect on LIF-dependent proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo cells, it did result in an increase in cell apoptosis, which increased further upon inhibition of ERK1/2 activation irrespective of LIF stimulation. Stimulation of cells with LIF increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, whereas ERK1/2 inhibition decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, even after LIF stimulation. Hence, it can be inferred that ERK1/2 activation is essential for LIF-mediated increases in proliferation and that both STAT3 and ERK1/2 activation are important for the survival of HTR-8/SVneo cells.

  19. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates gonadotropin subunit gene expression and LH release responses to endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormones in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Christian; Booth, Morgan; Habibi, Hamid R; Chang, John P

    2008-08-01

    The possible involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mediating the stimulatory actions of two endogenous goldfish gonadotropin-releasing hormones (salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II) on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion was examined. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of ERK and phosphorylated (p)ERK in goldfish brain, pituitary, liver, ovary, testis and muscle tissue extracts, as well as extracts of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells and HeLa cells. Interestingly, a third ERK-like immunoreactive band of higher molecular mass was detected in goldfish tissue and pituitary cell extracts in addition to the ERK1-p44- and ERK2-p42-like immunoreactive bands. Incubation of primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells with either a PKC-activating 4beta-phorbol ester (TPA) or a synthetic diacylglycerol, but not a 4alpha-phorbol ester, elevated the ratio of pERK/total (t)ERK for all three ERK isoforms. The stimulatory effects of TPA were attenuated by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the MEK inhibitor PD98059. sGnRH and cGnRH-II also elevated the ratio of pERK/tERK for all three ERK isoforms, in a time-, dose- and PD98059-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with PD98059 reduced the sGnRH-, cGnRH-II- and TPA-induced increases in gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels in Northern blot studies and sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-elicited LH release in cell column perifusion studies with goldfish pituitary cells. These results indicate that GnRH and PKC can activate ERK through MEK in goldfish pituitary cells. More importantly, the present study suggests that GnRH-induced gonadotropin subunit gene expression and LH release involve MEK/ERK signaling in goldfish.

  1. Phospholipase A(2) activation by poultry particulate matter is mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase in lung epithelial cells: regulation of interleukin-8 release.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Sainath R; Piper, Melissa G; Patel, Rishi B; Sliman, Sean; Malireddy, Smitha; Zhao, Lingying; Baran, Christopher P; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick S; Wewers, Mark D; Romberger, Debra; Marsh, Clay B; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms of poultry particulate matter (PM)-induced agricultural respiratory disorders are not thoroughly understood. Hence, it is hypothesized in this article that poultry PM induces the release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by lung epithelial cells that is regulated upstream by the concerted action of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). To test this hypothesis, the widely used cultured human lung epithelial cells (A549) were chosen as the model system. Poultry PM caused a significant activation of PLA2 in A549 cells, which was attenuated by AACOCF3 (cPLA2 inhibitor) and PD98059 (ERK-1/2 upstream inhibitor). Poultry PM induced upstream ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and downstream cPLA2 serine phosphorylation, in a concerted fashion, in cells with enhanced association of ERK-1/2 and cPLA2. The poultry PM-induced cPLA2 serine phosphorylation and IL-8 release were attenuated by AACOCF3, PD98059, and by transfection with dominant-negative ERK-1/2 DNA in cells. The poultry PM-induced IL-8 release by the bone marrow-derived macrophages of cPLA2 knockout mice was significantly lower. For the first time, this study demonstrated that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 secretion by human lung epithelial cells was regulated by cPLA2 activation through ERK-mediated serine phosphorylation, suggesting a mechanism of airway inflammation among poultry farm workers.

  2. Tissue Strain Reorganizes Collagen With a Switchlike Response That Regulates Neuronal Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation In Vitro: Implications for Ligamentous Injury and Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sijia; Cao, Xuan; Stablow, Alec M.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive loading of ligaments can activate the neural afferents that innervate the collagenous tissue, leading to a host of pathologies including pain. An integrated experimental and modeling approach was used to define the responses of neurons and the surrounding collagen fibers to the ligamentous matrix loading and to begin to understand how macroscopic deformation is translated to neuronal loading and signaling. A neuron-collagen construct (NCC) developed to mimic innervation of collagenous tissue underwent tension to strains simulating nonpainful (8%) or painful ligament loading (16%). Both neuronal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is related to neuroplasticity (R2 ≥ 0.041; p ≤ 0.0171) and neuronal aspect ratio (AR) (R2 ≥ 0.250; p < 0.0001), were significantly correlated with tissue-level strains. As NCC strains increased during a slowly applied loading (1%/s), a “switchlike” fiber realignment response was detected with collagen reorganization occurring only above a transition point of 11.3% strain. A finite-element based discrete fiber network (DFN) model predicted that at bulk strains above the transition point, heterogeneous fiber strains were both tensile and compressive and increased, with strains in some fibers along the loading direction exceeding the applied bulk strain. The transition point identified for changes in collagen fiber realignment was consistent with the measured strain threshold (11.7% with a 95% confidence interval of 10.2–13.4%) for elevating ERK phosphorylation after loading. As with collagen fiber realignment, the greatest degree of neuronal reorientation toward the loading direction was observed at the NCC distraction corresponding to painful loading. Because activation of neuronal ERK occurred only at strains that produced evident collagen fiber realignment, findings suggest that tissue strain-induced changes in the micromechanical environment, especially altered local

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) dictates osteogenic and/or chondrogenic lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells under dynamic compression.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Daniel; Arita, Nestor; Cheung, Herman S

    2012-01-27

    Elucidating the intracellular signaling cascades which lead to differentiation programs can be a daunting but necessary task. Even more so when the nature of the differentiating stimuli can elicit different biochemical responses yet achieve the same functional outcome. In the field of cartilage and bone regeneration the importance of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway has been a controversial issue as of late. Whether differentiation results from a soluble chemical induction or a microenvironmental cue on the cells seems to have a determining effect on the role that this pathway plays in ultimate cell fate. Here we explore the role of the ERK1/2 pathway on the mechanical induction of chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The cells were encapsulated in fibrin gel scaffolds and subjected to a dynamic mechanical compression stimulus previously demonstrated to induce chondrogenic differentiation of the cells with and without the addition of PD98059, a selective inhibitor for the ERK1/2 pathway. Samples were then analyzed by RT-PCR and histochemical staining for markers of both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Our results show that dynamic compression induces the chondrogenic differentiation of the cells and that inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway completely abolishes this chondrogenic response. On the other hand, inhibition of ERK1/2 under dynamic compression augments the osteogenic response of the cells and significantly increases their expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I (COLI) and osteocalcin (OCN) (P<0.05). These results were confirmed by the histochemical staining where dynamically compressed samples show staining for sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) while the inhibited and compressed samples show no sGAG but present positive staining for microcalcifications. These results would suggest that the activation of ERK1/2 can determine the ultimate cell fate between the chondrogenic and

  4. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top–down pathway. These findings may

  5. Betaxolol inhibits extracellular signal-regulated kinase and P70S6 kinase activities and gene expressions of platelet-derived growth factor A-chain and transforming growth factor-beta1 in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naohiko; Nakano, Shigefumi; Mori, Yousuke; Mita, Shin-ichiro; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Honda, Takeaki; Tsubokou, Yusuke; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2002-03-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of long-term treatment with betaxolol, a specific beta-antagonist, on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A-chain and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 gene expression in the left ventricle of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats fed a high-salt diet. In addition, we evaluated the relations between these effects and coronary microvascular remodeling, expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) belonging to one subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and expression of p70S6 kinase belonging to one subfamily of ribosomal S6 kinases. Betaxolol (0.9 mg/kg/day, subdepressor dose) was administered for 5 weeks, from 6 weeks of age to the left ventricular hypertrophy stage at 11 weeks of age. Increased PDGF A-chain and TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expression were suppressed by betaxolol. Upregulated activities of ERK1/2 and p70S6 kinase phosphorylations were decreased by betaxolol. Betaxolol administration resulted in significant improvements in the wall-to-lumen ratio, perivascular fibrosis and myocardial fibrosis. Thus, we conclude that ERK1/2 and p70S6 kinase activities may play a key role in coronary microvascular remodeling of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, and that beneficial effects of betaxolol on cardiovascular remodeling may be at least partially mediated by decreased PDGF A-chain and TGF-beta1 expression in the left ventricle.

  6. Canonical and Kinase Activity-Independent Mechanisms for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 (ERK5) Nuclear Translocation Require Dissociation of Hsp90 from the ERK5-Cdc37 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Erazo, Tatiana; Moreno, Ana; Ruiz-Babot, Gerard; Rodríguez-Asiain, Arantza; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Espadamala, Josep; Bayascas, Jose R.

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, regulating gene transcription. ERK5 has a unique C-terminal tail which contains a transcriptional activation domain, and activates transcription by phosphorylating transcription factors and acting itself as a transcriptional coactivator. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate its nucleocytoplasmatic traffic are unknown. We have used tandem affinity purification to identify proteins that interact with ERK5. We show that ERK5 interacts with the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone in resting cells, and that inhibition of Hsp90 or Cdc37 results in ERK5 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, activation of cellular ERK5 induces Hsp90 dissociation from the ERK5-Cdc37 complex, leading to ERK5 nuclear translocation and activation of transcription, by a mechanism which requires the autophosphorylation at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, active ERK5 is no longer sensitive to Hsp90 or Cdc37 inhibitors. Cdc37 overexpression also induces Hsp90 dissociation and the nuclear translocation of a kinase-inactive form of ERK5 which retains transcriptional activity. This is the first example showing that ERK5 transcriptional activity does not require kinase activity. Since Cdc37 cooperates with ERK5 to promote cell proliferation, Cdc37 overexpression (as happens in some cancers) might represent a new, noncanonical mechanism by which ERK5 regulates tumor proliferation. PMID:23428871

  7. Mitogenic properties of major extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, J P; Hatzfeld, A; Hatzfeld, J

    1991-08-01

    The major plasma and extracellular matrix proteins are multifunctional molecules. Some, such as fibrinogen or C3, have one domain that binds adhesion receptors and another that specifically binds and activates a separate, mitogenic receptor. In this review, Jean-Pierre Lévesque, Antoinette Hatzfeld and Jacques Hatzfeld describe adhesion and mitogenic receptors that bind to distinct domains of the same extracellular matrix protein and discuss the possibility of common ancestral genes for cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors and their receptors.

  8. cAMP inhibits transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated collagen synthesis via inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Smad signaling in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiu; Sun, Shu Qiang; Hassid, Aviv; Ostrom, Rennolds S

    2006-12-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts produce and degrade extracellular matrix and are critical in regulating cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) play a fundamental role in the development of tissue fibrosis by stimulating matrix deposition and other profibrotic responses, but less is known about pathways that might inhibit fibrosis. Increased cAMP formation inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production by cardiac fibroblasts, but the mechanism of this inhibition is not known. We sought to characterize the signaling pathways by which cAMP-elevating agents alter collagen expression and myofibroblast differentiation. Treatment with 10 microM forskolin or isoproterenol increased cAMP production and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in cardiac fibroblasts and inhibited serum- or TGF-beta-stimulated collagen synthesis by 37% or more. These same cAMP-elevating agents blunted TGF-beta-stimulated expression of collagen I, collagen III, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Forskolin or isoproterenol treatment blocked the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) induced by TGF-beta despite the fact that these cAMP-elevating agents stimulated ERK1/2 activation on their own. cAMP-elevating agents also attenuated the activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and reduced binding of the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein 1 to transcriptional complexes containing Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK completely blocked TGF-beta-stimulated collagen gene expression, but expression of an active mutant of MEK was additive with TGF-beta treatment. Thus, cAMP-elevating agents inhibit the profibrotic effects of TGF-beta in cardiac fibroblasts largely through inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation but also by reducing Smad-mediated recruitment of transcriptional coactivators.

  9. Synergistic activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in human dermal fibroblasts by human telomerase reverse transcriptase and transforming growth factor-beta1.

    PubMed

    Liu, W Robert; Lu, Leonard; Rosenberg, David S; Procaccini, Piero S A; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2007-12-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is primarily known for its ability to elongate telomeres for maintaining chromosomal integrity and delaying cellular senescence. Recently, hTERT has emerged as having a role in promoting cellular proliferation that is independent of telomere elongation. How hTERT elicits this novel function is a fundamental question in cell biology. Understanding this question may have therapeutic implications in regenerative medicine for patients with damaged organs or tissues, cardiovascular disorders, stroke, ischemic chronic wounds, and other ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Toward this end, we treated hTERT-transfected human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and investigated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, vital mediators of cell proliferation. Primary HDFs were transfected with either recombinant adenovirus expressing hTERT (Ad-hTERT) or control adenovirus (Ad-NULL) and subsequently treated with TGF-beta1 (2 pg/mL). ERK 1/2 activation was determined by Western blotting using an antibody recognizing only activated ERK 1/2 that is dually phosphorylated at Thr(202) and Tyr(204). TGF-beta1, TGFbeta-RI, TGFbeta-RII, and Col1 A1 mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time PCR. Ad-hTERT-transfected HDFs showed more than 7-fold up-regulation of phospho-ERK 1/2 over Ad-NULL-transfected HDFs upon TGF-beta1 treatment. The synergistic ERK 1/2 activation in Ad-hTERT-transfected HDFs occurred as early as 10 min and was sustained for at least 30 min after TGF-beta1 treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in TGF-beta1, TGFbeta-RI, TGFbeta-RII, and Col1 A1 mRNA levels between HDFs that were transfected with Ad-hTERT and those that were transfected with Ad-NULL after TGF-beta1 treatment. hTERT and extremely low concentrations of TGF-beta1 (2 pg/mL) synergistically activate ERK 1/2 in HDFs by a mechanism that is independent of the autocrine TGF-beta1 loop.

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Signaling to Attenuate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation in Angiotensin II-induced Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Juan; Huang, Ya-Qian; Chen, Qing-Hua; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Jia; Tang, Chao-Shu; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clarifying the mechanisms underlying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is important for the prevention and treatment of vascular remodeling and the reverse of hyperplastic lesions. Previous research has shown that the gaseous signaling molecule sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhibits VSMC proliferation, but the mechanism for the inhibition of the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation by SO2 has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate if SO2 inhibited VSMC proliferation in mice with hypertension induced by AngII. Methods: Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control, AngII, and AngII + SO2 groups. Mice in AngII group and AngII + SO2 group received a capsule-type AngII pump implanted under the skin of the back at a slow-release dose of 1000 ng·kg−1·min−1. In addition, mice in AngII + SO2 received intraperitoneal injections of SO2 donor. Arterial blood pressure of tail artery was determined. The thickness of the aorta was measured by elastic fiber staining, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) were detected in aortic tissues. The concentration of SO2 in serum and aortic tissue homogenate supernatant was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence determination. In the in vitro study, VSMC of A7R5 cell lines was divided into six groups: control, AngII, AngII + SO2, PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation), AngII + PD98059, and AngII + SO2 + PD98059. Expression of PCNA, ERK, and P-ERK was determined by Western blotting. Results: In animal experiment, compared with the control group, AngII markedly increased blood pressure (P < 0.01) and thickened the aortic wall in mice (P < 0.05) with an increase in the expression of PCNA (P < 0.05). SO2, however, reduced the systemic hypertension and the wall thickness induced by AngII (P < 0.05). It inhibited the increased expression of PCNA and P

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 contributes to inflammatory tongue pain via extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the orofacial region, limited information is available concerning pathological tongue pain, such as inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain occurring in the tongue. Here, we tried for the first time to establish a novel animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rats and to investigate the roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in this process. Methods Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was submucosally injected into the tongue to induce the inflammatory pain phenotype that was confirmed by behavioral testing. Expression of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and mGluR5 in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2) were detected with immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. pERK inhibitor, a selective mGluR5 antagonist or agonist was continuously administered for 7 days via an intrathecal (i.t.) route. Local inflammatory responses were verified by tongue histology. Results Submucosal injection of CFA into the tongue produced a long-lasting mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia at the inflamed site, concomitant with an increase in the pERK immunoreactivity in the Vc and C1-C2. The distribution of pERK-IR cells was laminar specific, ipsilaterally dominant, somatotopically relevant, and rostrocaudally restricted. Western blot analysis also showed an enhanced activation of ERK in the Vc and C1-C2 following CFA injection. Continuous i.t. administration of the pERK inhibitor and a selective mGluR5 antagonist significantly depressed the mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in the CFA-injected tongue. In addition, the number of pERK-IR cells in ipsilateral Vc and C1-C2 was also decreased by both drugs. Moreover, continuous i.t. administration of a selective mGluR5 agonist induced mechanical allodynia in naive rats. Conclusions The present study constructed a new animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rodents, and demonstrated pivotal roles of

  12. PKC-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway is involved in the inhibition of Ib on AngiotensinII-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Yan Tianhua; Wang Qiujuan Wang Wei; Xu Jinyi; Wu Xiaoming; Ji Hui

    2008-10-10

    AngiotensinII (AngII) induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which plays an important role in the development and progression of hypertension. AngII-induced cellular events have been implicated, in part, in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ib, a novel nonpeptide AngII receptor type 1 (AT{sub 1}) antagonist, on the activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in VSMC proliferation induced by AngII. MTT, and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation assay showed that AngII-induced VSMC proliferation was inhibited significantly by Ib. The specific binding of [{sup 125}I]AngII to AT{sub 1} receptors was blocked by Ib in a concentration-dependent manner with IC{sub 50} value of 0.96 nM. PKC activity assay and Western blot analysis demonstrated that Ib significantly inhibited the activation of PKC and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by AngII, respectively. Furthermore, AngII-induced ERK1/2 activation was obviously blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor. These findings suggest that the suppression of Ib on AngII-induced VSMC proliferation may be attributed to its inhibitory effect on PKC-dependent ERK1/2 pathway.

  13. Thrombin-induced regulation of CD95(Fas) expression in the N9 microglial cell line: evidence for involvement of proteinase-activated receptor(1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jonathan R; Zhang, Matthew; Kutlubaev, Mansur; Lee, Richard; Bishop, Caroline; Andersen, Henrik; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Möller, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the CNS. Brain injury triggers phenotypic changes in microglia including regulation of surface antigens. The serine proteinase alpha-thrombin can induce profound changes in neural cell physiology via cleavage of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). We recently demonstrated that pharmaceutical-grade recombinant human alpha-thrombin (rh-thr) induces a restricted set of proteolysis-dependent changes in microglia. CD95(Fas) is a cell-death receptor that is up-regulated in microglia by inflammatory stimuli. Here we characterized the effect of rh-thr on CD95(Fas) expression in the N9 microglial cell line. Dose-response and time course studies demonstrated maximal effects at 100 U/ml and 24 h, respectively. Regulation of expression was seen at both the surface protein and steady-state mRNA levels. The rh-thr-induced effects were mimicked by PAR(1) agonist peptides and blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors selective for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). Rh-thr also induced a rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Thrombin-induced regulation of CD95(Fas) could modulate the neuroinflammatory response in a variety of neurological disorders.

  14. A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Provot, Sylvain; Nachtrab, Gregory; Paruch, Jennifer; Chen, Adele Pin; Silva, Alcino; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the parathyroid hormone-PTHrP receptor increase chondrocyte proliferation and delay chondrocyte maturation in endochondral bone development at least partly through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Because data suggest that the ability of cAMP to stimulate cell proliferation involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase B-Raf, we hypothesized that B-Raf might mediate the proliferative action of PTHrP in chondrocytes. Though B-Raf is expressed in proliferative chondrocytes, its conditional removal from cartilage did not affect chondrocyte proliferation and maturation or PTHrP-induced chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP-delayed maturation. Similar results were obtained by conditionally removing B-Raf from osteoblasts. Because A-raf and B-raf are expressed similarly in cartilage, we speculated that they may fulfill redundant functions in this tissue. Surprisingly, mice with chondrocytes deficient in both A-Raf and B-Raf exhibited normal endochondral bone development. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected primarily in hypertrophic chondrocytes, where C-raf is expressed, and the suppression of ERK activation in these cells by PTHrP or a MEK inhibitor coincided with a delay in chondrocyte maturation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B-Raf and A-Raf are dispensable for endochondral bone development and they indicate that the main role of ERK in cartilage is to stimulate not cell proliferation, but rather chondrocyte maturation.

  15. Irciniastatin A induces potent and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and thereby promotes ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Quach, Hue Tu; Hirano, Seiya; Fukuhara, Sayuri; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Kanoh, Naoki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Usui, Takeo; Kataoka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Irciniastatin A is a pederin-type marine product that potently inhibits translation. We have recently shown that irciniastatin A induces ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 with slower kinetics than other translation inhibitors. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, irciniastatin A induced a marked and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induced little activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, the TNF receptor 1 shedding induced by irciniastatin A was blocked by the MAP kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Thus unlike other translation inhibitors that trigger ribotoxic stress response, our results show that irciniastatin A is a unique translation inhibitor that induces a potent and sustained activation of the ERK pathway, and thereby promotes the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 in A549 cells.

  16. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor GS-1101 synergistically potentiates histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through the inactivation of PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Juraj; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Sharma, Arishya; Hill, Brian T; Portell, Craig A; Lannutti, Brian J; Almasan, Alexandru; Hsi, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we showed that inhibition of the protein kinase C β (PKCβ)/AKT pathway augments engagement of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI)-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death induced by the delta isoform-specific phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, GS-1101, in combination with the HDI, panobinostat (LBH589) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Lymphoma cell lines, primary non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells were simultaneously treated with the HDI, LBH589 and GS-1101. An interaction of the LBH589/GS-1101 combination was formally examined by using various concentrations of LBH589 and GS-1101. Combined treatment resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and showed synergistic effect on apoptotic induction in all tested cell lines and primary NHL and CLL cells. This study indicates that interference with PI3K signalling dramatically increases HDI-mediated apoptosis in malignant haematopoietic cells, possibly through both AKT-dependent or AKT- independent mechanisms. Moreover, the increase in HDI-related apoptosis observed in PI3K inhibitor-treated cells appears to be related to the disruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. This study provides a strong rational for testing the combination of PI3K inhibitors and HDI in the clinic.

