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Sample records for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  1. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Predictors of Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236

  2. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dae-Hee; Kim, Youn-Jung; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong-Woo; Lim, Ju Yong; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) may be considered as a rescue therapy for patients with refractory cardiac arrest. Identifying patients who might benefit from this potential life-saving procedure is crucial for implementation of ECPR. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of patients who fulfilled a hypothetical set of ECPR criteria and to evaluate the outcome of ECPR candidates treated with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods We performed an observational study using data from a prospective registry of consecutive adults (≥18 years) with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a tertiary hospital between January 2011 and December 2015. We developed a hypothetical set of ECPR criteria including age ≤75 years, witnessed cardiac arrest, no-flow time ≤5 minutes, low-flow time ≤30 minutes, refractory arrest at emergency department >10 minutes, and no exclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of good neurologic outcome of ECPR-eligible patients. Results Of 568 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases, 60 cases (10.6%) fulfilled our ECPR criteria. ECPR was performed for 10 of 60 ECPR-eligible patients (16.7%). Three of the 10 patients with ECPR (30.0%), but only 2 of the other 50 patients without ECPR (4.0%) had a good neurologic outcome at 1 month. Conclusion ECPR implementation might be a rescue option for increasing the probability of survival in potentially hopeless but ECPR-eligible patients.

  3. Efficacy of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation compared to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for adult cardiac arrest patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chiwon; Kim, Wonhee; Cho, Youngsuk; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Lim, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to compare the impact of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) to that of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR) in adult patients who experience cardiac arrest of cardiac origin. A literature search was performed using criteria set forth in a predefined protocol. Report inclusion criteria were that ECPR was compared to CCPR in adult patients with cardiac arrest of cardiac origin, and that survival and neurological outcome data were available. Exclusion criteria were reports describing non-cardiac origin arrest, review articles, editorials, and nonhuman studies. The efficacies of ECPR and CCPR were compared in terms of survival and neurological outcome. A total of 38,160 patients from 7 studies were ultimately included. ECPR showed similar survival (odds ratio [OR] 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–11.20) and neurologic outcomes (OR 3.14, 95% CI 0.66–14.85) to CCPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. For in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients, however, ECPR was associated with significantly better survival (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.44–3.98) and neurologic outcomes (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.38–5.02) than CCPR. Hence, ECPR may be more effective than CCPR as an adjuvant therapy for survival and neurologic outcome in cardiac-origin IHCA patients. PMID:27659306

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the elderly: a review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Priya; Wei, Jeanne Y; Gomez, Alberto; Podrazik, Paula; Riggs, Ann T; Rycus, Peter; Gossett, Jeffrey; Prodhan, Parthak

    2013-01-01

    The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) among the elderly is not clearly defined. We sought to query the international Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry database to investigate the use of ECMO support among the elderly. The objective of this study was to investigate survival to hospital discharge among the elderly supported on ECMO. The ELSO registry database was queried, identifying all elderly patients (>65 years of age) supported on ECMO for ECPR from 1998 to 2009. The primary outcome variable was survival to hospital discharge. Clinical characteristics between survivors and nonsurvivors were compared using univariate analysis. Ninety-nine elderly patients requiring ECPR were identified from the ELSO registry for the study period. The median age of the cohort was 70 years (range 65-86 years). The median admission to time on ECMO was 32 hours (range 1-998 hours), median time on ECMO was 69 hours (range 1-459 hours), and median time off to discharge for survivors was 587 hours (range 3-2,166 hours). Overall, survival at hospital discharge was 22.2% (22/99). No significant differences were noted between survivors and nonsurvivors for demographics, secondary diagnoses, pre-ECMO variables, complications on ECMO, as well as the type and duration of ECMO support. Among listed comorbidities, only the presence of pre-ECMO acute renal failure was significantly more frequent in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (14 vs. 0; p = 0.04). Survival to hospital discharge among the elderly supported on ECMO is lower than that for younger adult patients (28.7% vs. 40.0%). However, it is higher than that after conventional CPR (17%), suggesting that age should not be a bar against consideration for the use of ECMO in older patients but should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Microdialysis Assessment of Cerebral Perfusion during Cardiac Arrest, Extracorporeal Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats – A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Andreas; Warenits, Alexandra M.; Testori, Christoph; Weihs, Wolfgang; Hosmann, Arthur; Högler, Sandra; Sterz, Fritz; Janata, Andreas; Scherer, Thomas; Magnet, Ingrid A. M.; Ettl, Florian; Laggner, Anton N.; Herkner, Harald; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic alterations during cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support (ECLS) are poorly explored. Markers are needed for a more personalized resuscitation and post—resuscitation care. Aim of this study was to investigate early metabolic changes in the hippocampal CA1 region during ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA) and ECLS versus conventional CPR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350g) underwent 8min untreated VF-CA followed by ECLS (n = 8; bloodflow 100ml/kg), mechanical CPR (n = 18; 200/min) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Shams (n = 2) were included. Glucose, glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio were compared between treatment groups and animals with and without ROSC. Ten animals (39%) achieved ROSC (ECLS 5/8 vs. CPR 5/18; OR 4,3;CI:0.7–25;p = 0.189). During VF-CA central nervous glucose decreased (0.32±0.1mmol/l to 0.04±0.01mmol/l; p<0.001) and showed a significant rise (0.53±0.1;p<0.001) after resuscitation. Lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio showed a 5fold increase (31 to 164; p<0.001; maximum 8min post ROSC). Glutamate showed a 3.5-fold increase to (2.06±1.5 to 7.12±5.1μmol/L; p<0.001) after CA. All parameters normalized after ROSC with no significant differences between ECLS and CPR. Metabolic changes during ischemia and resuscitation can be displayed by cerebral microdialysis in our VF-CA CPR and ECLS rat model. We found similar microdialysate concentrations and patterns of normalization in both resuscitation methods used. Institutional Protocol Number: GZ0064.11/3b/2011 PMID:27175905

  6. Severe Acute Cardiopulmonary Failure Related to Gadobutrol Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Reaction: Successful Resuscitation With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Guru, Pramod K; Bohman, J Kyle; Fleming, Chad J; Tan, Hon L; Sanghavi, Devang K; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Barsness, Gregory W; Wittwer, Erica D; King, Bernard F; Arteaga, Grace M; Flick, Randall; Schears, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    Nonanaphylactic noncardiogenic pulmonary edema leading to cardiorespiratory arrest related to the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadobutrol has rarely been reported in the literature. Rarer is the association of hypokalemia with acidosis. We report 2 patients who had severe pulmonary edema associated with the use of gadobutrol contrast in the absence of other inciting agents or events. These cases were unique not only for their rare and severe presentations but also because they exemplified the increasing role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in resuscitation. Emergency extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation can be rapidly initiated and successful in the setting of a well-organized workflow, and it is a viable alternative and helps improve patient outcome in cases refractory to conventional resuscitative measures.

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Green, Bart N; Clark, Tammi

    2005-01-01

    It is critical for health care providers to have the skills and composure required to administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when necessary. Unfortunately, it is easy to postpone updating one's CPR certification when confronted with the demands of leading a practice. New guidelines for CPR have been in effect since 2000. This clinical update provides a brief overview of the new guidelines, some suggestions for incorporating CPR training into the clinician's practice, and clarification for some common legal misconceptions that doctors may have pertaining to administering CPR. PMID:19674653

  8. The Physiology of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Keith G; Nemergut, Edward C; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Sweeney, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Outcomes after cardiac arrest remain poor more than a half a century after closed chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was first described. This review article is focused on recent insights into the physiology of blood flow to the heart and brain during CPR. Over the past 20 years, a greater understanding of heart-brain-lung interactions has resulted in novel resuscitation methods and technologies that significantly improve outcomes from cardiac arrest. This article highlights the importance of attention to CPR quality, recent approaches to regulate intrathoracic pressure to improve cerebral and systemic perfusion, and ongoing research related to the ways to mitigate reperfusion injury during CPR. Taken together, these new approaches in adult and pediatric patients provide an innovative, physiologically based road map to increase survival and quality of life after cardiac arrest.

  9. Nurses' accounts of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Page, S; Meerabeau, L

    1996-08-01

    The relationship between theory and practice has received considerable attention within the nursing literature. This paper uses qualitative data from debriefing interviews with nurses following episodes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to illustrate the complexities of translating sanitized theory into the messiness of practice. The interplay of affect and cognition on both learning from experience and on professional practice are explored. The feelings engendered by the CPR event and the labour required for their management form the second and major part of the paper. These are explored by examining the realities of a CPR event with its accompanying threat of death; success and failure, dignity versus indignity and the place of appropriate emotions throughout.

  10. Evaluation of pulse oximetry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Spittal, M J

    1993-08-01

    This study evaluates whether the pulse oximeter is useful during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The instrument was of undoubted benefit in the management of primary respiratory arrest, but of equivocable value in cardiac arrest. Data were displayed during external chest compressions, but were generally unreliable. The ear probe was not able to produce a consistently good signal during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nevertheless, the provision of an oximeter amongst the first-line resuscitation equipment available at a cardiopulmonary arrest significantly altered the management of seven out of 20 patients, five of whom survived.

  11. [Hospital organization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arnau, J; Lacoma, F; García del Valle, S; Núñez, A; González, A; Burgos, E

    1999-05-01

    That hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be supported by an organized plan rather than on the skills of individual health care personnel is a universally agreed-upon principle. Such a plan should guarantee that needed materials are available and in working order in all departments and that the team assigned to carry out CPR arrives promptly. Personnel other than the specialized team should also receive CPR training appropriate to their posts. The main features of a CPR plan are related to the five steps in the chain of survival: a) identification of a patient to be resuscitated, a matter that has important ethical ramifications; b) early recognition of cardiac arrest; c) early defibrillation; d) basic CPR, and e) advanced CPR. The CPR plan should incorporate the automatic recording of system, population, event and outcome variables. Task forces responsible for establishing and maintaining the plan and its quality control will periodically review the data with the aim of detecting errors, correcting them or introducing improvements. Various international societies and CPR committees have recently suggested a uniform way (the Utstein style) of recording and presenting data to allow comparisons either from hospital to hospital or over time within a single center.

  12. The effects of nitroglycerin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Stefaniotou, Antonia; Varvarousi, Giolanda; Varvarousis, Dimitrios P; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-07-01

    The outcome for both in-hospital and out-of hospital cardiac arrest remains dismal. Vasopressors are used to increase coronary perfusion pressure and thus facilitate return of spontaneous circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, they are associated with a number of potential adverse effects and may decrease endocardial and cerebral organ blood flow. Nitroglycerin has a favourable haemodynamic profile which promotes forward blood flow. Several studies suggest that combined use of nitroglycerin with vasopressors during resuscitation, is associated with increased rates of resuscitation and improved post-resuscitation outcome. This article reviews the effects of nitroglycerin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and postresuscitation period, as well as the beneficial outcomes of a combination regimen consisting of a vasopressor and a vasodilator, such as nitroglycerin.

  13. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  14. Practical aspects of advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J

    1988-08-01

    Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the paediatric age group necessitates the acquisition of technical skills for rapid tracheal intubation, external cardiac compression and access to the circulation. Skills and equipment must be adapted to each age group. For optimal mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of complications, correct selection of endotracheal tube diameter and length is necessary. New techniques in resuscitation incorporate an understanding of the mechanism of blood flow during cardiac compression, the use of the intratracheal route for drug administration, and a revision of the use of catecholamines, sodium bicarbonate and calcium solutions in the treatment of asystole-bradycardia, electromechanical dissociation, ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia. Early intubation, adequate ventilation with oxygen, well performed external cardiac compression, prompt defibrillation and administration of adrenaline remain the cornerstones of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:3064747

  15. Teamwork and leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Sabina; Johansson, Anna C; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Rock, Laura; Howell, Michael D; Marsch, Stephan

    2011-06-14

    Despite substantial efforts to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) algorithms known to healthcare workers, the outcome of CPR has remained poor during the past decades. Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR. This review describes the state of the science linking team interactions to the performance of CPR. Because logistical barriers make controlled measurement of team interaction in the earliest moments of real-life resuscitations challenging, our review focuses mainly on high-fidelity human simulator studies. This technique allows in-depth investigation of complex human interactions using precise and reproducible methods. It also removes variability in the clinical parameters of resuscitation, thus letting researchers study human factors and team interactions without confounding by clinical variability from resuscitation to resuscitation. Research has shown that a prolonged process of team building and poor leadership behavior are associated with significant shortcomings in CPR. Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation and have recently been included in guidelines for advanced life support courses. We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients. PMID:21658557

  16. Teamwork and leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Sabina; Johansson, Anna C; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Rock, Laura; Howell, Michael D; Marsch, Stephan

    2011-06-14

    Despite substantial efforts to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) algorithms known to healthcare workers, the outcome of CPR has remained poor during the past decades. Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR. This review describes the state of the science linking team interactions to the performance of CPR. Because logistical barriers make controlled measurement of team interaction in the earliest moments of real-life resuscitations challenging, our review focuses mainly on high-fidelity human simulator studies. This technique allows in-depth investigation of complex human interactions using precise and reproducible methods. It also removes variability in the clinical parameters of resuscitation, thus letting researchers study human factors and team interactions without confounding by clinical variability from resuscitation to resuscitation. Research has shown that a prolonged process of team building and poor leadership behavior are associated with significant shortcomings in CPR. Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation and have recently been included in guidelines for advanced life support courses. We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients.

  17. The role of Levosimendan in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Varvarousi, Giolanda; Stefaniotou, Antonia; Varvaroussis, Dimitrios; Aroni, Filippia; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-10-01

    Although initial resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA) has increased over the past years, long term survival rates remain dismal. Epinephrine is the vasopressor of choice in the treatment of CA. However, its efficacy has been questioned, as it has no apparent benefits for long-term survival or favorable neurologic outcome. Levosimendan is an inodilator with cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects. Several studies suggest that it is associated with increased rates of return of spontaneous circulation as well as improved post-resuscitation myocardial function and neurological outcome. The purpose of this article is to review the properties of Levosimendan during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and also to summarize existing evidence regarding the use of Levosimendan in the treatment of CA.

  18. Drug therapy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1989-03-01

    In contrast to adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is rarely an acute, primary cardiac event. Instead, it is often the terminal event in a progressive deterioration of respiratory or circulatory function. Successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest therefore is unusual in the paediatric patient and most survivors have persistent neurological impairment. Rapid vascular access and recall of drug dosages are major obstacles in treating paediatric emergencies. This paper reviews vascular access and alternative drug delivery methods. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternative sites for drug delivery, but the optimal doses and methods of drug administration via these routes are unknown. Indeed, although great progress in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) research has been made over the past 10 years, there are only limited data on paediatric arrest mechanisms and drug treatment. In this paper, recommended dosages and mechanisms of action of drugs useful during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are reviewed, highlighting recent data which suggest that changes in current drug recommendations may be needed. To avoid delays in management, precalculated tables of drugs should be readily available in emergency departments and other care areas where paediatric cases are likely to be seen. Adrenaline (epinephrine) remains the drug of choice in a cardiac arrest, but the most effective dose may be higher than currently used. Treatment of acidosis during the arrest concentrates on restoration of ventilation and blood flow and not on bicarbonate administration. In the post-arrest setting increasing data suggest bicarbonate may not be beneficial and may actually be detrimental. Calcium and atropine also have relatively minor roles in resuscitation pharmacology. Calcium is only indicated to treat hypocalcaemia, counteract the effects of hyperkalaemia or hypermagnesaemia, or reverse calcium channel blocker toxicity. Finally, the role of isoprenaline

  19. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices.

  20. [Ethics of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions].

    PubMed

    Monzón, J L; Saralegui, I; Molina, R; Abizanda, R; Cruz Martín, M; Cabré, L; Martínez, K; Arias, J J; López, V; Gràcia, R M; Rodríguez, A; Masnou, N

    2010-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) must be attempted if indicated, not done if it is not indicated or if the patient does not accept or has previously rejected it and withdrawn it if it is ineffective. If CPR is considered futile, a Do-Not-Resuscitate Order (DNR) will be recorded. This should be made known to all physicians and nurses involved in patient care. It may be appropriate to limit life-sustaining-treatments for patients with severe anoxic encephalopathy, if the possibility of clinical evolution to brain death is ruled out. After CPR it is necessary to inform and support families and then review the process in order to make future improvements. After limitation of vital support, certain type of non-heart-beating-organ donation can be proposed. In order to acquire CPR skills, it is necessary to practice with simulators and, sometimes, with recently deceased, always with the consent of the family. Research on CPR is essential and must be conducted according to ethical rules and legal frameworks.

  1. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Monitoring During Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Xanthos, Theodoros; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Papalois, Apostolos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta

    2015-11-01

    Although high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most significant factors related to favourable outcome, its quality depends on many components, such as airway management, compression depth and chest recoil, hands-off time, and early defibrillation. The most common way of controlling the resuscitation efforts is monitoring of end-tidal carbon dioxide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggests this method both for in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, despite the abundant human and animal studies supporting the usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide, its optimal values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation remain controversial. In this review, the advantages and effectiveness of end-tidal carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are discussed and specific target values are suggested based on the available literature.

  2. [Resuscitation of a near-drowning patient by the use of a portable extracorporeal circulation device].

    PubMed

    Kumle, B; Döring, B; Mertes, H; Posival, H

    1997-12-01

    We report on a 21-year old patient who nearly drowned in cold water under inexplicable circumstances. About 1/2 hour later he was found with cardiac arrest. Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation remained unsuccessfully but was continued. After transportation to the nearest hospital a core temperature of 26.1 degrees C was recorded. A team of our hospital arrived 2 1/2 hours after start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After introducing a femo-femoral bypass the patient was rapidly rewarmed and oxygenated using a portable extracorporeal circulation and membrane oxygenation. Defibrillation succeeded at a core temperature of 34.4 degrees C. A severe ARDS developed the same day which was successfully treated by membrane oxygenation. 41 days later the patient left the hospital fully recovered.

  3. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.

  4. [Pediatric trauma life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Sampedro, P; de Lucas García, N; Balcells Ramírez, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V

    2002-06-01

    Accidents are the most frequent cause of mortality among children older than one year. Thus, the need to proceed to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the early phases of trauma life support (TLS) is always a possibility. Trauma is a special situation in CPR: expected problems (i.e., hemorrhage, pneumo-hemothorax, hypothermia, and difficult intubation and vascular access), specific therapeutic actions (i.e., helmet retrieval and cervical spine immobilization), and exceptions to standard CPR guidelines (i.e., contraindication for the head tilt-chin lift manoeuvre) can arise. Therefore, TLS and CPR interventions must be appropriately integrated. TLS is considered a method (much like CPR). It combines organization and leadership with competent, structured and timely actions. Appropriate intervention within the first few moments ("platinum half-hour" and " golden hour") and first day ("silver day") is essential. As in CPR, two modalities can be distinguished: basic TLS (on the scene, without technical resources) and advanced TLS (with resources). The acronym PAA summarizes basic TLS: Protect-Alert-Aid. The advanced TLS sequence includes the following: primary survey and initial stabilization, secondary survey, triage, transport, and definitive care. The main objective of the primary survey and initial stabilization phase is the identification and treatment of injuries with immediate potential to cause death. CPR in the context of TLS should be adapted to the special features of trauma. Particular attention should be paid to the cervical spine. While not specific for trauma care, the early and generous administration of oxygen should be emphasized.

  5. Magnetically targeted drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the post-resuscitation period.

    PubMed

    Xanthos, Theodoros; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Chalkias, Athanasios

    2012-07-01

    Treatment with pharmacological agents is frequently required during cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts and almost always during the post-resuscitation period. However, the lack of scientific evidence, the potent side effects and the association of resuscitation drugs with poor outcome act as a disincentive for their use. The use of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine has great potential. Magnetically targeted drug delivery may be an ideal method of pharmaceutical treatment during the resuscitation efforts and post-resuscitation period. In addition, there is evidence that magnetic nanotechnology may be used in the detection of post-cardiac arrest brain injury. In the light of poor survival of cardiac arrest victims, research in cardiopulmonary resuscitation should focus on this promising technology as soon as possible.

  6. Technique of Automated Control Over Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh; Kiseleva, E. Yu; Kutsov, M. S.; Zhdanov, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a technique of automated control over cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures on the basis of acoustic data. The research findings have allowed determining the primary important characteristics of acoustic signals (sounds of blood circulation in the carotid artery and respiratory sounds) and proposing a method to control the performance of resuscitation procedures. This method can be implemented as a part of specialized hardware systems.

  7. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  8. Efficacy of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.

    2001-01-01

    End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when EtCO 2 values are maintained above 25% of prearrest values.

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation interface adapted for postextubation continuous noninvasive ventilatory support.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R; Saporito, Louis Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The authors report that a new oral interface designed for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use during anesthesia permitted the successful extubation of an "unweanable" 27-yr-old woman with nemaline rod myopathy to continuous noninvasive ventilatory support. She had failed two previous extubation attempts. Tracheotomy and institutional care were avoided as a result. PMID:26135377

  10. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills by Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossel, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…

  11. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristiana Araújo G.; Balbino, Flávia Simphronio; Balieiro, Maria Magda F. G.; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%), in Medicine and Nursing (46%), and were surveys (72%) with healthcare team members (67%) as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a) to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b) to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c) to develop a written institutional policy; d) to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes. PMID:24676198

  12. Extensive injury after use of a mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation device.

    PubMed

    Wind, J; Bekkers, S C A M; van Hooren, L J H; van Heurn, L W E

    2009-10-01

    We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a ruptured liver and spleen found at autopsy, which may have been related to the use of a mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) device (AutoPulse, ZOLL Medical Corporation, Chelmsford, Mass). She was admitted because of an out-of-hospital resuscitation, and under the suspicion of a pulmonary embolism, a thrombolytic agent was administered. Despite prolonged continuation of mechanical CPR, she died of persistent asystole. The evidence for improved outcomes after the use of a mechanical CPR device during resuscitation is still scarce. To prevent the unique complications reported here, regular checking of proper position of the chest band during resuscitation is advised.

  13. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants. PMID:26989518

  14. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants.

  15. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them. PMID:26380744

  16. Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation in a Porcine Model of Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Salcido, David D.; Sundermann, Matthew L.; Koller, Allison C.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Implementation barriers for extracorporeal life support in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) include initiation delay and candidate selection. We explored ischemia duration, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration, and physiologic variables that discriminated animals with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We instrumented eight female swine (31.9 ± 9.8 kg) with femoral artery and external jugular vein cannula. After 8 (n = 4) or 15 (n = 4) minutes ventricular fibrillation (VF), animals received 30, 40, 50, or 60 minutes of CPR and then drugs (.6 U/kg vasopressin, .1 mg/kg epinephrine, .1 mg/kg propranolol, sodium bicarbonate as indicated) after 5 minutes of CPR. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) flow rate was 3 L/min ≤2 hours and then 1.5 L/min ≤2 hours before weaning. Animals were defibrillated (150 J biphasic) ≥15 minutes ECMO. Primary outcome for successful resuscitation was ROSC (organized rhythm with systolic blood pressure >80 mmHg). We measured arterial blood gas, electrolytes, mean arterial pressure (MAP), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), and five quantitative VF waveform measures at key intervals. Continuous variables were compared with two-sample t test. All 8-minute VF animals were successfully resuscitated and had ROSC. MAP was higher at the beginning (27.0 ± 7.1 vs. 15.0 ± 4.4; p = .03) and end (31.3 ± 12.8 vs. 11.5 ± 7.3; p = .03) of CPR in animals successfully resuscitated. CPP was higher at the beginning of CPR (11.9 ± 4.6 vs. 3.3 ± 2.2; p = .01) and the end of CPR (18.5 ± 12.1 vs. .9 ± 1.4; p = .03) among animals with ROSC. Amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) was superior at the end of CPR (–2.0 ± 1.8 vs. –5.0 ± 1.4; p = .04) in animals successfully resuscitated. In a porcine OHCA model, MAP and CPP at the beginning and end of CPR were higher in animals successfully resuscitated. AMSA was superior at the end of CPR in animals successfully resuscitated. PMID:23691782

  17. Survival without sequelae after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation after electric shock.

    PubMed

    Motawea, Mohamad; Al-Kenany, Al-Sayed; Hosny, Mostafa; Aglan, Omar; Samy, Mohamad; Al-Abd, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    "Electrical shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. It occurs upon contact of a human body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death." Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death after electrical shock. "The ideal duration of cardiac resuscitation is unknown. Typically prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with poor neurologic outcomes and reduced long term survival. No consensus statement has been made and traditionally efforts are usually terminated after 15-30 minutes." The case under discussion seems worthy of the somewhat detailed description given. It is for a young man who survived after 65 minutes after electrical shock (ES) after prolonged high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations, and artificial ventilation without any sequelae. Early start of adequate chest compressions and close adherence to advanced cardiac life support protocols played a vital role in successful CPR.

  18. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  19. [Virtual educational proposal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the neonate care].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care.

  20. [Virtual educational proposal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the neonate care].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care. PMID:20642055

  1. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  2. Glucocorticoids as an emerging pharmacologic agent for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Varvarousi, Giolanda; Stefaniotou, Antonia; Varvaroussis, Dimitrios; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-10-01

    Although cardiac arrest (CA) constitutes a major health problem with dismal prognosis, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge. CA causes adrenal insufficiency which is associated with poor outcome and increased mortality. Adrenal insufficiency may manifest as an inability to increase cortisol secretion during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Several studies suggest that glucocorticoids during and after CPR seem to confer benefits with respect to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rates and long term survival. They have beneficial hemodynamic effects that may favor their use during CPR and in the early post-resuscitation period. Moreover, they have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties that improve organ function by reducing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, glucocorticoid supplementation has shown conflicting results with regard to survival to hospital discharge and neurological outcome. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during CPR. Furthermore, this article reviews the effects of glucocorticoids use during CRP and the post-resuscitation phase.

  3. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved.

  4. Use of the impedance threshold device in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Demestiha, Theano D; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2010-01-01

    Although approximately one million sudden cardiac deaths occur yearly in the US and Europe, cardiac arrest (CA) remains a clinical condition still characterized by a poor prognosis. In an effort to improve the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique, the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for CPR gave the impedance threshold device (ITD) a Class IIa recommendation. The AHA recommendation means that there is strong evidence to demonstrate that ITD enhances circulation, improves hemodynamics and increases the likelihood of resuscitation in patients in CA. During standard CPR, venous blood return to the heart relies on the natural elastic recoil of the chest which creates a transient decrease in intrathoracic pressure. The ITD further decreases intrathoracic pressure by preventing respiratory gases from entering the lungs during the decompression phase of CPR. Thus, although ITD is placed into the respiratory circuit it works as a circulatory enhancer device that provides its therapeutic benefit with each chest decompression. The ease of use of this device, its ability to be incorporated into a mask and other airway devices, the absence of device-related adverse effects and few requirements in additional training, suggest that ITD may be a favorable new device for improving CPR efficiency. Since the literature is short of studies with clinically meaningful outcomes such as neurological outcome and long term survival, further evidence is still needed. PMID:21160680

  5. Retinal hemorrhage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hang; Enzenauer, Robert W; Elder, James E; Levin, Alex V

    2013-06-01

    Retinal hemorrhages in children in the absence of risk factors are regarded to be pathognomonic of shaken baby syndrome or other nonaccidental injuries. The physician must decide whether the retinal hemorrhages in children without risk factors are due to abuse or cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compression (CPR-CC). The objective of this study was to determine if CPR-CC can lead to retinal hemorrhages in children. Twenty-two patients who received in-hospital CPR-CC between February 15, 1990, and June 15, 1990, were enrolled. Pediatric ophthalmology fellows carried a code beeper and responded to calls for cardiopulmonary arrest situations. At the scene of CPR-CC, an indirect funduscopic examination was conducted for presence of retinal hemorrhages in the posterior pole. Follow-up examinations were performed at 24 and 72 hours. Of the 22 patients, 6 (27%) had retinal hemorrhages at the time of CPR-CC. Of these 6 patients, 5 had risk factors for retinal hemorrhages. The sixth patient had no risk factors and may have represented the only true case of retinal hemorrhages due to CPR-CC. Retinal hemorrhages are uncommon findings after CPR-CC. Retinal hemorrhages that are found after CPR-CC usually occur in the presence of other risk factors for hemorrhage with a mild hemorrhagic retinopathy in the posterior pole.