  17. A novel non-canonical Notch signaling regulates expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in excitatory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yukari; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Saga, Yumiko; Harada, Akihiro; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Kopan, Raphael; Tomita, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling plays crucial roles for cellular differentiation during development through γ-secretase-dependent intramembrane proteolysis followed by transcription of target genes. Although recent studies implicate that Notch regulates synaptic plasticity or cognitive performance, the molecular mechanism how Notch works in mature neurons remains uncertain. Here we demonstrate that a novel Notch signaling is involved in expression of synaptic proteins in postmitotic neurons. Levels of several synaptic vesicle proteins including synaptophysin 1 and VGLUT1 were increased when neurons were cocultured with Notch ligands-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Neuron-specific deletion of Notch genes decreased these proteins, suggesting that Notch signaling maintains the expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in a cell-autonomous manner. Unexpectedly, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, but not γ-secretase inhibitor, abolished the elevation of synaptic vesicle proteins, suggesting that generation of Notch intracellular domain is dispensable for this function. These data uncover a ligand-dependent, but γ-secretase-independent, non-canonical Notch signaling involved in presynaptic protein expression in postmitotic neurons. PMID:27040987

  18. Molecular chaperones and protein-folding catalysts as intercellular signaling regulators in immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brian; Pockley, A Graham

    2010-09-01

    This review critically examines the hypothesis that molecular chaperones and protein-folding catalysts from prokaryotes and eukaryotes can be secreted by cells and function as intercellular signals, principally but not exclusively, for leukocytes. A growing number of molecular chaperones have been reported to function as ligands for selected receptors and/or receptors for specific ligands. Molecular chaperones initially appeared to act primarily as stimulatory signals for leukocytes and thus, were seen as proinflammatory mediators. However, evidence is now emerging that molecular chaperones can have anti-inflammatory actions or, depending on the protein and concentration, anti- and proinflammatory functions. Recasting the original hypothesis, we propose that molecular chaperones and protein-folding catalysts are "moonlighting" proteins that function as homeostatic immune regulators but may also under certain circumstances, contribute to tissue pathology. One of the key issues in the field of molecular chaperone biology relates to the role of microbial contaminants in their signaling activity; this too will be evaluated critically. The most fascinating aspect of molecular chaperones probably relates to evidence for their therapeutic potential in human disease, and ongoing studies are evaluating this potential in a range of clinical settings.

  19. Inorganic pyrophosphate generation by transforming growth factor-beta-1 is mainly dependent on ANK induction by Ras/Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cailotto, Frederic; Bianchi, Arnaud; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Venkatesan, Narayanan; Moulin, David; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Netter, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ANK is a multipass transmembrane protein transporter thought to play a role in the export of intracellular inorganic pyrophosphate and so to contribute to the pathophysiology of chondrocalcinosis. As transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta1) was shown to favor calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition, we investigated the contribution of ANK to the production of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) by chondrocytes and the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of Ank expression by TGF-beta1. Chondrocytes were exposed to 10 ng/mL of TGF-beta1, and Ank expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. ePPi was quantified in cell supernatants. RNA silencing was used to define the respective roles of Ank and PC-1 in TGF-beta1-induced ePPi generation. Finally, selective kinase inhibitors and dominant-negative/overexpression plasmid strategies were used to explore the contribution of several signaling pathways to Ank induction by TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 strongly increased Ank expression at the mRNA and protein levels, as well as ePPi production. Using small interfering RNA technology, we showed that Ank contributed approximately 60% and PC-1 nearly 20% to TGF-beta1-induced ePPi generation. Induction of Ank by TGF-beta1 required activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway but not of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase or of protein kinase A. In line with the general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C, Gö6976 (a Ca2+-dependent PKC inhibitor) diminished TGF-beta1-induced Ank expression by 60%, whereas a 10% inhibition was observed with rottlerin (a PKCdelta inhibitor). These data suggest a regulatory role for calcium in TGF-beta1-induced Ank expression. Finally, we demonstrated that the stimulatory effect of TGF-beta1 on Ank expression was inhibited by the suppression of the Ras/Raf-1 pathway, while being enhanced by their constitutive activation. Transient overexpression of Smad 7, an

  20. Dual signaling regulated by calcyon, a D1 dopamine receptor interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, N; Mrzljak, L; Eubanks, S; Levenson, R; Goldman-Rakic, P; Bergson, C

    2000-03-03

    The synergistic response of cells to the stimulation of multiple receptors has been ascribed to receptor cross talk; however, the specific molecules that mediate the resultant signal amplification have not been defined. Here a 24-kilodalton single transmembrane protein, designated calcyon, we functionally characterize that interacts with the D1 dopamine receptor. Calcyon localizes to dendritic spines of D1 receptor-expressing pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex. These studies delineate a mechanism of Gq- and Gs-coupled heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor cross talk by which D1 receptors can shift effector coupling to stimulate robust intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) release as a result of interaction with calcyon. The role of calcyon in potentiating Ca2+-dependent signaling should provide insight into the D1 receptor-modulated cognitive functions of prefrontal cortex.

  1. Dynamic Trk and G Protein Signalings Regulate Dopaminergic Neurodifferentiation in Human Trophoblast Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Eing-Mei; Wang, Yu-Chih; Lee, Tony Tung-Yin; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lai, Feng-Jie; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Lee, Jau-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms in the generation of neural stem cells from pluripotent stem cells is a fundamental step towards successful management of neurodegenerative diseases in translational medicine. Albeit all-trans retinoic acid (RA) has been associated with axon outgrowth and nerve regeneration, the maintenance of differentiated neurons, the association with degenerative disease like Parkinson's disease, and its regulatory molecular mechanism from pluripotent stem cells to neural stem cells remain fragmented. We have previously reported that RA is capable of differentiation of human trophoblast stem cells to dopamine (DA) committed progenitor cells. Intracranial implantation of such neural progenitor cells into the 6-OHDA-lesioned substantia nigra pars compacta successfully regenerates dopaminergic neurons and integrity of the nigrostriatal pathway, ameliorating the behavioral deficits in the Parkinson's disease rat model. Here, we demonstrated a dynamic molecular network in systematic analysis by addressing spatiotemporal molecular expression, intracellular protein-protein interaction and inhibition, imaging study, and genetic expression to explore the regulatory mechanisms of RA induction in the differentiation of human trophoblast stem cells to DA committed progenitor cells. We focused on the tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk), G proteins, canonical Wnt2B/β-catenin, genomic and non-genomic RA signaling transductions with Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression as the differentiation endpoint. We found that at the early stage, integration of TrkA and G protein signalings aims for axonogenesis and morphogenesis, involving the novel RXRα/Gαq/11 and RARβ/Gβ signaling pathways. While at the later stage, five distinct signaling pathways together with epigenetic histone modifications emerged to regulate expression of TH, a precursor of dopamine. RA induction generated DA committed progenitor cells in one day. Our results provided substantial mechanistic

  2. Bis-Retinoid A2E Induces an Increase of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor via Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2 Pathway in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Facilitates Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Balmer, Delphine; Bapst-Wicht, Linda; Pyakurel, Aswin; Emery, Martine; Nanchen, Natacha; Bochet, Christian G.; Roduit, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. Hallmarks of the disease are well known; indeed, this pathology is characterized by lipofuscin accumulation, is principally composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. The N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) retinoid which is thought to be a cytotoxic component for RPE is the best-characterized component of lipofuscin so far. Even if no direct correlation between A2E spatial distribution and lipofuscin fluorescence has been established in aged human RPE, modified forms or metabolites of A2E could be involved in ARMD pathology. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been involved in many pathologies, but not in ARMD. Therefore, we wanted to analyze the effects of A2E on MAPKs in polarized ARPE19 and isolated mouse RPE cells. We showed that long-term exposure of polarized ARPE19 cells to low A2E dose induces a strong decrease of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases' (ERK1/2) activity. In addition, we showed that A2E, via ERK1/2 decrease, induces a significant decrease of the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65) expression in ARPE19 cells and isolated mouse RPE. In the meantime, we showed that the decrease of ERK1/2 activity mediates an increase of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA expression and secretion that induces an increase in phagocytosis via a paracrine effect. We suggest that the accumulation of deposits coming from outer segments (OS) could be explained by both an increase of bFGF-induced phagocytosis and by the decrease of clearance by A2E. The bFGF angiogenic protein may therefore be an attractive target to treat ARMD. PMID:28298893

  3. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulates Development and Activation of CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuczma, Michal; Kraj, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors belonging to the TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) superfamily. BMPs were found to regulate multiple cell processes such as proliferation, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. They were originally described to play a pivotal role in inducing bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon formation at both heterotopic and orthotopic sites but were found to play a significant role in embryogenesis and development of multiple tissues and organs. Activities of BMPs are regulated by a number of secreted proteins, which modulate their availability to bind cellular receptors. The functions of individual BMPs are highly redundant due to binding the same receptors and inducing overlapping signal transduction pathways. Recently, BMPs were found to regulate cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. BMPs are involved in thymic development of T cells at the early, double negative, as well as later, double positive, stages of thymopoesis. They specifically modulate thymic development of regulatory T cells (T(reg)). In the periphery, BMPs affect T cell activation, promoting generation of T(reg) cells. We found that mice deficient for one of the receptors activated by BMPs demonstrated slower growth of transplantable melanoma tumors.

  5. Extracellular recombinant protein production from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Chen, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Escherichia coli is the most commonly used host for recombinant protein production and metabolic engineering. Extracellular production of enzymes and proteins is advantageous as it could greatly reduce the complexity of a bioprocess and improve product quality. Extracellular production of proteins is necessary for metabolic engineering applications in which substrates are polymers such as lignocelluloses or xenobiotics since adequate uptake of these substrates is often an issue. The dogma that E. coli secretes no protein has been challenged by the recognition of both its natural ability to secrete protein in common laboratory strains and increased ability to secrete proteins in engineered cells. The very existence of this review dedicated to extracellular production is a testimony for outstanding achievements made collectively by the community in this regard. Four strategies have emerged to engineer E. coli cells to secrete recombinant proteins. In some cases, impressive secretion levels, several grams per liter, were reached. This secretion level is on par with other eukaryotic expression systems. Amid the optimism, it is important to recognize that significant challenges remain, especially when considering the success cannot be predicted a priori and involves much trials and errors. This review provides an overview of recent developments in engineering E. coli for extracellular production of recombinant proteins and an analysis of pros and cons of each strategy.

  6. Morphine activates the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1/serum response factor pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in F11 cells derived from dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Kathrin; Solinski, Hans Jürgen; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Morphine-induced signaling via opioid receptors (ORs) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, the spinal cord, and various brain regions has been shown to modulate gene activity. Hitherto, little attention has been paid to extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2)-mediated activation of the serum response factor (SRF) and ternary complex factors (TCFs) such as the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1 (ELK-1) in this context. Using TCF/SRF-dependent reporter gene constructs, a specific ERK-1/2 inhibitor and a dominant-negative ELK-1 mutant, we show herein that morphine activates ELK-1 via ERK-1/2 in DRG-derived F11 cells endogenously expressing μ and δ ORs. Previous studies with glioma cell lines such as NG108-15 cells attributed morphine-induced gene expression to the activation of the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Thus, we also analyzed morphine-dependent activation of CREB in F11 and NG108-15 cells. In contrast to the CREB stimulation found in NG108-15 cells, we observed an inhibitory effect of morphine in F11 cells, indicating cell type-specific regulation of CREB by morphine. To obtain data about putative target genes of morphine-induced ELK-1/SRF activation, we analyzed mRNA levels of 15 ELK-1/SRF-dependent genes in cultured rat DRG neurons and F11 cells. We identified the early growth response protein-4 (EGR-4) as the strongest up-regulated gene in both cell types and observed ELK-1 activity-dependent activation of an EGR-4-driven reporter in F11 cells. Overall, we reveal an important role of ELK-1 for morphine-dependent gene induction in DRG-derived cells and propose that ELK-1 and EGR-4 contribute to the effects of morphine on neuronal plasticity.

  7. DNA-hypomethylating agent, 5'-azacytidine, induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song-Ja

    2015-10-01

    The cytosine analogue 5'-azacytidine (5'-aza) induces DNA hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase. In clinical trials, 5'-aza is widely used in epigenetic anticancer treatments. Accumulated evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in various cancers, indicating that it may play a critical role in carcinogenesis. However, few studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the increased COX-2 expression. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 5'-aza regulates COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, was treated with various concentrations of 5'-aza for different time periods. Protein expressions of COX-2, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), pAkt, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were determined using western blot analysis, and COX-2 mRNA expression was determined using RT-PCR. PGE2 production was evaluated using the PGE2 assay kit. The localization and expression of COX-2 were determined using immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with 5'-aza induces protein and mRNA expression of COX-2. We also observed that 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were inhibited by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl donor. Treatment with 5'-aza phosphorylates PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2; inhibition of these pathways by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase/Akt, or PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, respectively, prevents 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Overall, these observations indicate that the hypomethylating agent 5'-aza modulates COX-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

  8. Curcumin exerts antinociceptive effects by inhibiting the activation of astrocytes in spinal dorsal horn and the intracellular extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in rat model of chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Ji, Feng-Tao; Liang, Jiang-Jun; Liu, Ling; Cao, Ming-Hui; Li, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Activation of glial cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Curcumin can alleviate the symptom of inflammatory pain by inhibiting the production and release of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor. However, whether curcumin affects neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and the possible mechanism involved are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of tolerable doses of curcumin on the activation of astrocytes and ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn in rat model of neuropathic pain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control (sham operated) group, and chronic constriction injury groups (to induce neuropathic pain) that were either untreated or treated with curcumin. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia thresholds were measured. The distribution and morphological changes of astrocytes were observed by immunofluorescence. Western blotting was used to detect changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and phosphorylated ERK. Injured rats showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, and the fluorescence intensity of GFAP were significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of injured compared with control rats. The soma of astrocytes also appeared hypertrophied in injured animals. Expression of GFAP and phosphorylated ERK was also significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of injured compared with control rats. Curcumin reduced the injury-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, the increase in the fluorescence intensity of GFAP and the hypertrophy of astrocytic soma, activation of GFAP and phosphorylation of ERK in the spinal dorsal horn. Curcumin can markedly alleviate nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The analgesic effect of curcumin may be attributed to its inhibition of astrocyte hypertrophy

  9. The D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF83959, attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in RGC-5 cells involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yu; Li, Ting; Fan, Bin; Zheng, Yong-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress is widely implicated in the death of retinal ganglion cells associated with various optic neuropathies. Agonists of the dopamine D1 receptor have recently been found to be potentially neuroprotective against oxidative stress–induced injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether SKF83959, a next-generation high-affinity D1 receptor agonist, could protect retinal ganglion cell 5 (RGC-5) cells from H2O2-induced damage and the molecular mechanism involved. Methods We examined expression of the D1 receptor in RGC-5 cells with reverse-transcription–PCR and immunoblotting and assessed neuroprotection using propidium iodide staining and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, we monitored the activation and involvement of members of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, with western blot and specific inhibitors. Results We found that the D1 receptor was expressed in RGC-5 cells, but the sequence analysis suggested this cell line is from mouse and not rat origin. SKF83959 exhibited a remarkable neuroprotective effect on H2O2-damaged RGC-5 cells, which was blocked by the specific D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. ERK and p38 were activated by SKF83959, and pretreatment with their inhibitors U0126 and SB203580, respectively, significantly blunted the SKF83959-induced cytoprotection. However, the specific c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor, SP600125, had no effect on the SKF83959-induced protection. Conclusions We conclude that SKF83959 attenuates hydrogen peroxide–induced injury in RGC-5 cells via a mechanism involving activation of the ERK and p38 pathways and the D1 receptor is a potential molecular target for developing neuroprotective drugs. PMID:23233790

  10. The UV (Ribotoxic) Stress Response of Human Keratinocytes Involves the Unexpected Uncoupling of the Ras-Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Cascade from the Activated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Iordanov, Mihail S.; Choi, Remy J.; Ryabinina, Olga P.; Dinh, Thanh-Hoai; Bright, Robert K.; Magun, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    In mammals, UVB radiation is of biological relevance primarily for the cells of the epidermis. We report here the existence of a UVB response that is specific for proliferating human epidermal keratinocytes. Unlike other cell types that also display a UVB response, keratinocytes respond to UVB irradiation with a transient but potent downregulation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. The downregulation of ERK precedes a profound decrease in the steady-state levels of cyclin D1, a mediator of the proliferative action of ERK. Keratinocytes exhibit high constitutive activity of the Ras-ERK signaling cascade even in culture medium lacking supplemental growth factors. The increased activity of Ras and phosphorylation of ERK in these cells are maintained by the autocrine production of secreted molecules that activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Irradiation of keratinocytes increases the phosphorylation of EGFR on tyrosine residues Y845, Y992, Y1045, Y1068, Y1086, Y1148, and Y1173 above the basal levels and leads to the increased recruitment of the adaptor proteins Grb2 and ShcA and of a p55 form of the regulatory subunit of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase to the UVB-activated EGFR. Paradoxically, however, UVB causes, at the same time, the inactivation of Ras and a subsequent dephosphorylation of ERK. By contrast, the signaling pathway leading from the activated EGFR to the phosphorylation of PKB/Akt1 is potentiated by UVB. The UVB response of keratinocytes appeared to be a manifestation of the more general ribotoxic stress response inasmuch as the transduction of the UVB-generated inhibitory signal to Ras and ERK required the presence of active ribosomes at the time of irradiation. PMID:12101233

  11. β-Hydroxybutyric acid inhibits growth hormone-releasing hormone synthesis and secretion through the GPR109A/extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 signalling pathway in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Fu, S-P; Liu, B-R; Wang, J-F; Xue, W-J; Liu, H-M; Zeng, Y-L; Huang, B-X; Li, S-N; Lv, Q-K; Wang, W; Liu, J-X

    2015-03-01

    β-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) has recently been shown to regulate hormone synthesis and secretion in the hypothalamus. However, little is known about the effects of BHBA-mediated hormone regulation or the detailed mechanisms by which BHBA regulates growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) synthesis and secretion. In the present study, we examined the expression of the BHBA receptor GPR109A in primary hypothalamic cell cultures. We hypothesised that BHBA regulates GHRH via GPR109A and its downstream signals. Initial in vivo studies conducted in rats demonstrated that GHRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was strongly inversely correlated with BHBA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid during postnatal development (r = -0.89, P < 0.01). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of BHBA acutely decreased GHRH mRNA expression in rats. Further in vitro studies revealed a decrease in GHRH synthesis and secretion in primary hypothalamic cells after treatment with BHBA; this effect was inhibited when hypothalamic cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin (PTX). BHBA had no effect on GHRH synthesis and secretion in GT1-7 cells, which do not exhibit cell surface expression of GPR109A. Furthermore, BHBA acutely decreased the transcription of the homeobox gene for Gsh-1 in the hypothalamus in both in vivo and in vitro, and this effect was also inhibited by PTX in vitro. In primary hypothalamic cells, BHBA activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases, as shown by western blot analysis. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 with U0126 attenuated the BHBA-mediated reduction in Gsh-1 expression and GHRH synthesis and secretion. These results strongly suggest that BHBA directly regulates GHRH synthesis and secretion via the GPR109A/ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, and also that Gsh-1 is essential for this function. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  12. Overexpression of KAI1 induces autophagy and increases MiaPaCa-2 cell survival through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Yan, Jun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Hua

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We first investigate the effects of KAI1 on autophagy in MiaPaCa-2 cells. {yields} Our findings demonstrate that KAI1 induces autophagy, which in turn inhibits KAI1-induced apoptosis. {yields} This study also supplies a possible novel therapeutic method for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using autophagy inhibitors. -- Abstract: KAI1, a metastasis-suppressor gene belonging to the tetraspanin family, is known to inhibit cancer metastasis without affecting the primary tumorigenicity by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Recent studies have shown that hypoxic conditions of solid tumors induce high-level autophagy and KAI1 expression. However, the relationship between autophagy and KAI1 remains unclear. By using transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, we found that KAI1 can induce autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2. KAI1-induced autophagy was confirmed by the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and Beclin 1. KAI1 induces autophagy through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases rather than that of AKT. KAI1-induced autophagy protects MiaPaCa-2 cells from apoptosis and proliferation inhibition partially through the downregulation of poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activation.

  13. Suppression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase contributes to bleomycin-induced oxidative stress and fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Hongli; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Qin, Xujun; Zhang, Xiaodi; Li, Wenli; Liang, Xin; Hai, Chunxu

    2013-06-20

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious and irreversible lung injury with obscure etiologic mechanisms and no effective treatment to date. This study explored a crucial link between oxidative stress and pulmonary fibrogenesis, focusing on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a core transcription factor in antioxidative regulation systems. Treatment of C57 BL/6 mice with bleomycin increased fibroblast viability and collagen production and significantly downregulated Nrf2. In addition, prominent oxidative stress was indicated by changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. In a cell-based model, bleomycin suppressed Nrf2 activation via extracellular signal-related kinase phosphorylation, enhancing intracellular reactive oxygen species in lung fibroblasts and stimulating abnormal cell proliferation and collagen secretion. To confirm this novel mechanism of bleomycin-induced fibrogenesis, we attempted to upregulate Nrf2 and related antioxidant proteins in bleomycin-treated fibroblasts using a putative Nrf2 activator, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, and the results showed that bleomycin-induced fibroblast proliferation and collagen content were attenuated through improved redox balance. Collectively, these results disclose a potential regulatory mechanism in pulmonary fibrosis that will aid the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biphasic activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Donghyun; Woo, Jong Soo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Han, Seung Hyun; Min, Tae Sun; Yang, Deok-Chun; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells have different characteristics due to the genetic differences where these unique features may strongly influence the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that the spontaneous reactivation of extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK), distinct from conventional ERK activation, represents a potent mechanism for cancer cell survival. We studied ERK1/2 activation in vitro in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Although ERK signaling tends to be transiently activated, we observed the delayed reactivation of ERK1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 cells. This effect was observed even after EGF withdrawal. While phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus following its primary activation, it remained in the cytoplasm during late-phase activation. The inhibition of primary ERK1/2 activation or protein trafficking, blocked reactivation and concurrently increased caspase 3 activity. Our results suggest that the biphasic activation of ERK1/2 plays a role in cancer cell survival; thus, regulation of ERK1/2 activation may improve the efficacy of cancer therapies that target ERK signaling. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 220-225] PMID:26879318

  15. Dexmedetomidine Dose-Dependently Attenuates Ropivacaine-Induced Seizures and Negative Emotions Via Inhibiting Phosphorylation of Amygdala Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ming-Zhu; Wu, Huang-Hui; Yin, Jun-Bin; Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Mei, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Han; Zhu, Xia; Shen, Xue-Feng; Kaye, Alan David; Chen, Guo-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Ropivacaine (Ropi), one of the newest and safest amino amide local anesthetics, is linked to toxicity, including the potential for seizures, changes in behavior, and even cardiovascular collapse. Dexmedetomidine (Dex), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been widely used in anesthesia and critical care practice. To date, the underlying mechanisms of the effects of Dex premedication on Ropi-induced toxicity have not been clearly identified. In the current study, we investigated the effects of increasing doses of Dex premedication on 50% convulsive dose (CD50) of Ropi. With increasing doses of intraperitoneal (i.p.) Dex 10 min prior to each i.p. RopiCD50, the latency and duration of seizure activity were recorded. Open-field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test were used to measure negative behavioral emotions such as depression and anxiety. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were utilized to investigate phosphorylation-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on 2 h and in the central amygdala (CeA) on 24 h after convulsion in mice. The results of our investigation demonstrated that Dex dose-dependently increased RopiCD50, prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of each RopiCD50-induced seizure, improved the negative emotions revealed by both OF and EPM test, and inhibited p-ERK expression in the BLA and the CeA.

  16. Heat-shock protein 70 modulates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in stressed hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus.

    PubMed

    Padmini, Ekambaram; Tharani, Jayachandran

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress causes damage at the cellular level and activates a number of signaling pathways. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in repair and protective mechanisms under cell response to stress conditions. HSP70 has been shown to act as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) activity is regulated at multiple levels, one of which is through inhibition by cytosolic chaperons HSP70. The current study was aimed to investigate the alteration in signaling molecules that allow the fish to survive under stressed natural field conditions. The study also investigates the variation in biomolecular composition of hepatocytes by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The impact of stress on hepatocytes was assessed by measuring the level of lipid peroxides (LPO), catalase activity (CAT) and assessing the changes in hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus inhabiting Kovalam and Ennore estuaries. The expression of HSP70 and ASK1 were analyzed by immunoblot analysis and ELISA, respectively. The spectral analysis showed variations in biomolecular composition of hepatocytes at a wave number region of 4,000-400 cm(-1). There was significant decrease of CAT activity (p < 0.01) (25 %) with significant increase of LPO (p < 0.001) (35 %) and HSP70 (p < 0.001) and insignificant increase of ASK1 (p < 0.05) (16 %) in fish hepatocytes inhabiting Ennore estuary than Kovalam estuary. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the survival of fish in the Ennore estuary under stressed condition may be due to the upregulation of HSP70 that mediates the altered signal pathway which promotes cellular resistance against apoptosis.

  17. The effects of electroacupuncture on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/P2X3 signal pathway in the spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianbo; Zhao, Cong; Luo, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA), as a traditional clinical method, is widely accepted in pain clinics, but the analgesic effect of EA has not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on chronic pain and expression of P2X3 receptors in the spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). The study was conducted in 2 parts. In part 1, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 10): sham-CCI, CCI, LEA; CCI + 2 Hz EA at acupoints), HEA; CCI + 15 Hz EA at acupoints), NA-LEA (CCI + 2 Hz EA at nonacupoints), and NA-HEA (CCI + 15 Hz EA at nonacupoints). EA treatment was performed once a day on days 4 to 9 after CCI. Nociception was assessed using von Frey filaments and a hotplate apparatus. The protein and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of P2X3 receptors in the spinal cord were assayed by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In part 2, rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 10): sham-CCI, CCI, EA (CCI + EA at acupoints), NA-EA (CCI + EA at nonacupoints), and U0126 (CCI + intrathecal injection of U0126). EA treatment was conducted similar to part 1. Rats were given 5 µg U0126 in the U0126 group and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide intrathecally. Ten microliters was used as a vehicle for the other 4 groups twice a day on days 4 to 9 after CCI. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the spinal cord were also assayed by Western blotting. EA treatment exhibited significant antinociceptive effects and reduced the CCI-induced increase of both protein and mRNA expression of P2X3 receptors in the spinal cord. Furthermore, 2 Hz EA had a better analgesic effect than 15 Hz EA, and the protein and mRNA level of P2X3 receptor in spinal cord were lower in rats treated with 2 Hz EA at acupoints than 15 Hz EA at acupoints. Either EA at acupoints or intrathecal injection of U0126 relieved allodynia and hyperalgesia and reduced the expression of P2X3 receptors and ERK1

  18. Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue factor expression in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lei; Huang, Xiaoqin; Guo, Feng; Zhou, Zengding; Dou, Yi; Huan, Jingning

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by fibrin deposition, which indicates the local activation of coagulation. Tissue factor (TF), expressed in the pulmonary microvasculature, acts as a critical initiator of blood coagulation and ALI in sepsis. The molecular mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TF expression in endothelial cells (ECs), however, has not been determined. In this study, we implicate the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK)/Yes associated protein (YAP)/early growth response (Egr-1) signaling pathway in LPS-induced TF expression in vitro and in sepsis-induced ALI in vivo. Human umbilical vein ECs incubated with LPS were pretreated with or without the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, a YAP small, interfering RNA (siRNA) and an Egr-1 siRNA. ROCK, YAP and Egr-1 signaling-induced protein expression was investigated by Western blot. The LPS-induced activation of YAP was analyzed by an immunofluorescent assay. Furthermore, we intratracheally injected YAP siRNA to assess septic ALI in mice by hematoxylin and eosin staining. LPS rapidly induced ROCK activation and increased TF expression in ECs. LPS caused YAP shuttling into the nuclei of ECs and combined with Egr-1 via the activation of ROCK. Furthermore, the LPS-mediated TF expression increase was prevented by ROCK inactivation, YAP knockdown and Egr-1 depletion, suggesting that LPS-induced TF expression is closely associated with the ROCK/YAP/Egr-1 signaling pathway in ECs. Finally, an intratracheal injection of YAP siRNA relieved lung injury in septic mice. This study not only suggests that ROCK/YAP/Egr-1 signaling regulates TF expression after stimulation with LPS in ECs, but it also indicates that LPS-induced activation of YAP signaling plays an important role in septic ALI in mice. Our findings provide a new insight into the pathogenic mechanism of TF expression, which is closely linked to septic ALI, and YAP signaling is considered to be a novel target for therapeutic intervention

  19. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 plays a pro-life role in experimental brain stem death via MAPK signal-interacting kinase at rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    PubMed

    Chan, Samuel H H; Sun, Enya Y H; Chang, Alice Y W

    2010-03-15

    As the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation of this fatal phenomenon. The present study assessed the hypothesis that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that is important for cell survival and is activated specifically by MAPK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), plays a pro-life role in RVLM during brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of MAPK signal-interacting kinase (MNK), a novel substrate of ERK in this process. An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague-Dawley rats was used, in conjunction with cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total ERK1/2 was not affected, augmented phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at Thr202 and Tyr204 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Furthermore, pretreatment by microinjection into the bilateral RVLM of a specific ERK2 inhibitor, ERK activation inhibitor peptide II (1 nmol); a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 (5 pmol); or a specific MNK1/2 inhibitor, CGP57380 (5 pmol) exacerbated the hypotension and blunted the augmented life-and-death signals exhibited during the pro-life phase. Those pretreatments also blocked the upregulated nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I)/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling, the pro-life cascade that sustains central cardiovascular regulatory functions during experimental brain stem death. Our results demonstrated that activation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and MNK1

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 plays a pro-life role in experimental brain stem death via MAPK signal-interacting kinase at rostral ventrolateral medulla

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation of this fatal phenomenon. The present study assessed the hypothesis that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that is important for cell survival and is activated specifically by MAPK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), plays a pro-life role in RVLM during brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of MAPK signal-interacting kinase (MNK), a novel substrate of ERK in this process. Methods An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague-Dawley rats was used, in conjunction with cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total ERK1/2 was not affected, augmented phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at Thr202 and Tyr204 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Furthermore, pretreatment by microinjection into the bilateral RVLM of a specific ERK2 inhibitor, ERK activation inhibitor peptide II (1 nmol); a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 (5 pmol); or a specific MNK1/2 inhibitor, CGP57380 (5 pmol) exacerbated the hypotension and blunted the augmented life-and-death signals exhibited during the pro-life phase. Those pretreatments also blocked the upregulated nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I)/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling, the pro-life cascade that sustains central cardiovascular regulatory functions during experimental brain stem death. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that

  1. Association between GRB2/Sos and insulin receptor substrate 1 is not sufficient for activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases by interleukin-4: implications for Ras activation by insulin.

    PubMed

    Pruett, W; Yuan, Y; Rose, E; Batzer, A G; Harada, N; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) mediates the activation of a variety of signaling pathways by the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors by serving as a docking protein for signaling molecules with SH2 domains. We and others have shown that in response to insulin stimulation IRS-1 binds GRB2/Sos and have proposed that this interaction is important in mediating Ras activation by the insulin receptor. Recently, it has been shown that the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor also phosphorylates IRS-1 and an IRS-1-related molecule, 4PS. Unlike insulin, however, IL-4 fails to activate Ras, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), or mitogen-activated protein kinases. We have reconstituted the IL-4 receptor into an insulin-responsive L6 myoblast cell line and have shown that IRS-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated to similar degrees in response to insulin and IL-4 stimulation in this cell line. In agreement with previous findings, IL-4 failed to activate the ERKs in this cell line or to stimulate DNA synthesis, whereas the same responses were activated by insulin. Surprisingly, IL-4's failure to activate ERKs was not due to a failure to stimulate the association of tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 with GRB2/Sos; the amounts of GRB2/Sos associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. Moreover, the amounts of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. In contrast to insulin, however, IL-4 failed to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc or association of Shc with GRB2. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Previous studies have indicated that activation of ERks in this cell line is dependent upon Ras since a dominant-negative Ras (Asn-17) blocks ERK activation by insulin. Our findings, taken in the context

  2. Dual roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in quinoline compound BPIQ-induced apoptosis and anti-migration of human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fong, Yao; Wu, Chang-Yi; Chang, Kuo-Feng; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chou, Wan-Ju; Tseng, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yen-Chun; Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Yeh-Long; Chiu, Chien-Chih

    2017-01-01

    2,9-Bis[2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy]-6-{4-[2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy] phenyl}-11H-indeno[1,2-c]quinoline-11-one (BPIQ), is a synthetic quinoline analog. A previous study showed the anti-cancer potential of BPIQ through modulating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. However, the effect of BPIQ on cell migration, an index of cancer metastasis, has not yet been examined. Furthermore, among signal pathways involved in stresses, the members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family are crucial for regulating the survival and migration of cells. In this study, the aim was to explore further the role of MAPK members, including JNK, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in BPIQ-induced apoptosis and anti-migration of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Western Blot assay was performed for detecting the activation of MAPK members in NSCLC H1299 cells following BPIQ administration. Cellular proliferation was determined using a trypan blue exclusion assay. Cellular apoptosis was detected using flow cytometer-based Annexin V/propidium iodide dual staining. Cellular migration was determined using wound-healing assay and Boyden's chamber assay. Zymography assay was performed for examining MMP-2 and -9 activities. The assessment of MAPK inhibition was performed for further validating the role of JNK, p38, and ERK in BPIQ-induced growth inhibition, apoptosis, and migration of NSCLC cells. Western Blot assay showed that BPIQ treatment upregulates the phosphorylated levels of both MAPK proteins JNK and ERK. However, only ERK inhibitor rescues BPIQ-induced growth inhibition of NSCLC H1299 cells. The results of Annexin V assay further confirmed the pro-apoptotic role of ERK in BPIQ-induced cell death of H1299 cells. The results of wound healing and Boyden chamber assays showed that sub-IC50 (sub-lethal) concentrations of BPIQ cause a significant inhibition of migration in H1299 cells accompanied with downregulating the activity of MMP-2 and -9, the

  3. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Yihui; Xue, Huaming; Francis, Wendy; Davies, Andrew P.; Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Xia, Zhidao

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  4. Kinetic and biochemical correlation between sustained p44ERK1 (44 kDa extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1) activation and lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated DNA synthesis in Rat-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, S J; McCormick, F

    1996-01-01

    Rat-1 fibroblasts were used to study the role of the sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-stimulated mitogenic signalling. Mitogenic doses of LPA, like serum, stimulated biphasic, sustained, ERK activation that persisted towards the G1/S boundary. The EC50 for LPA-stimulated ERK activation after 10 min, the time of peak response, was 2 orders of magnitude to the left of that for the sustained response after 3 h or that for DNA synthesis after 22 h, with the result that non-mitogenic doses stimulated a maximal peak response but no second phase. To complement these studies, we examined the role of different signal pathways in regulating the sustained and acute phases of ERK activation using defined biochemical inhibitors and mimetics. Activation of protein kinase C and Ca2+ fluxes played a minor and transient role in regulation of ERK1 activity by LPA in Rat-1 cells. Sustained ERK1 activation stimulated by LPA was completely inhibited by pertussis toxin, whereas the early peak response was only partly affected; this is correlated with the specific inhibition of LPA-stimulated DNA synthesis by pertussis toxin. The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A completely inhibited sustained ERK1 activation by LPA but, again, the early phase of the response was only partially inhibited. In addition, low doses of staurosporine inhibited ERK1 activation by LPA. The effects of herbimycin A and staurosporine were selective for the response to LPA but did not affect that to epidermal growth factor. The results suggest a strong correlation between sustained ERK1 activation and DNA synthesis in LPA-stimulated Rat-1 cells. Furthermore, the two discrete phases of ERK activation by LPA are regulated by a combination of at least two different signalling pathways; the sustained activation of ERK1 in Rat-1 cells proceeds via a G1- or Gzero-mediated pathway which may also involve a tyrosine kinase. PMID:8947493

  5. Differential Modulation of Brainstem Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling Underlies WIN55,212-2 Centrally Mediated Pressor Response in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Badr Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that central cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) activation caused dose-related pressor response in conscious rats, and reported studies implicated the brainstem phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in blood pressure control. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that the modulation of brainstem PI3K/Akt-ERK1/2 signaling plays a critical role in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response. In conscious freely moving rats, the pressor response elicited by intracisternal (i.c.) (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate salt (WIN55,212-2) (15 μg) was associated with significant increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced in the same neuronal pools. Pretreatment with the selective CB1R antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) (30 μg i.c.) attenuated the neurochemical responses elicited by central CB1R activation. Furthermore, pretreatment with the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor 2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone (PD98059) (5 μg i.c.) abrogated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in blood pressure and neuronal ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not the reduction in Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, prior PI3K inhibition with wortmannin (0.4 μg i.c.) exacerbated the WIN55,212-2 (7.5 and 15 μg i.c.) dose-related increases in blood pressure and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the RVLM. The present neurochemical and integrative studies yield new insight into the critical role of two brainstem kinases, PI3K and ERK1/2, in the pressor response elicited by central CB1R activation in conscious rats. PMID:21946192

  6. Neurosteroid Allopregnanolone Suppresses Median Nerve Injury-induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity and Glial Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Activation through γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Modulation in the Rat Cuneate Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chen, Seu-Hwa; Lue, June-Horng; Chang, Chi-Fen; Wen, Wen-Hsin; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2016-12-01

    Mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain relief by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone remain uncertain. We investigated if allopregnanolone attenuates glial extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) concomitant with neuropathic pain relief in median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model rats. We examined the time course and cellular localization of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in CN after CCI. We subsequently employed microinjection of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (ERK kinase) inhibitor, PD98059, to clarify the role of ERK phosphorylation in neuropathic pain development. Furthermore, we explored the effects of allopregnanolone (by mouth), intra-CN microinjection of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist (bicuculline) or γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor antagonist (phaclofen) plus allopregnanolone, and allopregnanolone synthesis inhibitor (medroxyprogesterone; subcutaneous) on ERK activation and CCI-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. At 7 days post-CCI, p-ERK levels in ipsilateral CN were significantly increased and reached a peak. PD98059 microinjection into the CN 1 day after CCI dose-dependently attenuated injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity (withdrawal threshold [mean ± SD], 7.4 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.0, and 10.3 ± 0.8 g for 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM PD98059, respectively, at 7 days post-CCI; n = 6 for each dose). Double immunofluorescence showed that p-ERK was localized to both astrocytes and microglia. Allopregnanolone significantly diminished CN p-ERK levels, glial activation, proinflammatory cytokines, and behavioral hypersensitivity after CCI. Bicuculline, but not phaclofen, blocked all effects of allopregnanolone. Medroxyprogesterone treatment reduced endogenous CN allopregnanolone and exacerbated nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Median nerve injury-induced CN glial ERK activation modulated the development of behavioral hypersensitivity. Allopregnanolone attenuated

  7. Sustained Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Phosphorylation in Neonate 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats after Repeated D1-Dopamine Receptor Agonist Administration: Implications for NMDA Receptor Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Papadeas, Sophia T.; Blake, Bonita L.; Knapp, Darin J.; Breese, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, a well known regulator of gene expression, is likely to contribute to signaling events underlying enduring neural adaptations. Phosphorylated (phospho)-ERK was examined immunohistochemically after both single and repeated (i.e., sensitizing) doses of the partial D1-dopamine (DA) receptor agonist SKF-38393 (2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benazepine HCl) to adult rats lesioned as neonates (neonate lesioned) with 6-hydroxydopamine. Remarkably, prolonged phospho-ERK accumulated primarily in layers II–III of medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), where it declined gradually yet remained significantly elevated for at least 36 d after repeated doses of SKF-38393. Sustained (≥7 d) phospho-ERK was observed for shorter periods in various other cortical regions but was not detectable in striatum or nucleus accumbens. At 36 d, an additional injection of SKF-38393 to sensitized rats restored phospho-ERK to maximal levels only in MPC when examined 7 d later. Phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), examined 7 d after the sensitizing regimen, was observed exclusively in MPC, where it was abundant throughout all layers. Systemic injections of SL327 (α-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzeneacetonitrile), an inhibitor of the upstream ERK activator mitogen ERK kinase, attenuated both ERK and CREB phosphorylation in layers II–III of MPC. Pretreatment with the D1 antagonist SCH-23390 ((R)-(+)-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-OL maleate) inhibited the prolonged increase in MPC phospho-ERK, whereas the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin (3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione tartrate) was ineffective. Competitive and noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists also blocked sustained ERK phosphorylation. Collectively, the present results demonstrate coupling of D1 and NMDA receptor function reflected in sustained

  8. Calcium-containing crystals enhance receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated osteoclastogenesis via extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Liu, Yu; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2015-10-01

    Diseases associated with calcium-containing crystal deposition can lead to local bone erosion. We aimed to determine whether calcium-containing crystal-hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and CPPD enhanced osteoclastogenesis and to define underlying mechanisms of action. Osteoclastogenesis was studied by culturing murine RAW 264.7 osteoclast precursor cells with RANK ligand (RANKL)/ M-CSF and/or calcium-containing crystals, and observing the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity. Resorption pit formation was used to evaluate osteoclast activity. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed osteoclast marker genes, including TRAP, cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor (CTR). Western blotting was used to analyse the phosphorylation levels of signal transduction molecules. Three kinds of calcium-containing crystal significantly enhanced RANKL/M-CSF-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells, as evidenced by the increased number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, TRAP activity and resorption pit formation in a dose-dependent manner. Hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and CPPD treatments significantly enhanced RANKL/M-CSF-induced mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K and CTR. Moreover, the three kinds of calcium-containing crystal enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and p38 in RANKL/M-CSF-treated cells. We concluded that calcium-containing crystals can promote osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and p38 pathways. Together with synovial activation, this mechanism may be important in the pathogenesis of destructive arthropathies triggered by calcium-containing crystals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Insights into Basal Signaling Regulation, Oligomerization, and Structural Organization of the Human G-Protein Coupled Receptor 83

    PubMed Central

    Scheerer, Patrick; Biebermann, Heike; Kleinau, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The murine G-protein coupled receptor 83 (mGPR83) is expressed in the hypothalamus and was previously suggested to be involved in the regulation of metabolism. The neuropeptide PEN has been recently identified as a potent GPR83 ligand. Moreover, GPR83 constitutes functionally relevant hetero-oligomers with other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) such as the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) or GPR171. Previous deletion studies also revealed that the long N-terminal extracellular receptor domain (eNDo) of mGPR83 may act as an intra-molecular ligand, which participates in the regulation of basal signaling activity, which is a key feature of GPCR function. Here, we investigated particular amino acids at the eNDo of human GPR83 (hGPR83) by side-directed mutagenesis to identify determinants of the internal ligand. These studies were accompanied by structure homology modeling to combine functional insights with structural information. The capacity for hetero-oligomer formation of hGPR83 with diverse family A GPCRs such as the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) was also investigated, with a specific emphasis on the impact of the eNDo on oligomerization and basal signaling properties. Finally, we demonstrate that hGPR83 exhibits an unusual basal signaling for different effectors, which also supports signaling promiscuity. hGPR83 interacts with a variety of hypothalamic GPCRs such as the MC4R or GHSR. These interactions are not dependent on the ectodomain and most likely occur at interfaces constituted in the transmembrane regions. Moreover, several amino acids at the transition between the eNDo and transmembrane helix 1 were identified, where mutations lead also to biased basal signaling modulation. PMID:27936173

  10. Protein Dynamics in the Plant Extracellular Space.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Pinheiro, Carla; Chaves, Inês; Barros, Danielle R; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-07-13

    The extracellular space (ECS or apoplast) is the plant cell compartment external to the plasma membrane, which includes the cell walls, the intercellular space and the apoplastic fluid (APF). The present review is focused on APF proteomics papers and intends to draw information on the metabolic processes occurring in the ECS under abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as under non-challenged conditions. The large majority of the proteins detected are involved in "cell wall organization and biogenesis", "response to stimulus" and "protein metabolism". It becomes apparent that some proteins are always detected, irrespective of the experimental conditions, although with different relative contribution. This fact suggests that non-challenged plants have intrinsic constitutive metabolic processes of stress/defense in the ECS. In addition to the multiple functions ascribed to the ECS proteins, should be considered the interactions established between themselves and with the plasma membrane and its components. These interactions are crucial in connecting exterior and interior of the cell, and even simple protein actions in the ECS can have profound effects on plant performance. The proteins of the ECS are permanently contributing to the high dynamic nature of this plant compartment, which seems fundamental to plant development and adaptation to the environmental conditions.