  6. As seen on TV: observational study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical dramas

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, P N; Williamson, S; Lawler, P G

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and accuracy with which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is portrayed in British television medical dramas. Design: Observational study. Subjects: 64 episodes of three major British television medical dramas: Casualty, Cardiac Arrest, and Medics. Main outcome measures: Frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shown on television; age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients undergoing resuscitation; rate of survival through resuscitation. Results: Overall 52 patients had a cardiorespiratory arrest on screen and 3 had a respiratory arrest alone, all the arrests occurring in 40 of the 64 episodes. Of the 52 patients having cardiorespiratory arrest, 32 (62%) underwent an attempt at cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 8 attempts were successful. All 3 of the patients having respiratory arrests alone received ventilatory support and survived. On 48% of occasions, victims of cardiac arrest seemed to be less than 35 years old. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory resuscitation is often depicted in British television medical dramas. Patients portrayed receiving resuscitation are likely to be in a younger age group than in real life. Though the reasons for resuscitation are more varied and more often associated with trauma than in reality, the overall success rate is nevertheless realistic. Widespread overoptimism of patients for survival after resuscitation cannot necessarily be blamed on British television medical dramas. Key messagesA quarter of patients in British television medical dramas who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation on screen seemed to surviveThis figure is comparable to initial survival rates in a series of patients in real lifePatients on television are more likely to suffer cardiac arrest as a result of trauma than in real life, and patients undergoing resuscitation are likely to be younger than patients in real lifeThe overall survival rate of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical drama seems

  7. Does witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation alter perceived stress in accident and emergency staff?

    PubMed

    Boyd, R; White, S

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if the presence of patients' relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation altered perceived symptoms of stress in accident and emergency personnel participating in resuscitation attempts. An anonymous structured questionnaire survey of all accident and emergency staff participating in non-traumatic adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation was designed to elicit symptoms of an acute stress reaction within 24 hours based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. One hundred and fourteen staff replies were received, a reply rate of 89%. Twenty-five replies had two or more symptoms of an acute stress reaction. The grade or role of the staff member had no influence on the presence of stress symptoms. There was no difference in rates of reporting between staff resuscitating in the presence or absence of relatives. It is concluded that the presence of relatives witnessing resuscitation attempts does not affect self-reported stress symptoms in staff participating in resuscitation attempts.

  8. Absorption of intubation-related lidocaine from the trachea during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether lidocaine is absorbed from the trachea during the artificial circulation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The tissue distribution of lidocaine was investigated in eight individuals (Cases 1-8) who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation before being pronounced dead. In Cases 1-4, there was no restoration of heart beat during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Heart massage had been continued for 5 min in Cases 1 and 2, and for 60 min in Cases 3 and 4. Relatively high concentrations of lidocaine (more than 0.1 mg/L) were detected in the blood left in the heart and/or in the large thoracic vessels in the four cases. In Cases 1-3, a large proportion of the lidocaine detected in these blood samples may have diffused from the trachea after cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation since no lidocaine was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, cerebrum, liver, right kidney, and/or right femoral muscle. In Case 4, however, tracheal lidocaine was thought to have been absorbed during cardiopulmonary resuscitation because 0.167-0.340 mg/L or mg/kg lidocaine was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, liver, right kidney, and right femoral muscle. This was substantiated in experiments performed in rabbit carcasses given 50 microL/kg Xylocaine jelly (a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride preparation) intratracheally, followed by rhythmical thoracic compressions (100-150 times per minute) for 60 min. A possible reason for lack of absorption of lidocaine from the trachea of Case 3 during a 60-min cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedure may have been that effective blood circulation was not obtained during cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of bleeding and pulmonary collapse. Cases 5-8 survived for 3 h to 10 days after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation; it was obvious that lidocaine was distributed to the tissues under the influence of the natural circulation. The kidney to liver lidocaine ratio in Case 4 (0.8) was much lower than that

  9. Trainers' Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, M.; Castrén, M.; Nurmi, J.; Niemi-Murola, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers' attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D), Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N = 185) focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree). Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse's Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation). Cronbach's alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student's t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p < 0.01). Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p < 0.01) were less confident about their Nurse's Role (p < 0.01) and Nontechnical Skills (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills. PMID:27144027

  10. Should family members be present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Critchell, C Dana; Marik, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    During resuscitation, family members are often escorted out of the room for fear of immediate and long-term consequences to the family, the patient, and the physician. However, mounting evidence suggests that family presence during resuscitation could, in fact, be beneficial. The Emergency Nurses Association and the American Heart Association endorse family-witnessed resuscitation and the development of hospital policies to facilitate this process. However, the opinions on family-witnessed resuscitation vary widely, and few hospitals in the United States have developed formal policies on the presence of families during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In this article, we review the current status of family-witnessed resuscitation and provide recommendations on the development of hospital policies for family-witnessed resuscitation.

  11. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Lunar and Martian Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, Subhajit

    2004-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required training for all astronauts. No studies thus far have investigated how chest compressions may be affected in lunar and Martian gravities. Therefore a theoretical quantitative study was performed. The maximum downward force an unrestrained person can apply is mg N (g(sub Earth) = 9.78 ms(sup -2), g(sub moon) = 1.63 ms(sup -2), g(sub Mars) = 3.69 ms(sup -2). Tsitlik et a1 (Critical Care Medicine, 1983) described the human sternal elastic force-displacement relationship (compliance) by: F = betaD(sub s) + gammaD(sub s)(sup 2) (beta = 54.9 plus or minus 29.4 Ncm(sup -1) and gamma = 10.8 plus or minus 4.1 Ncm(sup -2)). Maximum forces in the 3 gravitational fields produced by 76 kg (US population mean), 41 kg and 93 kg (masses derived from the limits for astronaut height), produced solutions for compression depth using Tsitlik equations for chests of: mean compliance (beta = 54.9, gamma = 10.8), low compliance (beta = 84.3, gamma = 14.9) and high compliance (beta = 25.5, gamma = 6.7). The mass for minimum adequate adult compression, 3.8 cm (AHA guidelines), was also calculated. 76 kg compresses the mean compliance chest by: Earth, 6.1 cm, Mars, 3.2 cm, Moon, 1.7 cm. In lunar gravity, the high compliance chest is compressed only 3.2 cm by 93 kg, 120 kg being required for 3.8 cm. In Martian gravity, on the mean chest, 93 kg compresses 3.6 cm; 99 kg is required for 3.8 cm. On Mars, the high compliance chest is compressed 4.8 cm with 76 kg, 5.5 cm with 93 kg, with 52 kg required for 3.8 cm.

  12. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE. A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins. The study was set in one university medical center in the China. Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study. Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa. CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants’ physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded. With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01). We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  13. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    LIN, JI-YAN; ZHANG, MIN-WEI; WANG, JIN-GAO; LI, HUI; WEI, HONG-YAN; LIU, RONG; DAI, GANG; LIAO, XIAO-XING

    2016-01-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR. PMID:26893650

  14. Delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barratt, M. R.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The microgravity environment presents several challenges for delivering effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Chest compressions must be driven by muscular force rather than by the weight of the rescuer's upper torso. Airway stabilization is influenced by the neutral body posture. Rescuers will consist of crew members of varying sizes and degrees of physical deconditioning from space flight. Several methods of CPR designed to accommodate these factors were tested in the one G environment, in parabolic flight, and on a recent shuttle flight. Methods: Utilizing study participants of varying sizes, different techniques of CPR delivery were evaluated using a recording CPR manikin to assess adequacy of compressive force and frequency. Under conditions of parabolic flight, methods tested included conventional positioning of rescuer and victim, free floating 'Heimlich type' compressions, straddling the patient with active and passive restraints, and utilizing a mechanical cardiac compression assist device (CCAD). Multiple restrain systems and ventilation methods were also assessed. Results: Delivery of effective CPR was possible in all configurations tested. Reliance on muscular force alone was quickly fatiguing to the rescuer. Effectiveness of CPR was dependent on technique, adequate restraint of the rescuer and patient, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR was adequate but rapidly fatiguing. The CCAD was able to provide adequate compressive force but positioning was problematic. Conclusions: Delivery of effective CPR in microgravity will be dependent on adequate resuer and patient restraint, technique, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR may be employed as a stop gap method until patient restraint is available. Development of an adequate CCAD would be desirable to compensate for the effects of deconditioning.

  15. Basic life support knowledge of secondary school students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training using a song

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Canales Velis, Nancy Beatriz; Andrade Barahona, Mario Miguel; Siggers, Aidan; Lopera, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of a “cardiopulmonary resuscitation song” in improving the basic life support skills of secondary school students. Methods This pre-test/post-test control design study enrolled secondary school students from two middle schools randomly chosen in Córdoba, Andalucia, Spain. The study included 608 teenagers. A random sample of 87 students in the intervention group and 35 in the control group, aged 12-14 years were selected. The intervention included a cardiopulmonary resuscitation song and video. A questionnaire was conducted at three-time points: pre-intervention, one month and eight months post-intervention. Results On global knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the trial pre-intervention and at the month post-intervention. However, at 8 months there were significant differences with a p-value = 0.000 (intervention group, 95% CI: 6.39 to 7.13 vs. control group, 95% CI: 4.75 to 5.92), (F (1,120)=16.644, p= 0.000). In addition, significant differences about students’ basic life support knowledge about chest compressions at eight months post-intervention (F(1,120)=15.561, p=0.000) were found. Conclusions Our study showed that incorporating the song component in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching increased its effectiveness and the ability to remember the cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm. Our study highlights the need for different methods in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching to facilitate knowledge retention and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:27442599

  16. Understanding the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training on Participants' Perceived Confidence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordheim, Shawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This pre-experimental, participatory action research study investigated the impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training on participants' perceived confidence and willingness to initiate CPR. Parents of seventh and eighth grade students were surveyed. Parent participants were asked to watch the American Heart Association's Family and…

  17. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  18. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills. A survey among health and rescue personnel outside hospital].

    PubMed

    Bjørshol, C A

    1996-02-10

    The aim of this study was to survey practical skills and theoretical knowledge in lifesaving first aid among health and rescue workers outside hospital. 45 police officers, 46 firemen, 57 nurses and 42 general practitioners participated. Unprepared, they were presented with a "patient" (resuscitation doll) without respiration or heart beat, and were asked to do what was necessary to revive the "patient". They were afterwards questioned about specific emergency medical situations, how they assessed their own achievement and when they last had training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Only 1% were able to perform satisfactory basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a cardiac arrest according to the accepted guidelines, and only 17% ventilated and compressed efficiently with a rhythm of 2:15 or 1:5. 50% believed they were efficient in lifesaving first aid. Those who had taken a course in first aid during the previous year achieved significantly better results than the rest. It is concluded that health and rescue workers outside hospital follow the European Resuscitation Council's guidelines for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to only a small degree, but that the situation can be improved by more regular training. PMID:8644057

  19. [Tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax following tracheal perforation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, C T; Tsokos, M; Kurz, S D; Kleber, C

    2015-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax can occur at any time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with external cardiac massage and invasive ventilation either from primary or iatrogenic rib fractures with concomitant pleural or parenchymal injury. Airway injury can also cause tension pneumothorax during CPR. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old woman who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after undergoing elective mandibular surgery. During CPR the upper airway could not be secured by orotracheal intubation due to massive craniofacial soft tissue swelling. A surgical airway was established with obviously unrecognized iatrogenic tracheal perforation and subsequent development of tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax during ventilation. Neither the tension pneumomediastinum nor the tension pneumothorax were decompressed and accordingly resuscitation efforts remained unsuccessful. This case illustrates the need for a structured approach to resuscitate patients with ventilation problems regarding decompression of tension pneumomediastinum and/or tension pneumothorax during CPR.

  20. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  1. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and post-cardiac arrest brain injury].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics in the field of resuscitation at present is the drafting of the 2015 version of the Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendation (CoSTR) by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The Japan Resuscitation Council is preparing its 2015 Guideline based on this CoSTR and plans to release it in October 2015. A critical change in the upcoming CoSTR is the adoption of the GRADE system. The new Guideline incorporating the GRADE system will surely be more scientific than the previous Guideline issued in 2010. Meanwhile, an important finding appeared in a report from Nielsen et al.: hypothermia at a targeted temperature of 33 degrees C did not confer a benefit versus 36 degrees in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause.

  2. [Coronary revascularization during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The bridge code].

    PubMed

    Serrano Moraza, A; Del Nogal Sáez, F; Alfonso Manterola, F

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is one of the major current challenges, due to both its high incidence and mortality and the fact that it leads to severe brain dysfunction in over half of the survivors. The so-called coronary origin Bridge Code is presented, based on the international resuscitation recommendations (2005, 2010). In accordance with a series of strict predictive criteria, this code makes it possible to: (1) select refractory CPR patients with a high or very high presumption of underlying coronary cause; (2) evacuate the patient using mechanical chest compressors [LucasTM, Autopulse®], maintaining coronary and brain perfusion pressures; (3) allow coronary revascularization access during resuscitation maneuvering (PTCA during ongoing CPR); (4) induce early hypothermia; and (5) facilitate post-cardiac arrest intensive care. In the case of treatment failure, the quality of hemodynamic support makes it possible to establish a second bridge to non-heart beating organ donation.

  3. Ruptured subcapsular liver haematoma following mechanically-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John R; Freundlich, Robert Edward; Abir, Mahshid

    2016-02-02

    A 64-year-old man with a history of ascending aortic surgery and pulmonary embolus presented with shortness of breath. He rapidly decompensated, prompting intubation, after which he lost pulses. Manual resuscitation was initiated immediately, with subsequent use of a LUCAS-2 mechanical compression device. The patient was given bolus thrombolytic therapy and regained pulses after 7 min of CPR. Compressions were reinitiated with the LUCAS-2 twice more during resuscitation over the subsequent hour for brief episodes of PEA. After confirmation of massive pulmonary embolism on CT, the patient underwent interventional radiology-guided ultrasonic catheter placement with local thrombolytic therapy and experienced immediate improvement in oxygenation. He later developed abdominal compartment syndrome, despite cessation of thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy. Bedside exploratory abdominal laparotomy revealed a ruptured subcapsular haematoma of the liver. The patient's haemodynamics improved following surgery and he was extubated 11 days postarrest with intact neurological function.

  4. The ethics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. II. Medical logistics and the potential for good response.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J M; Reynolds, B M

    1992-01-01

    Mismatches between provision of paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and potential to benefit are examined. Deficiencies are most likely to occur in peripheral maternity units but futile CPR is more common in emergency departments where the child is unknown. Decision making in individual cases is best retained by the medical profession for the sake of the child and family. American style intervention by the legislature is likely to dissipate scarce resources and perhaps harm infants not capable of benefiting. PMID:1489234

  5. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  6. Families’ Stressors and Needs at Time of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation: A Jordanian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Masa’Deh, Rami; Saifan, Ahmad; Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background: During cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, family members, in some hospitals, are usually pushed to stay out of the resuscitation room. However, growing literature implies that family presence during resuscitation could be beneficial. Previous literature shows controversial belief whether or not a family member should be present during resuscitation of their relative. Some worldwide association such as the American Heart Association supports family-witnessed resuscitation and urge hospitals to develop policies to ease this process. The opinions on family-witnessed resuscitation vary widely among various cultures, and some hospitals are not applying such polices yet. This study explores family members’ needs during resuscitation in adult critical care settings. Methods: This is a part of larger study. The study was conducted in six hospitals in two major Jordanian cities. A purposive sample of seven family members, who had experience of having a resuscitated relative, was recruited over a period of six months. Semi-structured interview was utilised as the main data collection method in the study. Findings: The study findings revealed three main categories: families’ need for reassurance; families’ need for proximity; and families’ need for support. The need for information about patient’s condition was the most important need. Updating family members about patient’s condition would reduce their tension and improve their acceptance for the end result of resuscitation. All interviewed family members wanted the option to stay beside their loved one at end stage of their life. Distinctively, most of family members want this option for some religious and cultural reasons such as praying and supplicating to support their loved one. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of considering the cultural and religious dimensions in any family-witnessed resuscitation programs. The study recommends that family members of resuscitated patients should

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  8. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Brain Damage After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jincheng; Xie, Xuemeng; Pan, Hao; Wu, Ziqian; Lu, Wen; Yang, Guangtian

    2015-07-01

    Postcardiac arrest syndrome yields poor neurological outcomes, but the mechanisms underlying this condition remain poorly understood. This study investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is induced in injured brain after resuscitation. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 min of cardiac arrest (CA) and then resuscitated successfully. In the first experiment, animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h (n = 3 per group) after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Brain tissues were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. In the second experiment, either dimethyl sulfoxide or salubrinal (Sal; 1 mg/kg), an ER stress inhibitor, was injected 30 min before the induction of CA (n = 10 per group). Neurological deficits were evaluated 24 h after CA. Brain specimens were analyzed using electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays and immunohistochemistry. We found that the messenger RNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, X-box binding protein 1, C/EBP homologous protein, and caspase 12 were significantly elevated after resuscitation. We also observed that rats treated with Sal exhibited an improved neurological deficit score (32.3 ± 15.5 in the Sal group vs. 49.8 ± 20.9 in controls, P < 0.05). In addition, morphological improvements in the hippocampal ER were observed in the Sal group compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, in situ immunostaining revealed that markers of ER stress were significantly inhibited by Sal pretreatment. Our findings suggested that ER stress and the associated apoptotic pathways were activated in the hippocampus after resuscitation. Administration of Sal 30 min before cardiopulmonary resuscitation ameliorated neurological dysfunction 24 h after CA, possibly through the inhibition of ER stress after postresuscitation brain injury. PMID:25705860

  9. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Brain Damage After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jincheng; Xie, Xuemeng; Pan, Hao; Wu, Ziqian; Lu, Wen; Yang, Guangtian

    2015-07-01

    Postcardiac arrest syndrome yields poor neurological outcomes, but the mechanisms underlying this condition remain poorly understood. This study investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is induced in injured brain after resuscitation. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 min of cardiac arrest (CA) and then resuscitated successfully. In the first experiment, animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h (n = 3 per group) after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Brain tissues were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. In the second experiment, either dimethyl sulfoxide or salubrinal (Sal; 1 mg/kg), an ER stress inhibitor, was injected 30 min before the induction of CA (n = 10 per group). Neurological deficits were evaluated 24 h after CA. Brain specimens were analyzed using electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays and immunohistochemistry. We found that the messenger RNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, X-box binding protein 1, C/EBP homologous protein, and caspase 12 were significantly elevated after resuscitation. We also observed that rats treated with Sal exhibited an improved neurological deficit score (32.3 ± 15.5 in the Sal group vs. 49.8 ± 20.9 in controls, P < 0.05). In addition, morphological improvements in the hippocampal ER were observed in the Sal group compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, in situ immunostaining revealed that markers of ER stress were significantly inhibited by Sal pretreatment. Our findings suggested that ER stress and the associated apoptotic pathways were activated in the hippocampus after resuscitation. Administration of Sal 30 min before cardiopulmonary resuscitation ameliorated neurological dysfunction 24 h after CA, possibly through the inhibition of ER stress after postresuscitation brain injury.

  10. Selected concepts and controversies in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1988-10-01

    Although more than 80 years of research in cardiac resuscitation produced many important findings and greatly enhanced our understanding of the arrest state, outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest remains poor. Resuscitation guidelines have recently been published, but they may not reflect optimal therapy. Closed-chest compression-induced cardiac output may be higher in pediatric patients, particularly infants, than that previously reported in adults. To achieve higher cardiac outputs, direct cardiac compression is important; the recommended compression location has therefore been changed based on recent data. The optimal rate of compression, however, is uncertain, so further research is needed. Alternative vascular access sites, such as the endotracheal and intraosseous route for drug administration may permit more rapid drug delivery, but data suggest that a larger epinephrine dose than currently recommended should be used. It may also be helpful to dilute the drug in normal saline before endotracheal administration. Although experimental data suggest that a pure alpha-adrenergic agonist may be beneficial in a cardiac arrest, recent data show that epinephrine remains the drug of choice. Finally, the role of sodium bicarbonate in both the arrest and postarrest setting has become controversial. Recent data suggest that bicarbonate may be detrimental and that therapy of acidosis is best directed at improving perfusion, oxygenation, and ventilation. Alternative forms of therapy for acidosis, such as THAM and dichloroacetate may prove beneficial in the postarrest setting. PMID:3052707

  11. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Microgravity: Efficacy in the Swine During Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The International Space Station will need to be as capable as possible in providing Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Previous studies with manikins in parabolic microgravity (0 G) have shown that delivering CPR in microgravity is difficult. End tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when PetCO2 values are maintained above 25% of pre-arrest values. METHODS: Eleven anesthetized Yorkshire swine were flown in microgravity during parabolic flight. Physiologic parameters, including PetCO2, were monitored. Standard ACLS protocols were used to resuscitate these models after chemical induction of cardiac arrest. Chest compressions were administered using conventional body positioning with waist restraint and unconventional vertical-inverted body positioning. RESULTS: PetCO2 values were maintained above 25% of both 1-G and O-G pre-arrest values in the microgravity environment (33% +/- 3 and 41 +/- 3). No significant difference between 1-G CPR and O-G CPR was found in these animal models. Effective CPR was delivered in both body positions although conventional body positioning was found to be quickly fatiguing as compared with the vertical-inverted. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be effectively administered in microgravity (0 G). Validation of this model has demonstrated that PetCO2 levels were maintained above a level previously reported to be predictive of survival. The unconventional vertical-inverted position provided effective CPR and was less fatiguing as compared with the conventional body position with waist restraints.

  12. Successful Management of a Patient with Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) due to Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and Lung Injury by Transition from Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support (PCPS) to Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO).

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Isoda, Kikuo; Gatate, Yodo; Akita, Koji; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with cardiopulmonary arrest. Percutaneous cardio-pulmonary support (PCPS) using the right femoral artery and vein was initiated, because ventricular fibrillation continued. Although we succeeded in defibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a chest radiograph indicated a pneumothorax in the right lung and a pulmonic contusion in the left lung caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Two days after PCI, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) from the right radial artery suddenly decreased, and his cardiac function showed improvement on an echocardiogram. To avoid additional brain damage, we converted the treatment to veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by changing the blood returning site of PCPS from the right femoral artery to the right jugular vein. Thereafter, the patient's PaO2 level gradually improved. PMID:27432096

  13. Thrombolysis during extended cardiopulmonary resuscitation for autoimmune-related pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-ping; Ying, Ke-jing

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) and acute myocardial infarction are the two most common causes of cardiac arrest (CA). At present, lethal hemorrhage makes thrombolytic therapy underused during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, despite the potential benefits for these underlying conditions. Hypercoagulability of the blood in autoimmune disorders (such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia) carries a risk of MPE. It is critical to find out the etiology of CA for timely thrombolytic intervention. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with a 10-year medical history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia suffered from CA in our emergency intensive care unit. ECG and echocardiogram indicated the possibility of MPE, so fibrinolytic therapy (alteplase) was successful during prolonged resuscitation. RESULTS: Neurological recovery of the patient was generally good, and no fatal bleeding developed. MPE was documented by CT pulmonary angiography. CONCLUSIONS: A medical history of autoimmune disease poses a risk of PE, and the causes of CA (such as this) should be investigated etiologically. A therapy with alteplase may be used early during cardiopulmonary resuscitation once there is presumptive evidence of PE. Clinical trials are needed in this setting to study patients with hypercoagulable states. PMID:26056548

  14. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Extracorporeal Life Support for Emergent Intraoperative Thoracic Situations.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-08-01

    Intraoperative thoracic surgical catastrophes may require extracorporeal circulation modes to support the patient while the appropriate repair is made. Teamwork is key and, given the evidence supporting better performance with the use of simulation and surgical-crisis checklists, their use should be encouraged. Anticipation is another important factor because the results of intrathoracic malignancy resection are clearly superior in the setting of planned cardiopulmonary support. In addition, familiarity with the different modes of support that are currently available can direct the decision-making process toward the best option to facilitate resolution of the intraoperative catastrophe with the least related morbidity. PMID:26210928

  15. Survival after Perioperative Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Providing an Evidence Base for Ethical Management of Do-not-resuscitate Orders.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Shona; Hooft, Lotty; Meijerman, Johanne M; Knape, Johannes T A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-03-01

    Automatic suspension of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders during general anesthesia does not sufficiently address a patient's right to self-determination and is a practice still observed among anesthesiologists today. To provide an evidence base for ethical management of DNR orders during anesthesia and surgery, the authors performed a systematic review of the literature to quantify the survival after perioperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Results show that the probability of surviving perioperative CPR ranged from 32.0 to 55.7% when measured within the first 24 h after arrest with a neurologically favorable outcome expectancy between 45.3 and 66.8% at follow-up, which suggests a viable survival of approximately 25%. Because CPR generally proves successful in less than 15% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, the altered outcome probabilities that the conditions in the operating room bring on warrant reevaluation of DNR orders during the perioperative period. By preoperatively communicating the evidence to patients, they can make better informed decisions while reducing the level of moral distress that anesthesiologists may experience when certain patients decide to retain their DNR orders.

  16. Postconditioning improvement effects of ulinastatin on brain injury following cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sui, Bo; Li, Yongwang; Ma, Li

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) on brain injury in rats subjected to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) following asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and identify the underlying mechanisms. In total, 100 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n=50). After 4 min of asphyxial CA, all the rats were immediately subjected to CPR. The treatment group animals were administered 15 mg/kg UTI at the onset of resuscitation. The mortality rate in the two groups was recorded at 24 h post-resuscitation. In addition, neurological function was evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-resuscitation using a neurological deficit scale (NDS). Furthermore, the effects of UTI on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in brain tissues were determined by assessing TLR4 mRNA expression, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-resuscitation. After 24 h, the mortality rate significantly decreased in the treatment group when compared with the control animals (10 vs. 30%; P<0.05). Additionally, an overt improvement was observed in the NDS score following UTI treatment when compared with the control (P<0.01). Finally, statistically significant decreases in the levels of TLR4 mRNA expression, NF-κB activity and TNF-α and IL-6 were observed in the treatment group at each time point (P<0.01). Therefore, UTI treatment at the onset of CPR significantly inhibits the TLR4 signaling pathway, thereby alleviating the inflammatory responses following resuscitation and improving neurological function.