  11. Protein Dynamics in the Plant Extracellular Space

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Pinheiro, Carla; Chaves, Inês; Barros, Danielle R.; Ricardo, Cândido P.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular space (ECS or apoplast) is the plant cell compartment external to the plasma membrane, which includes the cell walls, the intercellular space and the apoplastic fluid (APF). The present review is focused on APF proteomics papers and intends to draw information on the metabolic processes occurring in the ECS under abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as under non-challenged conditions. The large majority of the proteins detected are involved in “cell wall organization and biogenesis”, “response to stimulus” and “protein metabolism”. It becomes apparent that some proteins are always detected, irrespective of the experimental conditions, although with different relative contribution. This fact suggests that non-challenged plants have intrinsic constitutive metabolic processes of stress/defense in the ECS. In addition to the multiple functions ascribed to the ECS proteins, should be considered the interactions established between themselves and with the plasma membrane and its components. These interactions are crucial in connecting exterior and interior of the cell, and even simple protein actions in the ECS can have profound effects on plant performance. The proteins of the ECS are permanently contributing to the high dynamic nature of this plant compartment, which seems fundamental to plant development and adaptation to the environmental conditions. PMID:28248232

  12. Shock wave treatment enhances cell proliferation and improves wound healing by ATP release-coupled extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Anna M; Fuchs, Christiane; Teuschl, Andreas H; Hartinger, Joachim; Slezak, Paul; Mittermayr, Rainer; Redl, Heinz; Junger, Wolfgang G; Sitte, Harald H; Rünzler, Dominik

    2014-09-26

    Shock wave treatment accelerates impaired wound healing in diverse clinical situations. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of shock waves have not yet been fully revealed. Because cell proliferation is a major requirement in the wound healing cascade, we used in vitro studies and an in vivo wound healing model to study whether shock wave treatment influences proliferation by altering major extracellular factors and signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. We identified extracellular ATP, released in an energy- and pulse number-dependent manner, as a trigger of the biological effects of shock wave treatment. Shock wave treatment induced ATP release, increased Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, and enhanced proliferation in three different cell types (C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal progenitor cells, primary human adipose tissue-derived stem cells, and a human Jurkat T cell line) in vitro. Purinergic signaling-induced Erk1/2 activation was found to be essential for this proliferative effect, which was further confirmed by in vivo studies in a rat wound healing model where shock wave treatment induced proliferation and increased wound healing in an Erk1/2-dependent fashion. In summary, this report demonstrates that shock wave treatment triggers release of cellular ATP, which subsequently activates purinergic receptors and finally enhances proliferation in vitro and in vivo via downstream Erk1/2 signaling. In conclusion, our findings shed further light on the molecular mechanisms by which shock wave treatment exerts its beneficial effects. These findings could help to improve the clinical use of shock wave treatment for wound healing. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Shock Wave Treatment Enhances Cell Proliferation and Improves Wound Healing by ATP Release-coupled Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Weihs, Anna M.; Fuchs, Christiane; Teuschl, Andreas H.; Hartinger, Joachim; Slezak, Paul; Mittermayr, Rainer; Redl, Heinz; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Sitte, Harald H.; Rünzler, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Shock wave treatment accelerates impaired wound healing in diverse clinical situations. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of shock waves have not yet been fully revealed. Because cell proliferation is a major requirement in the wound healing cascade, we used in vitro studies and an in vivo wound healing model to study whether shock wave treatment influences proliferation by altering major extracellular factors and signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. We identified extracellular ATP, released in an energy- and pulse number-dependent manner, as a trigger of the biological effects of shock wave treatment. Shock wave treatment induced ATP release, increased Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, and enhanced proliferation in three different cell types (C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal progenitor cells, primary human adipose tissue-derived stem cells, and a human Jurkat T cell line) in vitro. Purinergic signaling-induced Erk1/2 activation was found to be essential for this proliferative effect, which was further confirmed by in vivo studies in a rat wound healing model where shock wave treatment induced proliferation and increased wound healing in an Erk1/2-dependent fashion. In summary, this report demonstrates that shock wave treatment triggers release of cellular ATP, which subsequently activates purinergic receptors and finally enhances proliferation in vitro and in vivo via downstream Erk1/2 signaling. In conclusion, our findings shed further light on the molecular mechanisms by which shock wave treatment exerts its beneficial effects. These findings could help to improve the clinical use of shock wave treatment for wound healing. PMID:25118288

  14. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian D.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B.; Gatza, Michael L.; Morrison, Meghan M.; Moore, Preston D.; Whitwell, Corbin A.; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E.; Silva, Grace O.; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A.; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J.; Perou, Charles M.; Weaver, Alissa M.; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A.; Chang, Jenny C.; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. PMID:25953087

  15. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Christian D; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B; Gatza, Michael L; Morrison, Meghan M; Moore, Preston D; Whitwell, Corbin A; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E; Silva, Grace O; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J; Perou, Charles M; Weaver, Alissa M; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Chang, Jenny C; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Erythropoietin Rescues Primary Rat Cortical Neurons by Altering the Nrf2:Bach1 Ratio: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Min; Zhang, Dong-Xue; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Sun, Wenbo

    2017-01-12

    While inhalation anesthetics are indispensable, and generally considered safe and effective, there is growing concern about the selective neurotoxicity of these agents, especially sevoflurane. Erythropoetin (EPO)-induced protection against sevoflurane-induced neuronal death is an effective intervention, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk) 1/2 plays a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. Alteration of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB-to-CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio by Erk1/2 ameliorates the oxidative stress which occurs in human macrophages. Primary cortical neuron cultures exposed to sevoflurane were assessed for Nrf2, Bach1, total Erk1/2, and phosphorylated Erk1/2 with the following: 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; propidium iodide uptake; lactate dehydrogenase; malondialdehyde (MDA); superoxide dismutase (SOD); and Western blot. Sevoflurane exposure increased cell death, injury, and MDA (n = 9, P < 0.05), but decreased cell viability and the Nrf2:Bach1 ratio (n = 9, P < 0.05) and down-regulated SOD (n = 9, P < 0.05), while EPO partially rescued the neurotoxicity induced by sevoflurane (n = 9, P < 0.05). Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation via PD98059 reversed the protective effect of EPO (n = 9, P < 0.05). Thus, protection of EPO markedly attenuated death of neurons exposed to sevoflurane by altering the Nrf2:Bach1 ratio mediated by phosphorylation and activation of Erk1/2.

  17. Potential involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in encystation of a primitive eukaryote, Giardia lamblia. Stage-specific activation and intracellular localization.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John G; Davila, Monica; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2003-01-17

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are major signaling systems by which eukaryotic cells convert environmental cues to intracellular events such as proliferation and differentiation. We have identified Giardia lamblia homologues of two members of the MAPK family ERK1 and ERK2. Functional characterization of giardial ERK1 and ERK2 revealed that both kinases were expressed in trophozoites and encysting cells as 44- and 41-kDa polypeptides, respectively, and were catalytically active. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of the recombinant proteins showed that ERK2 is approximately 5 times more efficient than ERK1 in phosphorylating myelin basic protein as a substrate, although the phosphorylating efficiency of the native ERK1 and ERK2 appeared to be the same. Immunofluorescence analysis of the subcellular localization of ERK1 and ERK2 in trophozoites showed ERK1 staining mostly in the median body and in the outer edges of the adhesive disc and ERK2 staining in the nuclei and in the caudal flagella. Our study also showed a noticeable change in the subcellular distribution of ERK2 during encystation, which became more punctate and mostly cytoplasmic, but no significant change in the ERK1 localization at any time during encystation. Interestingly, both ERK1 and ERK2 enzymes exhibited a significantly reduced kinase activity during encystation reaching a minimum at 24 h, except for an initial approximately 2.5-fold increase in the ERK1 activity at 2 h, which resumed back to the normal levels at 48 h despite no apparent change in the expression level of either one of these kinases in encysting cells. A reduced concentration of the phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2 was also evident in these cells at 24 h. Our study suggests a functional distinction between ERK1 and ERK2 and that these kinases may play a critical role in trophozoite differentiation into cysts.

  18. Rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and NFκB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Gang; Yin, Yan; Han, Dan; Wang, Qiu-yue; Kang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated how rosiglitazone attenuated cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema in a rat model. In particular, we focused on its possible effects on the imbalance between metalloprotease (MMP) and anti-MMP activity, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NFκB) signaling pathway over-activation. Methods A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=12 each): animals were exposed to CS for 12 weeks in the absence (the CS group) or presence of 30 mg/kg rosiglitazone (the rosiglitazone-CS [RCS] group); a control group was treated with the rosiglitazone vehicle only, without any CS exposure. Histopathology of lung tissue in all groups was evaluated to grade severity of the disease. Expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), MMP2, and MMP9 in lung tissue were determined and compared using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Activation of MAPKs, NFκB, and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation in lung tissue was examined by Western blotting. Results Emphysema-related pathology, based on inter-alveolar wall distance and alveolar density, was less severe in the RCS group than in the CS group. Compared with the CS group, levels of PPARγ were higher in the RCS group, and levels of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins were lower in the RCS rats. Levels of activated MAPKs and NFκB were also lower, while the IκBαphosphorylation was increased in the lung tissue of RCS rats. Conclusion Our findings suggest that oral administration of rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease activity induced by CS, and the underlying mechanism might involve the activation of signaling pathways dependent on MAPKs or NFκB. Our results further suggest that PPARγ contributes to the pathogenesis of emphysema as well as airway inflammation induced by CS. PMID:25897215

  19. The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway can mediate growth inhibitory and differentiation signaling via androgen receptor downregulation in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Lin, Ming-Fong; Park, Jong-In

    2011-01-01

    Upregulated ERK1/2 activity is correlated with androgen receptor (AR) downregulation in certain prostate cancer (PCa) that exhibits androgen deprivation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation, but its functional relevance requires elucidation. We found that sustained ERK1/2 activation using active Raf or MEK1/2 mutants is sufficient to induce AR downregulation at mRNA and protein levels in LNCaP. Downregulation of AR protein, but not mRNA, was blocked by proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and bortezomib, indicating that the pathway regulation is mediated at multiple points. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active AR inhibited Raf/MEK/ERK-mediated regulation of the differentiation markers, neuron-specific enolase and neutral endopeptidase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p16INK4A and p21CIP1, but not Rb phosphorylation and E2F1 expression, indicating that AR has a specific role in the pathway-mediated differentiation and growth inhibitory signaling. However, despite the sufficient role of Raf/MEK/ERK, its inhibition using U0126 or ERK1/2 knockdown could not block androgen deprivation-induced AR downregulation in an LNCaP neuroendocrine differentiation model, suggesting that additional signaling pathways are involved in the regulation. We additionally report that sustained Raf/MEK/ERK activity can downregulate full length as well as hormone binding domain-deficient AR isoforms in androgen-refractory C4-2 and CWR22Rv1, but not in LAPC4 and MDA-PCa-2b. Our study demonstrates a novel role of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in regulating AR expression in certain PCa types and provides an insight into PCa responses to its aberrant activation. PMID:21871886

  20. Signaling adaptor ShcD suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) phosphorylation distal to the Ret and Trk neurotrophic receptors.

    PubMed

    Wills, Melanie K B; Keyvani Chahi, Ava; Lau, Hayley R; Tilak, Manali; Guild, Brianna D; New, Laura A; Lu, Peihua; Jacquet, Kévin; Meakin, Susan O; Bisson, Nicolas; Jones, Nina

    2017-04-07

    Proteins of the Src homology and collagen (Shc) family are typically involved in signal transduction events involving Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. In the nervous system, they function proximal to the neurotrophic factors that regulate cell survival, differentiation, and neuron-specific characteristics. The least characterized homolog, ShcD, is robustly expressed in the developing and mature nervous system, but its contributions to neural cell circuitry are largely uncharted. We now report that ShcD binds to active Ret, TrkA, and TrkB neurotrophic factor receptors predominantly via its phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. However, in contrast to the conventional Shc adaptors, ShcD suppresses distal phosphorylation of the Erk MAPK. Accordingly, genetic knock-out of mouse ShcD enhances Erk phosphorylation in the brain. In cultured cells, this capacity is tightly aligned to phosphorylation of ShcD CH1 region tyrosine motifs, which serve as docking platforms for signal transducers, such as Grb2. Erk suppression is relieved through independent mutagenesis of the PTB domain and the CH1 tyrosine residues, and successive substitution of these tyrosines breaks the interaction between ShcD and Grb2, thereby promoting TrkB-Grb2 association. Erk phosphorylation can also be restored in the presence of wild type ShcD through Grb2 overexpression. Conversely, mutation of the ShcD SH2 domain results in enhanced repression of Erk. Although the SH2 domain is a less common binding interface in Shc proteins, we demonstrate that it associates with the Ptpn11 (Shp2) phosphatase, which in turn regulates ShcD tyrosine phosphorylation. We therefore propose a model whereby ShcD competes with neurotrophic receptors for Grb2 binding and opposes activation of the MAPK cascade. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates expression of arginase II but not inducible nitric-oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Liu, Yusen; Nelin, Leif D

    2015-01-23

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been shown to participate in iNOS induction following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, while the role of MAPKs in the regulation of arginase remains unclear. We hypothesized that different MAPK family members are involved in iNOS and arginase expression following LPS stimulation. LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells exhibited increased protein and mRNA levels for iNOS, arginase I, and arginase II; although the induction of arginase II was more robust than that for arginase I. A p38 inhibitor completely prevented iNOS expression while it only attenuated arginase II induction. In contrast, a MEK1/2 inhibitor (ERK pathway) completely abolished arginase II expression while actually enhancing iNOS induction in LPS-stimulated cells. Arginase II promoter activity was increased by ∼4-fold following LPS-stimulation, which was prevented by the ERK pathway inhibitor. Arginase II promoter activity was unaffected by a p38 inhibitor or JNK pathway interference. Transfection with a construct expressing a constitutively active RAS mutant increased LPS-induced arginase II promoter activity, while transfection with a vector expressing a dominant negative ERK2 mutant or a vector expressing MKP-3 inhibited the arginase II promoter activity. LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production was increased following siRNA-mediated knockdown of arginase II and decreased when arginase II was overexpressed. Our results demonstrate that while both the ERK and p38 pathways regulate arginase II induction in LPS-stimulated macrophages, iNOS induction by LPS is dependent on p38 activation. These results suggest that differential inhibition of the MAPK pathway may be a potential therapeutic strategy to regulate macrophage phenotype.

  2. Prelimbic cortex extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation is required for memory retrieval of long-term inhibitory avoidance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Zheng, Jian; Sun, Xuan; Deng, Wei-Ke; Li, Bao Ming; Liu, Fang

    2017-04-15

    Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-h inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30min prior to test. The present study provides evidence that retrieval of long-lasting memory for inhibitory avoidance requires mPFC and involves the ERK-CREB signaling cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipin1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Differentiation through Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation and Cyclin D Complex-regulated Cell Cycle Withdrawal*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weihua; Zhu, Jing; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Xiping; Luo, Tao; Esser, Karyn A.; Ren, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Lipin1, an intracellular protein, plays critical roles in controlling lipid synthesis and energy metabolism through its enzymatic activity and nuclear transcriptional functions. Several mouse models of skeletal muscle wasting are associated with lipin1 mutation or altered expression. Recent human studies have suggested that children with homozygous null mutations in the LPIN1 gene suffer from rhabdomyolysis. However, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study we examined whether lipin1 contributes to regulating muscle regeneration. We characterized the time course of skeletal muscle regeneration in lipin1-deficient fld mice after injury. We found that fld mice exhibited smaller regenerated muscle fiber cross-sectional areas compared with wild-type mice in response to injury. Our results from a series of in vitro experiments suggest that lipin1 is up-regulated and translocated to the nucleus during myoblast differentiation and plays a key role in myogenesis by regulating the cytosolic activation of ERK1/2 to form a complex and a downstream effector cyclin D3-mediated cell cycle withdrawal. Overall, our study reveals a previously unknown role of lipin1 in skeletal muscle regeneration and expands our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:26296887

  4. A Highly Selective Dual Insulin Receptor (IR)/Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R) Inhibitor Derived from an Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Inhibitor*

    PubMed Central

    Anastassiadis, Theonie; Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Deacon, Sean W.; Lafontant, Alec; Ma, Haiching; Devarajan, Karthik; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Wu, Jinhua; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Dual inhibitors of the closely related receptor tyrosine kinases insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (IR) are promising therapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we report an unusually selective class of dual inhibitors of IGF-1R and IR identified in a parallel screen of known kinase inhibitors against a panel of 300 human protein kinases. Biochemical and structural studies indicate that this class achieves its high selectivity by binding to the ATP-binding pocket of inactive, unphosphorylated IGF-1R/IR and stabilizing the activation loop in a native-like inactive conformation. One member of this compound family was originally reported as an inhibitor of the serine/threonine kinase ERK, a kinase that is distinct in the structure of its unphosphorylated/inactive form from IR/IGF-1R. Remarkably, this compound binds to the ATP-binding pocket of ERK in an entirely different conformation to that of IGF-1R/IR, explaining the potency against these two structurally distinct kinase families. These findings suggest a novel approach to polypharmacology in which two or more unrelated kinases are inhibited by a single compound that targets different conformations of each target kinase. PMID:23935097

  5. Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin-binding Sequence of PSGL-1 Glycoprotein Regulates Leukocyte Rolling on Selectins and Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Spertini, Caroline; Baïsse, Bénédicte; Spertini, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mediates the capture (tethering) of free-flowing leukocytes and subsequent rolling on selectins. PSGL-1 interactions with endothelial selectins activate Src kinases and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), leading to αLβ2 integrin-dependent leukocyte slow rolling, which promotes leukocyte recruitment into tissues. In addition, but through a distinct pathway, PSGL-1 engagement activates ERK. Because ezrin, radixin and moesin proteins (ERMs) link PSGL-1 to actin cytoskeleton and because they serve as adaptor molecules between PSGL-1 and Syk, we examined the role of PSGL-1 ERM-binding sequence (EBS) on cell capture, rolling, and signaling through Syk and MAPK pathways. We carried out mutational analysis and observed that deletion of EBS severely reduced 32D leukocyte tethering and rolling on L-, P-, and E-selectin and slightly increased rolling velocity. Alanine substitution of Arg-337 and Lys-338 showed that these residues play a key role in supporting leukocyte tethering and rolling on selectins. Importantly, EBS deletion or Arg-337 and Lys-338 mutations abrogated PSGL-1-induced ERK activation, whereas they did not prevent Syk phosphorylation or E-selectin-induced leukocyte slow rolling. These studies demonstrate that PSGL-1 EBS plays a critical role in recruiting leukocytes on selectins and in activating the MAPK pathway, whereas it is dispensable to phosphorylate Syk and to lead to αLβ2-dependent leukocyte slow rolling. PMID:22311979

  6. Radiosensitization and downregulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) upon inhibition of mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) in malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Stefan; Lamkowski, Andreas; Priller, Markus; Port, Matthias; Steinestel, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Background Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is an important cofactor in the p53-mediated DNA damage response pathway upon ionizing radiation (IR) and exerts anti-apoptotic effects also independent of p53 pathway activation. Furthermore, hnRNP K is overexpressed in various neoplasms including malignant melanoma (MM). Here, we investigate the role of hnRNP K in the radioresistance of MM cells. Methods and results Our results show cytoplasmic expression of hnRNP K in human MM surgical specimens, but not in benign nevi, and a quick dose- and time-dependent upregulation in response to IR accompanied by cytoplasmic redistribution of the protein in the IPC-298 cellular tumor model carrying an activating NRAS mutation (p.Q61L). SiRNA-based knockdown of hnRNP K induced a delayed decline in γH2AX/53BP1-positive DNA repair foci upon IR. Pharmacological interference with MAPK signaling abrogated ERK phosphorylation, diminished cellular hnRNP K levels, impaired γH2AX/53BP1-foci repair and proliferative capability and increased apoptosis comparable to the observed hnRNP K knockdown phenotype in IPC-298 cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that pharmacological interference with MAPK signaling increases vulnerability of NRAS-mutant malignant melanoma cells to ionizing radiation along with downregulation of endogenous hnRNP K and point towards a possible use for combined MEK inhibition and localized radiation therapy of MM in the NRAS-mutant setting where BRAF inhibitors offer no clinical benefit. PMID:26136337

  7. Glycodelin-A stimulates interleukin-6 secretion by human monocytes and macrophages through L-selectin and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Lam, Eve Y F; Lam, Kevin K W; Koistinen, Hannu; Seppälä, Markku; Ng, Ernest H Y; Yeung, William S B; Chiu, Philip C N

    2012-10-26

    Macrophages represent the second major type of decidual leukocytes at the fetomaternal interface. Changes in macrophage number and activity are associated with fetal loss and pregnancy complications. Glycodelin-A (GdA) is an abundant glycoprotein in the first-trimester decidua. It is involved in fetomaternal defense and early placental development through its regulatory activities in various immune cells. The N-glycosylation of GdA mediates the binding and therefore the activities of the molecule. In this study, we studied the biological activities of GdA in the functions of human monocytes/macrophages. GdA was purified from amniotic fluid by affinity chromatography. GdA treatment did not affect the viability, cell death, or phagocytic activity of the monocytes/macrophages. GdA, but not recombinant glycodelin without glycosylation, induced IL-6 production as demonstrated by cytokine array, intracellular staining, and ELISA. GdA also induced phosphorylation of ERK in monocytes/macrophages. The involvement of ERKs in IL-6 induction was confirmed using pharmacological inhibitors. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that L-selectin on the monocytes/macrophages was the binding protein of GdA. Treatment with anti-L-selectin antibody reduced GdA binding and GdA-induced IL-6 production. GdA-treated macrophages suppressed IFN-γ expression by co-cultured T-helper cells in an IL-6-dependent manner. These results show that GdA interacts with L-selectin to induce IL-6 production in monocytes/macrophages by activating the ERK signaling pathway. In turn, the increased IL-6 production suppresses IFN-γ expression in T-helper cells, which may play an important role in inducing a Th-2-polarized cytokine environment that flavors the immunotolerance of the fetoplacental unit.

  8. Elemene Induces Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line BGC-823 via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pihong; Zhou, Xiang; Sun, Weijian; Sheng, Weiwei; Tu, Yangyang; Yu, Yaojun; Dong, Jianda; Ye, Bing; Zheng, Zhiqiang; Lu, Mingdong

    2017-01-01

    Background Elemene is extracted from a traditional herbal medicine and is commonly used in the treatment of cancer in China. However, its effect on gastric cancer cells remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate its effect on human gastric cancer cells. Material/Methods Human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells and a tumor-bearing mouse model were employed to be divided into 4 groups: control group, elemene group, PD98059 group (an ERK 1/2 signaling pathway inhibitor), and the combined group (elemene plus PD98059). The tumor size, cell proliferation, expression of ERK 1/2 and phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2), Bcl-2 mRNA, and Bax mRNA were measured. Moreover, cell apoptosis was detected and the apoptosis index was calculated. Results Elemene and PD98059 each significantly inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells BGC-823, and their combination showed higher synergistic inhibitory effect (P<0.05). We also found increased expression levels of p-ERK l/2 protein and Bax mRNA, but reduced level of Bcl-2 mRNA expression (P<0.05). Elemene presented higher apoptosis rate in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Furthermore, the injection of elemene decreased the weight of transplanted tumors. Conclusions Elemene can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells associated with the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway and expression levels of Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA. PMID:28196062

  9. Effects of DA-9701, a Novel Prokinetic Agent, on Phosphorylated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Expression in the Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord Induced by Colorectal Distension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Pyo; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hwang, Se Jin; Lee, Seo Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701, a standardized extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that exhibits an analgesic effect on the abdomen. We investigated whether DA-9701 affects visceral pain induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rats. Methods A total of 21 rats were divided into three groups: group A (no CRD+no drug), group B (CRD+no drug), and group C (CRD+DA-9701). Expression of pain-related factors, substance P (SP), c-fos, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Results The proportions of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing SP, c-fos, and p-ERK were higher in group B than in group A. In the group C, the proportion of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing p-ERK was lower than that in group B. Western blot results for p-ERK in the spinal cord indicated a higher level of expression in group B than in group A and a lower level of expression in group C than in group B. Conclusions DA-9701 may decrease visceral pain via the downregulation of p-ERK in the DRG and spinal cord. PMID:24672654

  10. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products regulate migration and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/nuclear factor-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Shin, Jimin; Song, In-Sung; Shim, Sungbo; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. We have previously reported that excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. However, the regulatory mechanisms through which matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression affects cholangiocarcinoma development remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the potential role of excretory-secretory products in regulating the migration and invasion of various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. We demonstrated that excretory-secretory products significantly induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that excretory-secretory products induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by enhancing the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. Moreover, excretory-secretory products induced the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear translocation, which was regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Taken together, our findings indicated that the excretory-secretory product-dependent enhancement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and subsequent induction of IκBα and nuclear factor-kappa B activities may contribute to the progression of cholangiocarcinoma.

  11. Icariin inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Liu, Kai; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yadi; Ren, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Icariin, a flavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti‑oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of icariin on oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible underlying mechanism. VSMCs were cultured and pre‑treated with various concentrations of icariin (0, 10, 20 or 40 µm) prior to stimulation by ox‑LDL (50 µg/ml). Cell proliferation was evaluated by an MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of icariin on the cell cycle. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were detected by western blot analysis. The results indicated that icariin significantly inhibited ox‑LDL‑induced proliferation of VSMCs and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, icariin also blocked the ox‑LDL‑induced cell‑cycle progression at G1/S‑interphase and downregulated the expression of PCNA in VSMCs. In conclusion, the present study indicated for the first time that icariin reduced the amount of ox‑LDL‑induced proliferation of VSMCs through suppression of PCNA expression and inactivation of ERK1/2.

  12. Polycystin-1 Regulates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Dependent Phosphorylation of Tuberin To Control Cell Size through mTOR and Its Downstream Effectors S6K and 4EBP1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, Gianfranco; Boca, Manila; Rowe, Isaline; Wodarczyk, Claas; Ma, Li; Piontek, Klaus B.; Germino, Gregory G.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Boletta, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease characterized by bilateral renal cyst formation. Both hyperproliferation and hypertrophy have been previously observed in ADPKD kidneys. Polycystin-1 (PC-1), a large orphan receptor encoded by the PKD1 gene and mutated in 85% of all cases, is able to inhibit proliferation and apoptosis. Here we show that overexpression of PC-1 in renal epithelial cells inhibits cell growth (size) in a cell cycle-independent manner due to the downregulation of mTOR, S6K1, and 4EBP1. Upregulation of the same pathway leads to increased cell size, as found in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Pkd1−/− mice. We show that PC-1 controls the mTOR pathway in a Tsc2-dependent manner, by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin in Ser664. We provide a detailed molecular mechanism by which PC-1 can inhibit the mTOR pathway and regulate cell size. PMID:19255143

  13. Extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1-dependent metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-induced long-term depression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is disrupted by cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Brad A; Gosnell, Heather B; Olsen, Christopher M; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Nekrasova, Tanya; Landreth, Gary E; Winder, Danny G

    2006-03-22

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a key component of the CNS stress and reward circuit. Synaptic plasticity in this region could in part underlie the persistent behavioral alterations in generalized anxiety and addiction. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been implicated in stress, addiction, and synaptic plasticity, but their roles in the BNST are unknown. We find that activation of group I mGluRs in the dorsal BNST induces depression of excitatory synaptic transmission through two distinct mechanisms. First, a combined activation of group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) induces a transient depression that is cannabinoid 1 receptor dependent. Second, as with endocannabinoid-independent group I mGluR long-term depression (LTD) in the adult hippocampus, we find that activation of mGluR5 induces an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent LTD. Surprisingly, our data demonstrate that this LTD requires the ERK1 rather than ERK2 isoform, establishing a key role for this isoform in the CNS. Finally, we find that this LTD is dramatically reduced after multiple exposures but not a single exposure to cocaine, suggesting a role for this form of plasticity in the actions of psychostimulants on anxiety and reward circuitries and their emergent control of animal behavior.

  14. Economical evolution: microbes reduce the synthetic cost of extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel R; Chapman, Matthew R

    2010-08-24

    Protein evolution is not simply a race toward improved function. Because organisms compete for limited resources, fitness is also affected by the relative economy of an organism's proteome. Indeed, many abundant proteins contain relatively high percentages of amino acids that are metabolically less taxing for the cell to make, thus reducing cellular cost. However, not all abundant proteins are economical, and many economical proteins are not particularly abundant. Here we examined protein composition and found that the relative synthetic cost of amino acids constrains the composition of microbial extracellular proteins. In Escherichia coli, extracellular proteins contain, on average, fewer energetically expensive amino acids independent of their abundance, length, function, or structure. Economic pressures have strategically shaped the amino acid composition of multicomponent surface appendages, such as flagella, curli, and type I pili, and extracellular enzymes, including type III effector proteins and secreted serine proteases. Furthermore, in silico analysis of Pseudomonas syringae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and over 25 other microbes spanning a wide range of GC content revealed a broad bias toward more economical amino acids in extracellular proteins. The synthesis of any protein, especially those rich in expensive aromatic amino acids, represents a significant investment. Because extracellular proteins are lost to the environment and not recycled like other cellular proteins, they present a greater burden on the cell, as their amino acids cannot be reutilized during translation. We hypothesize that evolution has optimized extracellular proteins to reduce their synthetic burden on the cell.

  15. Developmental changes in insulin- and amino acid-induced mTOR signalling regulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enhanced efficiency, with which dietary protein is used for growth in the neonate, is due to the ability of neonatal muscle to markedly increase protein synthesis in response to feeding (Davis "et al.", 1996). The stimulation of protein synthesis by feeding in neonatal muscle is independently m...

  16. Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases (ERKs) Phosphorylate Lin28a Protein to Modulate P19 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyuan; Chen, Min; Li, Long; Gong, Liyan; Zhou, Hu; Gao, Daming

    2017-03-10

    Lin28a, originally discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and highly conserved across species, is a well characterized regulator of let-7 microRNA (miRNA) and is implicated in cell proliferation and pluripotency control. However, little is known about how Lin28a function is modulated at the post-translational level and thereby responds to major signaling pathways. Here we show that Lin28a is directly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 kinases at Ser-200. By editing lin28a gene with the CRISPR/Cas9-based method, we generated P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma stem cells expressing Lin28a-S200A (phospho-deficient) and Lin28a-S200D (phospho-mimetic) mutants, respectively, to study the functional impact of Ser-200 phosphorylation. Lin28a-S200D-expressing cells, but not Lin28a-S200A-expressing or control P19 embryonic carcinoma cells, displayed impaired inhibition of let-7 miRNA and resulted in decreased cyclin D1, whereas Lin28a-S200A knock-in cells expressed less let-7 miRNA, proliferated faster, and exhibited differentiation defect upon retinoic acid induction. Therefore our results support that ERK kinase-mediated Lin28a phosphorylation may be an important mechanism for pluripotent cells to facilitate the escape from the self-renewal cycle and start the differentiation process. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Fasting and Systemic Insulin Signaling Regulate Phosphorylation of Brain Proteins That Modulate Cell Morphology and Link to Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Quan, Chao; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G; MacKintosh, Carol; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai

    2015-12-11

    Diabetes is strongly associated with cognitive decline, but the molecular reasons are unknown. We found that fasting and peripheral insulin promote phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively, of specific residues on brain proteins including cytoskeletal regulators such as slit-robo GTPase-activating protein 3 (srGAP3) and microtubule affinity-regulating protein kinases (MARKs), in which deficiency or dysregulation is linked to neurological disorders. Fasting activates protein kinase A (PKA) but not PKB/Akt signaling in the brain, and PKA can phosphorylate the purified srGAP3. The phosphorylation of srGAP3 and MARKs were increased when PKA signaling was activated in primary neurons. Knockdown of PKA decreased the phosphorylation of srGAP3. Furthermore, WAVE1, a protein kinase A-anchoring protein, formed a complex with srGAP3 and PKA in the brain of fasted mice to facilitate the phosphorylation of srGAP3 by PKA. Although brain cells have insulin receptors, our findings are inconsistent with the down-regulation of phosphorylation of target proteins being mediated by insulin signaling within the brain. Rather, our findings infer that systemic insulin, through a yet unknown mechanism, inhibits PKA or protein kinase(s) with similar specificity and/or activates an unknown phosphatase in the brain. Ser(858) of srGAP3 was identified as a key regulatory residue in which phosphorylation by PKA enhanced the GAP activity of srGAP3 toward its substrate, Rac1, in cells, thereby inhibiting the action of this GTPase in cytoskeletal regulation. Our findings reveal novel mechanisms linking peripheral insulin sensitivity with cytoskeletal remodeling in neurons, which may help to explain the association of diabetes with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease.

  18. Fasting and Systemic Insulin Signaling Regulate Phosphorylation of Brain Proteins That Modulate Cell Morphology and Link to Neurological Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Quan, Chao; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G.; MacKintosh, Carol; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with cognitive decline, but the molecular reasons are unknown. We found that fasting and peripheral insulin promote phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively, of specific residues on brain proteins including cytoskeletal regulators such as slit-robo GTPase-activating protein 3 (srGAP3) and microtubule affinity-regulating protein kinases (MARKs), in which deficiency or dysregulation is linked to neurological disorders. Fasting activates protein kinase A (PKA) but not PKB/Akt signaling in the brain, and PKA can phosphorylate the purified srGAP3. The phosphorylation of srGAP3 and MARKs were increased when PKA signaling was activated in primary neurons. Knockdown of PKA decreased the phosphorylation of srGAP3. Furthermore, WAVE1, a protein kinase A-anchoring protein, formed a complex with srGAP3 and PKA in the brain of fasted mice to facilitate the phosphorylation of srGAP3 by PKA. Although brain cells have insulin receptors, our findings are inconsistent with the down-regulation of phosphorylation of target proteins being mediated by insulin signaling within the brain. Rather, our findings infer that systemic insulin, through a yet unknown mechanism, inhibits PKA or protein kinase(s) with similar specificity and/or activates an unknown phosphatase in the brain. Ser858 of srGAP3 was identified as a key regulatory residue in which phosphorylation by PKA enhanced the GAP activity of srGAP3 toward its substrate, Rac1, in cells, thereby inhibiting the action of this GTPase in cytoskeletal regulation. Our findings reveal novel mechanisms linking peripheral insulin sensitivity with cytoskeletal remodeling in neurons, which may help to explain the association of diabetes with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease. PMID:26499801

  19. mTOR signaling regulates myotube hypertrophy by modulating protein synthesis, rDNA transcription, and chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    von Walden, Ferdinand; Liu, Chang; Aurigemma, Nicole; Nader, Gustavo A

    2016-10-01

    Ribosome production is an early event during skeletal muscle hypertrophy and precedes muscle protein accretion. Signaling via mTOR is crucial for ribosome production and hypertrophy; however, the mechanisms by which it regulates these processes remain to be identified. Herein, we investigated the activation of mTOR signaling in hypertrophying myotubes and determined that mTOR coordinates various aspects of gene expression important for ribosome production. First, inhibition of translation with cycloheximide had a more potent effect on protein synthesis than rapamycin indicating that mTOR function during hypertrophy is not on general, but rather on specific protein synthesis. Second, blocking Pol II transcription had a similar effect as Rapamycin and, unexpectedly, revealed the necessity of Pol II transcription for Pol I transcription, suggesting that mTOR may regulate ribosome production also by controlling Class II genes at the transcriptional level. Third, Pol I activity is essential for rDNA transcription and, surprisingly, for protein synthesis as selective Pol I inhibition blunted rDNA transcription, protein synthesis, and the hypertrophic response of myotubes. Finally, mTOR has nuclear localization in muscle, which is not sensitive to rapamycin. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin disrupted mTOR-rDNA promoter interaction and resulted in altered histone marks indicative of repressed transcription and formation of higher-order chromatin structure. Thus mTOR signaling appears to regulate muscle hypertrophy by affecting protein synthesis, Class I and II gene expression, and chromatin remodeling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. α-Mangostin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and increasing E-cadherin expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, JIANGTAO; WU, YAOLU; LU, GUIFANG

    2013-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis are major factors in the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, which remains one of the most aggressive and lethal diseases worldwide. α-mangostin, a major xanthone compound identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana, Linn; GML), possesses unique biological activities, including antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Whether α-mangostin is able to inhibit the invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, α-mangostin was shown to inhibit the invasive ability of the pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and BxPC-3. The results showed that α-mangostin inhibited the growth of the pancreatic cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At concentrations of <5 μM, α-mangostin had no significant effects on cytotoxicity, but significantly inhibited the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while increasing the expression of E-cadherin. The present data also showed that α-mangostin exerted an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the reduction of ERK phosphorylation by small interfering RNA (siRNA) potentiated the effect of α-mangostin. Taken together, the data suggest that α-mangostin inhibited the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by reducing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, increasing E-cadherin expression and suppressing the ERK signaling pathway. The present study suggests that α-mangostin may be a promising agent against pancreatic cancer. PMID:23833675

  1. Orai1 mediates tumor-promoting store-operated Ca(2+) entry in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors via c-KIT and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hao, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yijian; Yang, Ziyi; Cao, Yang; Lu, Wei; Shu, Yijun; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Yunping; Lv, Wenjie; Liu, Yingbin; Dong, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors originate from interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells of the gut. Ca(2+) regulates the pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediates the majority of Ca(2+) entry in most cancer cells and may be a factor in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in interstitial cells of Cajal and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Therefore, a blockade of this mechanism may affect the progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Orai1 is the pore subunit of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Here, we reported that Orai1 was overexpressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumor tissues and was positively correlated with a high-risk grade in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients. Furthermore, upon Orai1 silencing, the functional store-operated Ca(2+) entry in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells was decreased, indicating that the function of store-operated Ca(2+) entry was mediated by Orai1. Inhibition of Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry by Orai1 silencing or store-operated Ca(2+) entry blockers (SKF-96365 and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate) induced obvious cell proliferation suppression, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis stimulation in GIST-T1 cells. Conversely, Orai1 overexpression increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry and cell proliferation in GIST882 cells. In addition, we found that activation of c-KIT and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway participated in the oncogenic functions of Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells. These results revealed that Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry is critical for gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell proliferation via c-KIT and ERK signaling pathway activation. Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry plays an oncogenic role and may be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  2. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) protects cortical neurons in vitro from oxidant injury by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and induction of Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, A; Tripathy, D; Yin, X; Luo, J; Martinez, J; Grammas, P

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating oxidative stress-induced damage is critical to preserve neuronal function in diseased or injured brains. This study explores the mechanisms contributing to the neuroprotective effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in cortical neurons. Cultured primary neurons are exposed to PEDF and H₂O₂ as well as inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Neuronal survival, cell death and levels of caspase 3, PEDF, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and Bcl-2 are measured. The data show cortical cultures release PEDF and that H₂O₂ treatment causes cell death, increases activated caspase 3 levels and decreases release of PEDF. Exogenous PEDF induces a dose-dependent increase in Bcl-2 expression and neuronal survival. Blocking Bcl-2 expression by siRNA reduced PEDF-induced increases in neuronal survival. Treating cortical cultures with PEDF 24 h before H₂O₂ exposure mitigates oxidant-induced decreases in neuronal survival, Bcl-2 expression, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and also reduces elevated caspase 3 level and activity. PEDF pretreatment effect on survival is blocked by inhibiting ERK or PI3K. However, only inhibition of ERK reduced the ability of PEDF to protect neurons from H₂O₂-induced Bcl-2 decrease and neuronal death. These data demonstrate PEDF-mediated neuroprotection against oxidant injury is largely mediated via ERK1/2 and Bcl-2 and suggest the utility of PEDF in preserving the viability of oxidatively challenged neurons.

  3. Selective inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 blocks nerve growth factor to brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and suppresses the development of and reverses already established pain behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Y; Yang, J

    2012-03-29

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the development of pathological pain. Although it is known that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces BDNF mRNA through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), whether ERK1/2 or ERK5, two closely related members of the ERK family, mediate this signal is still unclear because classical MEK inhibitors block both pathways. We studied the involvement of ERK-signaling in NGF induction of BDNF in PC12 cells, cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons, and in rats subjected to neuropathic pain models using ERK1/2- and ERK5-specific tools. Selective activation of ERK1/2 upregulated BDNF mRNA in PC12 cells, whereas selective ERK5 activation did not. AZD6244, a potent selective inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation, blocked NGF induction of BDNF mRNA in vitro suggesting that NGF induction of BDNF is mediated by ERK1/2. siRNA experiments indicated that both ERK1 or ERK2 can signal suggesting that both pathways must be blocked to prevent NGF-induced increase in BDNF mRNA. I.p. injection of AZD6244 prevented the development of pain in rats subjected to the chronic constriction injury and reversed already established pain in the spared nerve injury model. Immunohistochemical studies showed decreased phospho-ERK1/2-immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia and BDNF immunoreactivity in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn in the drug-treated rats. Our results suggest the possible use of AZD6244, already in human clinical trials as an anticancer agent, for the treatment of pathological pain.

  4. Clozapine protects PC-12 cells from death due to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide via a cell-type specific mechanism involving inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Brian C; Saldanha, Colin J

    2009-08-04

    Recent evidence suggests that some atypical antipsychotic drugs may protect against oxidative stress and consequent neurodegeneration by mechanisms that remain unclear. Using the neuron-like rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line, Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine were tested for their ability to protect against cell death due to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). These drugs demonstrated significant protection of PC-12 cells, as measured by both the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide (MTT) and Alamar Blue cell viability assays. However, neither viability assay detected a protective effect of Clozapine on human embryonic kidney (HEK293), rat primary cortical neurons, or human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) exposed to H(2)O(2) treatment. The mechanism of protection involves a PC-12 cell-specific differential response to H(2)O(2) treatment vs. the other cell lines. Pre-treatment with 250 microM or 125 microM diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, unexpectedly showed protection of the PC-12 cells from H(2)O(2) treatment. Western blots revealed that Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, and DETC reduce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that is caused by H(2)O(2) exposure in PC-12 cells. In both HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells, H(2)O(2) exposure did not increase ERK phosphorylation over control, demonstrating a different response to H(2)O(2) vs. PC-12 cells, and explaining why Clozapine could not protect these cells. Also, U0126, a specific MEK inhibitor, was able to protect PC-12 cells from H(2)O(2) exposure, showing that inhibiting ERK phosphorylation is sufficient to provide protection. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, DETC, and U0126 protect PC-12 cells by blocking the cell-type specific H(2)O(2) induced increase in ERK phosphorylation.

  5. Extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activated in the hippocampal CA1 neurons is critical for retrieval of auditory trace fear memory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hsun; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Liang, Keng-Chen; Thompson, Richard F; Liu, Ingrid Y

    2010-04-22

    The brain regions involved with trace fear conditioning (TFC) and delayed fear conditioning (DFC) are well-characterized, but little is known about the cellular representation subsuming these types of classical conditioning. Previous evidence has shown that activation of the amygdala is required for both TFC and DFC, while TFC also involves the hippocampus for forming conditioned response to tone. Lesions of the hippocampus did not affect tone learning in DFC, but it impaired learning in TFC. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, underlying a cellular representation subsuming learning and memory, is in part modulated by extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. ERK1/2 activation is required for both TFC and DFC during memory formation, but whether this pathway is involved in memory retrieval of TFC is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated changes in ERK1/2 phosphorylation after memory retrieval in groups of mice that received TFC, DFC, tone-shock un-paired conditioning, and naïve control. Our results showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was elevated in the hippocampal CA1 region after retrieval of all conditioned fear responses. In particular, in the TFC group, immunohistochemistry indicated higher level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons 30min after tone testing. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway diminished fear memory elicited by a tone in TFC. Together these results suggest that the memory retrieval process in TFC is more dependent on ERK1/2 signaling pathway than that in DFC. ERK1/2 signaling is critical for retrieval associative memory of temporally noncontiguous stimuli.

  6. Ras-Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 1 (Ras-GRF1) Controls Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Signaling in the Striatum and Long-Term Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Stefania; D’Antoni, Angela; Orban, Paul C.; Valjent, Emmanuel; Putignano, Elena; Vara, Hugo; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Giustetto, Maurizio; Yoon, Bongjune; Soloway, Paul; Maldonado, Rafael; Caboche, Jocelyne; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) signaling is central to the molecular machinery underlying cognitive functions. In the striatum, ERK1/2 kinases are co-activated by glutamate and dopamine D1/5 receptors, but the mechanisms providing such signaling integration are still unknown. The Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 (Ras-GRF1), a neuronal specific activator of Ras-ERK signaling, is a likely candidate for coupling these neurotransmitter signals to ERK kinases in the striatonigral medium spiny neurons (MSN) and for modulating behavioral responses to drug abuse such as cocaine. Methods We used genetically modified mouse mutants for Ras-GRF1 as a source of primary MSN cultures and organotypic slices, to perform both immunoblot and immunofluorescence studies in response to glutamate and dopamine receptor agonists. Mice were also subjected to behavioral and immunohistochemical investigations upon treatment with cocaine. Results Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to glutamate, dopamine D1 agonist, or both stimuli simultaneously is impaired in Ras-GRF1– deficient striatal cells and organotypic slices of the striatonigral MSN compartment. Consistently, behavioral responses to cocaine are also affected in mice deficient for Ras-GRF1 or overexpressing it. Both locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference are significantly attenuated in Ras-GRF1– deficient mice, whereas a robust facilitation is observed in overexpressing transgenic animals. Finally, we found corresponding changes in ERK1/2 activation and in accumulation of FosB/ΔFosB, a well-characterized marker for long-term responses to cocaine, in MSN from these animals. Conclusions These results strongly implicate Ras-GRF1 in the integration of the two main neurotransmitter inputs to the striatum and in the maladaptive modulation of striatal networks in response to cocaine. PMID:19446794

  7. Differential effects of cocaine on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in nuclei of the extended amygdala and prefrontal cortex of psychogenetically selected Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Osvaldo; Corda, Maria G; Sabariego, Marta; Giugliano, Valentina; Piludu, Maria A; Rosas, Michela; Acquas, Elio

    2015-05-01

    Roman high (RHA)- and low (RLA)-avoidance rats are selectively bred for rapid vs. poor acquisition of active avoidance, respectively, and differ markedly in emotional reactivity, coping style, and behavioral and neurochemical responses to morphine and psychostimulants. Accordingly, acute cocaine induces more robust increments in locomotion and dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) of RHA than of RLA rats. Cocaine induces short- and long-term neuronal plasticity via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. This study compares the effects of acute cocaine on ERK phosphorylation (pERK) in limbic brain areas of Roman rats. In RHA but not RLA rats, cocaine (5 mg/kg) increased pERK in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and AcbSh, two areas involved in its acute effects, but did not modify pERK in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and Acb core, which mediate the chronic effects of cocaine. Moreover, cocaine failed to affect pERK immunolabeling in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis pars lateralis and central amygdala of either line but increased it in the basolateral amygdala of RLA rats. These results extend to pERK expression previous findings on the greater sensitivity to acute cocaine of RHA vs. RLA rats and confirm the notion that genetic factors influence the differential responses of the Roman lines to addictive drugs. Moreover, they support the view that the Roman lines are a useful tool to investigate the molecular underpinnings of individual vulnerability to drug addiction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. c-Met Overexpression Contributes to the Acquired Apoptotic Resistance of Nonadherent Ovarian Cancer Cells through a Cross Talk Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/212

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Maggie K S; Zhou, Hong Y; Yam, Judy W P; Wong, Alice S T

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer mainly because of widespread peritoneal dissemination and malignant ascites. Key to this is the capacity of tumor cells to escape suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis), which also underlies their resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we used a nonadherent cell culture model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of apoptotic resistance of ovarian cancer cells that may mimic the chemoresistance found in solid tumors. We found that ovarian cancer cells acquired a remarkable resistance to anoikis and apoptosis induced by exposure to clinically relevant doses of two front-line chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel when grown in three-dimensional than monolayer cultures. Inhibition of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met, which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer, by a specific inhibitor or small interfering RNA blocked the acquired anoikis resistance and restored chemosensitivity in three-dimensional not in two-dimensional cultures. These effects were found to be dependent on both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling pathways. Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt abrogated ERK1/2 activation and its associated anoikis resistance in response to HGF, suggesting a signaling relay between these two pathways. Furthermore, we identified a central role of Ras as a mechanism of this cross talk. Interestingly, Ras did not lie upstream of PI3K/Akt, whereas PI3K/Akt signaling to ERK1/2 involved Ras. These findings shed new light on the apoptotic resistance mechanism of nonadherent ovarian cancer ascites cells and may have important clinical implications. PMID:20126471

  9. An N-terminal Nuclear Export Signal Regulates Trafficking and Aggregation of Huntingtin (Htt) Protein Exon 1*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiqiang; Li, Aimin; Holmes, Brandon B.; Marasa, Jayne C.; Diamond, Marc I.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative condition caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of the huntingtin protein (Htt). The first 17 amino acids (N17) of Htt play a key role in regulating its toxicity and aggregation. Both nuclear export and cytoplasm retention functions have been ascribed to N17. We have determined that N17 acts as a nuclear export sequence (NES) within Htt exon and when fused to yellow fluorescent protein. We have defined amino acids within N17 that constitute the nuclear export sequence (NES). Mutation of any of the conserved residues increases nuclear accumulation of Htt exon 1. Nuclear export of Htt is sensitive to leptomycin B and is reduced by knockdown of exportin 1. In HEK293 cells, NES mutations decrease overall Htt aggregation but increase the fraction of cells with nuclear inclusions. In primary cultured neurons, NES mutations increase nuclear accumulation and increase overall aggregation. This work defines a bona fide nuclear export sequence within N17 and links it to effects on protein aggregation. This may help explain the important role of N17 in controlling Htt toxicity. PMID:23319588

  10. An N-terminal nuclear export signal regulates trafficking and aggregation of Huntingtin (Htt) protein exon 1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiqiang; Li, Aimin; Holmes, Brandon B; Marasa, Jayne C; Diamond, Marc I

    2013-03-01

    Huntington disease is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative condition caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of the huntingtin protein (Htt). The first 17 amino acids (N17) of Htt play a key role in regulating its toxicity and aggregation. Both nuclear export and cytoplasm retention functions have been ascribed to N17. We have determined that N17 acts as a nuclear export sequence (NES) within Htt exon and when fused to yellow fluorescent protein. We have defined amino acids within N17 that constitute the nuclear export sequence (NES). Mutation of any of the conserved residues increases nuclear accumulation of Htt exon 1. Nuclear export of Htt is sensitive to leptomycin B and is reduced by knockdown of exportin 1. In HEK293 cells, NES mutations decrease overall Htt aggregation but increase the fraction of cells with nuclear inclusions. In primary cultured neurons, NES mutations increase nuclear accumulation and increase overall aggregation. This work defines a bona fide nuclear export sequence within N17 and links it to effects on protein aggregation. This may help explain the important role of N17 in controlling Htt toxicity.