  17. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of apparently stillborn infants: survival and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Jain, L; Ferre, C; Vidyasagar, D; Nath, S; Sheftel, D

    1991-05-01

    To determine the outcome of apparently stillborn infants who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we studied the short- and long-term outcome of 93 infants who had an Apgar score of 0 at 1 minute of age and were resuscitated at birth. Sixty-two (66.6%) responded and left the delivery room alive; 26 (42%) of the 62 infants died in the neonatal period and 36 infants were discharged home; of the 36 infants, three subsequently died during infancy. Of the 33 survivors, ten were lost to follow-up after discharge. Developmental assessment of 23 of 33 long-term survivors revealed normal outcome in 14 (61.7%), abnormal results in 6 (26%), and suspect status in 3 (13%). Fifty-eight infants had an Apgar score of 0 at greater than or equal to 10 minutes of age and all except one died; the surviving infant has an abnormal developmental outcome. We conclude that 39% of apparently stillborn infants who were resuscitated survived beyond the neonatal period and that 61% of the 23 survivors who were available for developmental follow-up had normal development at the time of last examination. Survival was unlikely if there was no response after 10 minutes of resuscitation.

  18. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  19. European nursing organizations stand up for family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a joint position statement.

    PubMed

    Moons, Philip; Norekvål, Tone M

    2008-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has beneficial effects. Although many American professional organizations have endorsed the idea of family presence, there is less formal support in Europe. In addition, the attitude of nurses from Anglo-Saxon countries, such as United Kingdom and Ireland, is more positive toward family presence than the attitude of nurses of mainland Europe. In order to support existing guidelines and to stimulate health care organizations to develop a formal policy with respect to family witnessed CPR, 3 important European nursing organizations have recently developed a joint position statement.

  20. A pilot study of effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training on participants' self-concepts.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T R; Byrd, E K

    1983-10-01

    The administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was taught to a group of 12 adults. The Tennessee Self-concept Scale Form-C and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior Scale (FIRO-B) were administered before and after their training. A control group of 12 was administered both scales twice with one day between administrations. Analysis indicated both groups showed significant differences between the pre- and posttest administrations on expressed affection on the FIRO-B. However, participants in a brief CPR course did not score significantly differently from a control group on these measures, as expected.

  1. Tight control of effectiveness of cardiac massage with invasive blood pressure monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Prause, Gerhard; Archan, Sylvia; Gemes, Geza; Kaltenböck, Friedrich; Smolnikov, Ilja; Schuchlenz, Herwig; Wildner, Gernot

    2010-07-01

    The continuity of chest compression is the main challenge in prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field as well as during transport. Invasive blood pressure monitoring with visible pulse waves by means of an arterial line set prehospitally allows for tight control of the effectiveness of chest compressions as well as of the impact of the administered epinephrine and also captures beginning fatigue of the rescuers. In this case, maintaining uninterrupted circulation through manual as well as mechanical chest compressions continued until the successful percutaneous coronary intervention saved the patients life without neurologic damage. PMID:20637398

  2. Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Cardiac Compressor; Reclassification of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Aids. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-05-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify external cardiac compressors (ECC) (under FDA product code DRM), a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls). FDA is also creating a separate classification regulation for a subgroup of devices previously included within this classification regulation, to be called cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) aids, and reclassifying these devices from class III to class II for CPR aids with feedback and to class I for CPR aids without feedback. PMID:27224965

  3. Is cardiopulmonary resuscitation training deleterious for family members of cardiac patients?

    PubMed Central

    Dracup, K; Moser, D K; Guzy, P M; Taylor, S E; Marsden, C

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and subsequent CPR use of 172 CPR-trained family members of cardiac patients. The majority (88.9%) reported positive attitudes. Only 14 (8.1%) reported feeling too responsible for their family member. One hundred and forty-one (81.9%) said that they would perform CPR if required to do so. Family members do not feel unduly burdened by learning CPR, and CPR training should be recommended to families of patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. PMID:8279597

  4. Does Video Laryngoscopy Offer Advantages over Direct Laryngoscopy during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?

    PubMed Central

    Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Bezen, Olgaç; Şengül, Türker; Uğur, Egin Hüsnü; Şener, Sibel; Yüzer, Fisun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Interruption of chest compressions should be minimized because of its negative effects on survival. This randomized, controlled, cross-over study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of Macintosh, Miller, McCoy and McGrath laryngoscopes during with or without chest compressions in the scope of a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation scenario. Methods The time required for successful tracheal intubation, number of attempts, dental trauma severity and the need for optimization manoeuvres were recorded during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with and without chest compressions. The experience with computer games during the last 10 years were asked to the participants and recorded. Results McCoy laryngoscope yielded the shortest time for successful tracheal intubation both in the presence of and without chest compressions. During the use of McCoy laryngoscopes, fewer tracheal intubation attempts, lower incidence of dental trauma and lower visual analogue scale scores on the ease of intubation were recorded. Participants who are experienced computer game players using Macintosh, McCoy and McGrath achieved successful tracheal intubation in a significantly shorter time during resuscitation without chest compressions. Dental trauma incidence and number of tracheal intubation attempts did not show any significant difference between the four laryngoscopes being related to the rate of playing computer games. Conclusion McGrath video laryngoscopes do not appear to have advantages over direct laryngoscopes for securing a smooth and successful tracheal intubation during rhythmic chest compressions. We believe that as McCoy laryngoscope provided tracheal intubation in a shorter time and with fewer attempts, this laryngoscope may increase the success rate of resuscitation. PMID:27366508

  5. Marginally effective medical care: ethical analysis of issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

    PubMed Central

    Hilberman, M; Kutner, J; Parsons, D; Murphy, D J

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain distressingly poor. Overuse of CPR is attributable to unrealistic expectations, unintended consequences of existing policies and failure to honour patient refusal of CPR. We analyzed the CPR outcomes literature using the bioethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice and developed a proposal for selective use of CPR. Beneficence supports use of CPR when most effective. Non-maleficence argues against performing CPR when the outcomes are harmful or usage inappropriate. Additionally, policies which usurp good clinical judgment and moral responsibility, thereby contributing to inappropriate CPR usage, should be considered maleficent. Autonomy restricts CPR use when refused but cannot create a right to CPR. Justice requires that we define which medical interventions contribute sufficiently to health and happiness that they should be made universally available. This ordering is necessary whether one believes in the utilitarian standard or wishes medical care to be universally available on fairness grounds. Low-yield CPR fails justice criteria. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed when justified by the extensive outcomes literature; not performed when not desired by the patient or not indicated; and performed infrequently when relatively contraindicated. PMID:9451605

  6. Marginally effective medical care: ethical analysis of issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

    PubMed

    Hilberman, M; Kutner, J; Parsons, D; Murphy, D J

    1997-12-01

    Outcomes from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain distressingly poor. Overuse of CPR is attributable to unrealistic expectations, unintended consequences of existing policies and failure to honour patient refusal of CPR. We analyzed the CPR outcomes literature using the bioethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice and developed a proposal for selective use of CPR. Beneficence supports use of CPR when most effective. Non-maleficence argues against performing CPR when the outcomes are harmful or usage inappropriate. Additionally, policies which usurp good clinical judgment and moral responsibility, thereby contributing to inappropriate CPR usage, should be considered maleficent. Autonomy restricts CPR use when refused but cannot create a right to CPR. Justice requires that we define which medical interventions contribute sufficiently to health and happiness that they should be made universally available. This ordering is necessary whether one believes in the utilitarian standard or wishes medical care to be universally available on fairness grounds. Low-yield CPR fails justice criteria. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed when justified by the extensive outcomes literature; not performed when not desired by the patient or not indicated; and performed infrequently when relatively contraindicated.

  7. Pre- and postconditioning effect of Sevoflurane on myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jürgen; Bergmann, Greta; Bruckner, Thomas; Russ, Nicolai; Böttiger, Bernd W; Popp, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction is an important cause of death in the intensive care unit after initially successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of pre-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) patients. Volatile anaesthetics reduce ischaemic-reperfusion injury in regional ischaemia in beating hearts. This effect, called anaesthetic-induced pre- or postconditioning, can be shown when the volatile anaesthetic is given either before regional ischaemia or in the reperfusion phase. However, up to now, little data exist for volatile anaesthetics after global ischaemia due to CA. Therefore, the goal of this study was to clarify whether Sevoflurane improves post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction after CA in rats. Following institutional approval by the Governmental Animal Care Committee, 144 male Wistar rats (341±19g) were randomized either to a control group or to one of the 9 interventional groups receiving 0.25 MAC, 0.5 MAC or 1 MAC of Sevoflurane for 5min either before resuscitation (SBR), during resuscitation (SDR) or after resuscitation (SAR). After 6min of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation CPR was performed. Before CA (baseline) as well as 1h and 24h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), continuous measurement of ejection fraction (EF), and preload adjusted maximum power (PAMP) as primary outcome parameters and end systolic pressure (ESP), end diastolic volume (EDV) and maximal slope of systolic pressure increment (dP/dtmax) as secondary outcome parameters was performed using a conductance catheter. EF was improved in all Sevoflurane treated groups 1h after ROSC in comparison to control, except for the 0.25 MAC SDR and 0.25 MAC SAR group (0.25 MAC SBR: 38±8, p=0.02; 0.5 MAC SBR: 39±7, p=0.04; 1 MAC SBR: 40±6, p=0.007; 0.5 MAC SDR: 38±7, p=0.02; 1 MAC SDR: 40±6, p=0.006; 0.5 MAC SAR: 39±6, p=0.01; 1 MAC SAR: 39±6, p=0.002, vs. 30±7%). Twenty-four hours after ROSC, EF was higher than control in all interventional groups (p

  8. Survival after In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Major Referral Center during 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Hasan; Saghafi, Abdollah; Saghafinia, Masoud; Panahi, Farzad; Hoseinpour, Mohamadjavad

    2011-03-01

    Despite efforts to save more people suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest, rates of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are no better today than they were more than a decade ago. This study was undertaken to assess the demographics, clinical parameters and outcomes of patients undergoing CPR by the code blue team at our center during 2001 to 2008. Data were collected retrospectively from adult patients (n=2262) who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from the hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using binomial and tests. Of the patients included (n=2262), 741 patients (32.8%) had successful CPR. The number of male patients requiring CPR was more than females in need of the procedure. The majority of patients requiring CPR were older than 60 years (56.4±17.9). The number of successful CPR cases in long-day shift (7:00 to 19:00) was more than that in the night shift (19:00 to 7:00). Furthermore, 413 (18.4%) cases were resuscitated on holidays and 1849 (81.7%) on the working days. The duration of CPR was 10 min or less in 710 (31.4%) cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations which lasted less than 10 minutes were associated with better outcomes. The findings of the present study indicate that some manageable factors including the duration of CPR, working shift, working day (holiday or non-holiday) could affect the CPR outcomes. The findings might also be taken as evidence to suggest that the allocation of more personnel in each shift especially in night shifts and holidays, planning to increase the personnel's CPR skills, and decreasing the waste time would result in the improvement of CPR outcome. PMID:23365479

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions in the emergency department: An ethnography of tacit knowledge in practice.

    PubMed

    Brummell, Stephen P; Seymour, Jane; Higginbottom, Gina

    2016-05-01

    Despite media images to the contrary, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in emergency departments is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore how health care professionals working in two emergency departments in the UK, make decisions to commence, continue or stop resuscitation. Data collection involved participant observation of resuscitation attempts and in-depth interviews with nurses, medical staff and paramedics who had taken part in the attempts. Detailed case examples were constructed for comparative analysis. Findings show that emergency department staff use experience and acquired tacit knowledge to construct a typology of cardiac arrest categories that help them navigate decision making. Categorisation is based on 'less is more' heuristics which combine explicit and tacit knowledge to facilitate rapid decisions. Staff then work as a team to rapidly assimilate and interpret information drawn from observations of the patient's body and from technical, biomedical monitoring data. The meaning of technical data is negotiated during staff interaction. This analysis was informed by a theory of 'bodily' and 'technical' trajectory alignment that was first developed from an ethnography of death and dying in intensive care units. The categorisation of cardiac arrest situations and trajectory alignment are the means by which staff achieve consensus decisions and determine the point at which an attempt should be withdrawn. This enables them to construct an acceptable death in highly challenging circumstances. PMID:27017090

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions in the emergency department: An ethnography of tacit knowledge in practice.

    PubMed

    Brummell, Stephen P; Seymour, Jane; Higginbottom, Gina

    2016-05-01

    Despite media images to the contrary, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in emergency departments is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore how health care professionals working in two emergency departments in the UK, make decisions to commence, continue or stop resuscitation. Data collection involved participant observation of resuscitation attempts and in-depth interviews with nurses, medical staff and paramedics who had taken part in the attempts. Detailed case examples were constructed for comparative analysis. Findings show that emergency department staff use experience and acquired tacit knowledge to construct a typology of cardiac arrest categories that help them navigate decision making. Categorisation is based on 'less is more' heuristics which combine explicit and tacit knowledge to facilitate rapid decisions. Staff then work as a team to rapidly assimilate and interpret information drawn from observations of the patient's body and from technical, biomedical monitoring data. The meaning of technical data is negotiated during staff interaction. This analysis was informed by a theory of 'bodily' and 'technical' trajectory alignment that was first developed from an ethnography of death and dying in intensive care units. The categorisation of cardiac arrest situations and trajectory alignment are the means by which staff achieve consensus decisions and determine the point at which an attempt should be withdrawn. This enables them to construct an acceptable death in highly challenging circumstances.

  11. Open and closed chest extrathoracic cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal life support: methods, indications, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Field, M L; Al‐Alao, B; Mediratta, N; Sosnowski, A

    2006-01-01

    Extrathoracic cannulation to establish cardiopulmonary bypass has been widely applied in recent years and includes: (a) repeat surgery, (b) minimally invasive surgery, and (c) cases with diseased vessels such as porcelain, aneurysmal, and dissecting aorta. In addition, the success and relative ease of peripheral cannulation, among other technological advances, has permitted the development of closed chest extracorporeal life support, in the form of cardiopulmonary support and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. With this development have come applications for cardiopulmonary bypass based support outside the traditional cardiac theatre setting, including emergency circulatory support for patients in cardiogenic shock and respiratory support for patients with severely impaired gas exchange. This review summarises the approach to extrathoracic cannulation for the generalist. PMID:16679471

  12. Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Research Model.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Spyropoulos, Vaios; Koutsovasilis, Anastasios; Papalois, Apostolos; Kouskouni, Evaggelia; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2015-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock is challenging and usually unsuccessful. The aim of the present study is to describe our swine model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in severe sepsis and septic shock. In this prospective randomized animal study, 10 healthy female Landrace-Large White pigs with an average weight of 20 ± 1 kg (aged 19 - 21 weeks) were the study subjects. Septicemia was induced by an intravenous infusion of a bolus of 20-mL bacterial suspension in 2 min, followed by a continuous infusion during the rest of the experiment. After septic shock was confirmed, the animals were left untreated until cardiac arrest occurred. All animals developed pulseless electrical activity between the fifth and sixth hours of septicemia, whereas five (50%) of 10 animals were successfully resuscitated. Coronary perfusion pressure was statistically significantly different between surviving and nonsurviving animals. We found a statistically significant correlation between mean arterial pressure and unsuccessful resuscitation (P = 0.046), whereas there was no difference in end-tidal carbon dioxide (23.05 ± 1.73 vs. 23.56 ± 1.70; P = 0.735) between animals with return of spontaneous circulation and nonsurviving animals. During the 45-min postresuscitation monitoring, we noted a significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters, although oxygenation indices and lactate clearance were constantly increased (P = 0.001). This successful basic swine model was for the first time developed and may prove extremely useful in future studies on the periarrest period in severe sepsis and septic shock.

  13. Liver injury diagnosed on computed tomography after use of an automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation device.

    PubMed

    Camden, Jeremy R; Carucci, Laura R

    2011-10-01

    We report a case of an 89-year-old female with active extravasation and hemoperitoneum from a liver laceration demonstrated on multidetector computed tomography (CT), attributed to the use of an automated mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) device. Although iatrogenic internal injuries related to manual CPR and CPR devices have previously been reported [1, 2], there has been no reported CT evidence of liver injury related to automated CPR devices to the authors' knowledge. Imaging findings of complications related to the use of automated CPR devices are important to recognize and also help explain the possible mechanisms of injury. Liver injuries with active bleeding following CPR may have devastating consequences related to hemodynamic instability and may have an increased incidence when CPR is performed using an automated chest compression device.

  14. Association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-12-01

    Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills are essential for better patient survival, but whether these skills are associated with knowledge of and self-efficacy in CPR is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of CPR skills and identify the association of the psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy at the time of CPR skills training. A convenience sample of 124 nursing students participated in a one-group posttest-only study. The quality of CPR psychomotor skills, as assessed by structured observation using a manikin, was suboptimal. Nursing students who performed correct chest compression skills reported higher self-efficacy, but there was no association between CPR psychomotor skills and total knowledge. Rigorous skills training sessions with more objective feedback on performance and individual coaching are warranted to enable mastery learning and self-efficacy.

  15. Atrial Thrombus in a Premature Newborn Following Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Rehan; Ahmed, Shakeel; Aslam, Nadeem; Lohana, Heeramani

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill newborns, whether term or preterm, are at great risk for developing symptomatic thromboembolic disease. Comorbidities like inflammation, DIC, fluctuations in cardiac output, congenital heart disease, as well as central venous or arterial catheters, are the predisposing risk factors. Clinically symptomatic or asymptomatic cases are usually picked up by echocardiography, usually done for other indications. Management usually comprises of observation, heparin therapy, thrombo-embolectomy, and catheter directed revascularization. We present a case of premature neonate who developed thrombus at inter-atrial septum as a possible consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, detected by echocardiography. Conversely, there is always a possibility of paradoxical emboli in neonates with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Subsequent clinical course remained asymptomatic and baby was discharged home after 6 weeks with cardiac follow-up. Atrial septal findings of organized clot/thrombus in asymptomatic newborns need to be correlated with the details of neonatal care. Long-term follow-up is dependent on underlying pathology. PMID:27376221

  16. Prognostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) for brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guibo; Jiang, Guohui; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) patients can experience neurological sequelae or even death after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) due to cerebral hypoxia- and ischemia-reperfusion-mediated brain injury. Thus, it is important to perform early prognostic evaluations in CA patients. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important tool for determining the prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy due to its real-time measurement of brain function. Based on EEG, burst suppression, a burst suppression ratio >0.239, periodic discharges, status epilepticus, stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic or ictal discharges, non-reactive EEG, and the BIS value based on quantitative EEG may be associated with the prognosis of CA after successful CPR. As measures of neural network integrity, the values of small-world characteristics of the neural network derived from EEG patterns have potential applications.

  17. Brief Bedside Refresher Training to Practice Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in the Ambulatory Surgery Center Setting.

    PubMed

    Kemery, Stephanie; Kelly, Kelley; Wilson, Connie; Wheeler, Corrine A

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest can occur in any health care setting at any time, requiring nursing staff to be prepared to quickly and adequately perform basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Currently, the American Heart Association certifies health care providers in Basic Life Support (BLS) for a 2-year period, but evidence indicates that psychomotor skills decline well before the end of the certification time frame. Nurses in the ambulatory surgery setting expressed concern regarding their ability to implement CPR successfully, given the infrequent occurrence of cardiac and respiratory arrests. Using a study by Niles et al. as a model, the authors piloted the implementation of brief CPR refresher training at the bedside of an ambulatory surgery center to assess and increase nurse confidence in BLS skills. PMID:26247660

  18. Role of blood gas analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Jung; Lee, You Jin; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong-Woo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the relationship between acid–base findings, such as pH, pCO2, and serum lactate levels, obtained immediately after starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). A prospective observational study of adult, nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients was conducted at an urban academic teaching institution between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2015. Arterial blood sample for acid–base data was taken from all OHCA patients on arrival to the emergency department. Of 224 OHCA patients, 88 patients with unavailable blood samples or delayed blood sampling or ROSC within 4 minutes were excluded, leaving 136 patients for analysis. The pH in the ROSC group was significantly higher than in the non-ROSC group (6.96 vs. 6.85; P = 0.009). pCO2 and lactate levels in the ROSC group were significantly lower than those in the non-ROSC group (74.0 vs. 89.5 mmHg, P < 0.009; 11.6 vs. 13.6 mmol/L, P = 0.044, respectively). In a multivariate regression analysis, pCO2 was the only independent biochemical predictor for sustained ROSC (OR 0.979; 95% CI 0.960–0.997; P = 0.025) and pCO2 of <75 mmHg was 3.3 times more likely to achieve ROSC (OR 0.302; 95% CI 0.146–0.627; P = 0.001). pCO2 levels obtained during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on ER arrival was associated with ROSC in OHCA patients. It might be a potentially marker for reflecting the status of the ischemic insult. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in a larger population. PMID:27336894

  19. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge to Surgery for Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Aorto-Atrial Fistula and Cardiopulmonary Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Bhavadharini; Parker, Matthew W.; Underhill, David; Gluck, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    The timing of surgery for active infective endocarditis is challenging when patients exhibit mechanical dysfunction and hemodynamic compromise. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been described in treating sepsis but not, insofar as we know, in treating the acute mechanical sequelae that arise from infective endocarditis. We report perhaps the first case that shows the usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to definitive treatment in a 35-year-old man who had infective endocarditis followed by aorto-atrial fistula and cardiopulmonary collapse. PMID:26504445

  20. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge to Surgery for Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Aorto-Atrial Fistula and Cardiopulmonary Collapse.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Adam M; Ramu, Bhavadharini; Parker, Matthew W; Underhill, David; Gluck, Jason A

    2015-10-01

    The timing of surgery for active infective endocarditis is challenging when patients exhibit mechanical dysfunction and hemodynamic compromise. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been described in treating sepsis but not, insofar as we know, in treating the acute mechanical sequelae that arise from infective endocarditis. We report perhaps the first case that shows the usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to definitive treatment in a 35-year-old man who had infective endocarditis followed by aorto-atrial fistula and cardiopulmonary collapse.

  1. A Review of Compression, Ventilation, Defibrillation, Drug Treatment, and Targeted Temperature Management in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jian; Zhu, Jian-Yong; Kee, Ho Sen; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Yuan-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Important studies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques influence the development of new guidelines. We systematically reviewed the efficacy of some important studies of CPR. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE, published from 1964 to 2014. Study Selection: Original articles and critical reviews about CPR techniques were selected for review. Results: The survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is improving. This improvement is associated with the performance of uninterrupted chest compressions and simple airway management procedures during bystander CPR. Real-time feedback devices can be used to improve the quality of CPR. The recommended dose, timing, and indications for adrenaline (epinephrine) use may change. The appropriate target temperature for targeted temperature management is still unclear. Conclusions: New studies over the past 5 years have evaluated various aspects of CPR in OHCA. Some of these studies were high-quality randomized controlled trials, which may help to improve the scientific understanding of resuscitation techniques and result in changes to CPR guidelines. PMID:25673462

  2. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation on Flemish television: challenges to the television effects hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bulck, J; Damiaans, K

    2004-01-01

    Background: People who watch a lot of medical fiction overestimate the success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It has been suggested that this is because CPR is usually shown to be successful on television. This study analysed a popular Flemish medical drama series. Previous research showed that heavy viewing of this series was related to overestimation of CPR success. Method: Content analysis of 70 episodes of "Spoed" in the period between 2001 and the first three months of 2003. Causes and treatment of cardiac arrest and outcome of CPR were recorded in the same way as previous studies. Results: CPR was performed 31 times in the 70 episodes. Only 19% of the patients survived the resuscitation attempt. Most patients were middle aged or older. Causes of arrest were different from those in British or American television series. Conclusions: The low survival rate challenges the idea that heavy viewers adopt the overestimation shown by television. Psychological research shows that people ignore base rate information in the shape of statistics, in favour of vivid, dramatic examples. Showing some impressive examples of success might therefore be more important than the overall success rate. It is suggested that the message of television fiction is that doctors are not powerless and that treatment does not stop once the heart stops beating. This helps to create what has been called an "illusion of efficacy". PMID:15333531

  3. The Success Rate of Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ahvaz Training Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Assar, Shideh; Husseinzadeh, Mohsen; Nikravesh, Abdul Hussein; Davoodzadeh, Hannaneh

    2016-01-01

    Research Objective. This study determined the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors influencing it in two training hospitals in Ahvaz. Method. Patients hospitalized in the pediatric wards and exposed to CPR during hospital stay were included in the study (September 2013 to May 2014). The primary outcome of CPR was assumed to be the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the secondary outcome was assumed to be survival to discharge. The neurological outcome of survivors was assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) method. Results. Of the 279 study participants, 138 patients (49.4%) showed ROSC, 81 patients (29%) survived for 24 hours after the CPR, and 33 patients (11.8%) survived to discharge. Of the surviving patients, 16 (48.5%) had favorable neurological outcome. The resuscitation during holidays resulted in fewer ROSC. Multivariate analysis showed that longer CPR duration, CPR by junior residents, growth deficiency, and prearrest vasoactive drug infusion were associated with decreased survival to discharge (p < 0.05). Infants and patients with respiratory disease had higher survival rates. Conclusion. The rate of successful CPR in our study was lower than rates reported by developed countries. However, factors influencing the outcome of CPR were similar. These results reflect the necessity of paying more attention to pediatric CPR training, postresuscitation conditions, and expansion of intensive care facilities. PMID:27293983

  4. Detection of ventricular fibrillation in the presence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation artefacts.

    PubMed

    Aramendi, Elisabete; de Gauna, Sofia Ruiz; Irusta, Unai; Ruiz, Jesus; Arcocha, M Fe; Ormaetxe, Jose Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to a patient in cardiac arrest introduces artefacts into the electrocardiogram (ECG), corrupting the diagnosis of the underlying heart rhythm. CPR must therefore be discontinued for reliable shock advice analysis by an automated external defibrillator (AED). Detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during CPR would enable CPR to continue during AED rhythm analysis, thereby increasing the likelihood of resuscitation success. This study presents a new adaptive filtering method to clean the ECG. The approach consists of a filter that adapts its characteristics to the spectral content of the signal exclusively using the surface ECG that commercial AEDs capture through standard patches. A set of 200 VF and 25 CPR artefact samples collected from real out-of-hospital interventions were used to test the method. The performance of a shock advice algorithm was evaluated before and after artefact removal. CPR artefacts were added to the ECG signals and four degrees of corruption were tested. Mean sensitivities of 97.83%, 98.27%, 98.32% and 98.02% were achieved, producing sensitivity increases of 28.44%, 49.75%, 59.10% and 64.25%, respectively, sufficient for ECG analysis during CPR. Although satisfactory and encouraging sensitivity values have been obtained, further clinical and experimental investigation is required in order to integrate this type of artefact suppressing algorithm in current AEDs.