  11. Glutathione S-transferase class μ regulation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protein during VCD-induced ovotoxicity in neonatal rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Madden, Jill A; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B; Keating, Aileen F

    2013-02-15

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also studied. Postnatal day (PND) 4 rat ovaries were cultured in control media ± 1) VCD (30 μM) for 2-8 days; 2) VCD (30 μM) for 2 days, followed by incubation in control media for 4 days (acute VCD exposure); or 3) LY294002 (20 μM) for 6 days. VCD exposure did not alter Gstm mRNA expression, however, GSTM protein increased (P<0.05) after 6 days of both the acute and chronic treatments. Ask1 mRNA increased (0.33-fold; P<0.05) relative to control after 6 days of VCD exposure. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was confirmed and, relative to control, the amount of GSTM bound to ASK1 increased 33% (P<0.05) by chronic but with no effect of acute VCD exposure. PI3K inhibition increased (P<0.05) GSTM protein by 40% and 71% on d4 and d6, respectively. These findings support involvement of GSTM in the ovarian response to VCD exposure, through regulation of pro-apoptotic ASK1.

  12. In vitro Determination of Extracellular Proteins from Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Juliano S.; Santiago, André S.; Toledo, Marcelo A. S.; Horta, Maria A. C.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Anete P.

    2016-01-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes economic losses in important agricultural crops. Xylem vessel occlusion caused by biofilm formation is the major mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of distinct strains of X. fastidiosa. Here, we provide a detailed in vitro characterization of the extracellular proteins of X. fastidiosa. Based on the results, we performed a comparison with a strain J1a12, which cannot induce citrus variegated chlorosis symptoms when inoculated into citrus plants. We then extend this approach to analyze the extracellular proteins of X. fastidiosa in media supplemented with calcium. We verified increases in extracellular proteins concomitant with the days of growth and, consequently, biofilm development (3–30 days). Outer membrane vesicles carrying toxins were identified beginning at 10 days of growth in the 9a5c strain. In addition, a decrease in extracellular proteins in media supplemented with calcium was observed in both strains. Using mass spectrometry, 71 different proteins were identified during 30 days of X. fastidiosa biofilm development, including proteases, quorum-sensing proteins, biofilm formation proteins, hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, chaperones, toxins, antitoxins, and extracellular vesicle membrane components. PMID:28082960

  13. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Novel Phosphorylation Events in Insulin Signaling Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulatory Subunit 12A

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Ma, Danjun; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique; Qi, Yue; Yi, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A (PPP1R12A) modulates the activity and specificity of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1, regulating various cellular processes via dephosphorylation. Nonetheless, little is known about phosphorylation events controlled by PPP1R12A in skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Here, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to generate a global picture of phosphorylation events regulated by PPP1R12A in a L6 skeletal muscle cell line, which were engineered for inducible PPP1R12A knockdown. Phosphoproteomics revealed 3876 phosphorylation sites (620 were novel) in these cells. Furthermore, PPP1R12A knockdown resulted in increased overall phosphorylation in L6 cells at the basal condition, and changed phosphorylation levels for 698 sites (assigned to 295 phosphoproteins) at the basal and/or insulin-stimulated conditions. Pathway analysis on the 295 phosphoproteins revealed multiple significantly enriched pathways related to insulin signaling, such as mTOR signaling and RhoA signaling. Moreover, phosphorylation levels for numerous regulatory sites in these pathways were significantly changed due to PPP1R12A knockdown. These results indicate that PPP1R12A indeed plays a role in skeletal muscle insulin signaling, providing novel insights into the biology of insulin action. This new information may facilitate the design of experiments to better understand mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24972320

  14. BIP, a BRAM-interacting protein involved in TGF-beta signalling, regulates body length in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, K; Morita, K; Ueno, N; Shibuya, H

    2001-07-01

    The TGF-beta superfamily has diverse biological activities and is involved in the early development of animals. We previously identified a novel family member, BMP receptor associated molecule (BRAM), which binds to the intracellular domain of BMP type IA receptor and is involved in the BMP signalling pathway. To identify novel molecules involved in TGF-beta signalling pathways, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using BRAM as bait. From a Xenopus cDNA library, we cloned a cDNA encoding 693 amino acids and containing the motif for an oxysterol binding protein (OSBP), which we designated BRAM interacting protein (BIP). We then isolated a BIP homologue from the Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes 733 amino acids and also contains the OSBP-like motif. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting studies revealed that C. elegans BIP could interact with the C. elegans BRAM homologues BRA-1 and BRA-2. C. elegans BIP was expressed in pharyngeal muscle, hypodermis and several neuronal cells, an expression pattern overlaps with those of BRA-1 and BRA-2. Finally, we found that inhibition of BIP expression in C. elegans by double stranded RNA interference produces a Sma phenotype. BIP was isolated using the yeast two-hybrid systems. BIP may function in the TGF-beta pathway and regulate body length in C. elegans.

  15. eIF5A-PEAK1 Signaling Regulates YAP1/TAZ Protein Expression and Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Strnadel, Jan; Choi, Sunkyu; Fujimura, Ken; Wang, Huawei; Zhang, Wei; Wyse, Meghan; Wright, Tracy; Gross, Emilie; Peinado, Carlos; Park, Hyun Woo; Bui, Jack; Kelber, Jonathan; Bouvet, Michael; Guan, Kun-Liang; Klemke, Richard L

    2017-04-15

    In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), mutant KRAS stimulates the translation initiation factor eIF5A and upregulates the focal adhesion kinase PEAK1, which transmits integrin and growth factor signals mediated by the tumor microenvironment. Although eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling contributes to multiple aggressive cancer cell phenotypes, the downstream signaling processes that mediate these responses are uncharacterized. Through proteomics and informatic analyses of PEAK1-depleted PDAC cells, we defined protein translation, cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cycle regulatory pathways as major pathways controlled by PEAK1. Biochemical and functional studies revealed that the transcription factors YAP1 and TAZ are key targets of eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling. YAP1/TAZ coimmunoprecipitated with PEAK1. Interfering with eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling in PDAC cells inhibited YAP/TAZ protein expression, decreasing expression of stem cell-associated transcription factors (STF) including Oct4, Nanog, c-Myc, and TEAD, thereby decreasing three-dimensional (3D) tumor sphere growth. Conversely, amplified eIF5A-PEAK1 signaling increased YAP1/TAZ expression, increasing expression of STF and enhancing 3D tumor sphere growth. Informatic interrogation of mRNA sequence databases revealed upregulation of the eIF5A-PEAK1-YAP1-TEAD signaling module in PDAC patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that eIF5A-PEAK1-YAP signaling contributes to PDAC development by regulating an STF program associated with increased tumorigenicity. Cancer Res; 77(8); 1997-2007. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Glutathione S-transferase class mu regulation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protein during VCD-induced ovotoxicity in neonatal rat ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Madden, Jill A.; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2013-02-15

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also studied. Postnatal day (PND) 4 rat ovaries were cultured in control media ± 1) VCD (30 μM) for 2–8 days; 2) VCD (30 μM) for 2 days, followed by incubation in control media for 4 days (acute VCD exposure); or 3) LY294002 (20 μM) for 6 days. VCD exposure did not alter Gstm mRNA expression, however, GSTM protein increased (P < 0.05) after 6 days of both the acute and chronic treatments. Ask1 mRNA increased (0.33-fold; P < 0.05) relative to control after 6 days of VCD exposure. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was confirmed and, relative to control, the amount of GSTM bound to ASK1 increased 33% (P < 0.05) by chronic but with no effect of acute VCD exposure. PI3K inhibition increased (P < 0.05) GSTM protein by 40% and 71% on d4 and d6, respectively. These findings support involvement of GSTM in the ovarian response to VCD exposure, through regulation of pro-apoptotic ASK1. - Highlights: ► GSTM protein increases in response to ovarian VCD exposure. ► VCD increases Ask1 mRNA at the onset of follicle loss. ► Ovarian GSTM binds more ASK1 protein during VCD-induced ovotoxicity. ► PI3K regulates ovarian GSTM protein.

  17. Differential involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala extracellular signal-regulated kinase in extinction of conditioned taste aversion is dependent on different intervals of extinction following conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lin, P-Y; Wang, S-P; Tai, M-Y; Tsai, Y-F

    2010-11-24

    Extinction reflects a decrease in the conditioned response (CR) following non-reinforcement of a conditioned stimulus. Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction involves an inhibitory learning mechanism in which the extinguished CR reappears with presentation of an unconditioned stimulus. However, recent studies on fear conditioning suggest that extinction erases the original conditioning if the time interval between fear acquisition and extinction is short. The present study examined the effects of different intervals between acquisition and extinction of the original memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Male Long-Evans rats acquired CTA by associating a 0.2% sucrose solution with malaise induced by i.p. injection of 4 ml/kg 0.15 M LiCl. Two different time intervals, 5 and 24 h, between CTA acquisition and extinction were used. Five or 24 h after CTA acquisition, extinction trials were performed, in which a bottle containing 20 ml of a 0.2% sucrose solution was provided for 10 min without subsequent LiCl injection. If sucrose consumption during the extinction trials was greater than the average water consumption, then rats were considered to have reached CTA extinction. Rats subjected to extinction trials lasting 24 h, but not 5 h, after acquisition re-exhibited the extinguished CR following injection of 0.15 M LiCl alone 7 days after acquisition. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) was examined by Western blot after the first extinction trial. ERK activation in the mPFC was induced after the extinction trial beginning 5 h after acquisition, whereas the extinction trial performed 24 h after acquisition induced ERK activation in the BLA. These data suggest that the original conditioning can be inhibited or retained by CTA extinction depending on the time interval between acquisition and extinction and that the ERK transduction pathway in the mPFC and BLA is

  18. G protein-coupled receptors: bridging the gap from the extracellular signals to the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Wei; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is crucial in organ size control, whereas its dysregulation contributes to organ degeneration or tumorigenesis. The kinase cascade of MST1/2 and LATS1/2 and the coupling transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ represent the core components of the Hippo pathway. Extensive studies have identified a number of upstream regulators of the Hippo pathway, including contact inhibition, mechanic stress, extracellular matrix stiffness, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and some molecules of cell polarity and cell junction. However, how the diffuse extracellular signals regulate the Hippo pathway puzzles the researchers for a long time. Unexpectedly, recent elegant studies demonstrated that stimulation of some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as lysophosphatidic acid receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, and the protease activated receptor PAR1, causes potent YAP/TAZ dephosphorylation and activation by promoting actin cytoskeleton assemble. In this review, we briefly describe the components of the Hippo pathway and focus on the recent progress with respect to the regulation of the Hippo pathway by GPCRs and G proteins in cancer cells. In addition, we also discuss the potential therapeutic roles targeting the Hippo pathway in human cancers.

  19. Inhibition of Protein Kinase Akt1 by Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase-1 (ASK1) Is Involved in Apoptotic Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Increase*

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Muthangi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Mohri, Tatsuma; Okada, Yasunobu

    2010-01-01

    Most animal cell types regulate their cell volume after an osmotic volume change. The regulatory volume increase (RVI) occurs through uptake of NaCl and osmotically obliged water after osmotic shrinkage. However, apoptotic cells undergo persistent cell shrinkage without showing signs of RVI. Persistence of the apoptotic volume decrease is a prerequisite to apoptosis induction. We previously demonstrated that volume regulation is inhibited in human epithelial HeLa cells stimulated with the apoptosis inducer. Here, we studied signaling mechanisms underlying the apoptotic inhibition of RVI in HeLa cells. Hypertonic stimulation was found to induce phosphorylation of a Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B). Shrinkage-induced Akt activation was essential for RVI induction because RVI was suppressed by an Akt inhibitor, expression of a dominant negative form of Akt, or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Akt1 (but not Akt2). Staurosporine, tumor necrosis factor-α, or a Fas ligand inhibited both RVI and hypertonicity-induced Akt activation in a manner sensitive to a scavenger for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Any of apoptosis inducers also induced phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in a ROS-dependent manner. Suppression of (ASK1) expression blocked the effects of apoptosis, in hypertonic conditions, on both RVI induction and Akt activation. Thus, it is concluded that in human epithelial cells, shrinkage-induced activation of Akt1 is involved in the RVI process and that apoptotic inhibition of RVI is caused by inhibition of Akt activation, which results from ROS-mediated activation of ASK1. PMID:20048146

  20. Extracellular proteins limit the dispersal of biogenic nanoparticles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreau, J.W.; Weber, P.K.; Martin, M.C.; Gilbert, B.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Banfield, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution secondary ion microprobe spectrometry, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrated the intimate association of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization. Experiments involving synthetic zinc sulfide nanoparticles and representative amino acids indicated a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticle aggregation. These findings suggest that microbially derived extracellular proteins can limit the dispersal of nanoparticulate metal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation, that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurface fluid flow.

  1. Extracellular proteins of Cryptococcus neoformans and host antibody response.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L C; Pirofski, L A; Casadevall, A

    1997-01-01

    Proteins secreted by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans may be involved in invasion and could be useful in vaccine design. Despite the medical importance of this fungus, little is known about its extracellular proteins or the immune response to these antigens. To study C. neoformans extracellular proteins, 12 strains were metabolically radiolabeled and protein supernatants were analyzed. Both strain- and growth condition-dependent differences were observed. Enzymatic assays of filtered culture supernatants revealed butyrate esterase and caprylate esterase lipase activity for 11 of 12 strains, as well as acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, and beta-glucosidase activities in some strains. Serum from infected rodents immunoprecipitated several secreted proteins, consistent with in vivo expression and development of an antibody response. For strain 24067, two immunodominant species, of approximately 75 and 30 kDa, were recognized. The relative intensity of the autoradiographic bands depended on the route of infection for both rats and mice. In summary, our results indicate that (i) there are multiple proteins in C. neoformans culture supernatants, (ii) there are strain differences in supernatant protein profiles, (iii) there are differences in supernatant protein profile depending on the growth conditions, (iv) there are several new extracellular and/or cell-associated enzymatic activities, and (v) antibodies to several supernatant proteins are made in the course of infection. PMID:9199426

  2. Conformal Nanopatterning of Extracellular Matrix Proteins onto Topographically Complex Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Jallerat, Quentin; Szymanski, John M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for conformal nanopatterning of extracellular matrix proteins onto engineered surfaces independent of underlying microtopography. This enables fibronectin, laminin, and other proteins to be applied to biomaterial surfaces in complex geometries inaccessible using traditional soft lithography techniques. Engineering combinatorial surfaces that integrate topographical and biochemical micropatterns enhances control of the biotic-abiotic interface, used here to understand cardiomyocyte response to competing physical and chemical cues in the microenvironment. PMID:25506720

  3. EXTRACELLULAR HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS: A NEW LOCATION, A NEW FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    De Maio, Antonio; Vazquez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) is a basic and well conserved cellular response to an array of stresses. These proteins are involved in the repair of cellular damage induced by the stress, which is necessary for the salutary resolution from the insult. Moreover, they confer protection from subsequent insults, which has been coined stress tolerance. Since these proteins are expressed in subcellular compartments, it was thought that their function during stress conditions was circumscribed to the intracellular environment. However, it is now well established that hsp can also be present outside cells where they appear to display a function different than the well understood chaperone role. Extracellular hsp act as alert stress signals priming other cells, particularly of the immune system, to avoid the propagation of the insult and favor resolution. Since the majority of hsp do not possess a secretory peptide signal, they are likely be exported by a non-classical secretory pathway. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the export of hsp, including translocation across the plasma membrane and release associated with lipid vesicles, as well as the passive release after cell death by necrosis. Extracellular hsp appear in various flavors, including membrane-bound and membrane-free forms. All of these variants of extracellular hsp suggest that their interactions with cells may be quite diverse, both in target cell types and the activation signaling pathways. This review addresses some of our current knowledge about the release and relevance of extracellular hsp. PMID:23807250

  4. Defects in extracellular matrix structural proteins in the osteochondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Cohn, D H

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the genes that encode structural proteins of the extracellular matrix affect one or more steps in the diverse set of coordinated events necessary for ordered skeletal development. Depending on the role of the gene product and the severity of the defect, disruption of endochondral ossification and linear growth, the structural integrity and stability of articular cartilage, and/or mineralization can occur. Several themes have emerged from the molecular dissection of these disorders; most of the osteochondrodysplasias that result from defects in structural proteins are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion; a spectrum of related clinical phenotypes can be produced by distinct mutations in the same gene; haploinsufficiency for the gene product usually produces a milder clinical phenotype than do mutations resulting in synthesis of structurally abnormal proteins. For structural defects, a dominant-negative effect resulting from presence of the abnormal protein in the matrix appears to be the primary determinant of phenotype. Secondary effects on extracellular matrix protein structure can result from defects in post-translational maturation, including hydroxylation, sulfation and proteolytic cleavage, and produce distinct osteochondrodysplasias. Overall, the inherited disorders of skeletogenesis have revealed the exquisite sensitivity of the architecture of the extracellular matrix to the quantity and quality of matrix molecules.

  5. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in synaptic transmission and plasticity of a nociceptive input on capsular central amygdaloid neurons in normal and acid-induced muscle pain mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sin-Jhong; Chen, Chien-Chang; Yang, Hsiu-Wen; Chang, Ya-Ting; Bai, Shin-Wen; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Chen-Tung; Min, Ming-Yuan

    2011-02-09

    Application of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) caused marked enhancement of synaptic transmission of nociceptive parabrachio-amygdaloid (PBA) input onto neurons of the capsular central amygdaloid (CeAC) nucleus. The potentiation of PBA-CeAC EPSCs by PDA involved a presynaptic protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent component and a postsynaptic PKC-extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent component. NMDA glutamatergic receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of PBA-CeAC EPSCs, which was also dependent on the PKC-ERK signaling pathway, was induced by tetanus stimulation at 100 Hz. In slices from mice subjected to acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP), phosphorylated ERK levels in the CeAC increased, and PBA-CeAC synaptic transmission was postsynaptically enhanced. The enhanced PBA-CeAC synaptic transmission in AIMP mice shared common mechanisms with the postsynaptic potentiation effect of PDA and induction of NMDAR-dependent LTP by high-frequency stimulation in normal slices, both of which required ERK activation. Since the CeAC plays an important role in the emotionality of pain, enhanced synaptic function of nociceptive (PBA) inputs onto CeAC neurons might partially account for the supraspinal mechanisms underlying central sensitization.

  6. Domain structure and organisation in extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, Erhard; Engel, Jürgen

    2002-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are large modular molecules built up from a limited set of modules, or domains. The basic folds of many domains have now been determined by crystallography or NMR spectroscopy. Recent structures of domain pairs and larger tandem arrays, as well as of oligomerisation domains, have begun to reveal the principles underlying the higher order architecture of ECM proteins. Structural information, coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, has been instrumental in showing how adjacent domains can co-operate in ligand binding. Very recently, the first heterotypic ECM protein complexes have become available. Here, we review the advances of the last 5 years in understanding ECM protein structure, with special emphasis on those structures that have given insight into the biological functions of ECM proteins.

  7. Extracellular Proteins Limit the Dispersal of BiogenicNanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, John W.; Weber, Peter K.; Martin, Michael C.; Gilbert,Benjamin; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-04-27

    High spatial-resolution secondaryion microprobespectrometry, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infraredspectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrate the intimateassociation of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zincsulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization.Experiments involving synthetic ZnS nanoparticles and representativeamino acids indicate a driving role for cysteine in rapid nanoparticleaggregation. These findings suggest that microbially-derivedextracellular proteins can limit dispersal of nanoparticulatemetal-bearing phases, such as the mineral products of bioremediation,that may otherwise be transported away from their source by subsurfacefluid flow.