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Mortality of Life-Threatening Events Requiring Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Units.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Jang, Byung Ik; Jung, Yun Jin; Yang, Chang Hun; Lee, Hyun Seok; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about life-threatening events during gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of emergency conditions requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in GIE units and to assess the risk factors for mortality in these cases.We retrospectively collected life-threatening cases that occurred in the GIE units of 6 tertiary hospitals from January 2012 to June 2014. Cases were defined as alert calls for resuscitation teams in emergency situations of respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Demographic data, clinical features, and probable causes were assessed. Factors associated with mortality were elucidated using logistic regression analysis.Among 263,426 endoscopies, 40 cases of CPR (0.015%) occurred during the period (male 67.5%, median age 62 yr). Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), such as hematemesis or melena, was the most common indication for endoscopy (55%). The types of clinical situations encountered were as follows: respiratory insufficiency (47.5%), decreased blood pressure (25%), and cardiac arrhythmia (25%). Although most of these conditions were detected during endoscopy (67.5%), one-third of cases (32.5%) were found before or after procedures. The most frequent probable cause of cases was aggravation of underlying diseases (57.5%), such as uncontrolled bleeding or exacerbation of lung disease. Despite efforts to resuscitate, 18 patients (45%) died. GIB was the single independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio 28.45, 95% confidence interval 1.55-523.33, P = 0.024).Life-threatening situations requiring CPR can occur during endoscopy, even before or after the procedure. Greater attention should be paid while endoscopy is performed for GIB. PMID:26512621

  6. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Felzen, Marc; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the perspective of medical experts and end-users. Objective The study aims to assess the quality of current mobile apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and real incident support from expert as well as end-user perspective. Methods Two independent medical experts evaluated the medical content of CPR apps from the Google Play store and the Apple App store. The evaluation was based on pre-defined minimum medical content requirements according to current Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines. In a second phase, non-medical end-users tested usability and appeal of the apps that had at least met the minimum requirements. Usability was assessed with the System Usability Scale (SUS); appeal was measured with the self-developed ReactionDeck toolkit. Results Out of 61 apps, 46 were included in the experts’ evaluation. A consolidated list of 13 apps resulted for the following layperson evaluation. The interrater reliability was substantial (kappa=.61). Layperson end-users (n=14) had a high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation 1 [ICC1]=.83, P<.001, 95% CI 0.75-0.882 and ICC2=.79, P<.001, 95% CI 0.695-0.869). Their evaluation resulted in a list of 5 recommendable apps. Conclusions Although several apps for resuscitation training and real incident support are available, very few are designed according to current BLS guidelines and offer an acceptable level of usability and hedonic quality for laypersons. The results of this study are intended to optimize the development of CPR mobile apps. The app ranking supports the informed selection of mobile apps for training situations and CPR campaigns as well as for real incident support. PMID:24647361

  7. The effects of conventional extracorporeal circulation versus miniaturized extracorporeal circulation on microcirculation during cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yuruk, Koray; Bezemer, Rick; Euser, Mariska; Milstein, Dan M.J.; de Geus, Hilde H.R.; Scholten, Evert W.; de Mol, Bas A.J.M.; Ince, Can

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To reduce the complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, many modifications have been made to conventional extracorporeal circulation systems. This trend has led to the development of miniaturized extracorporeal circulation systems. Cardiac surgery using conventional extracorporeal circulation systems has been associated with significantly reduced microcirculatory perfusion, but it remains unknown whether this could be prevented by an mECC system. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that microcirculatory perfusion decreases with the use of a conventional extracorporeal circulation system and would be preserved with the use of an miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system. METHODS Microcirculatory density and perfusion were assessed using sublingual side stream dark-field imaging in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery before, during and after the use of either a conventional extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10) or a miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10). In addition, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were assessed up to 5 days post-surgery to monitor renal function. RESULTS At the end of the CPB, one patient in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated group and five patients in the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated group received one bag of packed red blood cells (300 ml). During the CPB, the haematocrit and haemoglobin levels were slightly higher in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated patients compared with the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated patients (27.7 ± 3.3 vs 24.7 ± 2.0%; P = 0.03; and 6.42 ± 0.75 vs 5.41 ± 0.64 mmol/l; P < 0.01). The density of perfused vessels with a diameter <25 µm (i.e. perfused vessel density) decreased slightly in the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated group from 16

  8. Comparison of Methods for the Determination of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Chest Compression Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Iyanaga, Masayuki; Gray, Randal; Stephens, Shannon W.; Akinsanya, Olajide; Rodgers, Joel; Smyrski, Kathleen; Wang, Henry E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective While cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression fraction (CCF) is associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes, there is no standard method for the determination of CCF. We compared nine methods for calculating CCF. Methods We studied consecutive adult OHCA patients treated by Alabama Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) during Jan. 1, 2010 - Oct. 28, 2010. Paramedics used portable cardiac monitors with real-time chest compression detection technology (LifePak 12, Physio-Control, Redmond, Washington). We performed both automated CCF calculation for the entire care episode as well as manual review of CPR data in 1-minute epochs, defining CCF as the proportion of each treatment interval with active chest compressions. We compared the CCF values resulting from 9 calculation methods: 1) mean CCF for the entire patient care episode (automated calculation by manufacturer software), 2) mean CCF for first 3 minutes of patient care, 3) mean CCF for first 5 minutes, 4) mean CCF for first 10 minutes, 5) mean CCF for the entire episode except first 5 minutes, 6) mean CCF for last 5 minutes, 7) mean CCF from start to first shock, 8) mean CCF for the first half of resuscitation, 9) mean CCF for the second half of resuscitation. We compared CCF for Methods 2-9 with Method 1 using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni-adjusted p-value of 0.006 (99.5% confidence intervals). Results Among 102 adult OHCA, patient demographics were: mean age 60.3 years (SD 20.8 years), African American 56.9%, male 63.7%, and shockable ECG rhythm 23.5%. Mean CPR duration was 728 seconds (95% CI: 647-809 seconds). Mean CCF for the 9 CCF calculation methods were: 1) 0.587; 2) 0.526; 3) 0.541; 4) 0.566; 5) 0.562; 6) 0.597; 7) 0.530; 8) 0.550; 9) 0.590%. Compared with Method 1, Method 7 CCF (start to first shock) was slightly lower (−0.057; 99.5% CI: −0.100 – (−0.014)). There were no other statistically

  9. Comparison of current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran with American Society of Extracorporeal Technology’s standards

    PubMed Central

    Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Methods: In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Results: Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Conclusion: Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities’ attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand. PMID:27489600

  10. Toll‑like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild‑type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4‑mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth‑regulated oncogene‑β (GRO‑β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in a CA‑duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM‑1 and GRO‑β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR. PMID:27510583

  11. Vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and different shock states: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Krismer, Anette C; Dünser, Martin W; Lindner, Karl H; Stadlbauer, Karl H; Mayr, Viktoria D; Lienhart, Hannes G; Arntz, Richard H; Wenzel, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Vasopressin administration may be a promising therapy in the management of various shock states. In laboratory models of cardiac arrest, vasopressin improved vital organ blood flow, cerebral oxygen delivery, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation, and neurological recovery compared with epinephrine (adrenaline). In a study of 1219 adult patients with cardiac arrest, the effects of vasopressin were similar to those of epinephrine in the management of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity; however, vasopressin was superior to epinephrine in patients with asystole. Furthermore, vasopressin followed by epinephrine resulted in significantly higher rates of survival to hospital admission and hospital discharge. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines recommend intravenous vasopressin 40 IU or epinephrine 1mg in adult patients refractory to electrical countershock. Several investigations have demonstrated that vasopressin can successfully stabilize hemodynamic variables in advanced vasodilatory shock. Use of vasopressin in vasodilatory shock should be guided by strict hemodynamic indications, such as hypotension despite norepinephrine (noradrenaline) dosages >0.5 mug/kg/min. Vasopressin must never be used as the sole vasopressor agent. In our institutional routine, a fixed vasopressin dosage of 0.067 IU/min (i.e. 100 IU/50 mL at 2 mL/h) is administered and mean arterial pressure is regulated by adjusting norepinephrine infusion. When norepinephrine dosages decrease to 0.2 microg/kg/min, vasopressin is withdrawn in small steps according to the response in mean arterial pressure. Vasopressin also improved short- and long-term survival in various porcine models of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. In the clinical setting, we observed positive effects of vasopressin in some patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shock, which had no longer responded to adrenergic catecholamines and fluid resuscitation. Clinical employment of

  12. Minocycline attenuates microglial response and reduces neuronal death after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian-yan; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qing; Yao, Shang-long

    2015-04-01

    The possible role of minocycline in microglial activation and neuronal death after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice was investigated in this study. The mice were given potassium chloride to stop the heart beating for 8 min to achieve CA, and they were subsequently resuscitated with epinephrine and chest compressions. Forty adult C57BL/6 male mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): sham-operated group, CA/CPR group, CA/CPR+minocycline group, and CA/CPR+vehicle group. Animals in the latter two groups were intraperitoneally injected with minocycline (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (normal saline) 30 min after recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Twenty-four h after CA/CPR, the brains were removed for histological evaluation of the hippocampus. Microglial activation was evaluated by detecting the expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1) by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal death was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hippocampus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the neuronal death was aggravated, most microglia were activated and TNF-α levels were enhanced in the hippocampus CA1 region of mice subjected to CA/CPR as compared with those in the sham-operated group (P<0.05). Administration with minocycline 30 min after ROSC could significantly decrease the microglial response, TNF-α levels and neuronal death (P<0.05). It was concluded that early administration with minocycline has a strong therapeutic potential for CA/CPR-induced brain injury.

  13. Toll‑like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild‑type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4‑mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth‑regulated oncogene‑β (GRO‑β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in a CA‑duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM‑1 and GRO‑β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR.

  14. Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild-type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4-mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth-regulated oncogene-β (GRO-β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM-1, GRO-β and MPO in a CA-duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM-1, GRO-β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM-1 and GRO-β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR. PMID:27510583

  15. Extracranial hypothermia during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is neuroprotective in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Michael P; Fujiyoshi, Tetsuhiro; Koerner, Ines P; Herson, Paco S

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that ischemic brain injury is modulated by peripheral signaling. Peripheral organ ischemia can induce brain inflammation and injury. We therefore hypothesized that brain injury sustained after cardiac arrest (CA) is influenced by peripheral organ ischemia and that peripheral organ protection can reduce brain injury after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to CA/CPR. Brain temperature was maintained at 37.5°C ± 0.0°C in all animals. Body temperature was maintained at 35.1°C ± 0.1°C (normothermia) or 28.8°C ± 1.5°C (extracranial hypothermia [ExHy]) during CA. Body temperature after resuscitation was maintained at 35°C in all animals. Behavioral testing was performed at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after CA/CPR. Either 3 or 7 days after CA/CPR, blood was analyzed for serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and interleukin-1β; mice were euthanized; and brains were sectioned. CA/CPR caused peripheral organ and brain injury. ExHy animals experienced transient reduction in brain temperature after resuscitation (2.1°C ± 0.5°C for 4 minutes). Surprisingly, ExHy did not change peripheral organ damage. In contrast, hippocampal injury was reduced at 3 days after CA/CPR in ExHy animals (22.4% ± 6.2% vs. 45.7% ± 9.1%, p=0.04, n=15/group). This study has two main findings. Hypothermia limited to CA does not reduce peripheral organ injury. This unexpected finding suggests that after brief ischemia, such as during CA/CPR, signaling or events after reperfusion may be more injurious than those during the ischemic period. Second, peripheral organ hypothermia during CA reduces hippocampal injury independent of peripheral organ protection. While it is possible that this protection is due to subtle differences in brain temperature during early reperfusion, we speculate that additional mechanisms may be involved. Our findings add to the growing understanding of

  16. Evaluation of Smartphone Applications for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yongtak; Song, Yeongtak; Lim, Tae Ho; Kang, Hyunggoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There are many smartphone-based applications (apps) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. We investigated the conformity and the learnability/usability of these apps for CPR training and real-life supports. Methods. We conducted a mixed-method, sequential explanatory study to assess CPR training apps downloaded on two apps stores in South Korea. Apps were collected with inclusion criteria as follows, Korean-language instruction, training features, and emergency supports for real-life incidents, and analyzed with two tests; 15 medical experts evaluated the apps' contents according to current Basic Life Support guidelines in conformity test, and 15 nonmedical individuals examined the apps using System Usability Scale (SUS) in the learnability/usability test. Results. Out of 79 selected apps, five apps were included and analyzed. For conformity (ICC, 0.95, p < 0.001), means of all apps were greater than 12 of 20 points, indicating that they were well designed according to current guidelines. Three of the five apps yielded acceptable level (greater than 68 of 100 points) for learnability/usability. Conclusion. All the included apps followed current BLS guidelines and a majority offered acceptable learnability/usability for layperson. Current and developmental smartphone-based CPR training apps should include accurate CPR information and be easy to use for laypersons that are potential rescuers in real-life incidents. For Clinical Trials. This is a clinical trial, registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0001840. PMID:27668257

  17. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (p < 0.05). The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. PMID:27529068

  18. Changes of air-tissue ratio evaluated by EBCT after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): validation in swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Schuster, Antonius H.; Kleinsasser, Axel; Loeckinger, Alexander; Hoermann, Christoph; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2001-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate changes of the air-tissue ratio (ATR) in previously defined regions of interest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in porcine model. Eight anesthetized and ventilated pigs we scanned in supine position before and 30 minutes after CPR at two different constant PEEP levels (5 cm H2O, 15 cm H2O). Volume scans were obtained using 6 mm slices. The gray values of the lung were divided into steps of 100 HU in order to get access to the changes of ATR. ATR was evaluated in ventral, intermediate and dorsal regions of the lung. CPR for 9 minutes led to an uneven distribution of ventilation. In the ventral region, areas with high ATR increased. Areas with normal ATR decreased. In contrast the dorsal regions with low ATR increased. ATR in the intermediate regions remained almost unchanged. Using the higher PEEP level, areas with normal ATR showed a marked increase accompanied by a decrease of areas with low ATR. After CPR, an uneven distribution of lung aeration was detected. According to the impaired hemodynamics, areas with normal ATR decreased and areas with high and low ATR increased. Using higher PEEP levels improved lung aeration.

  19. Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants after Delivery Room Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Sara C.; Sun, Yao; Wyckoff, Myra H.; Lee, Henry C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship of delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) to short term outcomes of extremely preterm infants. Study Design This was a cohort study of 22-27+6/7 weeks gestational age infants during 2005-2011. DR-CPR was defined as chest compressions and/or epinephrine administration. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with DR-CPR; analysis was stratified by gestational age. Results Of 13 758 infants, 856 (6.2%) received DR-CPR. Infants 23+6/7 weeks 22-24-25+6/7 weeks . Infants receiving DR-CPR receiving DR-CPR had similar outcomes to had more severe intraventricular hemorrhage non-recipients (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07, 1.72). Infants 26-27+6/7 weeks receiving DR-CPR were more likely to die (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30, 2.51) and have intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.56, 2.82). Adjusted hospital DR-CPR rates varied widely (median 5.7%). Conclusion Premature infants receiving DR-CPR had worse outcomes. Mortality and morbidity varied by gestational age. PMID:25521563

  20. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sadrawi, Muammar; Sun, Wei-Zen; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Dai, Chun-Yi; Abbod, Maysam F; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (p < 0.05). The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. PMID:27529068

  1. The HANDDS Program: A Systematic Approach for Addressing Disparities in the Provision of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Eigel, Brian; Magid, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) blankets a community with training. Recently, the authors have found that high-risk neighborhoods can be identified, and CPR training can be targeted in the neighborhoods in which it is most needed. This article presents a novel method and pilot implementation trial for the HANDDS (identifying High Arrest Neighborhoods to Decrease Disparities in Survival) program. The authors also seek to describe example methods in which the HANDDS program is being implemented in Denver, Colorado. The HANDDS program uses a simple three-step approach: identify, implement, and evaluate. This systematic conceptual framework uses qualitative and quantitative methods to 1) identify high-risk neighborhoods, 2) understand common barriers to learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods, and 3) implement and evaluate a train-the-trainer CPR Anytime intervention designed to improve CPR training in these neighborhoods. The HANDDS program is a systematic approach to implementing a community-based CPR training program. Further research is currently being conducted in four large metropolitan U.S. cities to examine whether the results from the HANDDS program can be successfully replicated in other locations. PMID:25269587

  2. Using an inertial navigation algorithm and accelerometer to monitor chest compression depth during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Boussen, Salah; Ibouanga-Kipoutou, Harold; Fournier, Nathalie; Raboutet, Yves Godio; Llari, Maxime; Bruder, Nicolas; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Behr, Michel

    2016-09-01

    We present an original method using a low cost accelerometer and a Kalman-filter based algorithm to monitor cardiopulmonary resuscitation chest compressions (CC) depth. A three-axis accelerometer connected to a computer was used during CC. A Kalman filter was used to retrieve speed and position from acceleration data. We first tested the algorithm for its accuracy and stability on surrogate data. The device was implemented for CC performed on a manikin. Different accelerometer locations were tested. We used a classical inertial navigation algorithm to reconstruct CPR depth and frequency. The device was found accurate enough to monitor CPR depth and its stability was checked for half an hour without any drift. Average error on displacement was ±0.5mm. We showed that depth measurement was dependent on the device location on the patient or the rescuer. The accuracy and stability of this small low-cost accelerometer coupled to a Kalman-filter based algorithm to reconstruct CC depth and frequency, was found well adapted and could be easily implemented. PMID:27246666

  3. Evaluation of Smartphone Applications for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yongtak; Song, Yeongtak; Lim, Tae Ho; Kang, Hyunggoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There are many smartphone-based applications (apps) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. We investigated the conformity and the learnability/usability of these apps for CPR training and real-life supports. Methods. We conducted a mixed-method, sequential explanatory study to assess CPR training apps downloaded on two apps stores in South Korea. Apps were collected with inclusion criteria as follows, Korean-language instruction, training features, and emergency supports for real-life incidents, and analyzed with two tests; 15 medical experts evaluated the apps' contents according to current Basic Life Support guidelines in conformity test, and 15 nonmedical individuals examined the apps using System Usability Scale (SUS) in the learnability/usability test. Results. Out of 79 selected apps, five apps were included and analyzed. For conformity (ICC, 0.95, p < 0.001), means of all apps were greater than 12 of 20 points, indicating that they were well designed according to current guidelines. Three of the five apps yielded acceptable level (greater than 68 of 100 points) for learnability/usability. Conclusion. All the included apps followed current BLS guidelines and a majority offered acceptable learnability/usability for layperson. Current and developmental smartphone-based CPR training apps should include accurate CPR information and be easy to use for laypersons that are potential rescuers in real-life incidents. For Clinical Trials. This is a clinical trial, registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0001840.

  4. Inflammatory mechanisms involved in brain injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, YANXIAO; ZHAO, HUA; WANG, JIALI; ZHANG, LUETAO; LIU, ANCHANG; CHEN, YUGUO

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of fatality and long-term disability worldwide. Recent advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have improved survival rates; however, the survivors are prone to severe neurological injury subsequent to successful CPR following CA. Effective therapeutic options to protect the brain from CA remain limited, due to the complexities of the injury cascades caused by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although the precise mechanisms of neurological impairment following CA-initiated I/R injury require further clarification, evidence supports that one of the key cellular pathways of cerebral injury is inflammation. The inflammatory response is orchestrated by activated glial cells in response to I/R injury. Increased release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules and cellular dysfunction in activated microglia and astrocytes contribute to ischemia-induced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory cytokines generation, and ultimately to delayed death of neurons. Furthermore, cytokines and adhesion molecules generated within activated microglia, as well as astrocytes, are involved in the innate immune response; modulate influx of peripheral immune and inflammatory cells into the brain, resulting in neurological injury. The present review discusses the molecular aspects of immune and inflammatory mechanisms in global cerebral I/R injury following CA and CPR, and the potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. PMID:27330748

  5. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and simplification of the Utstein templates for resuscitation registries: a statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian Resuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Councils of Southern Africa).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ian; Nadkarni, Vinay; Bahr, Jan; Berg, Robert A; Billi, John E; Bossaert, Leo; Cassan, Pascal; Coovadia, Ashraf; D'Este, Kate; Finn, Judith; Halperin, Henry; Handley, Anthony; Herlitz, Johan; Hickey, Robert; Idris, Ahamed; Kloeck, Walter; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Mancini, Mary Elizabeth; Mason, Pip; Mears, Gregory; Monsieurs, Koenraad; Montgomery, William; Morley, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Nolan, Jerry; Okada, Kazuo; Perlman, Jeffrey; Shuster, Michael; Steen, Petter Andreas; Sterz, Fritz; Tibballs, James; Timerman, Sergio; Truitt, Tanya; Zideman, David

    2004-11-23

    Outcome after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is dependent on critical interventions, particularly early defibrillation, effective chest compressions, and advanced life support. Utstein-style definitions and reporting templates have been used extensively in published studies of cardiac arrest, which has led to greater understanding of the elements of resuscitation practice and progress toward international consensus on science and resuscitation guidelines. Despite the development of Utstein templates to standardize research reports of cardiac arrest, international registries have yet to be developed. In April 2002, a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) met in Melbourne, Australia, to review worldwide experience with the Utstein definitions and reporting templates. The task force revised the core reporting template and definitions by consensus. Care was taken to build on previous definitions, changing data elements and operational definitions only on the basis of published data and experience derived from those registries that have used Utstein-style reporting. Attention was focused on decreasing the complexity of the existing templates and addressing logistical difficulties in collecting specific core and supplementary (ie, essential and desirable) data elements recommended by previous Utstein consensus conferences. Inconsistencies in terminology between in-hospital and out-of-hospital Utstein templates were also addressed. The task force produced a reporting tool for essential data that can be used for both quality improvement (registries) and research reports and that should be applicable to both adults and children. The revised and simplified template includes practical and succinct operational definitions. It is anticipated that the revised template will enable better and more accurate completion of all reports of cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts. Problems with data definition, collection, linkage

  6. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and simplification of the Utstein templates for resuscitation registries. A statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the international liaison committee on resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian Resuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ian; Nadkarni, Vinay; Bahr, Jan; Berg, Robert A; Billi, John E; Bossaert, Leo; Cassan, Pascal; Coovadia, Ashraf; D'Este, Kate; Finn, Judith; Halperin, Henry; Handley, Anthony; Herlitz, Johan; Hickey, Robert; Idris, Ahamed; Kloeck, Walter; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Mancini, Mary Elizabeth; Mason, Pip; Mears, Gregory; Monsieurs, Koenraad; Montgomery, William; Morley, Peter; Nichol, Graham; Nolan, Jerry; Okada, Kazuo; Perlman, Jeffrey; Shuster, Michael; Steen, Petter Andreas; Sterz, Fritz; Tibballs, James; Timerman, Sergio; Truitt, Tanya; Zideman, David

    2004-12-01

    Outcome following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is dependent on critical interventions, particularly early defibrillation, effective chest compressions, and advanced life support. Utstein-style definitions and reporting templates have been used extensively in published studies of cardiac arrest, which has led to greater understanding of the elements of resuscitation practice and progress toward international consensus on science and resuscitation guidelines. Despite the development of Utstein templates to standardize research reports of cardiac arrest, international registries have yet to be developed. In April 2002 a task force of ILCOR met in Melbourne, Australia, to review worldwide experience with the Utstein definitions and reporting templates. The task force revised the core reporting template and definitions by consensus. Care was taken to build on previous definitions, changing data elements and operational definitions only on the basis of published data and experience derived from those registries that have used Utstein-style reporting. Attention was focused on decreasing the complexity of the existing templates and addressing logistical difficulties in collecting specific core and supplementary (i.e., essential and desirable) data elements recommended by previous Utstein consensus conference. Inconsistencies in terminology between in-hospital and out-of-hospital Utstein templates were also addressed. The task force produced a reporting tool for essential data that can be used for both quality improvement (registries) and research reports and that should be applicable to both adults and children. The revised and simplified template includes practical and succinct operational definitions. It is anticipated that the revised template will enable better and more accurate completion of all reports of cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts. Problems with data definition, collection, linkage, confidentiality, management, and registry

  7. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in High School Using Avatars in Virtual Worlds: An International Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Leif; Heinrichs, LeRoy; Youngblood, Patricia; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today’s youth (ie, the digital native generation). Objective Our main aim was to assess the feasibility of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in high school students by using avatars in MMVM. We also analyzed experiences, self-efficacy, and concentration in response to training. Methods In this prospective international collaborative study, an e-learning method was used with high school students in Sweden and the United States. A software game platform was modified for use as a serious game to train in emergency medical situations. Using MMVW technology, participants in teams of 3 were engaged in virtual-world scenarios to learn how to treat victims suffering cardiac arrest. Short debriefings were carried out after each scenario. A total of 36 high school students (Sweden, n=12; United States, n=24) participated. Their self-efficacy and concentration (task motivation) were assessed. An exit questionnaire was used to solicit experiences and attitudes toward this type of training. Among the Swedish students, a follow-up was carried out after 6 months. Depending on the distributions, t tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used. Correlation between variables was assessed by using Spearman rank correlation. Regression analyses were used for time-dependent variables. Results The participants enjoyed the training and reported a self-perceived benefit as a consequence of training. The mean rating for self-efficacy increased from 5.8/7 (SD 0

  8. A simple accurate chest-compression depth gauge using magnetic coils during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Zhang, Yuhua; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating chest compression depth and a simple chest-compression gauge for validating the accuracy of the method. The chest-compression gauge has two plates incorporating two magnetic coils, a spring, and an accelerometer. The coils are located at both ends of the spring, and the accelerometer is set on the bottom plate. Waveforms obtained using the magnetic coils (hereafter, "magnetic waveforms"), which are proportional to compression-force waveforms and the acceleration waveforms were measured at the same time. The weight factor expressing the relationship between the second derivatives of the magnetic waveforms and the measured acceleration waveforms was calculated. An estimated-compression-displacement (depth) waveform was obtained by multiplying the weight factor and the magnetic waveforms. Displacements of two large springs (with similar spring constants) within a thorax and displacements of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation training manikin were measured using the gauge to validate the accuracy of the calculated waveform. A laser-displacement detection system was used to compare the real displacement waveform and the estimated waveform. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the real displacement using the laser system and the estimated displacement waveforms were calculated. The estimated displacement error of the compression depth was within 2 mm (<1 standard deviation). All ICCs (two springs and a manikin) were above 0.85 (0.99 in the case of one of the springs). The developed simple chest-compression gauge, based on a new calculation method, provides an accurate compression depth (estimation error < 2 mm).

  9. What are the barriers to implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in secondary schools? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Folke, Fredrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools is recommended to increase bystander CPR and thereby survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but despite mandating legislation, low rates of implementation have been observed in several countries, including Denmark. The purpose of the study was to explore barriers to implementation of CPR training in Danish secondary schools. Design A qualitative study based on individual interviews and focus groups with school leadership and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning both within and across the interviews. Setting 8 secondary schools in Denmark. Schools were selected using strategic sampling to reach maximum variation, including schools with/without recent experience in CPR training of students, public/private schools and schools near to and far from hospitals. Participants The study population comprised 25 participants, 9 school leadership members and 16 teachers. Results School leadership and teachers considered it important for implementation and sustainability of CPR training that teachers conduct CPR training of students. However, they preferred external instructors to train students, unless teachers acquired the CPR skills which they considered were needed. They considered CPR training to differ substantially from other teaching subjects because it is a matter of life and death, and they therefore believed extraordinary skills were required for conducting the training. This was mainly rooted in their insecurity about their own CPR skills. CPR training kits seemed to lower expectations of skill requirements to conduct CPR training, but only among those who were familiar with such kits. Conclusions To facilitate implementation of CPR training in schools, it is necessary to have clear guidelines regarding the required proficiency level to train students in CPR, to provide teachers with these skills, and to underscore that extensive skills are not required to

  10. A simple accurate chest-compression depth gauge using magnetic coils during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Zhang, Yuhua; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating chest compression depth and a simple chest-compression gauge for validating the accuracy of the method. The chest-compression gauge has two plates incorporating two magnetic coils, a spring, and an accelerometer. The coils are located at both ends of the spring, and the accelerometer is set on the bottom plate. Waveforms obtained using the magnetic coils (hereafter, "magnetic waveforms"), which are proportional to compression-force waveforms and the acceleration waveforms were measured at the same time. The weight factor expressing the relationship between the second derivatives of the magnetic waveforms and the measured acceleration waveforms was calculated. An estimated-compression-displacement (depth) waveform was obtained by multiplying the weight factor and the magnetic waveforms. Displacements of two large springs (with similar spring constants) within a thorax and displacements of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation training manikin were measured using the gauge to validate the accuracy of the calculated waveform. A laser-displacement detection system was used to compare the real displacement waveform and the estimated waveform. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the real displacement using the laser system and the estimated displacement waveforms were calculated. The estimated displacement error of the compression depth was within 2 mm (<1 standard deviation). All ICCs (two springs and a manikin) were above 0.85 (0.99 in the case of one of the springs). The developed simple chest-compression gauge, based on a new calculation method, provides an accurate compression depth (estimation error < 2 mm).