  8. Heat treatment of peach fruit: modifications in the extracellular compartment and identification of novel extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Claudia A; Budde, Claudio O; Borsani, Julia; Lombardo, Verónica A; Lauxmann, Martin A; Andreo, Carlos S; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F

    2012-11-01

    Ripening of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit is accompanied by dramatic cell wall changes that lead to softening. Post-harvest heat treatment is effective in delaying softening and preventing some chilling injury symptoms that this fruit exhibits after storage at low temperatures. In the present work, the levels of twelve transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism, as well as the differential extracellular proteome, were examined after a post-harvest heat treatment (HT; 39 °C for 3 days) of "Dixiland" peach fruit. A typical softening behaviour, in correlation with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase-1 (PpACO1), was observed for peach maintained at 20 °C for 3 days (R3). Six transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism significantly increased in R3 with respect to peach at harvest, while six showed no modification or even decreased. In contrast, after HT, fruit maintained their firmness, exhibiting low PpACO1 level and significant lower levels of the twelve cell wall-modifying genes than in R3. Differential proteomic analysis of apoplastic proteins during softening and after HT revealed a significant decrease of DUF642 proteins after HT; as well as an increase of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) after softening. The presence of GAPC in the peach extracellular matrix was further confirmed by in situ immunolocalization and transient expression in tomato fruit. Though further studies are required to establish the function of DUF642 and GAPC in the apoplast, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the events during peach softening and after HT with a focus on this key compartment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Extracellular Proteins: Novel Key Components of Metal Resistance in Cyanobacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Giner-Lamia, Joaquín; Pereira, Sara B.; Bovea-Marco, Miquel; Futschik, Matthias E.; Tamagnini, Paula; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Metals are essential for all living organisms and required for fundamental biochemical processes. However, when in excess, metals can turn into highly-toxic agents able to disrupt cell membranes, alter enzymatic activities, and damage DNA. Metal concentrations are therefore tightly controlled inside cells, particularly in cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are ecologically relevant prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis and can be found in many different marine and freshwater ecosystems, including environments contaminated with heavy metals. As their photosynthetic machinery imposes high demands for metals, homeostasis of these micronutrients has been widely studied in cyanobacteria. So far, most studies have focused on how cells are capable of controlling their internal metal pools, with a strong bias toward the analysis of intracellular processes. Ultrastructure, modulation of physiology, dynamic changes in transcription and protein levels have been studied, but what takes place in the extracellular environment when cells are exposed to an unbalanced metal availability remains largely unknown. The interest in studying the subset of proteins present in the extracellular space has only recently begun and the identification and functional analysis of the cyanobacterial exoproteomes are just emerging. Remarkably, metal-related proteins such as the copper-chaperone CopM or the iron-binding protein FutA2 have already been identified outside the cell. With this perspective, we aim to raise the awareness that metal-resistance mechanisms are not yet fully known and hope to motivate future studies assessing the role of extracellular proteins on bacterial metal homeostasis, with a special focus on cyanobacteria. PMID:27375598

  10. Extracellular Antibody Drug Conjugates Exploiting the Proximity of Two Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, David J; Harried, Scott S; Murphy, John L; Hall, Chad A; Shekhani, Mohammed S; Pain, Christophe; Lyons, Conner A; Chillemi, Antonella; Malavasi, Fabio; Pearce, Homer L; Thorson, Jon S; Prudent, James R

    2016-01-01

    The human Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) is a plasma membrane ion pump that uses ATP to help maintain the resting potential of all human cells. Inhibition of the NKA leads to cell swelling and death. The results of this investigation show that on cancer cells, the NKA either comes in close proximity to, associate with or complexes to important cancer-related proteins, and thus can be targeted with a new type of precision therapy called the extracellular drug conjugate or EDC. The EDCs reported here exhibit EC50 values in the low to mid-picomolar range, and signal to noise ratios > 1,000:1, both of which are dependent on the cell surface expression of the NKA and corresponding cancer-related target. We demonstrate that a potent small molecule inhibitor of the NKA can be covalently attached to antibodies targeting CD20, CD38, CD56, CD147, or dysadherin, to create a series of selective and powerful EDCs that kill cancer cells extracellularly by a mechanism resembling necrosis. This is therefore a framework for the development of a new type of precision therapy wherein exquisite selectivity is achieved for targeting extracellular disease-related proteins. PMID:27434591

  11. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M; Kerwin, James; Guerrero, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen, can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24-h biofilms, two were found only in 96-h biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation.

  12. Secretion and extracellular space travel of Wnt proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Julia Christina; Boutros, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Wnt signaling pathways control many processes during development, stem cell maintenance and homeostasis, and their aberrant regulation has been linked to diseases in man including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Wnts are hydrophobic proteins, however, quite paradoxically, they can travel over distances to induce cell-type specific responses. While there has been an initial focus on elucidating the intracellular signaling cascade, discoveries in the past few years have shed light on a highly complex, and regulated secretory process that guides Wnt proteins through the exocytic pathway. Wnt proteins are at least in portion packaged onto extracellular carriers such as exosomes. Similar to dysregulation of components in the Wnt receiving cell, failure to regulate Wnt secretion has been linked to cancer. Here, we review recent discoveries on factors and processes implicated in Wnt secretion.

  13. Convertase Inhibitory Properties of Staphylococcal Extracellular Complement-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Jongerius, Ilse; Garcia, Brandon L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus secretes several complement evasion molecules to combat the human immune response. Extracellular complement-binding protein (Ecb) binds to the C3d domain of C3 and thereby blocks C3 convertases of the alternative pathway and C5 convertases via all complement pathways. Inhibition of C5 convertases results in complete inhibition of C5a generation and subsequent neutrophil migration. Here, we show that binding of Ecb to the C3d domain of C3b is crucial for inhibition of C5 convertases. Ecb does not interfere with substrate binding to convertases but prevents formation of an active convertase enzyme. PMID:20304920

  14. Vascular wall extracellular matrix proteins and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins form the basic structure of blood vessels. Along with providing basic structural support to blood vessels, matrix proteins interact with different sets of vascular cells via cell surface integrin or non-integrin receptors. Such interactions induce vascular cell de novo synthesis of new matrix proteins during blood vessel development or remodeling. Under pathological conditions, vascular matrix proteins undergo proteolytic processing, yielding bioactive fragments to influence vascular wall matrix remodeling. Vascular cells also produce alternatively spliced variants that induce vascular cell production of different matrix proteins to interrupt matrix homeostasis, leading to increased blood vessel stiffness; vascular cell migration, proliferation, or death; or vascular wall leakage and rupture. Destruction of vascular matrix proteins leads to vascular cell or blood-borne leukocyte accumulation, proliferation, and neointima formation within the vascular wall; blood vessels prone to uncontrolled enlargement during blood flow diastole; tortuous vein development; and neovascularization from existing pathological tissue microvessels. Here we summarize discoveries related to blood vessel matrix proteins within the past decade from basic and clinical studies in humans and animals — from expression to cross-linking, assembly, and degradation under physiological and vascular pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, varicose veins, and hypertension. PMID:25045854

  15. Domain organizations of modular extracellular matrix proteins and their evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, J

    1996-11-01

    Multidomain proteins which are composed of modular units are a rather recent invention of evolution. Domains are defined as autonomously folding regions of a protein, and many of them are similar in sequence and structure, indicating common ancestry. Their modular nature is emphasized by frequent repetitions in identical or in different proteins and by a large number of different combinations with other domains. The extracellular matrix is perhaps the largest biological system composed of modular mosaic proteins, and its astonishing complexity and diversity are based on them. A cluster of minireviews on modular proteins is being published in Matrix Biology. These deal with the evolution of modular proteins, the three-dimensional structure of domains and the ways in which these interact in a multidomain protein. They discuss structure-function relationships in calcium binding domains, collagen helices, alpha-helical coiled-coil domains and C-lectins. The present minireview is focused on some general aspects and serves as an introduction to the cluster.

  16. [Inhibitory proteins of neuritic regeneration in the extracellular matrix: structure, molecular interactions and their functions. Mechanisms of extracellular balance].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Javier; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    After injury of the central nervous system (CNS) in higher vertebrates, neurons neither grow nor reconnect with their targets because their axons or dendrites cannot regenerate within the injured site. In the CNS, the signal from the environment regulating neurite regeneration is not exclusively generated by one molecular group. This signal is generated by the interaction of various types of molecules such as extracellular matrix proteins, soluble factors and surface membrane molecules; all these elements interact with one another generating the matrix's biological state: the extracellular balance. Proteins in the balanced extracellular matrix, support and promote cellular physiological states, including neuritic regeneration. We have reviewed three types of proteins of the extracellular matrix possessing an inhibitory effect and that are determinant of neuritic regeneration failure in the CNS: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans and tenascin. We also review some of the mechanisms involved in the balance of extracellular proteins such as isomerization, epimerization, sulfation and glycosylation as well as the assemblage of the extracellular matrix, the interaction between the matrix and soluble factors and its proteolytic degradation. In the final section, we have presented some examples of the matrix's role in development and in tumor propagation.

  17. Transient protein-protein interactions and a random-ordered kinetic mechanism for the phosphorylation of a transcription factor by extracellular-regulated protein kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Waas, William F; Dalby, Kevin N

    2002-04-12

    No thorough mechanistic study of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) has appeared in the literature. A recombinant protein termed EtsDelta138, which comprises of residues 1-138 of the transcription factor Ets-1 is an excellent substrate of ERK2 (Waas W. F., and Dalby, K. N. (2001) Protein Exp. Purif. 23, 191-197). The kinetic mechanism of ERK2 was examined, with excess magnesium, by initial velocity measurements, both in the absence and presence of products at 27 degrees C, pH 7.5, and ionic strength 0.1 m (KCl). The velocity data are consistent with a steady-state random-ordered ternary complex mechanism, where both substrates have unhindered access to binding sites on the enzyme. The mechanism and magnitude of product inhibition by monophosphorylated EtsDelta138 is consistent with, but does not prove, the notion that ERK2 forms a discrete interaction with EtsDelta138 in the absence of active site interactions, and that this "docking complex" facilitates intramolecular phosphorylation of the substrate. The approximation of the steady-state data to a rapid equilibrium model strongly suggests that the formation of ERK2.Ets138 complexes are transient in nature with dissociation constants of greater magnitude than the catalytic constant, of k(cat) = 17 s(-1).

  18. Extracellular cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ECPKA) in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tsunekazu; Goydos, James; Reitman, Elena; Ravatn, Roald; Lin, Yong; Shih, Wei-Chung; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2004-05-28

    Melanoma is one of the fastest rising malignancies in the United States. When detected early, primary melanomas are curable through surgery. However, despite significant improvements in diagnosis and surgical, local and systemic therapy, mortality rate in metastatic melanoma remains high. Furthermore, genetic alterations associated with the development and stepwise progression of melanoma, are still unclear. Previous reports show that the catalytic kinase subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is secreted by tumor cells and can be detected in the serum of cancer patients. We examine in this report the clinical significance of this secreted C subunit kinase termed extracellular protein kinase (ECPKA) in melanoma patients. Our results showed the presence of ECPKA activity in the serum of melanoma patients and correlate with the appearance and size of the tumor. Most importantly, surgical removal of melanoma causes a precipitous decrease in ECPKA activity in the sera of patients, suggesting that ECPKA may be a novel predictive marker in melanoma.

  19. Designing an extracellular matrix protein with enhanced mechanical stability

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sean P.; Billings, Kate S.; Ohashi, Tomoo; Allen, Mark D.; Best, Robert B.; Randles, Lucy G.; Erickson, Harold P.; Clarke, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular matrix proteins tenascin and fibronectin experience significant mechanical forces in vivo. Both contain a number of tandem repeating homologous fibronectin type III (fnIII) domains, and atomic force microscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical strength of these domains can vary significantly. Previous work has shown that mutations in the core of an fnIII domain from human tenascin (TNfn3) reduce the unfolding force of that domain significantly: The composition of the core is apparently crucial to the mechanical stability of these proteins. Based on these results, we have used rational redesign to increase the mechanical stability of the 10th fnIII domain of human fibronectin, FNfn10, which is directly involved in integrin binding. The hydrophobic core of FNfn10 was replaced with that of the homologous, mechanically stronger TNfn3 domain. Despite the extensive substitution, FNoTNc retains both the three-dimensional structure and the cell adhesion activity of FNfn10. Atomic force microscopy experiments reveal that the unfolding forces of the engineered protein FNoTNc increase by ≈20% to match those of TNfn3. Thus, we have specifically designed a protein with increased mechanical stability. Our results demonstrate that core engineering can be used to change the mechanical strength of proteins while retaining functional surface interactions. PMID:17535921

  20. An innovative protocol for schwann cells extracellular matrix proteins extraction.

    PubMed

    Parisi, L; Zomer Volpato, F; Cagol, N; Siciliano, M; Migliaresi, C; Motta, A; Sala, R

    2016-12-01

    The evidence that extracellular matrix (ECM) components could represent new targets for drugs designed to approach degenerative disease, requires their analysis. Before the analysis, proteins should be extracted from ECM and solubilized. Currently, few protocols for ECM proteins extraction and solubilization are available in literature, and most of them are based mainly on the use of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin, which often lead to proteins damage. Moreover, no methods have been so far proposed to solubilize Schwann Cell ECM, which may represent an important target for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. In our study, we propose to solubilize SC ECM through the use of surfactants and urea. We compared our method of solubilization, with one of that proposed in literature for a general ECM, mainly based on the use of enzymes. We want to highlight the benefit of solubilizing SC ECM, avoiding the use of proteolytic enzymes. To compare the amount of proteins extracted with both methods, MicroBCA assay was used, while the quality of the proteins extracted was observed through the SDS-PAGE. The results obtained confirm a better solubilization of SC ECM proteins with the proposed protocol, both quantitatively and qualitatively, showing a higher concentration of proteins extracted and a better enrichment of protein fractions, if compared to the enzyme-based protocol. Our results show that SC ECM could be efficiently solubilized through the use of surfactant and urea, avoiding the use of enzyme-base methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 3175-3180, 2016.

  1. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  2. Preparation of Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers for Brillouin Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Edginton, Ryan S; Mattana, Sara; Caponi, Silvia; Fioretto, Daniele; Green, Ellen; Winlove, C Peter; Palombo, Francesca

    2016-09-15

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging technique in the biomedical field. It probes the mechanical properties of a sample through the interaction of visible light with thermally induced acoustic waves or phonons propagating at a speed of a few km/sec. Information on the elasticity and structure of the material is obtained in a nondestructive contactless manner, hence opening the way to in vivo applications and potential diagnosis of pathology. This work describes the application of Brillouin spectroscopy to the study of biomechanics in elastin and trypsin-digested type I collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix. Fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix are the building blocks of biological tissues and investigating their mechanical and physical behavior is key to establishing structure-function relationships in normal tissues and the changes which occur in disease. The procedures of sample preparation followed by measurement of Brillouin spectra using a reflective substrate are presented together with details of the optical system and methods of spectral data analysis.

  3. Preparation of Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers for Brillouin Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Edginton, Ryan S.; Mattana, Sara; Caponi, Silvia; Fioretto, Daniele; Green, Ellen; Winlove, C. Peter; Palombo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging technique in the biomedical field. It probes the mechanical properties of a sample through the interaction of visible light with thermally induced acoustic waves or phonons propagating at a speed of a few km/sec. Information on the elasticity and structure of the material is obtained in a nondestructive contactless manner, hence opening the way to in vivo applications and potential diagnosis of pathology. This work describes the application of Brillouin spectroscopy to the study of biomechanics in elastin and trypsin-digested type I collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix. Fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix are the building blocks of biological tissues and investigating their mechanical and physical behavior is key to establishing structure-function relationships in normal tissues and the changes which occur in disease. The procedures of sample preparation followed by measurement of Brillouin spectra using a reflective substrate are presented together with details of the optical system and methods of spectral data analysis. PMID:27684584

  4. Gene evolution and functions of extracellular matrix proteins in teeth

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Keigo; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides physical support for tissues, but it is also critical for tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Over 300 ECM molecules have been defined as comprising the “core matrisome” in mammals through the analysis of whole genome sequences. During tooth development, the structure and functions of the ECM dynamically change. In the early stages, basement membranes (BMs) separate two cell layers of the dental epithelium and the mesenchyme. Later in the differentiation stages, the BM layer is replaced with the enamel matrix and the dentin matrix, which are secreted by ameloblasts and odontoblasts, respectively. The enamel matrix genes and the dentin matrix genes are each clustered in two closed regions located on human chromosome 4 (mouse chromosome 5), except for the gene coded for amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein, which is located on the sex chromosomes. These genes for enamel and dentin matrix proteins are derived from a common ancestral gene, but as a result of evolution, they diverged in terms of their specific functions. These matrix proteins play important roles in cell adhesion, polarity, and differentiation and mineralization of enamel and dentin matrices. Mutations of these genes cause diseases such as odontogenesis imperfect (OI) and amelogenesis imperfect (AI). In this review, we discuss the recently defined terms matrisome and matrixome for ECMs, as well as focus on genes and functions of enamel and dentin matrix proteins. PMID:23539364

  5. Analysis of AKT and ERK1/2 protein kinases in extracellular vesicles isolated from blood of patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    van der Mijn, Johannes C.; Sol, Nik; Mellema, Wouter; Jimenez, Connie R.; Piersma, Sander R.; Dekker, Henk; Schutte, Lisette M.; Smit, Egbert F.; Broxterman, Henk J.; Skog, Johan; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Wurdinger, Thomas; Verheul, Henk M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small nanometre-sized vesicles that are circulating in blood. They are released by multiple cells, including tumour cells. We hypothesized that circulating EVs contain protein kinases that may be assessed as biomarkers during treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Methods EVs released by U87 glioma cells, H3255 and H1650 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were profiled by tandem mass spectrometry. Total AKT/protein kinase B and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) levels as well as their relative phosphorylation were measured by western blot in isogenic U87 cells with or without mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) and their corresponding EVs. To assess biomarker potential, plasma samples from 24 healthy volunteers and 42 patients with cancer were used. Results In total, 130 different protein kinases were found to be released in EVs including multiple drug targets, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AKT, ERK1/2, AXL and EGFR. Overexpression of EGFRvIII in U87 cells results in increased phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2 in cells and EVs, whereas a decreased phosphorylation was noted upon treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. EV samples derived from patients with cancer contained significantly more protein (p=0.0067) compared to healthy donors. Phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in plasma EVs from both healthy donors and patients with cancer was relatively low compared to levels in cancer cells. Preliminary analysis of total AKT and ERK1/2 levels in plasma EVs from patients with NSCLC before and after sorafenib/metformin treatment (n=12) shows a significant decrease in AKT levels among patients with a favourable treatment response (p<0.005). Conclusion Phosphorylation of protein kinases in EVs reflects their phosphorylation in tumour cells. Total AKT protein levels may allow monitoring of kinase inhibitor responses in patients with cancer. PMID:25491250

  6. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B extracellular fragment shows neuroprotective effects and activates the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways via the Na+/K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Takata, Masafumi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) plays important roles in various types of cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The details of GPNMB function and its interacting protein have not been clarified. Therefore, to identify GPNMB binding partners on the cell membrane, we used membrane protein library/BLOTCHIP-MS technology, which enables us to analyze all cell membrane proteins as binding partners of the GPNMB extracellular fragment. As a result of a comprehensive search, we identified the alpha subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) as a possible binding partner. We confirmed the interaction between the GPNMB extracellular fragment and NKA by immunoprecipitation and immunostaining in NSC-34 cells. Indeed, endogenous GPNMB extracellular fragment bound to and colocalized with NKA alpha subunits. Furthermore, exogenous GPNMB extracellular fragment, i.e., human recombinant GPNMB, also bound to and colocalized with NKA alpha subunits. Additionally, we found that the GPNMB extracellular fragment had neuroprotective effects and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK pathways via NKA. These findings indicated that NKA may act as a novel “receptor” for the GPNMB extracellular fragment, offering additional molecular targets for the treatment of GPNMB-related diseases, including various types of cancer and ALS. PMID:26988030

  7. Platelet activation by extracellular matrix proteins in haemostasis and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Steve P

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of excessive blood loss to avoid fatal haemorrhage is a pivotal process for all organisms possessing a circulatory system. Increased circulating blood volume and pressure, as required in larger animals, make this process all the more important and challenging. It is essential to have a powerful and rapid system to detect damage and generate an effective seal, and which is also exquisitely regulated to prevent unwanted, excessive or systemic activation so as to avoid blockage of vessels. Thus, a highly specialised and efficient haemostatic system has evolved that consists of cellular (platelets) and protein (coagulation factors) components. Importantly, this is able to support haemostasis in both the low shear environment of the venous system and the high shear environment of the arterial system. Endothelial cells, lining the entire circulation system, play a crucial role in the delicate balance between activation and inhibition of the haemostatic system. An intact and healthy endothelium supports blood flow by preventing attachment of cells and proteins which is required for initiation of coagulation and platelet activation. Endothelial cells produce and release the two powerful soluble inhibitors of platelet activation, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and express high levels of CD39 which rapidly metabolises the major platelet feedback agonist, ADP. This antithrombotic environment however can rapidly change following activation or removal of endothelial cells through injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Loss of endothelial cells exposes the subendothelial extracellular matrix which creates strong signals for activation of the haemostatic system including powerful platelet adhesion and activation. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the subendothelial extracellular matrix influence these prothrombotic characteristics with life threatening thrombotic and bleeding complications, as illustrated by formation of

  8. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces type II collagen and aggrecan expression via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Smad2/3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanhui; Tao, Hairong; Jin, Chen; Liu, Yonzhang; Lu, Xiongwei; Hu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β regulates the anabolic metabolism of articular cartilage and prevents cartilage degradation. TGF‑β1 influences cellular proliferation, differentiation and the extracellular matrix through activation of the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Smad2/3 signaling pathways. However, it has remained to be fully elucidated precisely how the ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 signaling pathways mediate anabolic processes of articular cartilage. The present study investigated how ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 signaling mediate TGF‑β1‑stimulated type II collagen and aggrecan expression in rat chondrocytes. The results confirmed that TGF‑β1 stimulates type II collagen and aggrecan expression in rat chondrocytes, and furthermore, that the ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 signaling pathways were activated by TGF‑β1. Conversely, the TGF‑β receptor I (ALK5) kinase inhibitor SB525334 significantly impaired TGF‑β1‑induced type II collagen and aggrecan expression, coinciding with a reduction of ERK1/2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. In addition, TGF‑β1‑induced type II collagen and aggrecan expression were significantly suppressed by ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Similarly, TGF‑β1‑stimulated type II collagen and aggrecan expression were decreased in the presence of a Smad3 phosphorylation inhibitor SIS3. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 signaling pathways regulate type II collagen and aggrecan expression in rat chondrocytes.

  9. Trovafloxacin-induced Replication Stress Sensitizes HepG2 Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-induced Cytotoxicity Mediated by Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase and Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Kevin M.; Maiuri, Ashley R.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Poulsen, Kyle L.; Breier, Anna B.; Ganey, Patricia E.; Roth, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was restricted due to idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Previous studies demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and TVX interact to cause death of hepatocytes in vitro that was associated with prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to explore further the mechanism by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause cytotoxicity. Treatment with TVX caused cell cycle arrest, enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation, but cell death only occurred after cotreatment with TVX and TNF. Cell death involved activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which in turn activated caspase 3 and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), both of which contributed to cytotoxicity. Cotreatment of HepG2 cells with TVX and TNF caused double-strand breaks in DNA, and ERK contributed to this effect. Inhibition of caspase activity abolished the DNA strand breaks. The data suggest a complex interaction of TVX and TNF in which TVX causes replication stress, and the downstream effects are exacerbated by TNF, leading to hepatocellular death. These results raise the possibility that IDILI from TVX results from MAPK and ATR activation in hepatocytes initiated by interaction of cytokine signaling with drug-induced replication stress. PMID:25748550

  10. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Grevesse, Thomas; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Campbell, Patrick H; Maoz, Ben M; Berretta, Sabina; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, extracellular matrix (ECM) components form networks that contribute to structural and functional diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of ECM networks has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the brain microenvironment is a dynamic structure. A lack of quantitative information about ECM distribution in the brain hinders an understanding of region-specific ECM functions and the role of ECM in health and disease. We hypothesized that each ECM protein as well as specific ECM structures, such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) and interstitial matrix, are differentially distributed throughout the brain, contributing to the unique structure and function in the various regions of the brain. To test our hypothesis, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution, colocalization, and protein expression of aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R throughout the rat brain utilizing immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis and assessed the effect of aggrecan, brevican, and/or tenascin-R on neurite outgrowth in vitro. We focused on aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R as they are especially expressed in the mature brain, and have established roles in brain development, plasticity, and neurite outgrowth. The results revealed a differentiated distribution of all three proteins throughout the brain and indicated that their presence significantly reduces neurite outgrowth in a 3D in vitro environment. These results underline the importance of a unique and complex ECM distribution for brain physiology and suggest that encoding the distribution of distinct ECM proteins throughout the brain will aid in understanding their function in physiology and in turn assist in identifying their role in disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1309-1336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sevoflurane Post-conditioning Protects Primary Rat Cortical Neurons Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Resuscitation: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Bid, Bim, Puma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Xiaochun; Jiang, Xiaojing

    2015-08-01

    Temporal post-conditioning to induce neuroprotection against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury insult is considered to be an effective intervention, but the exact mechanisms of sevoflurane post-conditioning are poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in the cell growth and proliferation. The essential axis of activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s) and BAX, BAK in activating the mitochondrial death program might offer common ground for cell death signal. We hypothesized that, sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit the expression of Bid, Bim and Puma and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to reduce neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1 h and resuscitation for 24 h (OGD/R). The assays of MTT, propidium iodide uptake, JC-1 fluorescence and western blot demonstrated that OGD/R exposure reduced cell viability, increased cell death, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the expressions of Bid, Bim, and Puma. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation could partially attenuate 2 % of sevoflurane post-conditioning mediated increase in neuronal viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, and also a decrease in cell death and expression of Bid, Bim and Puma after OGD/R treatment. The results demonstrated that, the protection of sevoflurane post-conditioning markedly reducing death of cortical neurons exposed to OGD/R could be correlated with down-regulation of Bid, Bim and Puma expression mediated by phosphorylation/activation of Erk1/2.