  11. A Comparison of Chest Compression Quality Delivered During On-Scene and Ground Transport Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Christopher S.; Myers, Lucas A.; Kolb, Logan J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Hess, Erik P.; White, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compressions 1.5 to 2 inches (3.75–5 cm) deep at 100 to 120 per minute. Recent studies demonstrated that manual CPR by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel is substandard. We hypothesized that transport CPR quality is significantly worse than on-scene CPR quality. Methods We analyzed adult patients receiving on-scene and transport chest compressions from nine EMS sites across Minnesota and Wisconsin from May 2008 to July 2010. Two periods were analyzed: before and after visual feedback. CPR data were collected and exported with the Zoll M series monitor and a sternally placed accelerometer measuring chest compression rate and depth. We compared compression data with 2010 AHA guidelines and Zoll RescueNet Code Review software. CPR depth and rate were “above (deep),” “in,” or “below (shallow)” the target range according to AHA guidelines. We paired on-scene and transport data for each patient; paired proportions were compared with the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results In the pre-feedback period, we analyzed 105 of 140 paired cases (75.0%); in the post-feedback period, 35 of 140 paired cases (25.0%) were analyzed. The proportion of correct depths during on-scene compressions (median, 41.9%; interquartile range [IQR], 16.1–73.1) was higher compared to the paired transport proportion (median, 8.7%; IQR, 2.7–48.9). Proportions of on-scene median correct rates and transport median correct depths did not improve in the post-feedback period. Conclusion Transport chest compressions are significantly worse than on-scene compressions. Implementation of visual real-time feedback did not affect performance. PMID:27625733

  12. Protective head-cooling during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the original animal studies.

    PubMed

    Brader, Eric W; Jehle, Dietrich; Mineo, Michael; Safar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) does not reliably sustain brain viability during cardiac arrest. Pre-hospital adjuncts to standard CPR are needed in order to improve outcomes. A preliminary dog study demonstrated that surface cooling of the head during arrest and CPR can achieve protective levels of brain hypothermia (30°C) within 10 minutes. We hypothesized that protective head-cooling during cardiac arrest and CPR improves neurological outcomes. Twelve dogs under light ketamine-halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia were arrested by transthoracic fibrillation. The treated group consisted of six dogs whose shaven heads were moistened with saline and packed in ice immediately after confirmation of ventricular fibrillation. Six control dogs remained at room temperature. All 12 dogs were subjected to four minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 20 minutes of standard CPR. Spontaneous circulation was restored with drugs and countershocks. Intensive care was provided for five hours post-arrest and the animals were observed for 24 hours. In both groups, five of the six dogs had spontaneous circulation restored. After three hours, mean neurological deficit was significantly lower in the treated group (P=0.016, with head-cooled dogs averaging 37% and the normothermic dogs 62%). Two of the six head-cooled dogs survived 24 hours with neurological deficits of 9% and 0%, respectively. None of the control group dogs survived 24 hours. We concluded that head-cooling attenuates brain injury during cardiac arrest with prolonged CPR. We review the literature related to the use of hypothermia following cardiac arrest and discuss some promising approaches for the pre-hospital setting. PMID:21577339

  13. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Crossover Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE.A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins.The study was set in one university medical center in the China.Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study.Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa.CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants' physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded.With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01).We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  14. A Comparison of Chest Compression Quality Delivered During On-Scene and Ground Transport Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Christopher S.; Myers, Lucas A.; Kolb, Logan J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Hess, Erik P.; White, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compressions 1.5 to 2 inches (3.75–5 cm) deep at 100 to 120 per minute. Recent studies demonstrated that manual CPR by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel is substandard. We hypothesized that transport CPR quality is significantly worse than on-scene CPR quality. Methods We analyzed adult patients receiving on-scene and transport chest compressions from nine EMS sites across Minnesota and Wisconsin from May 2008 to July 2010. Two periods were analyzed: before and after visual feedback. CPR data were collected and exported with the Zoll M series monitor and a sternally placed accelerometer measuring chest compression rate and depth. We compared compression data with 2010 AHA guidelines and Zoll RescueNet Code Review software. CPR depth and rate were “above (deep),” “in,” or “below (shallow)” the target range according to AHA guidelines. We paired on-scene and transport data for each patient; paired proportions were compared with the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results In the pre-feedback period, we analyzed 105 of 140 paired cases (75.0%); in the post-feedback period, 35 of 140 paired cases (25.0%) were analyzed. The proportion of correct depths during on-scene compressions (median, 41.9%; interquartile range [IQR], 16.1–73.1) was higher compared to the paired transport proportion (median, 8.7%; IQR, 2.7–48.9). Proportions of on-scene median correct rates and transport median correct depths did not improve in the post-feedback period. Conclusion Transport chest compressions are significantly worse than on-scene compressions. Implementation of visual real-time feedback did not affect performance.

  15. Effects of graded doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.G.; Werman, H.A.; Davis, E.A.; Hobson, J.; Hamlin, R.L.

    1987-02-01

    Although epinephrine has been shown to improve myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the effects of standard as well as larger doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow have not been examined. In this study we compared the effects of various doses of epinephrine on regional myocardial blood flow after a 10 min arrest in a swine preparation. Fifteen swine weighing greater than 15 kg each were instrumented for regional myocardial blood flow measurements with tracer microspheres. Regional blood flow was measured during normal sinus rhythm. After 10 min of ventricular fibrillation, CPR was begun and regional myocardial blood flow was determined. Animals were then randomly assigned to receive 0.02, 0.2, or 2.0 mg/kg epinephrine by peripheral injection. One minute after drug administration, regional myocardial blood flow measurements were repeated. The adjusted regional myocardial blood flows (ml/min/100 g) for animals given 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/kg epinephrine, respectively, were as follows: left atrium, 0.9, 67.4, and 58.8; right atrium, 0.3, 46.2, and 38.5; right ventricle, 0.7, 82.3, and 66.9; right interventricular septum, 1.7, 125.5, and 99.1; left interventricular septum, 2.8, 182.8, 109.5; mesointerventricular septum, 16.8, 142.2, and 79.2; left ventricular epicardium, 19.2, 98.5 and 108.7; left ventricular mesocardium, 22.8, 135.0, and 115.8; and left ventricular endocardium, 2.5, 176.1, and 132.9). All comparisons between the groups receiving 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg epinephrine were statistically significant (p less than .05).

  16. Assessment of long-term impact of formal certified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program among nurses

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, P. P.; Raj, L. Suja; Dash, P. K.; Sarma, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines are periodically renewed and published by the American Heart Association. Formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Despite widespread training CPR is often poorly performed. Hospital educators spend a significant amount of time and money in training health professionals and maintaining basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) skills among them. However, very little data are available in the literature highlighting the long-term impact of these training. Aims: To evaluate the impact of formal certified CPR training program on the knowledge and skill of CPR among nurses, to identify self-reported outcomes of attempted CPR and training needs of nurses. Setting and Design: Tertiary care hospital, Prospective, repeated-measures design. Subjects and Methods: A series of certified BLS and ACLS training programs were conducted during 2010 and 2011. Written and practical performance tests were done. Final testing was undertaken 3–4 years after training. The sample included all available, willing CPR certified nurses and experience matched CPR noncertified nurses. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS for Windows version 21.0. Results: The majority of the 206 nurses (93 CPR certified and 113 noncertified) were females. There was a statistically significant increase in mean knowledge level and overall performance before and after the formal certified CPR training program (P = 0.000). However, the mean knowledge scores were equivalent among the CPR certified and noncertified nurses, although the certified nurses scored a higher mean score (P = 0.140). Conclusions: Formal certified CPR training program increases CPR knowledge and skill. However, significant long-term effects could not be found. There is a need for regular and periodic recertification. PMID:27303137

  17. Mild Hypothermia Protects Pigs’ Gastric Mucosa After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation via Inhibiting Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Yaqiang; Liu, Zhengxin

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mild hypothermia therapy on gastric mucosa after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced in pigs. After CPR, the surviving pigs were divided into mild hypothermia-treated and control groups. The changes in vital signs and hemodynamic parameters were monitored before cardiac arrest and at intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation. Serum IL-6 was determined at the same time, and gastroscopy was performed. The pathologic changes were noted, and the expression of IL-6 was determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry under light. Results The heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output in both groups did not differ significantly. The gastric mucosa ulcer index evaluated by gastroscopy 2 h and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the mild hypothermic group was lower than that the control group (P<0.05). The inflammatory pathologic score of gastric mucosa in the mild hypothermic group 6–24 h after ROSC was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Serum and gastric mucosa IL-6 expression 0.5–4 h and 6, 12, and 24 h after ROSC was lower in the mild hypothermic group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Mild hypothermia treatment protects gastric mucosa after ROSC via inhibiting IL-6 production and relieving the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27694796

  18. Effects of different dosages and modes of sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bleske, B E; Chow, M S; Zhao, H; Kluger, J; Fieldman, A

    1992-11-01

    Systemic acidosis occurs during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study investigated the effect of different modes of sodium bicarbonate administration on blood gas parameters during CPR. Arterial and venous blood gases were obtained during 10 minutes of CPR which was preceded by 3 minutes of unassisted ventricular fibrillation in 36 dogs. Following 1 minute of CPR, the animals received one of four treatments in a randomized and blinded manner: normal saline (NS), sodium bicarbonate bolus dose 1 mEq/kg (B), sodium bicarbonate continuous infusion 0.1 mEq/kg/min (I), and sodium bicarbonate bolus dose (0.5 mEq/kg) plus continuous infusion 0.1 mEq/kg/min (L+I). Eleven dogs completed NS, 8 B, 8 I, and 9 L+I protocol. Following NS infusion, both arterial and venous pH declined consistently over time. Significant differences compared with NS treatment in venous pH were observed at 12 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (L+I, 7.27 +/- 0.05; NS, 7.15 +/- 0.05; B, 7.20 +/- 0.05; I, 7.24 +/- 0.04, each bicarbonate treatment versus NS, and L+I versus B, (P < .05). The B group had an elevated venous PCO2 (mm Hg) concentration following 6 minutes of ventricular fibrillation compared with NS, L+I, and I groups (81 +/- 14 versus 69 +/- 10 versus 68 +/- 10 versus 71 +/- 8, respectively, (P = .07). Arterial pH and PCO2 values showed a similar trend as the venous data with the L+I group demonstrating arterial alkalosis (pH > 7.45) at 12 minutes of ventricular fibrillation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest as a Novel Approach to Increase Survival in Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Rahmani, Farzad; Safari, Saeid; EJ Golzari, Samad

    2014-01-01

    Context: The aim of this review study was to evaluate therapeutic mild hypothermia, its complications and various methods for induced mild hypothermia in patients following resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Evidence Acquisition: Studies conducted on post-cardiac arrest cares, history of induced hypothermia, and therapeutic hypothermia for patients with cardiac arrest were included in this study. We used the valid databases (PubMed and Cochrane library) to collect relevant articles. Results: According to the studies reviewed, induction of mild hypothermia in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation would lead to increased survival and better neurological outcome; however, studies on the complications of hypothermia or different methods of inducing hypothermia were limited and needed to be studied further. Conclusions: This study provides strategic issues concerning the induction of mild hypothermia, its complications, and different ways of performing it on patients; using this method helps to increase patients’ neurological survival rate. PMID:25237582

  20. Improved Survival and Neurological Outcomes after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Toll-like Receptor 4-mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Qing-Song; Li, Qian; Han, Ji-Yuan; Sun, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system and noninfectious immune responses. It has been reported that TLR4 participates in the pathological course of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of TLR4 in the process of I/R injury after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TLR4 mutation on survival and neurological outcome in a mouse model of CA/CPR. Methods: A model of potassium-induced CA was performed on TLR4-mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild-type mice (C3H/HeN). After 3 min of untreated CA, resuscitation was attempted with chest compression, ventilation, and intravenous epinephrine. Behavioral tests were performed on mice on day 3 after CPR. The morphological changes in hippocampal neurons were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Expressions of TLR4 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by Western blot. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On day 3 after resuscitation the overall mortality was 33.33% in C3H/HeJ group compared with 53.33% in C3H/HeN group (P < 0.05). And there was much higher central tendency in C3H/HeJ group than C3H/HeN group during open field test (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of nonviable neurons was 21.16% in C3H/HeJ group compared with 53.11% in C3H/HeN group (P < 0.05). And there were significantly lower levels of hippocampal TNF-α and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice (TNF-α: 6.85±1.19 ng/mL, MPO: 0.33±0.11 U/g) than C3H/HeN mice (TNF-α: 11.36±2.12 ng/mL, MPO: 0.54±0.17 U/g) (all P < 0.01). CPR also significantly increased the expressions of TLR4 and ICAM-1 in C3H/HeN group. However, the expression of ICAM-1 was much lower in C3H/HeJ group than in C3H/HeN group after CPR (P < 0.01). Conclusion: TLR4 signaling is involved in brain damage and in inflammation

  1. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    PubMed

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  2. Post-mortem CT and MRI: appropriate post-mortem imaging appearances and changes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Curtis E; Dean, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Post-mortem cross-sectional imaging in the form of CT and, less frequently, MRI is an emerging facility in the evaluation of cause-of-death and human identification for the coronial service as well as in assisting the forensic investigation of suspicious deaths and homicide. There are marked differences between the radiological evaluation and interpretation of the CT and MRI features of the live patient (i.e. antemortem imaging) and the evaluation and interpretation of post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. In addition to the absence of frequently utilized tissue enhancement following intravenous contrast administration in antemortem imaging, there are a number of variable changes which occur in the tissues and organs of the body as a normal process following death, some of which are, in addition, affected significantly by environmental factors. Many patients and victims will also have undergone aggressive attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the perimortem period which will also significantly alter post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. It is paramount that the radiologist and pathologist engaged in the interpretation of such post-mortem imaging are familiar with the appropriate non-pathological imaging changes germane to death, the post-mortem interval and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to avoid erroneously attributing such changes to trauma or pathology. Some of the more frequently encountered radiological imaging considerations of this nature will be reviewed. PMID:26562099

  3. Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (μG). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions

  4. Efficacy of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and out-of-hospital automated external defibrillation as life-saving therapy in commotio cordis.

    PubMed

    Salib, Erik A; Cyran, Stephen E; Cilley, Robert E; Maron, Barry J; Thomas, Neal J

    2005-12-01

    We report a child who sustained commotio cordis after being struck by a baseball, and offer documentation of the advantages of having readily available access to bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and an automated external defibrillator (AED). We suggest that communities and school districts reexamine the need for accessible AEDs and CPR-trained coaches at organized sporting events for children.

  5. Effects of hypothermia on S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein in asphyxia rats after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hypothermia on S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in serum and hippocampus CA1 area in asphyxiated rats after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A total of 100 SD rats were designated into four groups: group A, sham operation group; group B, rats received conventional resuscitation; group C, rats received conventional resuscitation and hypothermia at cardiac arrest; group D, rats received conventional resuscitation and hypothermia at 30 min after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Rats were then killed by cardiac arrest at 2 and 4 h after ROSC; brain tissue was taken to observe dynamic changes of S100B and GFAP in serum and hippocampus CA1 area. Following ROSC, S100B levels increased from 2 to 4 h in group B, C, and D. In addition, S100B in serum and hippocampus CA1 area was all significantly increased at different time points compared with group A (P < 0.05). Following ROSC, serum S100B level at 2 h in group C was significantly decreased compared with group B, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Moreover, S100B in serum at 4 h after ROSC was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), S100B in cortex was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The expression of GFAP was also examined. GFAP level in hippocampus CA1 area was significantly decreased in group B, C, and D at 4 h after ROSC compared with group A (P < 0.05). S100B and GFAP were expressed in rat serum and hippocampus CA2 area at early stage after ROSC, which can be used as sensitive markers for brain injury diagnosis and prognosis prediction. Hypothermia is also shown to reduce brain injury after CPR.

  6. [THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF FINDING ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION AMONG NON-HEART BEATING DONORS UNDER UNSUCCESSFUL EXTRACORPOREAL RESUSCITATION (LITERATURE REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Khodeli, N; Chkhaidze, Z; Partsakhashvili, D; Pilishvili, O; Kordzaia, D

    2016-05-01

    The number of patients who are in the "Transplant Waiting List" is increasing each year. At the same time, as a result of the significant shortage of donor organs, part of the patients dies without waiting till surgery. According to the Maastricht classification for non-heart beating donors, the patients, who had cardiac arrest outside the hospital (in the uncontrolled by medical staff conditions) should be considered as a potential donors of category II. For these patients, the most effective resuscitation is recommended. The extracorporeal life support (ECLS) considers the connection to a special artificial perfusion system for the restoration of blood circulation out-of-hospital with further transportation to the hospital. If restoration of independent cardiac activity does not occur, in spite of the full range of resuscitative measures, these patients may be regarded as potential donors. The final decision should be received in the hospital, by the council of physicians, lawyers and patient's family members. Until the final decision, the prolongation of ECLS and maintaining adequate systemic and organic circulation is recommended. PMID:27348175

  7. [THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF FINDING ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION AMONG NON-HEART BEATING DONORS UNDER UNSUCCESSFUL EXTRACORPOREAL RESUSCITATION (LITERATURE REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Khodeli, N; Chkhaidze, Z; Partsakhashvili, D; Pilishvili, O; Kordzaia, D

    2016-05-01

    The number of patients who are in the "Transplant Waiting List" is increasing each year. At the same time, as a result of the significant shortage of donor organs, part of the patients dies without waiting till surgery. According to the Maastricht classification for non-heart beating donors, the patients, who had cardiac arrest outside the hospital (in the uncontrolled by medical staff conditions) should be considered as a potential donors of category II. For these patients, the most effective resuscitation is recommended. The extracorporeal life support (ECLS) considers the connection to a special artificial perfusion system for the restoration of blood circulation out-of-hospital with further transportation to the hospital. If restoration of independent cardiac activity does not occur, in spite of the full range of resuscitative measures, these patients may be regarded as potential donors. The final decision should be received in the hospital, by the council of physicians, lawyers and patient's family members. Until the final decision, the prolongation of ECLS and maintaining adequate systemic and organic circulation is recommended.

  8. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    PubMed

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  9. Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support; Redesignation as Extracorporeal Circuit and Accessories for Long-Term Respiratory/Cardiopulmonary Failure. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to redesignate membrane lung devices for long-term pulmonary support, a preamendments class III device, as extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure, and to reclassify the device to class II (special controls) in patients with acute respiratory failure or acute cardiopulmonary failure where other available treatment options have failed, and continued clinical deterioration is expected or the risk of death is imminent. A membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support (>6 hours) refers to the oxygenator in an extracorporeal circuit used during long-term procedures, commonly referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Because a number of other devices and accessories are used with the oxygenator in the circuit, the title and identification of the regulation are revised to include extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure. Although an individual device or accessory used in an ECMO circuit may already have its own classification regulation when the device or accessory is intended for short-term use (<=6 hours), such device or accessory will be subject to the same regulatory controls applied to the oxygenator (i.e., class II, special controls) when evaluated as part of the ECMO circuit for long-term use (>6 hours). On its own initiative, based on new information, FDA is revising the classification of the membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support.

  10. Successful use of Alteplase during cardiopulmonary resuscitation following massive PE in a patient presenting with ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Robert; Neumann, Juliane; Ward, Simon Michael

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with acute stroke regarding treatment of thromboembolism is supported by a limited evidence base. We present the case of a 55-year-old female patient who initially presented with an ischaemic cerebral infarct with haemorrhagic transformation. Her clinical recovery was complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to massive pulmonary embolism. This was successfully treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolysis using Alteplase, which led to a full recovery to the pre-arrest state with no evidence of haemorrhagic complication. The patient was successfully discharged to a specialist centre for on-going stroke rehabilitation with no additional neurological impact. Despite the limited evidence base we believe this case highlights that thrombolysis can be used in select patients with haemorrhagic transformation of stroke and serious thromboembolic complications to achieve a positive outcome. PMID:25362185

  11. Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation of a Dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Trial in the Asia-Pacific (Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study Phase 2).

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Shin, Sang Do; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Lee, Eui Jung; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Edwin Doctor, Nausheen; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Naroo, Ghulam Yasin; Wong, Kwanhathai Darin; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Lin, Chih-Hao; Goh, E-Shaun; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Alsakaf, Omer Ahmed; Hisamuddin, Nik A B Rahman Nik; Bobrow, Bentley J; McNally, Bryan; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Chan, Edwin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Survival outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Asia are poor (2-11%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are relatively low in Asia. Dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) has recently emerged as a potentially cost-effective intervention to increase bystander CPR and survival from OHCA. The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), an Asia-Pacific cardiac arrest registry, was set up in 2009, with the aim of understanding OHCA as a disease in Asia and improving OHCA survival. The network has adopted DA-CPR as part of its strategy to improve OHCA survival. Objective. This article aims to describe the conceptualization, study design, potential benefits, and difficulties for implementation of DA-CPR trial in the Asia-Pacific. Methods. Two levels of intervention, basic and comprehensive, will be offered to PAROS participating sites. The basic level consists of implementation of a DA-CPR protocol and training program, while the comprehensive level consists of implementation of the basic level, with the addition of a dispatch quality measurement tool, quality improvement program, and community education program. Sites that are not able to implement the package will contribute control data. The primary outcome of the study is survival to hospital discharge or survival to 30 days post cardiac arrest. DA-CPR and bystander CPR are secondary outcomes. Conclusion. Implementation of DA-CPR requires concerted efforts by EMS leaders and supervisors, dispatchers, hospital stakeholders, policy makers, and the general public. The DA-CPR trial implemented by the PAROS sites, if successful, can serve as a model for other countries considering such an intervention in their EMS systems. PMID:25152997

  12. End-tidal CO₂ detection of an audible heart rate during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation after asystole in asphyxiated piglets.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Lina F; Barber, Chad A; Hynan, Linda; Garcia, Damian; Christie, Lucy; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2011-05-01

    Even brief interruption of cardiac compressions significantly reduces critical coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). End-tidal CO₂ (ETCO₂) monitoring may provide a continuous noninvasive method of assessing return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without stopping to auscultate for heart rate (HR). However, the ETCO₂ value that correlates with an audible HR is unknown. Our objective was to determine the threshold ETCO₂ that is associated with ROSC after asphyxia-induced asystole. Neonatal swine (n = 46) were progressively asphyxiated until asystole occurred. Resuscitation followed current neonatal guidelines with initial ventilation with 100% O₂ followed by cardiac compressions followed by epinephrine for continued asystole. HR was auscultated every 30 s, and ETCO₂ was continuously recorded. A receiver operator curve was generated using the calculated sensitivity and specificity for various ETCO₂ values, where a positive test was defined as the presence of HR >60 bpm by auscultation. An ETCO₂ cut-off value of 14 mm Hg is the most sensitive ETCO₂ value with the least false positives. When using ETCO₂ to guide uninterrupted CPR in this model of asphyxia-induced asystole, auscultative confirmation of return of an adequate HR should be performed when ETCO₂ ≥ 14 mm Hg is achieved. Correlation during human neonatal CPR needs further investigation.

  13. A national survey of Turkish emergency physicians perspectives regarding family witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Yanturali, S; Ersoy, G; Yuruktumen, A; Aksay, E; Suner, S; Sonmez, Y; Oray, D; Colak, N; Cimrin, A H

    2005-04-01

    We investigated Turkish emergency physicians' views regarding family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) and to determine the current practice in Turkish academic emergency departments with regard to family members during resuscitation. A national cross-sectional, anonymous survey of emergency physicians working in academic emergency departments was conducted. Nineteen of the 23 university-based emergency medicine programs participated in the study. Two hundred and thirty-nine physicians completed the survey. Of the respondents, 83% did not endorse FWR. The most common reasons for not endorsing FWR was reported as higher stress levels of the resuscitation team and fear of causing physiological trauma to family members. Previous experience, previous knowledge in FWR, higher level of training and the acceptance of FWR in the institution where the participant works were associated with higher rates of FWR endorsement for this practice among emergency physicians.

  14. Evaluating the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Emergency Department by Real-Time Video Recording System

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongye; Li, Hong; Wang, Huiqi; Zhuang, Yugang; Chen, Yuanzhuo; Gao, Chengjin; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality between manual CPR and miniaturized chest compressor (MCC) CPR. To improve CPR quality through evaluating the quality of our clinical work of resuscitation by real-time video recording system. Methods The study was a retrospective observational study of adult patients who experienced CPR at the emergency department of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital from March 2013 to August 2014. All the performance of CPR were checked back by the record of “digital real-time video recording system”. Average chest compression rate, actual chest compression rate, the percentage of hands-off period, time lag from patient arrival to chest compression, time lag from patient arrival to manual ventilation, time lag from patient arrival to first IV establish were compared. Causes of chest compression hands-off time were also studied. Results 112 cases of resuscitation attempts were obtained. Average chest compression rate was over 100 compression per minute (cpm) in the majority of cases. However, indicators such as percentage of hands-off periods, time lag from patient arrival to the first manual ventilation and time lag from patient arrival to the first IV establish seemed to be worse in the manual CPR group compared to MCC CPR group. The saving of operators change time seemed to counteract the time spent on MCC equipment. Indicators such as percentage of hands-off periods, time lag between patient arrival to the first chest compression, time lag between patient arrival to the first manual ventilation and time lag from patient arrival to the first IV establish may influence the survival. Conclusion Our CPR quality remained to be improved. MCC may have a potentially positive role in CPR. PMID:26431420

  15. The effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on the vasopressor effect of high-dose epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine.

    PubMed

    Bleske, B E; Rice, T L; Warren, E W; De Las Alas, V R; Tait, A R; Knight, P R

    1993-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for the treatment of systemic acidemia. However, the effect of administering standard-dose sodium bicarbonate on the vasopressor effect of epinephrine is unknown. This study compared the effects of sodium bicarbonate or normal saline on the vasopressor effect of epinephrine in 18 pigs. After 10 minutes of unassisted ventricular fibrillation, CPR was started using a pneumatic chest compression device. Two minutes after the start of CPR, sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/kg) or normal saline (1 mL/kg) was administered into the right ventricule followed 1 minute later by epinephrine (0.2 mg/kg). Defibrillation was attempted at 8 minutes of CPR (18 minutes of ventricular fibrillation). Results demonstrated no significant differences in aortic systolic, aortic diastolic, or coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) between the two groups (1 minute after epinephrine, CPP was 22.6 +/- 13.3 mm Hg versus 21.1 +/- 20.7 mm Hg for the sodium bicarbonate and normal saline groups, respectively). However, when the data were stratified according to pH < 7.4 and pH > 7.4, the peak change in CPP was 12.7 +/- 21 mm Hg when pH < 7.4 and was 5.2 +/- 7.4 when pH > 7.4 (P = .33). Resuscitation was also similar between the two groups (two of nine for sodium bicarbonate and one of nine for normal saline). In conclusion, the standard recommended dose of sodium bicarbonate did not alter the vasopressor effect of epinephrine or resuscitation compared with normal saline in this closed chest model of ventricular fibrillation and CPR.

  16. Resuscitation after prolonged cardiac arrest: effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and sodium–hydrogen exchange inhibition on myocardial and neurological recovery☆

    PubMed Central

    Liakopoulos, Oliver J.; Hristov, Nikola; Buckberg, Gerald D.; Triana, Jonathan; Trummer, Georg; Allen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine if cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), together with inhibition of the sodium–hydrogen exchanger (NHE), limits myocardial and neurological injury and improves recovery after prolonged (unwitnessed) cardiac arrest (CA), as NHE inhibition improved recovery after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Methods: Twenty-seven pigs (31–39 kg) underwent 15 min of prolonged (no-flow) CA followed by 10 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation-advanced life support (CPR-ALS). Subjects with restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during CPR-ALS received either no drug (n = 6) or an inhibitor of the NHE (HOE-642; n = 5). In the 16 unsuccessfully resuscitated animals, peripheral normothermic CPB was instituted, and either no drug (n = 9) or similar HOE-642 (n = 7) therapy started. Hemodynamic data, a species-specific neurological deficit score (0 = normal to 500 = brain death), and mortality were recorded at 24 h, and biochemical variables of organ injury measured. Results: CPR-ALS restored ROSC in 41% (11/27) of animals, but was unsuccessful in 59% (16/27) that required CPB. Without CPB, HOE-642 increased cardiac index and decreased vascular resistance; with CPB, HOE-642 caused higher pump flows (3.4 ± 0.6 l min−1 m−2 vs 2.5 ± 0.7 l min−1 m−2; p ≪ 0.001) and higher post-arrest cardiac index; but animals required more vasopressors (p = 0.019) from drug-induced vasodilation. No differences between biochemical markers of oxidative and organ injury and overall 24-h mortality (20%) were found between groups. Neurological score was improved at 24 h compared with 4 h only after HOE-642 treatment with (150 ± 34 vs 220 ± 43; p = 0.003) or without CPB (162 ± 39 vs 238 ± 48; p ≤ 0.001), but failed to reach statistical difference with respect to the untreated group. Conclusions: CPB is an effective resuscitative tool to treat prolonged CA but there is limited improvement of neurological function

  17. Implementation of a High-Performance Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Protocol at a Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefos, Kathryn A.; Nable, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant public health issue. Although OHCA occurs relatively infrequently in the collegiate environment, educational institutions with on-campus emergency medical services (EMS) agencies are uniquely positioned to provide high-quality resuscitation care in an expedient fashion. Georgetown University's…

  18. The need to immobilise the cervical spine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and electric shock administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Desroziers, Milene; Mole, Sophie; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-13

    In cases of out-of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), falling to the ground can cause brain and neck trauma to the patient. We present a case of a man in his mid-60s who suffered from an OHCA resulting in a violent collapse. The patient received immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but his spine was immobilised only after a large frontal haematoma was found. The resuscitation efforts resulted in return of spontaneous circulation and discharge from hospital. After this, doctors performed angioplasty, followed by a cardiopulmonary bypass. Later, CT scan examination reported a displaced and unstable fracture of the 6th vertebra without bone marrow involvement. The patient underwent a second operation. 40 days later, he was able to return home without sequela. This case shows the importance of analysing the circumstances of a fall, considering the possibility of two concomitant diagnoses and prioritising investigations and treatment.

  19. Outcome of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in acute respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo Han; Woo, Won Ki; Song, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Bong Joon; Kim, Ha Eun; Kim, Do Jung; Suh, Jee Won; Shin, Yu Rim; Park, Han Ki; Lee, Seung Hyun; Joo, Hyun Chel; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung Chul; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Kim, Young Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a known risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to analyze the treatment outcome in patients who required veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) for postcardiotomy ARDS despite other rescue modalities. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 13 patients (mean age, 54.7±5.9 years) who received VV-ECMO support for refractory ARDS after cardiac surgery between March 2013 and February 2016 at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University (Seoul, Korea). Results At the start of VV-ECMO, the average lung injury score was 3.0±0.2, and the Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) score was −4±1.1. Although 7 patients initiated VV-ECMO support within 24 h from operation, the remaining 6 started at a median of 8.5 days (range, 5−16 days). Nine (69.3%) patients were successfully weaned from VV-ECMO. After a median follow-up duration of 14.5 months (range, 1.0−33.0 months) for survivors, the 1-year overall survival was 58.6%±14.4%. The differences in the overall survival from VV-ECMO according to the RESP score risk classes were borderline significant (100% in class III, 50%±25% in class IV, and 20%±17.9% in class V; P=0.088). Conclusions VV-ECMO support can be a feasible rescue strategy for adult patients who develop refractory ARDS after a cardiac surgery. Additionally, the RESP score seems a valuable prognostic tool for post-ECMO survival outcome in this patient population as well. PMID:27499972

  20. Comparison between an instructor-led course and training using a voice advisory manikin in initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Min, Mun Ki; Yeom, Seok Ran; Ryu, Ji Ho; Kim, Yong In; Park, Maeng Real; Han, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Seong Hwa; Park, Sung Wook; Park, Soon Chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective We compared training using a voice advisory manikin (VAM) with an instructor-led (IL) course in terms of acquisition of initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills, as defined by the 2010 resuscitation guidelines. Methods This study was a randomized, controlled, blinded, parallel-group trial. We recruited 82 first-year emergency medical technician students and distributed them randomly into two groups: the IL group (n=41) and the VAM group (n=37). In the IL-group, participants were trained in “single-rescuer, adult CPR” according to the American Heart Association’s Basic Life Support course for healthcare providers. In the VAM group, all subjects received a 20-minute lesson about CPR. After the lesson, each student trained individually with the VAM for 1 hour, receiving real-time feedback. After the training, all subjects were evaluated as they performed basic CPR (30 compressions, 2 ventilations) for 4 minutes. Results The proportion of participants with a mean compression depth ≥50 mm was 34.1% in the IL group and 27.0% in the VAM group, and the proportion with a mean compression depth ≥40 mm had increased significantly in both groups compared with ≥50 mm (IL group, 82.9%; VAM group, 86.5%). However, no significant differences were detected between the groups in this regard. The proportion of ventilations of the appropriate volume was relatively low in both groups (IL group, 26.4%; VAM group, 12.5%; P=0.396). Conclusion Both methods, the IL training using a practice-while-watching video and the VAM training, facilitated initial CPR skill acquisition, especially in terms of correct chest compression. PMID:27752634

  1. Attitudes of Doctors Working in Abant Izzet Baysal University Health Research and Application Center on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Yoldaş, Hamit; Kocoğlu, Hasan; Bayır, Hakan; Yıldız, İsa; Akkaya, Akcan; Demirhan, Abdullah; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the attitudes of doctors about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in this research. Methods Overall, 234 doctors who were working in Abant İzzet Baysal University Health Research and Application Center and who accepted to participate in this research were included. Research data were obtained by a questionnaire containing questions about demographic characteristics of doctors and their knowledge about CPR. Questionnaires were applied between 27.02.2012 and 04.06.2012. The chi-square test was used for categorical variables. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results It was determined that 90% of the participants included in the study applied and/or observed CPR, and 62% of participants did not attend any CPR course. In addition, 64.1% of the doctors were found to be aware of guidelines prepared every 5 years. Although 65.2% of the doctors who attended a course previously gave a correct answer for the question about the number of cardiac compressions during adult CPR, 47.6% of the doctors who did not attend a course gave the correct answer (p=0.014). Additionally, 71.9% of participants who attended a course previously and 51.7% of participants who did not replied correctly to the question ‘What should be done immediately after defibrillation during CPR?’ And also the results for the question about how many joules is necessary to begin defibrillation with a monophasic defibrillator were statistically significant according to the attendance for a CPR course (p<0.005). Conclusion In this study, we have identified the lack of knowledge of the doctors about resuscitation. PMID:27366577

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video Decision Support Tool for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Decision Making in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Mitchell, Susan L.; El-Jawahri, Areej; Davis, Aretha Delight; Barry, Michael J.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Gillick, Muriel R.; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Chang, Yuchiao; López, Lenny; Kemeny, Margaret; Bulone, Linda; Mann, Eileen; Misra, Sumi; Peachey, Matt; Abbo, Elmer D.; Eichler, April F.; Epstein, Andrew S.; Noy, Ariela; Levin, Tomer T.; Temel, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Decision making regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is challenging. This study examined the effect of a video decision support tool on CPR preferences among patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of 150 patients with advanced cancer from four oncology centers. Participants in the control arm (n = 80) listened to a verbal narrative describing CPR and the likelihood of successful resuscitation. Participants in the intervention arm (n = 70) listened to the identical narrative and viewed a 3-minute video depicting a patient on a ventilator and CPR being performed on a simulated patient. The primary outcome was participants' preference for or against CPR measured immediately after exposure to either modality. Secondary outcomes were participants' knowledge of CPR (score range of 0 to 4, with higher score indicating more knowledge) and comfort with video. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (standard deviation, 11 years); 49% were women, 44% were African American or Latino, and 47% had lung or colon cancer. After the verbal narrative, in the control arm, 38 participants (48%) wanted CPR, 41 (51%) wanted no CPR, and one (1%) was uncertain. In contrast, in the intervention arm, 14 participants (20%) wanted CPR, 55 (79%) wanted no CPR, and 1 (1%) was uncertain (unadjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2; P < .001). Mean knowledge scores were higher in the intervention arm than in the control arm (3.3 ± 1.0 v 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively; P < .001), and 65 participants (93%) in the intervention arm were comfortable watching the video. Conclusion Participants with advanced cancer who viewed a video of CPR were less likely to opt for CPR than those who listened to a verbal narrative. PMID:23233708

  3. Outcomes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Estimation of Healthcare Costs in Potential ‘Do Not Resuscitate’ Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Akhwand S.; Mudasser, Sayed; Khan, Muhammad N.; Abdoun, Hafiz N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving procedure which may fail if applied unselectively. ‘Do not resuscitate’ (DNR) policies can help avoid futile life-saving attempts among terminally-ill patients. This study aimed to assess CPR outcomes and estimate healthcare costs in potential DNR cases. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out between March and June 2014 and included 50 adult cardiac arrest patients who had undergone CPR at Sultan Qaboos Hospital in Salalah, Oman. Medical records were reviewed and treating teams were consulted to determine DNR eligibility. The outcomes, clinical risk categories and associated healthcare costs of the DNR candidates were assessed. Results: Two-thirds of the potential DNR candidates were ≥60 years old. Eight patients (16%) were in a vegetative state, 39 (78%) had an irreversible terminal illness and 43 (86%) had a low likelihood of successful CPR. Most patients (72%) met multiple criteria for DNR eligibility. According to clinical risk categories, these patients had terminal malignancies (30%), recent massive strokes (16%), end-stage organ failure (30%) or were bed-bound (50%). Initial CPR was unsuccessful in 30 patients (60%); the remaining 20 patients (40%) were initially resuscitated but subsequently died, with 70% dying within 24 hours. These patients were ventilated for an average of 5.6 days, with four patients (20%) requiring >15 days of ventilation. The average healthcare cost per patient was USD $1,958.9. Conclusion: With careful assessment, potential DNR patients can be identified and futile CPR efforts avoided. Institutional DNR policies may help to reduce healthcare costs and improve services. PMID:26909209

  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a support for TGA/IVS with low cardiac output syndrome and pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaoyang; Feng, Zhichun; Zhou, Gengxu; Xu, Xuan

    2013-06-01

    A 15-day-old neonate with complete transposition of the great arteries/intact ventricular septum was admitted with life-threatening hypoxemia and heart arrest. After successful resuscitation, heart beat recovered but blood lactate began to arise and maintained above 15 mmol/L 6 hours later. Emergency arterial switch operation was done at 20 hours after resuscitation. Planned extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was employed postoperatively. The baby experienced severe pulmonary hemorrhage and severe hypoxemia after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, which were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

  5. International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation: An excerpt from the Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care: International Consensus on Science. Contributors and Reviewers for the Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Niermeyer, S; Kattwinkel, J; Van Reempts, P; Nadkarni, V; Phillips, B; Zideman, D; Azzopardi, D; Berg, R; Boyle, D; Boyle, R; Burchfield, D; Carlo, W; Chameides, L; Denson, S; Fallat, M; Gerardi, M; Gunn, A; Hazinski, M F; Keenan, W; Knaebel, S; Milner, A; Perlman, J; Saugstad, O D; Schleien, C; Solimano, A; Speer, M; Toce, S; Wiswell, T; Zaritsky, A

    2000-09-01

    The International Guidelines 2000 Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC) formulated new evidenced-based recommendations for neonatal resuscitation. These guidelines comprehensively update the last recommendations, published in 1992 after the Fifth National Conference on CPR and ECC. As a result of the evidence evaluation process, significant changes occurred in the recommended management routines for: * Meconium-stained amniotic fluid: If the newly born infant has absent or depressed respirations, heart rate <100 beats per minute (bpm), or poor muscle tone, direct tracheal suctioning should be performed to remove meconium from the airway. * Preventing heat loss: Hyperthermia should be avoided. * Oxygenation and ventilation: 100% oxygen is recommended for assisted ventilation; however, if supplemental oxygen is unavailable, positive-pressure ventilation should be initiated with room air. The laryngeal mask airway may serve as an effective alternative for establishing an airway if bag-mask ventilation is ineffective or attempts at intubation have failed. Exhaled CO(2) detection can be useful in the secondary confirmation of endotracheal intubation. * Chest compressions: Compressions should be administered if the heart rate is absent or remains <60 bpm despite adequate assisted ventilation for 30 seconds. The 2-thumb, encircling-hands method of chest compression is preferred, with a depth of compression one third the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest and sufficient to generate a palpable pulse. * Medications, volume expansion, and vascular access: Epinephrine in a dose of 0.01-0.03 mg/kg (0.1-0.3 mL/kg of 1:10,000 solution) should be administered if the heart rate remains <60 bpm after a minimum of 30 seconds of adequate ventilation and chest compressions. Emergency volume expansion may be accomplished with an isotonic crystalloid solution or O-negative red blood cells; albumin-containing solutions are no longer the

  6. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral and muscle tissue parameters during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosrati, Reyhaneh; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Woldemichael, Ermias; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Toronov, Vladislav

    2015-03-01

    In this series of animal experiments on resuscitation after cardiac arrest we had a unique opportunity to measure hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) parameters directly on the brain dura, or on the brain through the intact pig skull, and simultaneously the muscle hNIRS parameters. Simultaneously the arterial blood pressure and carotid and femoral blood flow were recorded in real time using invasive sensors. We used a novel hyperspectral signalprocessing algorithm to extract time-dependent concentrations of water, hemoglobin, and redox state of cytochrome c oxidase during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. In addition in order to assess the validity of the non-invasive brain measurements the obtained results from the open brain was compared to the results acquired through the skull. The comparison of hNIRS data acquired on brain surface and through the adult pig skull shows that in both cases the hemoglobin and the redox state cytochrome c oxidase changed in similar ways in similar situations and in agreement with blood pressure and flow changes. The comparison of simultaneously measured brain and muscle changes showed expected differences. Overall the results show feasibility of transcranial hNIRS measurements cerebral parameters including the redox state of cytochrome oxidase in human cardiac arrest patients.

  7. Ultra-long cardiopulmonary resuscitation with thrombolytic therapy for a sudden cardiac arrest patient with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Tian; Chun, Fang Wei; Tao, Hsieh Lu

    2014-11-01

    The recovery of cardiac arrest patients with pulmonary embolism who are given an ultra-long duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) with manual chest compressions is very rare. We reported a 52-year-old woman who came to the hospital because of paroxysmal dyspnea. She experienced in hospital cardiac arrest and underwent prolonged CPR with manual chest compressions for 160 minutes. The patient presented with several episodes of cardiac electrical activity that lasted 10 to 20 seconds without consciousness. Blood gas analysis revealed pH 7.27, PaO2 51 mm Hg, and D-dimer 3723 ìg/mL. In addition,acute pulmonary embolism was considered due to the patient's symptoms. Thrombolytic therapy was given 100 minutes after the CPR was implemented. Sixty minutes later, her sinus rhythm was restored.After the continuous renal replacement therapy for renal failure was administered and other conservative treatments were given for the complications after the CPR with thrombolytic therapy, she finally recovered and was discharged. This case report supports the use of persistent ongoing CPR efforts and the use of thrombolytic therapy.

  8. Comparison of superior vena caval and inferior vena caval access using a radioisotope technique during normal perfusion and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalsey, W.C.; Barsan, W.G.; Joyce, S.M.; Hedges, J.R.; Lukes, S.J.; Doan, L.A.

    1984-10-01

    Recent studies of thoracic pressure changes during external cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that there may be a significant difference in the rate of delivery of intravenous drugs when they are administered through the extrathoracic inferior vena cava (IVC) rather than the intrathoracic superior vena cava (SVC). Comparison of delivery of a radionuclide given using superior and inferior vena caval access sites was made during normal blood flow and during CPR. Mean times from injection to peak emission count in each ventricle were determined. There were no significant differences between mean peak times for SVC or IVC routes during normal flow or CPR. When peak times were corrected for variations in cardiac output, there were no significant differences between IVC and SVC peak times during normal flow. During CPR, however, mean left ventricular peak time, when corrected for cardiac output, was significantly shorter (P less than .05) when the SVC route was used. The mean time for the counts to reach half the ventricular peak was statistically shorter (P less than .05) in both ventricles with the SVC route during the low flow of CPR. This suggests that during CPR, increased drug dispersion may occur when drugs are infused by the IVC route and thus may modify the anticipated effect of the drug bolus. These results suggest that during CPR, both the cardiac output and the choice of venous access are important variables for drug delivery.

  9. Effects of mild hypothermia therapy on the levels of glutathione in rabbit blood and cerebrospinal fluid after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Yueliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia therapy on oxidative stress injury of rabbit brain tissue after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Materials and Methods: Rabbit models of cardiac arrest were established. After the restoration of spontaneous circulation, 50 rabbits were randomly divided into normothermia and hypothermia groups. The following five time points were selected: before CPR, immediately after CPR, 2 hr after CPR (hypothermia group reached the target temperature), 14 hr after CPR (hypothermia group before rewarming), and 24 hr after CPR (hypothermia group recovered to normal temperature). Glutathione (GSH) concentrations in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the normothermia and hypothermia groups were measured. Results: At 2, 14, and 24 hr after CPR, the GSH concentrations in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in the hypothermia group than in the nomorthermia group. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia therapy may increase GSH concentrations in rabbit blood and cerebrospinal fluid after CPR as well as promote the recovery of cerebral function. PMID:25810895

  10. Return of spontaneous Circulation Is Not Affected by Different Chest Compression Rates Superimposed with Sustained Inflations during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Newborn Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott S.; Cheung, Po-Yin; Lee, Tze-Fun; Lu, Min; O'Reilly, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, sustained inflations (SI) during chest compression (CC) have been suggested as an alternative to the current approach during neonatal resuscitation. However, the optimal rate of CC during SI has not yet been established. Our aim was to determine whether different CC rates during SI reduce time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improve hemodynamic recovery in newborn piglets with asphyxia-induced bradycardia. Intervention and measurements Term newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented and exposed to 45-min normocapnic hypoxia followed by asphyxia. Resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Piglets were randomized into three groups: CC superimposed by SI at a rate of 90 CC per minute (SI+CC 90, n = 8), CC superimposed by SI at a rate of 120 CC per minute (SI+CC 120, n = 8), or a sham group (n = 6). Cardiac function, carotid blood flow, cerebral oxygenation and respiratory parameters were continuously recorded throughout the experiment. Main results Both treatment groups had similar time of ROSC, survival rates, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The hemodynamic recovery in the subsequent 4h was similar in both groups and was only slightly lower than sham-operated piglets at the end of experiment. Conclusion Newborn piglets resuscitated by SI+CC 120 did not show a significant advantage in ROSC, survival, and hemodynamic recovery as compared to those piglets resuscitated by SI+CC 90. PMID:27304210

  11. An audit of drug usage for in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Levy, R D; Rhoden, W E; Shearer, K; Varley, E; Brooks, N H

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the changes in outcome of cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation, asystole and electromechanical dissociation in relation to the changing guidelines for drug therapy set by the U.K. Resuscitation Council. It was a retrospective study of 667 resuscitation records for the years 1982, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990 and 1991. It took place in a large district general hospital with a regional cardio-thoracic centre. We have audited the asystolic cardiac arrests (N = 271) which occurred outside the cardiac care unit (CCU). Adrenaline (intravenous 1 mg) is now the first line drug followed by atropine at an increased dose (2 mg intravenously); calcium is no longer recommended and sodium bicarbonate should be reserved for cases in which an acidosis has been documented. Atropine use has increased over the 9-year period. Bicarbonate use did not change from 1982 to 1986 but fell progressively to no use at all in 1991. Calcium use has declined since 1982. Adrenaline use has remained unchanged. Survival from asystolic arrests (hospital discharge) has remained unchanged at 0-5.5%. Asystole as a primary event in the CCU was uncommon (N = 17) and no patient was discharged. Over the same period, 60% of patients (N = 92) with a cardiac arrest on CCU due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) were discharged and 55% were alive after 6 months. For VF on the wards (N = 192), only 20% of patients were discharged from hospital. A similar proportion was successful for each year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1337743

  12. Extracorporeal immune therapy with immobilized agonistic anti-Fas antibodies leads to transient reduction of circulating neutrophil numbers and limits tissue damage after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation is associated with aberrant neutrophil activation and organ failure. This experimental porcine study was done to evaluate the effects of Fas-directed extracorporeal immune therapy with a leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) on hemodynamics, neutrophil tissue infiltration, and tissue damage after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. Methods In a prospective controlled double-armed animal trial 24 Munich Mini Pigs (30.3 ± 3.3 kg) were rapidly haemorrhaged to reach a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 ± 5 mmHg, maintained hypotensive for 45 minutes, and then were resuscitated with Ringer' solution to baseline MAP. With beginning of resuscitation 12 pigs underwent extracorporeal immune therapy for 3 hours (LIM group) and 12 pigs were resuscitated according to standard medical care (SMC). Haemodynamics, haematologic, metabolic, and organ specific damage parameters were monitored. Neutrophil infiltration was analyzed histologically after 48 and 72 hours. Lipid peroxidation and apoptosis were specifically determined in lung, bowel, and liver. Results In the LIM group, neutrophil counts were reduced versus SMC during extracorporeal immune therapy. After 72 hours, the haemodynamic parameters MAP and cardiac output (CO) were significantly better in the LIM group. Histological analyses showed reduction of shock-related neutrophil tissue infiltration in the LIM group, especially in the lungs. Lower amounts of apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation were found in organs after LIM treatment. Conclusions Transient Fas-directed extracorporeal immune therapy may protect from posthemorrhagic neutrophil tissue infiltration and tissue damage. PMID:20406470

  13. Extenuating circumstances: regarding comfort one: new cardiopulmonary resuscitation directives in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Schellinger, Ellen L; Harris, Mary Helen; Eidsness, LuAnn

    2006-12-01

    Circa 2001, Aunt Abby had reached her seventh decade when she was diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer. Chances of cure were slim to nil, and true to her Midwestern upbringing and staunch faith that a better world awaits, Aunt Abby chose to live out her last months at home, "doing" for Uncle Bill, as she had for the last fifty-two years. Uncle Bill and the kids understood and were willing to abide by her wishes to just let her pass, as God would will. But, when the day came that Aunt Abby's heart failed, she was puttering through the local grocery alone, while Uncle Bill slipped around the corner to pick up parts from the hardware store. An alert store clerk called 911. The EMS team arrived quickly, and, as their protocol required, began resuscitation. Aunt Abby's wish for a death with "no fuss" was no match for the emergency medical system's clinical and legal duty to treat until a physician ordered otherwise. PMID:17212184

  14. A multicenter controlled trial on knowledge and attitude about cardiopulmonary resuscitation among secondary school children in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We performed a multicenter controlled trial to assess the knowledge and attitude (KA) about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among secondary school children in a district in Malaysia. Methods This was a prospective intervention study. The primary endpoint of the study was to determine the level of KA about resuscitation after CPR training. The six schools and classes from selected schools were chosen by randomization among the form three and four classes using sealed envelopes. A fully validated questionnaire consisting of three sections (sociodemographic, knowledge and attitude) was given to the pupils before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The intervention group was given a lecture, video show, pamphlet and 1-h practical session on CPR training. The control group received a placebo in order to overcome the learning effect. The maximum scores for the knowledge and attitude sections were 72 and 28, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used for specific objectives to determine the changes in knowledge and attitude level pre- and post-intervention for both study groups. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as significant at 95% confidence intervals. Results The mean (SD) total knowledge scores for the intervention (n = 216) and control (n = 252) groups were 62.43 (13.68) and 62.29 (12.11), respectively (maximum score 72) (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the mean (SD) total attitude scores for the intervention and the control groups were 19.33 (4.51) and 17.85 (4.52), respectively (maximum score 28) (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in mean knowledge and attitude scores between the intervention and control groups with regard to time (pre- and post-intervention). The mean difference in knowledge and attitude scores between both study groups was 8.31 (p < 0.001) and 2.39 (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The level of knowledge and attitudes of secondary school children was shown to be acceptable prior to the intervention

  15. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass—Temperature Management during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A.; Likosky, Donald S.; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: To improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendation. PMID:26543248

  16. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass--Temperature Management during Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A; Likosky, Donald S; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W

    2015-09-01

    To improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendation.

  17. [Two Cases of Emergency Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Children Suffering from Tracheo-innominate Artery Fistula].

    PubMed

    Ideno, Satoshi; Shinto, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Taku; Miyazawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula (TIF) is a relatively rare life-threating complication of long-term tracheostomy. Two patients with TIF were successfully resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support along with advanced cardiovascular life support. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy undergoing long-term tracheostomy because of cerebral palsy, and the other patient was a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who had undergone primary tracheal tumor resection. In both cases, the onset of TIF was sudden, and the patients were immediately transferred to the operating room for emergency thoracotomy under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Innominate artery division was performed under ECMO support. Adequate fluid replacement and hemorrhage control are primary treatment options for resuscitating a patient with TIF. However, hemorrhagic shock in patients with TIF is different from that in other patients, because bleeding into the trachea causes severe respiratory failure and poor oxygenation, which may worsen the resuscitation rate. Thus, ECMO can be used as an option for maintaining oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to the increased risk of bleeding due to anticoagulation during ECMO initiation. In conclusion, the results of these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF patients.

  18. [Two Cases of Emergency Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Children Suffering from Tracheo-innominate Artery Fistula].