  12. [Nobel prize in physiology or medicine for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals regulating their transport and localization within the cell].

    PubMed

    Matlin, K S; van Meer, G

    1999-12-25

    The Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999 was awarded to Dr. Günter Blobel for the discovery that proteins contain one or more signals in their structure that act as address labels. These are recognized by one of various transport machineries that direct the protein to a specific location in the cell, or into the secretory pathway out of the cell. His work joined traditional morphology and classic biochemistry in the notion of molecular topology, and led to the insight that proteins contain domains that specifically recognize domains in other proteins, nucleic acids, lipids et cetera. Specificity of recognition is provided by information that resides in the amino acid sequence of the domain. This work has had a great impact on pathophysiology as we now understand that malfunction of proteins may be due to incorrect localization in the cell, and thus due to a defect in transport and targeting. Typical example is the mislocalization of CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis. In a broader sense, malfunctioning of proteins often results from defective interactions with other proteins. The major challenge in the post-genomic era will be the unravelling of all signals that govern interactions between the 140,000 different proteins that are encoded in our DNA, to understand functions of these macromolecular interactions in the cell, and finally to trace and cure diseases that are caused by defective signals and interactions.

  13. Acrylonitrile-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation via protein kinase C (PKC) in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chantara, Wantika; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2006-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is classified by IARC as a probable carcinogen. Chronic exposure to ACN increases the incidence of tumors in various organs of test animals, including the brain and lung. ERK1/2 activation plays crucial roles in cell proliferation and is involved in many steps of tumor progression. Therefore, this study examined whether ACN altered the activation state of ERK1/2 in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Treatment of these cells with ACN greatly increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dose- and time-dependent manners. This effect was inhibited by PD 98059 and U 0126, specific inhibitors of MEK, indicating that MEK, an upstream activator of ERK1/2, was directly involved in ACN-induced ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, the activation of ERK1/2 by ACN was attenuated by inhibition of PKC with GF 109203X, rottlerin and prolonged incubation with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). This demonstrated the participation of PKC in the ACN-stimulated activation of ERK1/2. Taken together, our results indicate that ACN-induced ERK1/2 activation involves PKC through a MEK-dependent pathway.

  14. High glucose stimulates adipogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation in MG-63 cells through cAMP/protein kinase A/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jiaqiang; Yang, Jianhong

    2010-05-01

    Patients with diabetes tend to have an increased incidence of osteoporosis that may be related to hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on differentiation of human osteoblastic MG-63 cells and involved intracellular signal transduction pathways. Here, we showed that high glucose suppressed the cell growth, mineralization, and expression of osteogenic markers including Runx2, collagen I, osteocalcin, osteonectin, but inversely promoted expression of adipogenic markers including PPARgamma, aP2, resistin, and adipsin. Moreover, high glucose significantly increased the intracellular cAMP level in a time-dependent manner and induced ERK1/2 activation. Meanwhile, supplementation of H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, and PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK/ERK kinase, reversed the cell growth inhibition, the down-regulation of osteogenic markers and the up-regulation of adipogenic markers as well as the activation of ERK under high glucose. These results indicate that high glucose can increase adipogenic and inhibit osteogenic differentiation by activating cAMP/PKA/ERK pathway in MG-63 cells, thereby providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of diabetic osteoporosis.

  15. Unfolded protein response-induced ERdj3 secretion links ER stress to extracellular proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Genereux, Joseph C; Qu, Song; Zhou, Minghai; Ryno, Lisa M; Wang, Shiyu; Shoulders, Matthew D; Kaufman, Randal J; Lasmézas, Corinne I; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wiseman, R Luke

    2015-01-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) indirectly regulates extracellular proteostasis through transcriptional remodeling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis pathways. This remodeling attenuates secretion of misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins during ER stress. Through these activities, the UPR has a critical role in preventing the extracellular protein aggregation associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that UPR activation also directly influences extracellular proteostasis through the upregulation and secretion of the ER HSP40 ERdj3/DNAJB11. Secreted ERdj3 binds misfolded proteins in the extracellular space, substoichiometrically inhibits protein aggregation, and attenuates proteotoxicity of disease-associated toxic prion protein. Moreover, ERdj3 can co-secrete with destabilized, aggregation-prone proteins in a stable complex under conditions where ER chaperoning capacity is overwhelmed, preemptively providing extracellular chaperoning of proteotoxic misfolded proteins that evade ER quality control. This regulated co-secretion of ERdj3 with misfolded clients directly links ER and extracellular proteostasis during conditions of ER stress. ERdj3 is, to our knowledge, the first metazoan chaperone whose secretion into the extracellular space is regulated by the UPR, revealing a new mechanism by which UPR activation regulates extracellular proteostasis. PMID:25361606

  16. Magnolol elicits activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by inducing p27KIP1-mediated G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest in human urinary bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Jung; Cho, Young-Hwa; Park, Keerang; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2008-06-15

    Magnolol has been reported to play a role in antitumor activity. However, the relevant pathway integrating cell cycle regulation and signaling pathways involved in growth inhibition in cancer cells remains to be identified. In the present study, magnolol treatment of these cells resulted in significant dose-dependent growth inhibition together with apoptosis, G1- and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest at a 60 microM (IC50) dose in 5637 bladder cancer cells. In addition, magnolol treatment strongly induced p27KIP1 expression, and down-regulated expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Moreover, treatment with magnolol-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAP kinase, and JNK. Among the pathway inhibitors examined, only PD98059, an ERK-specific inhibitor, blocked magnolol-dependent p27KIP1 expression. Blockade of ERK function consistently reversed magnolol-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and decreased G2/M cell cycle proteins, but not G1 cell cycle proteins. Furthermore, magnolol treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation. Transfection of cells with dominant negative Ras (RasN17) and Raf (RafS621A) mutant genes suppressed magnolol-induced ERK activity and p27KIP1 expression. Finally, the magnolol-induced reduction in cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle proteins was also abolished in the presence of RasN17 and RafS621A mutant genes. These data demonstrate that the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway participates in p27KIP1 induction, leading to a decrease in the levels of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complexes and magnolol-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Overall, these novel findings concerning the molecular mechanisms of magnolol in 5637 bladder cancer cells provide a theoretical basis for therapeutic treatment of malignancies.

  17. Extracellular proteins from Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 prevent adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Urdaci, María C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the interference of the extracellular proteins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 with the adhesion of some well-known gut pathogens. The extracellular proteins secreted by L. plantarum BMCM12 in MRS broth were precipitated, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Discordances between the observed and the theoretical molecular masses of several proteins suggested the presence of protein glycosylation, corroborated with specific glycoprotein staining after protein de-glycosylation using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Experiments of exclusion, competition, or prevention of the pathogen adhesion to mucin were performed using BMCM12 extracellular proteins, using Escherichia coli LMG2092 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica LMG15860. Extracellular proteins from BMCM12 reduced significantly the adhesion of the pathogens when they were added prior to adhesion assays. These proteins play thus important roles in preventing pathogen adhesion to the mucin layer.

  18. Extracellular matrix protein CCN1 limits oncolytic efficacy in glioma.

    PubMed

    Haseley, Amy; Boone, Sean; Wojton, Jeffrey; Yu, Lianbo; Yoo, Ji Young; Yu, Jianhua; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Glorioso, Joseph C; Caligiuri, Michael A; Kaur, Balveen

    2012-03-15

    Oncolytic viral therapy has been explored widely as an option for glioma treatment but its effectiveness has remained limited. Cysteine rich 61 (CCN1) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein elevated in cancer cells that modulates their adhesion and migration by binding cell surface receptors. In this study, we examined a hypothesized role for CCN1 in limiting the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy for glioma, based on evidence of CCN1 induction that occurs in this setting. Strikingly, we found that exogenous CCN1 in glioma ECM orchestrated a cellular antiviral response that reduced viral replication and limited cytolytic efficacy. Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant induction of type-I interferon responsive genes in response to CCN1 exposure. This induction was accompanied by activation of the Jak/Stat signaling pathway, consistent with induction of an innate antiviral cellular response. Both effects were mediated by the binding of CCN1 to the cell surface integrin α6β1, activating its signaling and leading to rapid secretion of interferon-α, which was essential for the innate antiviral effect. Together, our findings reveal how an integrin signaling pathway mediates activation of a type-I antiviral interferon response that can limit the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. Furthermore, they suggest therapeutic interventions to inhibit CCN1-integrin α6 interactions to sensitize gliomas to viral oncolysis.

  19. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mayorca-Guiliani, Alejandro; Erler, Janine T

    2013-11-25

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths. However, LOX biosynthesis results in by-product with antiproliferative properties in certain cancers, and LOX enzymes may have different effects depending on the molecular network in which they are active. Therefore, the design of therapies targeting the LOX family needs to be guided by the molecular makeup of the individual disease and will probably require other agents to act on both the LOX enzymes and their associated network.

  20. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Mayorca-Guiliani, Alejandro; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths. However, LOX biosynthesis results in by-product with antiproliferative properties in certain cancers, and LOX enzymes may have different effects depending on the molecular network in which they are active. Therefore, the design of therapies targeting the LOX family needs to be guided by the molecular makeup of the individual disease and will probably require other agents to act on both the LOX enzymes and their associated network. PMID:24348049

  1. Extracellular proteins secreted by probiotic bacteria as mediators of effects that promote mucosa-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Urdaci, María C; Margolles, Abelardo

    2010-11-01

    During the last few years, a substantial body of scientific evidence has accumulated suggesting that certain surface-associated and extracellular components produced by probiotic bacteria could be responsible for some of their mechanisms of action. These bacterial components would be able to directly interact with the host mucosal cells; they include exopolysaccharides, bacteriocins, lipoteichoic acids and surface-associated and extracellular proteins. Extracellular proteins include proteins that are actively transported to the bacterial surroundings through the cytoplasmic membrane, as well as those that are simply shed from the bacterial surface. Compared to the other bacterial components, the interactive ability of extracellular proteins/peptides has been less extensively studied. In this review, current findings supporting an interaction between extracellular proteins/peptides produced by probiotic bacteria (strains of the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Escherichia) and host mucosal cells are discussed. Research needs and future trends are also considered.

  2. Evidence for cross-talk between M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of second messenger and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathways in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Hornigold, David C; Mistry, Rajendra; Raymond, Pamela D; Blank, Jonathan L; John Challiss, R A

    2003-01-01

    We have examined possible mechanisms of cross-talk between the Gq/11-linked M3 muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor and the Gi/o-linked M2 mACh receptor by stable receptor coexpression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A number of second messenger (cyclic AMP, Ins(1,4,5)P3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK and JNK) responses stimulated by the mACh receptor agonist methacholine were examined in CHO-m2m3 cells and compared to those stimulated in CHO-m2 and CHO-m3 cell-lines, expressing comparable levels of M2 or M3 mACh receptors. Based on comparisons between cell-lines and pertussis toxin (PTx) pretreatment to eliminate receptor-Gi/o coupling, evidence was obtained for (i) an M2 mACh receptor-mediated contribution to the predominantly M3 mACh receptor-mediated Ins(1,4,5)P3 response and (ii) a facilitation of the inhibitory effect of M2 mACh receptor on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation by M3 mACh receptor coactivation at low agonist concentrations (MCh 10−9–10−6 M). The most profound cross-talk effects were observed with respect to ERK activation. Thus, while MCh stimulated ERK activation in both CHO-m2 and CHO-m3 cells (pEC50 values: 5.64±0.09 and 5.57±0.16, respectively), the concentration–effect relation was approx 50-fold left-shifted in CHO-m2m3 cells (pEC50: 7.17±0.07). In addition, the ERK response was greater and more sustained in CHO-m2m3 cells. In contrast, only minor differences were seen in the time-courses and concentration-dependencies of JNK activation in CHO-m3 and CHO-m2m3 cells. Costimulation of endogenous P2Y2 purinoceptors also caused an approx 10-fold left-shift in the MCh-stimulated ERK response in CHO-m2 cells, suggesting that the Gq/11/Gi/o interaction to affect ERK activation is not specific to muscarinic receptors. PTx pretreatment of cells had unexpected effects on ERK activation by MCh in both CHO-m2m3 and CHO-m3 cells. Thus, in CHO-m3 cells PTx pretreatment caused a marked left-shift in the MCh

  3. Comprehensive analysis of the extracellular proteins from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100.

    PubMed

    Watt, Steven Alexander; Wilke, Andreas; Patschkowski, Thomas; Niehaus, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular proteome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) cultivated in minimal medium was isolated from the cell-free culture supernatant and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This technique resolved 97 clearly visible protein spots, which were excised, digested with trypsin and identified on the basis of their peptide mass fingerprints generated by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Using this approach 87 different proteins could be distinguished. The Signal P software predicted putative signal peptides for 53% of the extracellular proteins. These proteins are probably transported over the inner membrane and are localized in the periplasm, the outer membrane or secreted into the extracellular space. Among the secreted proteins are 11 degradative enzymes, which are involved in pathogenesis of Xcc. The proteins without obvious secretion signals are known to serve functions in the cytosol. How the cytosolic proteins are delivered to the extracellular space remains unclear.

  4. Structural basis for the interaction of a human small heat shock protein with the 14-3-3 universal signaling regulator

    PubMed Central

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Beelen, Steven; Kulikova, Alexandra A.; Weeks, Stephen D.; Antson, Alfred A.; Gusev, Nikolai B.; Strelkov, Sergei V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary By interacting with hundreds of protein partners, 14-3-3 proteins coordinate vital cellular processes. Phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein HSPB6 within its intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain activates its interaction with 14-3-3, ultimately triggering smooth muscle relaxation. After analyzing the binding of an HSPB6-derived phosphopeptide to 14-3-3 using isothermal calorimetry and X-ray crystallography, we have determined the crystal structure of the complete assembly consisting of the 14-3-3 dimer and full-length HSPB6 dimer and further characterized this complex in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and limited proteolysis. We show that selected intrinsically disordered regions of HSPB6 are transformed into well-defined conformations upon the interaction, whereby an unexpectedly asymmetric structure is formed. This structure provides the first-ever atomic resolution snapshot of a human small HSP in functional state, explains how 14-3-3 proteins sequester their regulatory partners, and can inform the design of small-molecule interaction modifiers to be used as myorelaxants. PMID:28089448

  5. Structural Basis for the Interaction of a Human Small Heat Shock Protein with the 14-3-3 Universal Signaling Regulator.

    PubMed

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Beelen, Steven; Kulikova, Alexandra A; Weeks, Stephen D; Antson, Alfred A; Gusev, Nikolai B; Strelkov, Sergei V

    2017-02-07

    By interacting with hundreds of protein partners, 14-3-3 proteins coordinate vital cellular processes. Phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein, HSPB6, within its intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain activates its interaction with 14-3-3, ultimately triggering smooth muscle relaxation. After analyzing the binding of an HSPB6-derived phosphopeptide to 14-3-3 using isothermal calorimetry and X-ray crystallography, we have determined the crystal structure of the complete assembly consisting of the 14-3-3 dimer and full-length HSPB6 dimer and further characterized this complex in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and limited proteolysis. We show that selected intrinsically disordered regions of HSPB6 are transformed into well-defined conformations upon the interaction, whereby an unexpectedly asymmetric structure is formed. This structure provides the first atomic resolution snapshot of a human small HSP in functional state, explains how 14-3-3 proteins sequester their regulatory partners, and can inform the design of small-molecule interaction modifiers to be used as myorelaxants.

  6. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Orr, Patrick T; Rubin, Amanda J; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A; Frick, Karyn M

    2012-04-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that might underlie this mnemonic enhancement. We hypothesized that the P-induced enhancement of object recognition would be dependent on activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways. In young ovariectomized mice, we found that bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of P significantly increased levels of phospho-p42 ERK and the mTOR substrate S6K in the dorsal hippocampus 5 min after infusion. Phospho-p42 ERK levels were downregulated 15 min after infusion and returned to baseline 30 min after infusion, suggesting a biphasic effect of P on ERK activation. Dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR activation were necessary for P to facilitate memory consolidation, as suggested by the fact that inhibitors of both pathways infused into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training blocked the P-induced enhancement of object recognition. Collectively, these data provide the first demonstration that the ability of P to enhance memory consolidation depends on the rapid activation of cell signaling and protein synthesis pathways in the dorsal hippocampus.

  7. Soluble Lectins: A New Class of Extracellular Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barondes, Samuel H.

    1984-03-01

    Soluble lectins of cellular slime molds and vertebrates are present at extracellular sites in the developing or adult tissues that make them. Some lectins are concentrated around cell groups, as in extracellular matrix or elastic fibers. Others are at the interface between cells and the external environment, as in much or slime. Specific glycoproteins, proteoglycans, or polysaccharides that bind these endogenous lectins may also be present at these sites. Interactions between the lectins and glycoconjugates appear to play a role in shaping extracellular environments.

  8. Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the short and long-lasting antidepressant-like activity of NMDA receptor antagonists (zinc and Ro 25-6981) in the forced swim test in rats.

    PubMed

    Pochwat, Bartłomiej; Rafało-Ulińska, Anna; Domin, Helena; Misztak, Paulina; Nowak, Gabriel; Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2017-10-01

    Short and long acting NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists exert their antidepressant-like effects by activating signaling pathways involved in the synthesis of synaptic proteins and formation of new synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats. The blockade of the ERK pathway abolishes ketamine and Ro 25-6981 antidepressant potency. However, the role of ERK in the antidepressant-like activity of short acting NMDAR antagonists is still unclear. More puzzling is the fact that the precise role of ERK in the short and long lasting effects of long-acting NMDAR antagonists is unknown. In this study, we show that zinc, (Zn) a short-acting NMDAR antagonist evokes only transient ERK activation, which is observed 7 min after its administration in the PFC of rats. In contrast to Zn, the long acting NMDAR antagonist Ro 25-6981 produces persistent ERK activation lasting up to 24 h. Pretreatment with the MAPK/ERK inhibitor (U0126) totally abolished Zn and Ro 25-6981 antidepressant-like activities in the forced swim test in rats. However, when U0126 is administered 15 min after Zn or Ro 25-6981 both compounds maintain their short-lasting antidepressant-like activity. On the other hand, posttreatment with U0126 significantly attenuated the long lasting antidepressant-like activity of Ro 25-6981. These results indicate that the activation of ERK is crucial for the short- and long lasting antidepressant-like activity observed in the FST in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of immunoreactive extracellular proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Gabriela; Ferreira, Paula; Ribeiro, Niza; Dinis, Márcia; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário; Tavares, Delfina

    2008-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a common pathogen that causes bovine mastitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibody response against S. agalactiae extracellular proteins in the whey and serum of naturally infected bovines and to identify possible immunodominant extracellular antigens. IgG1 antibodies against S. agalactiae extracellular proteins were elevated in the whey and serum of naturally infected bovines. In the whey, the levels of IgG1 specific for S. agalactiae extracellular proteins were similar in infected and noninfected milk quarters from the same cow, and the production of antibodies specific for S. agalactiae extracellular proteins was induced only by infection with this bacterium. The immunoreactivity of extracellular proteins with bovine whey was clearly different in infected versus control animals. Group B protective surface protein and 5'-nucleotidase family protein were 2 major immunoreactive proteins that were detected only in the whey of infected cows, suggesting that these proteins may be important in the pathogenesis of S. agalactiae-induced mastitis. This information could be used to diagnose S. agalactiae infection. In addition, these antigens may be useful as carrier proteins for serotype-specific polysaccharides in conjugate vaccines.

  10. Large-scale screening for novel low-affinity extracellular protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushell, K. Mark; Söllner, Christian; Schuster-Boeckler, Benjamin; Bateman, Alex; Wright, Gavin J.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular protein–protein interactions are essential for both intercellular communication and cohesion within multicellular organisms. Approximately a fifth of human genes encode membrane-tethered or secreted proteins, but they are largely absent from recent large-scale protein interaction datasets, making current interaction networks biased and incomplete. This discrepancy is due to the unsuitability of popular high-throughput methods to detect extracellular interactions because of the biochemical intractability of membrane proteins and their interactions. For example, cell surface proteins contain insoluble hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and their extracellular interactions are often highly transient, having half-lives of less than a second. To detect transient extracellular interactions on a large scale, we developed AVEXIS (avidity-based extracellular interaction screen), a high-throughput assay that overcomes these technical issues and can detect very transient interactions (half-lives ≤ 0.1 sec) with a low false-positive rate. We used it to systematically screen for receptor–ligand pairs within the zebrafish immunoglobulin superfamily and identified novel ligands for both well-known and orphan receptors. Genes encoding receptor–ligand pairs were often clustered phylogenetically and expressed in the same or adjacent tissues, immediately implying their involvement in similar biological processes. Using AVEXIS, we have determined the first systematic low–affinity extracellular protein interaction network, supported by independent biological data. This technique will now allow large-scale extracellular protein interaction mapping in a broad range of experimental contexts. PMID:18296487

  11. AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; Casteel, Darren E; Prakash, Priyanka; Tan, Lingxiao; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Salim, Angela A; Kim, Choel; Capon, Robert J; Lacey, Ernest; Cunha, Shane R; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2016-12-15

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane and be arrayed in nanoclusters for biological activity. We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells, activated PKG2 selectively colocalizes with K-Ras on the plasma membrane and phosphorylates K-Ras at Ser181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain. K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Phosphorylated K-Ras reorganizes into distinct nanoclusters that retune the signal output. Phosphorylation acutely enhances K-Ras plasma membrane affinity, but phosphorylated K-Ras is progressively lost from the plasma membrane via endocytic recycling. Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. The study shows that K-Ras is a target of a metabolic stress-signaling pathway that can be leveraged to inhibit oncogenic K-Ras function.

  12. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2.

    PubMed

    Bylund, Jeffery B; Trinh, Linh T; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P; Paik, David T; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B; Kamp, Ti