    PubMed

    Ideno, Satoshi; Shinto, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Taku; Miyazawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula (TIF) is a relatively rare life-threating complication of long-term tracheostomy. Two patients with TIF were successfully resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support along with advanced cardiovascular life support. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy undergoing long-term tracheostomy because of cerebral palsy, and the other patient was a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who had undergone primary tracheal tumor resection. In both cases, the onset of TIF was sudden, and the patients were immediately transferred to the operating room for emergency thoracotomy under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Innominate artery division was performed under ECMO support. Adequate fluid replacement and hemorrhage control are primary treatment options for resuscitating a patient with TIF. However, hemorrhagic shock in patients with TIF is different from that in other patients, because bleeding into the trachea causes severe respiratory failure and poor oxygenation, which may worsen the resuscitation rate. Thus, ECMO can be used as an option for maintaining oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to the increased risk of bleeding due to anticoagulation during ECMO initiation. In conclusion, the results of these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF patients. PMID:27017768

  19. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    PubMed

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. PMID:24636360

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    PubMed

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation.

  1. 50% duty cycle may be inappropriate to achieve a sufficient chest compression depth when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is performed by female or light rescuers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Jae; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Bae, Jinkun; Kim, Eui Chung; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend chest compressions (CC) during 50% of the duty cycle (DC) in part because of the ease with which individuals may learn to achieve it with practice. However, no consideration has been given to a possible interaction between DC and depth of CC, which has been the subject of recent study. Our aim was to determine if 50% DC is inappropriate to achieve sufficient chest compression depth for female and light rescuers. Methods Previously collected CC data, performed by senior medical students guided by metronome sounds with various down-stroke patterns and rates, were included in the analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between average compression depth (ACD) with average compression rate (ACR), DC, and physical characteristics of the performers. Expected ACD was calculated for various settings. Results DC, ACR, body weight, male sex, and self-assessed physical strength were significantly associated with ACD in multivariate analysis. Based on our calculations, with 50% of DC, only men with ACR of 140/min or faster or body weight over 74 kg with ACR of 120/min can achieve sufficient ACD. Conclusion A shorter DC is independently correlated with deeper CC during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The optimal DC recommended in current guidelines may be inappropriate for achieving sufficient CD, especially for female or lighter-weight rescuers.

  2. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education.

  3. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education. PMID:27046387

  4. Evaluation of airway management associated hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised manikin follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Airway management is an important component of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent guidelines recommend keeping any interruptions of chest compressions as short as possible and not lasting more than 10 seconds. Endotracheal intubation seems to be the ideal method for establishing a secure airway by experienced providers, but emergency medical technicians (EMT) often lack training and practice. For the EMTs supraglottic devices might serve as alternatives. Methods 40 EMTs were trained in a 1-hour standardised audio-visual lesson to handle six different airway devices including endotracheal intubation, Combitube, EasyTube, I-Gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway and Laryngeal tube. EMTs performances were evaluated immediately after a brief practical demonstration, as well as after 1 and 3 months without any practice in between, in a randomised order. Hands-off time was pair-wise compared between airway devices using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Results Overall mean hands-off time was significantly (p<0.01) lower for Laryngeal tube (6.1s; confidence interval 5.2-6.9s), Combitube (7.9s; 95% CI 6.9-9.0s), EasyTube (8.8s; CI 7.3-10.3s), LMA (10.2s; CI 8.6-11.7s), and I-Gel (11.9s; CI 10.2-13.7s) compared to endotracheal intubation (39.4s; CI 34.0-44.9s). Hands-off time was within the recommended limit of 10s for Combitube, EasyTube and Laryngeal tube after 1 month and for all supraglottic devices after 3 months without any training, but far beyond recommended limits in all three evaluations for endotracheal intubation. Conclusion Using supraglottic airway devices, EMTs achieved a hands-off time within the recommended time limit of 10s, even after three months without any training or practice. Supraglottic airway devices are recommended tools for EMTs with lack of experience in advanced airway management. PMID:23433462

  5. Sodium Nitroprusside-enhanced Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Facilitates Intra-Arrest Therapeutic Hypothermia in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Debaty, Guillaume; Matsuura, Timothy R.; Bartos, Jason A.; Rees, Jennifer N.; McKnite, Scott H.; Lick, Michael; Boucher, François; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Sodium Nitroprusside-enhanced Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SNPeCPR) on heat exchange during surface cooling. We hypothesized that SNPeCPR would decrease the time required to reach brain temperature < 35 °C compared to Active Compression-Decompression plus Impedance Threshold Device (ACD-ITD) CPR alone, in the setting of intra-CPR cooling. We further hypothesized that the addition of epinephrine during SNPeCPR would mitigate heat exchange. Design Prospective randomized animal investigation. Setting Preclinical animal laboratory. Subjects Female farm pigs (n = 28) Interventions After 10 minutes of untreated VF, animals were randomized to 3 different protocols: SNPeCPR (n = 8), SNPeCPR plus epinephrine (SNPeCPR+EPI, n = 10), and ACD-ITD alone (Control, n = 10). All animals received surface cooling at the initiation of CPR. SNPeCPR included ACD-ITD plus abdominal binding and 2 mg of SNP at 1, 4 and 8 minutes of CPR. No epinephrine was used during CPR in the SNPeCPR group. Control and SNPeCPR+EPI groups received 0.5 mg of epinephrine at minute 4.5 and 9 of CPR. Defibrillation occurred after 10 minutes of CPR. After ROSC, an Arctic Sun® was applied at maximum cooling on all animals. The primary endpoint was the time required to reach brain temperature < 35 °C beginning from the time of CPR initiation. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Results The time required to reach a brain temperature of 35°C was decreased with SNPeCPR vs. Control or SNPeCPR+EPI (24 ± 6 min, 63 ± 8 min, and 50 ± 9 min, respectively, p = 0.005). Carotid blood flow was higher during CPR in the SNPeCPR group (83 ± 15 ml/min versus 26 ± 7 and 35 ± 5 in the Control and SNPeCPR+EPI group, respectively, p=0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that SNPeCPR facilitates intra-CPR hypothermia. The addition of epinephrine to SNPeCPR during CPR reduced its improvement in heat exchange. PMID:25525755

  6. Correlation between Success Rates of Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation and the Educational Level of the Team Leader; A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Mohajer, Hamid; Masjedi, Mansoor; Mohammadhoseini, Ehsan; Shayan, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the correlation between the success rates of the cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) and the team’s leader education and skill level in Shiraz, southern Iran. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 6-month period from October 2007 to March 2008 in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz. We included all the patients who underwent CPCR due to cardiopulmonary arrest in emergency room of Nemazee hospital during the study period. We recorded the rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and discharge rate (DR) of all the patients. The correlation between these two parameters and the team leader’s education and skill level was evaluated. Results: Overall we included total number 600 patients among whom there were 349 men (58.1%) and 251(41.8%) women with mean age of 58.9±42.6.  We found that 270 (45.1%) patients had ROSC, while 330 (54.9%) patients died. Overall 18 (6.6%) patients were discharged   from hospital (3% of all participants). We found that the ROSC was significantly higher in those with specialist leader (anesthesiologist or pediatrician) when compared to those in whom CPCR was conducted by technicians (55.2% vs. 30.7%; p=0.001). Conclusion: Conducting CPCR by persons with higher medical degrees resulted in higher rate of ROSC but not in more discharge rate. Inspite of the fact that the rate of ROSC following CPCR was closely analogous to that of developed countries, discharge rate was lower. This indicates that in our region, much more attention needs to be paid to post-resuscitation care and organizing training programs and to cover more resuscitation by CPCR team, conducted by the specialists. PMID:27162919

  7. Assessment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices in emergency departments for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Noureddine, Samar; Avedissian, Tamar; Isma’eel, Hussain; El Sayed, Mazen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims in Lebanon is low. A national policy on resuscitation practice is lacking. This survey explored the practices of emergency physicians related to the resuscitation of OHCA victims in Lebanon. Methods: A sample of 705 physicians working in emergency departments (EDs) was recruited and surveyed using the LimeSurvey software (Carsten Schmitz, Germany). Seventy-five participants responded, yielding 10.64% response rate. Results: The most important factors in the participants’ decision to initiate or continue resuscitation were presence of pulse on arrival (93.2%), underlying cardiac rhythm (93.1%), the physician’s ethical duty to resuscitate (93.2%), transport time to the ED (89%), and down time (84.9%). The participants were optimistic regarding the survival of OHCA victims (58.1% reporting > 10% survival) and reported frequent resuscitation attempts in medically futile situations. The most frequently reported challenges during resuscitation decisions were related to pressure or presence of victim’s family (38.8%) and lack of policy (30%). Conclusion: In our setting, physicians often rely on well-established criteria for initiating/continuing resuscitation; however, their decisions are also influenced by cultural factors such as victim’s family wishes. The findings support the need for a national policy on resuscitation of OHCA victims. PMID:27512333

  8. Compression, distortion and dislodgement of large caliber stents in congenital heart defects caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haas, Nikolaus A; Happel, Christoph M; Jategaonkar, Smita; Moysich, Axel; Hanslik, Andreas; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen; Laser, Kai Thorsten

    2014-09-01

    Stenting of vascular, extracardiac or lately intracardiac stenosis has become an established interventional treatment for a variety of problems in congenital or acquired heart disease. Most stent procedures are completed successfully and the long-term outcome is favorable in the majority of cases. Stent collapse or deformation is a well recognized entity in peripheral stents and can be attributed to insufficient radial force; it can also be attributed to excessive external forces, like deformation of stents in the right ventricular outflow tract, where external compression is combined with continuous movement caused by the beating heart. The protection of the thoracic cage may prove to be insufficient in extraordinary circumstances, such as chest compression in trauma or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In this case series, we describe three patients in whom large endovascular stents were placed to treat significant stenosis of the aorta, the aortic arch or the venous system of the inferior vena cava close to the atrium. In all patients, CPR was necessary during their clinical course for various reasons; after adequate CPR, including appropriate chest compression all patients survived the initial resuscitation phase. Clinical, echocardiographic as well as radiologic re-evaluation after resuscitation revealed significant stent distortion, compression, displacement or additional vascular injury. The possibility of mechanical deformation of large endovascular stents needs to be considered and recognized when performing CPR; if CPR is successful, immediate re-evaluation of the implanted stents--if possible by biplane fluoroscopy--seems mandatory.

  9. The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Fulbrook, Paul; Latour, Jos; Albarran, John; de Graaf, Wouter; Lynch, Fiona; Devictor, Denis; Norekvål, Tone

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, and the European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement on The Presence of Family Members During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. PMID:17919981

  10. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stimulation to the chest (called an automated external defibrillator or AED) is a device that helps start ... CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED). Source Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment ...

  11. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass--Temperature Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A; Likosky, Donald S; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including: 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendations: No Recommendation No recommendation for a guideline is provided concerning optimal temperature for weaning from CPB due to insufficient published evidence.

  12. Truview EVO2 and standard Macintosh laryngoscope for tracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a comparative randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the Truview EVO2 laryngoscope in manikin-simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and no-CPR scenarios with standard intubation technique. Participants performed 4 scenarios in random order: endotracheal intubation (ETI) using Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL), Truview EVO2 laryngoscope in no-CPR patient scenario, and intubation during uninterrupted chest compressions using both laryngoscopes. The participants were directed to make 3 attempts in each scenario. Primary outcomes were time to tracheal intubation (TTI) and intubation success, whereas secondary outcomes were cumulative success ratio and the number of esophageal intubation (EI). TTI and success ratios were reported per attempt. Thirty paramedics completed the study. Median TTI with Truview EVO2 with CPR was 36 (interquartile range [IQR] 29.00-52.00), 22.5 (IQR 18.33-35.00), and 18 (IQR 11.00-23.00) seconds; MCL with CPR was 23 (IQR 18.92-36.90), 16.8 (IQR 14.00-22.31), and 14.5 (IQR 11.12-16.36) seconds; Truview EVO2 without CPR was 28.6 (IQR 24.02-38.34), 21.7 (IQR 17.00-25.00), and 13 (IQR 11.90-17.79) seconds; MCL without CPR was 17 (IQR 13.23-22.29), 13 (IQR 12.09-15.26), and 12.4 (IQR 10.08-19.84) seconds for first, second, and third attempts, respectively. The P values for differences in TTI between Truview EVO2 and MCL were P < 0.0001, P = 0.0540, and P = 0.7550 in CPR scenario and P = 0.0080, P = 0.1570, and P = 0.7652 in no-CPR scenario for first, second, and third attempts, respectively. The success ratios for each of the scenarios were as follows: in CPR scenario it was 0.73 versus 0.53 (P = 0.0558), 0.83 versus 0.76 (P = 0.2633), and 1 versus 0.8 (P = 0.0058); in no-CPR scenario it was 0.63 versus 0.73 (P = 0.2068), 0.86 versus 0.86, and 0.97 versus 1 (P = 0.1637) for Truview EVO2 vs MCL in first, second, and third attempts, respectively. The cumulative success ratio related to the time of ETI

  13. Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, David; Soar, Jasmeet; Hogg, Karen; Linker, Nicholas; Chapman, Simon; Beattie, James M; Jones, Sue; George, Robert; McComb, Janet; Glancy, James; Patterson, Gordon; Turner, Sheila; Hampshire, Susan; Lockey, Andrew; Baker, Tracey; Mitchell, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Resuscitation Council (UK), the British Cardiovascular Society (including the British Heart Rhythm Society and the British Society for Heart Failure) and the National Council for Palliative Care recognise the importance of providing clear and consistent guidance on management of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices (CIEDs) towards the end of life, during cardiorespiratory arrest and after death. This document has been developed to provide guidance for the full range of healthcare professionals who may encounter people with CIEDs in the situations described and for healthcare managers and commissioners. The authors recognise that some patients and people close to patients may also wish to refer to this document. It is intended as an initial step to help to ensure that people who have CIEDs, or are considering implantation of one, receive explanation of and understand the practical implications and decisions that this entails; to promote a good standard of care and service provision for people in the UK with CIEDs in the circumstances described; to offer relevant ethical and legal guidance on this topic; to offer guidance on the delivery of services in relation to deactivation of CIEDs where appropriate; to offer guidance on whether any special measures are needed when a person with a CIED receives cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and to offer guidance on the actions needed when a person with a CIED dies.

  14. Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, David; Soar, Jasmeet; Hogg, Karen; Linker, Nicholas; Chapman, Simon; Beattie, James M; Jones, Sue; George, Robert; McComb, Janet; Glancy, James; Patterson, Gordon; Turner, Sheila; Hampshire, Susan; Lockey, Andrew; Baker, Tracey; Mitchell, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Resuscitation Council (UK), the British Cardiovascular Society (including the British Heart Rhythm Society and the British Society for Heart Failure) and the National Council for Palliative Care recognise the importance of providing clear and consistent guidance on management of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices (CIEDs) towards the end of life, during cardiorespiratory arrest and after death. This document has been developed to provide guidance for the full range of healthcare professionals who may encounter people with CIEDs in the situations described and for healthcare managers and commissioners. The authors recognise that some patients and people close to patients may also wish to refer to this document. It is intended as an initial step to help to ensure that people who have CIEDs, or are considering implantation of one, receive explanation of and understand the practical implications and decisions that this entails; to promote a good standard of care and service provision for people in the UK with CIEDs in the circumstances described; to offer relevant ethical and legal guidance on this topic; to offer guidance on the delivery of services in relation to deactivation of CIEDs where appropriate; to offer guidance on whether any special measures are needed when a person with a CIED receives cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and to offer guidance on the actions needed when a person with a CIED dies. PMID:27277710

  15. Outcomes following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kate L; Ichord, Rebecca; Marino, Bradley S; Thiagarajan, Ravi R

    2013-06-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a commonly used form of mechanical circulatory support in children with congenital or acquired heart disease and cardiac failure refractory to conventional medical therapies. In children with heart disease who suffer cardiac arrest, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been successfully used to provide cardiopulmonary support when conventional resuscitation has failed to establish return of spontaneous circulation. Survival to hospital discharge for children with heart disease support is approximately 40% but varies widely based on age, indication for support, and underlying cardiac disease. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is lifesaving in many instances, it is associated with many complications and is expensive. Thus, a clear understanding of survival to discharge and long-term functional and neurologic outcomes are essential to guide the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation now and in the future. This review, part of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society/Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Joint Statement on Mechanical Circulatory Support, summarizes current knowledge on short- and long-term outcomes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation used to support children with cardiac disease.

  16. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation affects cardioprotection by induced hypothermia at 34 °C against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat isolated heart model.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Toshiaki; Jiang, Qiliang; Katoh, Takasumi; Aoki, Katsunori; Sato, Shigehito

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of low- and high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on cardioprotection by induced hypothermia (IH) at 34 °C and examine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase or endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates this cardioprotection. Left ventricle infarct sizes were evaluated in six groups of rat hearts (n = 6) following Langendorff perfusion and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Controls underwent 30 min of global ischemia at 37 °C, followed by 10 min of simulated low- or high-quality CPR reperfusion and 90 min of reperfusion at 75 mmHg. The IH groups underwent IH at 34 °C during reperfusion. The U0126 group received U0126 (60 μM)-an extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor-during reperfusion at 34 °C. The L-NIO (N-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride) group received L-NIO (2 μM)-an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-5 min before global ischemia at 37 °C to the end of reperfusion at 34 °C. Infarct size did not significantly differ between the control and IH groups receiving low-quality CPR. However, IH with high-quality CPR reduced the infarct size from 47.2% ± 10.2% to 26.0% ± 9.4% (P = 0.005). U0126 reversed the IH-induced cardioprotection (45.9% ± 9.4%, P = 0.010), whereas L-NIO had no significant effect. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality affects IH-induced cardioprotection. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase may mediate IH-induced cardioprotection.

  17. Quantitative assessment of brain tissue oxygenation in porcine models of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation using hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfabadi, Shahin S.; Toronov, Vladislav; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Hare, Gregory M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to measure real-time tissue oxygenation in the brain. In an invasive animal experiment we were able to directly compare non-invasive NIRS measurements on the skull with invasive measurements directly on the brain dura matter. We used a broad-band, continuous-wave hyper-spectral approach to measure tissue oxygenation in the brain of pigs under the conditions of cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and defibrillation. An additional purpose of this research was to find a correlation between mortality due to cardiac arrest and inadequacy of the tissue perfusion during attempts at resuscitation. Using this technique we measured the changes in concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin [HbO2] and deoxy-hemoglobin [HHb] to quantify the tissue oxygenation in the brain. We also extracted cytochrome c oxidase changes Δ[Cyt-Ox] under the same conditions to determine increase or decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery. In this paper we proved that applying CPR, [HbO2] concentration and tissue oxygenation in the brain increase while [HHb] concentration decreases which was not possible using other measurement techniques. We also discovered a similar trend in changes of both [Cyt-Ox] concentration and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). Both invasive and non-invasive measurements showed similar results.

  18. Pro-inflammatory T-lymphocytes rapidly infiltrate into the brain and contribute to neuronal injury following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guiying; Carter, Jessica; Traystman, Richard J; Wagner, David H; Herson, Paco S

    2014-09-15

    Although inflammatory mechanisms have been linked to neuronal injury following global cerebral ischemia, the presence of infiltrating peripheral immune cells remains understudied. We performed flow cytometry of single cell suspensions obtained from the brains of mice at varying time points after global cerebral ischemia induced by cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) to characterize the influx of lymphocytes into the injured brain. We observed that CA/CPR caused a large influx of lymphocytes within 3h of resuscitation that was maintained for the 3day duration of our experiments. Using cell staining flow cytometry we observed that the large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD4(+) T cells. Intracellular stains revealed a large proportion of pro-inflammatory T cells expressing either TNFα or INFγ. Importantly, the lack of functional T cells in TCRα knockout mice reduced neuronal injury following CA/CPR, implicating pro-inflammatory T cells in the progression of ischemic neuronal injury. Finally, we made the remarkable observation that the novel CD4(+)CD40(+) (Th40) population of pro-inflammatory T cells that are strongly associated with autoimmunity are present in large numbers in the injured brain. These data indicate that studies investigating the neuro-immune response after global cerebral ischemia should consider the role of infiltrating T cells in orchestrating the acute and sustained immune response.

  19. Use of single-cannula venous-venous extracorporeal life support in the management of life-threatening airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ko, Michael; dos Santos, Pedro R; Machuca, Tiago N; Marseu, Katherine; Waddell, Thomas K; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cypel, Marcelo

    2015-03-01

    The use of venous-venous extracorporeal life support (VV ECLS) for the endoscopic management of airway obstruction has been rarely reported. In most instances, ECLS has been used in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in which venoarterial ECLS was initiated as part of resuscitation. We report a patient with a bulky primary tumor of the tracheal carina presenting with airway obstruction who was managed with intraoperative single-cannula VV ECLS to facilitate endoscopic interventions leading to more definitive airway security. PMID:25742860

  20. Comparison of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) Performance in the Absence and Presence of Timing Devices for Coordinating Delivery of Ventilatory Breaths and Cardiac Compressions in a Model of Adult Cardiopulmonary Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training during the 18 months preceding each mission. Part of this training ilncludes twoperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) per training guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of CPR by trained clinicians. Similar data for bystander or "trained lay people" (e.g. CMO) performance of CPR (BCPR) have been limited. The purpose of this study was to evailuate whether use of timing devices, such as audible metronomic tones, would improve BCPR perfomance by trained bystanders. Twenty pairs of bystanders trained in two-person BCPR performled BCPR for 4 minutes on a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest patient using three interventions: 1) BCPR with no timing devices, 2) BCPR plus metronomic tones for coordinating compression rate only, 3) BCPR with a timing device and metronome for coordinating ventilation and compression rates, respectively. Bystanders were evaluated on their ability to meet international and AHA CPR guidelines. Bystanders failed to provide the recommended number of breaths and number of compressions in the absence of a timing device and in the presence of audible metronomic tones for only coordinating compression rate. Bystanders using timing devices to coordinate both components of BCPR provided the reco number of breaths and were closer to providing the recommended number of compressions compared with the other interventions. Survey results indicated that bystanders preferred to use a metronome for delivery of compressions during BCPR. BCPR performance is improved by timing devices that coordinate both compressions and breaths.

  1. Non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibition before periodic acceleration (pGz) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Jorge A; Wu, Dongmei; Lozano, Hector; Arias, Jaqueline; Kurlansky, Paul; Lamas, Gervasio A; Adams, Jose A

    2008-05-01

    Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) along the spinal axis is a novel method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Oscillatory motion of the supine body in a horizontal fashion provides ventilation and blood flow to vital organs during cardiac arrest and pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium. We previously showed in pigs that pGz-CPR affords better overall survival, post resuscitation myocardial function, and neurological outcomes compared to conventional chest compression CPR. pGz through pulsatile shear stress on the vascular endothelium elicits acute production of prostaglandins and endothelial-derived nitric oxide (eNO) in whole animal models and in vitro preparations. The salutary effects associated with pGz-CPR compared to chest compression CPR are in part related to endothelial-derived nitric oxide. Both eNO and prostaglandins are cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion models. To differentiate between the roles of these mediators, indomethacin a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX) was used as a tool to investigate prostaglandin effects during pGz-CPR by acute outcomes of survival, cardioprotection and regional blood flows (RBF). Two groups of anesthetized, intubated pigs weighing 25-36kg were studied. Prior to electrical induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF) animals received equal volumes of either saline placebo Control (CONT) (n=9) or indomethacin (INDO), (n=8), (2mg/kg). After 3min of unsupported VF, both groups received 15min of pGz-CPR followed by pharmacologic and electrical attempts for resuscitation. Return of circulation (ROSC) to 3h occurred in (78%) in CONT and (63%) in INDO pretreated animals. There was no statistically significant difference in hemodynamics between groups at baseline or during the protocol. At baseline, INDO caused a decrease in brain RBF. Two hours after ROSC, INDO blunted the hyperemia response to brain and heart. Echocardiographic evidence of myocardial dysfunction was most notable for the

  2. Year in Review 2015: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Raman, Lakshmi; Dalton, Heidi J

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass. Although early trials were plagued by severe bleeding and high rates of death, subsequent experience with neonates found good survival, and ECMO became an important tool in the care of critically ill infants with respiratory failure. Since the 1980s, expansion to other groups (children, patients with cardiac disease, etc) followed as experience was obtained. Today, there is a rapid growth of ECMO, especially in the adult population. To date, >73,000 patients receiving ECMO have been reported to the international Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry. This rapid growth in the usage of ECMO has made it possible for it to be included in the management algorithm of certain disease processes, such as ARDS, cardiopulmonary arrest, and septic shock. Significant advances in technology have made it possible to support patients on ECMO for weeks or months with success. Reduction in sedative use and experience with "awake" patients has led to ambulatory and mobile ECMO. Changes in ventilator support while on ECMO, even to the point of extubation, are also occurring. This article will review briefly some of the literature related to criteria for severity of illness before ECMO and related to ECMO care and practice. Issues relating to the use of ECMO as a resuscitative tool in cardiac arrest as well as the controversial topic of volume and outcome will also be presented.

  3. Year in Review 2015: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Raman, Lakshmi; Dalton, Heidi J

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass. Although early trials were plagued by severe bleeding and high rates of death, subsequent experience with neonates found good survival, and ECMO became an important tool in the care of critically ill infants with respiratory failure. Since the 1980s, expansion to other groups (children, patients with cardiac disease, etc) followed as experience was obtained. Today, there is a rapid growth of ECMO, especially in the adult population. To date, >73,000 patients receiving ECMO have been reported to the international Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry. This rapid growth in the usage of ECMO has made it possible for it to be included in the management algorithm of certain disease processes, such as ARDS, cardiopulmonary arrest, and septic shock. Significant advances in technology have made it possible to support patients on ECMO for weeks or months with success. Reduction in sedative use and experience with "awake" patients has led to ambulatory and mobile ECMO. Changes in ventilator support while on ECMO, even to the point of extubation, are also occurring. This article will review briefly some of the literature related to criteria for severity of illness before ECMO and related to ECMO care and practice. Issues relating to the use of ECMO as a resuscitative tool in cardiac arrest as well as the controversial topic of volume and outcome will also be presented. PMID:27381702

  4. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70–0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality. PMID:26952966

  5. “Afraid of Being Witchy with a ‘B’”: A Qualitative Study of How Gender Influences Residents’ Experiences Leading Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Kolehmainen, Christine; Brennan, Meghan; Filut, Amarette; Isaac, Carol; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ineffective leadership during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (“code”) can negatively affect a patient’s likelihood of survival. In most teaching hospitals, internal medicine residents lead codes. In this study, the authors explored internal medicine residents’ experiences leading codes, with a particular focus on how gender influences the code leadership experience. Method The authors conducted individual, semi-structured telephone or in-person interviews with 25 residents (May 2012 to February 2013) from 9 U.S. internal medicine residency programs. They audio recorded and transcribed the interviews then thematically analyzed the transcribed text. Results Participants viewed a successful code as one with effective leadership. They agreed that the ideal code leader was an authoritative presence; spoke with a deep, loud voice; used clear, direct communication; and appeared calm. Although equally able to lead codes as their male colleagues, female participants described feeling stress from having to violate gender behavioral norms in the role of code leader. In response, some female participants adopted rituals to signal the suspension of gender norms while leading a code. Others apologized afterwards for their counter normative behavior. Conclusions Ideal code leadership embodies highly agentic, stereotypical male behaviors. Female residents employed strategies to better integrate the competing identities of code leader and female gender. In the future, residency training should acknowledge how female gender stereotypes may conflict with the behaviors required to enact code leadership and offer some strategies, such as those used by the female residents in this study, to help women integrate these dual identities. PMID:24979289

  6. Safety and feasibility of the RhinoChill immediate transnasal evaporative cooling device during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A single-center, observational study.

    PubMed

    Grave, Marie-Sophie; Sterz, Fritz; Nürnberger, Alexander; Fykatas, Stergios; Gatterbauer, Mathias; Stättermayer, Albert Friedrich; Zajicek, Andreas; Malzer, Reinhard; Sebald, Dieter; van Tulder, Raphael

    2016-08-01

    We investigated feasibility and safety of the RhinoChill (RC) transnasal cooling system initiated before achieving a protected airway during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a prehospital setting.In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), transnasal evaporative cooling was initiated during CPR, before a protected airway was established and continued until either the patient was declared dead, standard institutional systemic cooling methods were implemented or cooling supply was empty. Patients were monitored throughout the hypothermia period until either death or hospital discharge. Clinical assessments and relevant adverse events (AEs) were documented over this period of time.In total 21 patients were included. Four were excluded due to user errors or meeting exclusion criteria. Finally, 17 patients (f = 6; mean age 65.5 years, CI95%: 57.7-73.4) were analyzed. Device-related AEs, like epistaxis or nose whitening, occurred in 2 patients. They were mild and had no consequence on the patient's outcome. According to the field reports of the emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, no severe technical problems occurred by using the RC device that led to a delay or the impairment of quality of the CPR.Early application of the RC device, during OHCA is feasible, safe, easy to handle, and does not delay or hinder CPR, or establishment of a secure intubation. For efficacy and further safety data additional studies will be needed. PMID:27559978

  7. Safety and feasibility of the RhinoChill immediate transnasal evaporative cooling device during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A single-center, observational study.

    PubMed

    Grave, Marie-Sophie; Sterz, Fritz; Nürnberger, Alexander; Fykatas, Stergios; Gatterbauer, Mathias; Stättermayer, Albert Friedrich; Zajicek, Andreas; Malzer, Reinhard; Sebald, Dieter; van Tulder, Raphael

    2016-08-01

    We investigated feasibility and safety of the RhinoChill (RC) transnasal cooling system initiated before achieving a protected airway during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a prehospital setting.In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), transnasal evaporative cooling was initiated during CPR, before a protected airway was established and continued until either the patient was declared dead, standard institutional systemic cooling methods were implemented or cooling supply was empty. Patients were monitored throughout the hypothermia period until either death or hospital discharge. Clinical assessments and relevant adverse events (AEs) were documented over this period of time.In total 21 patients were included. Four were excluded due to user errors or meeting exclusion criteria. Finally, 17 patients (f = 6; mean age 65.5 years, CI95%: 57.7-73.4) were analyzed. Device-related AEs, like epistaxis or nose whitening, occurred in 2 patients. They were mild and had no consequence on the patient's outcome. According to the field reports of the emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, no severe technical problems occurred by using the RC device that led to a delay or the impairment of quality of the CPR.Early application of the RC device, during OHCA is feasible, safe, easy to handle, and does not delay or hinder CPR, or establishment of a secure intubation. For efficacy and further safety data additional studies will be needed.

  8. Effect of the rate of chest compression familiarised in previous training on the depth of chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jinkun; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Je, Sang Mo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess how the quality of metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was affected by the chest compression rate familiarised by training before the performance and to determine a possible mechanism for any effect shown. Design Prospective crossover trial of a simulated, one-person, chest-compression-only CPR. Setting Participants were recruited from a medical school and two paramedic schools of South Korea. Participants 42 senior students of a medical school and two paramedic schools were enrolled but five dropped out due to physical restraints. Intervention Senior medical and paramedic students performed 1 min of metronome-guided CPR with chest compressions only at a speed of 120 compressions/min after training for chest compression with three different rates (100, 120 and 140 compressions/min). Friedman's test was used to compare average compression depths based on the different rates used during training. Results Average compression depths were significantly different according to the rate used in training (p<0.001). A post hoc analysis showed that average compression depths were significantly different between trials after training at a speed of 100 compressions/min and those at speeds of 120 and 140 compressions/min (both p<0.001). Conclusions The depth of chest compression during metronome-guided CPR is affected by the relative difference between the rate of metronome guidance and the chest compression rate practised in previous training. PMID:26873050

  9. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70-0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality.

  10. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePlus

    ... order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living ... medical order written by a doctor. It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ...

  11. Administration of hydrogen sulfide via extracorporeal membrane lung ventilation in sheep with partial cardiopulmonary bypass perfusion: a proof of concept study on metabolic and vasomotor effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Although inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduces metabolism in mice, doses higher than 200 ppm of H2S were required to depress metabolism in rats. We therefore hypothesized that higher concentrations of H2S are required to reduce metabolism in larger mammals and humans. To avoid the potential pulmonary toxicity of H2S inhalation at high concentrations, we investigated whether administering H2S via ventilation of an extracorporeal membrane lung (ECML) would provide means to manipulate the metabolic rate in sheep. Methods A partial venoarterial cardiopulmonary bypass was established in anesthetized, ventilated (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.5) sheep. The ECML was alternately ventilated with air or air containing 100, 200, or 300 ppm H2S for intervals of 1 hour. Metabolic rate was estimated on the basis of total CO2 production (V˙CO2) and O2 consumption (V˙O2). Continuous hemodynamic monitoring was performed via indwelling femoral and pulmonary artery catheters. Results V˙CO2, V˙O2, and cardiac output ranged within normal physiological limits when the ECML was ventilated with air and did not change after administration of up to 300 ppm H2S. Administration of 100, 200 and 300 ppm H2S increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 46, 52 and 141 dyn·s/cm5, respectively (all P ≤ 0.05 for air vs. 100, 200 and 300 ppm H2S, respectively), and mean pulmonary artery pressure by 4 mmHg (P ≤ 0.05), 3 mmHg (n.s.) and 11 mmHg (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, without changing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or cardiac output. Exposure to 300 ppm H2S decreased systemic vascular resistance from 1,561 ± 553 to 870 ± 138 dyn·s/cm5 (P ≤ 0.05) and mean arterial pressure from 121 ± 15 mmHg to 66 ± 11 mmHg (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, exposure to 300 ppm H2S impaired arterial oxygenation (PaO2 114 ± 36 mmHg with air vs. 83 ± 23 mmHg with H2S; P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Administration of up to 300 ppm H2S via ventilation of an

  12. Conversion of cardiac bypass into an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit: a case from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Riffat; Hidayat, Ijaz; Amanullah, Muneer; Hasan, Babar Sultan

    2014-05-01

    A 35 days old neonate with d-loop transposition of great arteries, underwent an arterial switch operation following which he developed hypotension attributed to left ventricular failure. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision was made to place him on cardiac bypass again. Due to limited resources and unavailability of a specialized extracorporeal membrane oxygenator machine, the CPB was modified and converted an ECMO. The neonate was successfully decannulated after 72 hours and discharged home after 3 weeks of the operation without any sequel. ECMO is a viable option in developing countries and may help in improving the outcome especially in neonatal congenital heart disease.

  13. Knowledge and skill retention of in-service versus preservice nursing professionals following an informal training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a repeated-measures quasiexperimental study.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Jhuma; Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants-28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals-were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups-in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills. PMID:23971033

  14. The regulation effect of ulinastatin on the expression of SSAT2 and AQP4 in myocardial tissue of rats after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    He, Wujian; Liu, Yufang; Geng, Hongxia; Li, Yanzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the regulation effects of ulinastatin (UT1) on the expression of spermidine/spermine -N1-acetyltransferase 2 (SSAT2) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in myocardial tissue of rats after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and their correlations. Methods: A total of 90 adult SD rats were divided into sham operation group (A, n=30), model group (B, n=30) and UT1 group (C, n=30). The cardiac arrest (CA) and CPR model was established by asphyxia method. Left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and E/A peak ratio of mitral valve in three groups were collected by ultrasonic echocardiography. Apoptosis of myocardial cells was detected by DAPI staining. The expression levels of SSAT2 and AQP4 were detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. Results: UT1 could significantly improve the levels of LVFS, LVEF and E/A ratio and decrease myocardial cell apoptosis. As compared with group B, the expression level of SSAT2 increased and the expression level of AQP4 decreased in group C (P<0.01). SSAT2 was the most in group A and the least in group B while AQP4 was the least in group A and the most in group B (P<0.01). There was positive correlation between SSAT2 and cardiac function in CRP model while there was negative correlation between AQP4 and cardiac function (P<0.01). The expression of SSAT2 and AQP4 protein in myocardial tissue was negatively correlated in CRP model (r=-0.920, P<0.01). Conclusions: UT1 can effectively reduce the cardiac function damage caused by CRP, which could be related with the increased SSAT2 and decreased AQP4. PMID:26617791

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Neighborhoods with Low Bystander CPR Prevalence and High Rates of Cardiac Arrest in Columbus, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bond, Cindy; Rabe, Marilyn; Colbert, Susan H.; King, Renee; Sayre, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background Residents who live in neighborhoods that are primarily African-American, Latino, or poor are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and less likely to survive. No prior studies have been conducted to understand the contributing factors that may decrease the likelihood of residents learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR in three low-income, “high-risk” predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio. Methods and Results Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to develop and conduct six focus groups in conjunction with community partners in three target high-risk neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio in January-February 2011. Snowball and purposeful sampling, done by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Three reviewers analyzed the data in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes. Three major barriers to learning CPR were identified and included financial, informational, and motivational factors. Four major barriers were identified for performing CPR and included fear of legal consequences, emotional issues, knowledge, and situational concerns. Participants suggested that family/self-preservation, emotional, and economic factors may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion The financial cost of CPR training, lack of information, and the fear of risking one's own life must be addressed when designing a community-based CPR educational program. Using data from the community can facilitate improved design and implementation of CPR programs. PMID:24021699

  16. Instructions to “push as hard as you can” improve average chest compression depth in dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muzna; Brown, Todd B.; Saini, Devashish; Pepper, Tracy L; Nandigam, Hari Krishna; Kaza, Niroop; Cofield, Stacey S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) with adequate chest compression depth appears to improve first shock success in cardiac arrest. We evaluate the effect of simplification of chest compression instructions on compression depth in dispatcher-assisted CPR protocol. Methods Data from two randomized, double-blinded, controlled trials with identical methodology were combined to obtain 332 records for this analysis. Subjects were randomized to either modified Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) v11.2 protocol or a new simplified protocol. The main difference between the protocols was the instruction to “push as hard as you can” in the simplified protocol, compared to “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)” in MPDS. Data were recorded via a Laerdal® ResusciAnne® SkillReporter™ manikin. Primary outcome measures included: chest compression depth, proportion of compressions without error, with adequate depth and with total release. Results Instructions to “push as hard as you can”, compared to “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)”, resulted in improved chest compression depth (36.4 vs 29.7 mm, p<0.0001), and improved median proportion of chest compressions done to the correct depth (32% vs <1%, p<0.0001). No significant difference in median proportion of compressions with total release (100% for both) and average compression rate (99.7 vs 97.5 per min, p<0.56) was found. Conclusions Modifying dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions by changing “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)” to “push as hard as you can” achieved improvement in chest compression depth at no cost to total release or average chest compression rate. PMID:18635306

  17. Which Fingers Should We Perform Two-Finger Chest Compression Technique with When Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on an Infant in Cardiac Arrest?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness two-finger chest compression technique (TFCC) performed using the right vs. left hand and the index-middle vs. middle-ring fingers. Four different finger/hand combinations were tested randomly in 30 healthcare providers performing TFCC (Test 1: the right index-middle fingers; Test 2: the left index-middle fingers; Test 3: the right middle-ring fingers; Test 4: the left middle-ring fingers) using two cross-over trials. The “patient” was a 3-month-old-infant-sized manikin. Each experiment consisted of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) consisting of 2 minutes of 30:2 compression: ventilation performed by one rescuer on a manikin lying on the floor as if in cardiac arrest. Ventilations were performed using the mouth-to-mouth method. Compression and ventilation data were collected during the tests. The mean compression depth (MCD) was significantly greater in TFCC performed with the index-middle fingers than with the middle-ring fingers regardless of the hand (95% confidence intervals; right hand: 37.8–40.2 vs. 35.2–38.6 mm, P = 0.002; left hand: 36.9–39.2 vs. 35.5–38.1 mm, P = 0.003). A deeper MCD was achieved with the index-middle fingers of the right versus the left hand (P = 0.004). The ratio of sufficiently deep compressions showed the same patterns. There were no significant differences in the other data. The best performance of TFCC in simulated 30:2 compression: ventilation CPR performed by one rescuer on an infant in cardiac arrest lying on the floor was obtained using the index-middle fingers of the right hand. Clinical Trial Registry at the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001515). PMID:27247512

  18. The Effect of Instructional Method on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skill Performance: A Comparison Between Instructor-Led Basic Life Support and Computer-Based Basic Life Support With Voice-Activated Manikin.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Sands, Cathy; Brahn, Pamela; Graves, Kristal

    2015-01-01

    Validating participants' ability to correctly perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills during basic life support courses can be a challenge for nursing professional development specialists. This study compares two methods of basic life support training, instructor-led and computer-based learning with voice-activated manikins, to identify if one method is more effective for performance of CPR skills. The findings suggest that a computer-based learning course with voice-activated manikins is a more effective method of training for improved CPR performance. PMID:26381346

  19. A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that trained rescuers have difficulties achieving and maintaining the correct depth and rate of chest compressions during both in and out of hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Feedback on rate and depth mitigate decline in performance quality but not completely with the residual performance decline attributed to rescuer fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feedback (none, auditory only and visual only) on the quality of CPR and rescuer fatigue. Methods Fifteen female volunteers performed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR in each of three feedback conditions: none, auditory only, and visual only. Visual feedback was displayed continuously in graphic form. Auditory feedback was error correcting and provided by a voice assisted CPR manikin. CPR quality measures were collected using SkillReporter® software. Blood lactate (mmol/dl) and perceived exertion served as indices of fatigue. One-way and two way repeated measures analyses of variance were used with alpha set a priori at 0.05. Results Visual feedback yielded a greater percentage of correct compressions (78.1 ± 8.2%) than did auditory (65.4 ± 7.6%) or no feedback (44.5 ± 8.1%). Compression rate with auditory feedback (87.9 ± 0.5 compressions per minute) was less than it was with both visual and no feedback (p < 0.05). CPR performed with no feedback (39.2 ± 0.5 mm) yielded a shallower average depth of compression and a lower percentage (55 ± 8.9%) of compressions within the accepted 38-50 mm range than did auditory or visual feedback (p < 0.05). The duty cycle for auditory feedback (39.4 ± 1.6%) was less than it was with no feedback (p < 0.05). Auditory feedback produced lower lactate concentrations than did visual feedback (p < 0.05) but there were no differences in perceived exertion. Conclusions In this study feedback mitigated the negative effects of fatigue on CPR performance and visual feedback yielded better CPR performance

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Gastrostomy Tube and Tracheostomy Placement in Anoxic/Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathic Survivors of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Martinez-Schlurmann, Natalia I.; Lidsky, Karen B.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rotta, Alexandre T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current prevalence estimates of gastrostomy tube (GT) /tracheostomy placement in hospitalized patients with anoxic/hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic injury (AHIE) post cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are unknown. We sought, to estimate the prevalence of AHIE in hospitalized patients who had CPR and to identify patient/hospital level factors that predict the performance of GT/tracheostomy in those with AHIE. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (years 2004–2010). All patients who developed AHIE following CPR were included. In this cohort the odds of having GT and tracheostomy was computed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Patient and hospital level factors were the independent variables. Results During the study period, a total of 686,578 CPR events occurred in hospitalized patients. Of these, 94,336 (13.7%) patients developed AHIE. In this AHIE cohort, 6.8% received GT and 8.3% tracheostomy. When compared to the 40–49 yrs age group, those aged >70 yrs were associated with lower odds for GT (OR = 0.65, 95% CI:0.53–0.80, p<0.0001). Those aged <18 years & those >60 years were associated with lower odds for having tracheostomy when compared to the 40–49 years group (p<0.0001). Each one unit increase in co-morbid burden was associated with higher odds for having GT (OR = 1.23,p<0.0001) or tracheostomy (OR = 1.17, p<0.0001). Blacks, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and other races were associated with higher odds for having GT or tracheostomy when compared to whites (p<0.05). Hospitals located in northeastern regions were associated with higher odds for performing GT (OR = 1.48, p<0.0001) or tracheostomy (OR = 1.63, p<0.0001) when compared to those in Western regions. Teaching hospitals (TH) were associated with higher odds for performing tracheostomy when compared to non-TH (OR = 1.36, 1.20–1.54, p<0.0001). Conclusions AHIE injury occurs in a significant number of in-hospital arrests

  1. In-hospital resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Christine

    2016-09-21

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the response sequence required for cardiac arrest in an in-hospital environment and discussed effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. PMID:27654563

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry.

    PubMed

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults. PMID:23735989

  3. Percutaneous ventricular assist devices and extracorporeal life support: current applications.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Johannes; de Waha, Suzanne; Thiele, Holger

    2016-05-17

    Percutaneous mechanical circulatory support devices, such as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), active left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) or extracorporeal life support (ECLS), are treatment options for selected patients in cardiogenic shock, undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. Potential benefits include the maintenance of organ function and the reduction of intracardiac pressures, volumes, and oxygen consumption. On the other hand, they are invasive, resource intensive, and can be associated with serious complications. Thus, their potential benefits must be weighed against the inherent risks. Despite the lack of sufficient scientific evidence, the use of mechanical circulatory support devices has risen considerably in recent years. This educational article covers practical issues of IABP, LVAD, and ECLS with respect to patient and device selection, implantation technique, potential complications, and future perspectives.

  4. Percutaneous ventricular assist devices and extracorporeal life support: current applications.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Johannes; de Waha, Suzanne; Thiele, Holger

    2016-05-17

    Percutaneous mechanical circulatory support devices, such as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), active left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) or extracorporeal life support (ECLS), are treatment options for selected patients in cardiogenic shock, undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. Potential benefits include the maintenance of organ function and the reduction of intracardiac pressures, volumes, and oxygen consumption. On the other hand, they are invasive, resource intensive, and can be associated with serious complications. Thus, their potential benefits must be weighed against the inherent risks. Despite the lack of sufficient scientific evidence, the use of mechanical circulatory support devices has risen considerably in recent years. This educational article covers practical issues of IABP, LVAD, and ECLS with respect to patient and device selection, implantation technique, potential complications, and future perspectives. PMID:27174115

  5. Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an awake patient after a major trauma with an incidental finding of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Haneke, F; Schildhauer, T A; Strauch, J; Swol, J

    2016-05-01

    We report the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a trauma patient with an incidental finding of open tuberculosis (TB). Sedation was reduced during extracorporeal support and awake veno-venous ECMO was successfully performed. Subsequently, accidental cannula removal caused major blood loss which required the administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Our case report demonstrates that the incidental finding of open TB is an important hint for differential diagnosis and that it should still be considered in high-income countries. In addition, awake ECMO appears to be a feasible therapeutic option in non-transplant patients, although the described case demonstrates that patient compliance and nursing care are important for therapeutic success to avoid complications, for example, inadvertent decannulation. PMID:26498750

  6. An exploration of student nurses' thoughts and experiences of using a video-recording to assess their performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during a mock objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Paul, Fiona

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential skill taught within undergraduate nursing programmes. At the author's institution, students must pass the CPR objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) before progressing to second year. However, some students have difficulties developing competence in CPR and evidence suggests that resuscitation skills may only be retained for several months. This has implications for practice as nurses are required to be competent in CPR. Therefore, further opportunities for students to develop these skills are necessary. An action research project was conducted with six students who were assessed by an examiner at a video-recorded mock OSCE. Students self-assessed their skills using the video and a checklist. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to compare checklist scores, and explore students' thoughts and experiences of the OSCE. The findings indicate that students may need to repeat this exercise by comparing their previous and current performances to develop both their self-assessment and CPR skills. Although there were some differences between the examiner's and student's checklist scores, all students reported the benefits of participating in this project, e.g. discussion and identification of knowledge and skills deficits, thus emphasising the benefits of formative assessments to prepare students for summative assessments and ultimately clinical practice.

  7. The Role of Plasma and Urine Metabolomics in Identifying New Biomarkers in Severe Newborn Asphyxia: A Study of Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs following Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Daniel; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Berg, Jens Petter; Nakstad, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimizing resuscitation is important to prevent morbidity and mortality from perinatal asphyxia. The metabolism of cells and tissues is severely disturbed during asphyxia and resuscitation, and metabolomic analyses provide a snapshot of many small molecular weight metabolites in body fluids or tissues. In this study metabolomics profiles were studied in newborn pigs that were asphyxiated and resuscitated using different protocols to identify biomarkers for subject characterization, intervention effects and possibly prognosis. Methods A total of 125 newborn Noroc pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and inflicted progressive asphyxia until asystole. Pigs were randomized to resuscitation with a FiO2 0.21 or 1.0, different duration of ventilation before initiation of chest compressions (CC), and different CC to ventilation ratios. Plasma and urine samples were obtained at baseline, and 2 h and 4 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, heart rate > = 100 bpm). Metabolomics profiles of the samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Plasma and urine showed severe metabolic alterations consistent with hypoxia and acidosis 2 h and 4 h after ROSC. Baseline plasma hypoxanthine and lipoprotein concentrations were inversely correlated to the duration of hypoxia sustained before asystole occurred, but there was no evidence for a differential metabolic response to the different resuscitation protocols or in terms of survival. Conclusions Metabolic profiles of asphyxiated newborn pigs showed severe metabolic alterations. Consistent with previously published reports, we found no evidence of differences between established and alternative resuscitation protocols. Lactate and pyruvate may have a prognostic value, but have to be independently confirmed. PMID:27529347

  8. [Resuscitation 2015-the new guidelines].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Böttiger, B W

    2016-06-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is amongst the major causes of death in industrialized countries. The patient's prognosis however is still very serious. Because diagnosis and therapy in medicine constantly undergo further development, guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation are updated und published frequently, to ensure that every patient receives the best state of the art medical therapy and consequently has the best chances to survive. On October 15, 2015, the new guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation were published. This article gives a short summary of the most important changes. PMID:27160260

  9. The evolution of patient selection criteria and indications for extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiopulmonary failure: next time, let's not eat the bones.

    PubMed

    Custer, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Bill James, baseball statistician and author, tells the story of hungry cavemen sitting about a campfire, waiting for tomatoes to ripen. One has the inspiration to throw an ox on the fire, and the first barbecue ensued and was endured. After eating, the conversation goes something like this. "There were some good parts." "Yeah, but there were some bad parts." And the smart one says, "This time, let's not eat the bones." The evolution of patient selection criteria for the use of extracorporeal support (ECLS) is a bit like those cavemen and their first barbecued ox. Extracorporeal life support technology and application to patient care is the unique result of a long standing history of ambitious attempt, evaluation, debate, collaboration and extension.

  10. The evolution of patient selection criteria and indications for extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiopulmonary failure: next time, let's not eat the bones.

    PubMed

    Custer, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Bill James, baseball statistician and author, tells the story of hungry cavemen sitting about a campfire, waiting for tomatoes to ripen. One has the inspiration to throw an ox on the fire, and the first barbecue ensued and was endured. After eating, the conversation goes something like this. "There were some good parts." "Yeah, but there were some bad parts." And the smart one says, "This time, let's not eat the bones." The evolution of patient selection criteria for the use of extracorporeal support (ECLS) is a bit like those cavemen and their first barbecued ox. Extracorporeal life support technology and application to patient care is the unique result of a long standing history of ambitious attempt, evaluation, debate, collaboration and extension. PMID:21317556

  11. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Travers, Andrew H; Perkins, Gavin D; Berg, Robert A; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J; Olasveengen, Theresa M; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-10-20

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2) immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system, (3) early high-quality CPR, and (4) rapid defibrillation for shockable rhythms. Highlights in prevention indicate the rational and judicious deployment of search-and-rescue operations in drowning victims and the importance of education on opioid-associated emergencies. Other 2015 highlights in recognition and activation include the critical role of dispatcher recognition and dispatch-assisted chest compressions, which has been demonstrated in multiple international jurisdictions with consistent improvements in cardiac arrest survival. Similar to the 2010 ILCOR BLS treatment recommendations, the importance of high quality was reemphasized across all measures of CPR quality: rate, depth, recoil, and minimal chest compression pauses, with a universal understanding that we all should be providing chest compressions to all victims of cardiac arrest. This review continued to focus on the interface of BLS sequencing and ensuring high-quality CPR with other important BLS interventions, such as ventilation and defibrillation. In addition, this consensus statement highlights the importance of EMS systems, which employ bundles of care focusing on providing high-quality chest compressions while extricating the patient from the scene to the next level of care. Highlights in defibrillation indicate the global importance of increasing the number of sites with public-access defibrillation programs. Whereas the 2010 ILCOR Consensus on Science provided important direction for the “what” in resuscitation (ie, what to do), the 2015 consensus has begun with the GRADE methodology to provide direction for the quality of

  12. Part 10: Pediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Monica E.; de Caen, Allan R.; Chameides, Leon; Atkins, Dianne L.; Berg, Robert A.; Berg, Marc D.; Bhanji, Farhan; Biarent, Dominique; Bingham, Robert; Coovadia, Ashraf H.; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Hickey, Robert W.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Reis, Amelia G.; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio; Tibballs, James; Zaritsky, Arno L.; Zideman, David

    2013-01-01

    Note From the Writing Group: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, “Family Presence During ResuscitationPeds-003”). These callouts are hyperlinked to evidence-based worksheets, which were used in the development of this article. An appendix of worksheets, applicable to this article, is located at the end of the text. The worksheets are available in PDF format and are open access. PMID:20956258

  13. Roller and Centrifugal Pumps: A Retrospective Comparison of Bleeding Complications in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Halaweish, Ihab; Cole, Adam; Cooley, Elaine; Lynch, William R; Haft, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal pumps are increasingly used for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) rather than roller pumps. However, shear forces induced by these types of continuousflow pumps are associated with acquired von Willebrand factor deficiency and bleeding complications. This study was undertaken to compare adverse bleeding complications with the use of centrifugal and roller pumps in patients on prolonged ECMO support. The records of all adult ECMO patients from June 2002 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed using the University of Michigan Health System database and the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry, focusing on patients supported for at least 5 days. Ninety-five ECMO patients met criteria for inclusion (48 roller vs. 47 centrifugal pump). Indications included pulmonary (79%), cardiac (15%), and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (6%), without significant difference between the two groups. Despite lower heparin anticoagulation (10.9 vs. 13.7 IU/kg/hr) with centrifugal pumps, there was a higher incidence of nonsurgical bleeding (gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and neurological) in centrifugal pump patients (26.1 vs. 9.0 events/1,000 patient-days, p = 0.024). In conclusion, in our historical comparison, despite reduced anticoagulation, ECMO support using centrifugal pumps was associated with a higher incidence of nonsurgical bleeding. The mechanisms behind this are multifactorial and require further investigation.

  14. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  19. Salvage intraosseous thrombolysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for massive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Northey, Luke Cameron; Shiraev, Timothy; Omari, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous access is an alternative route of pharmacotherapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides cardiac and respiratory support when conventional therapies fail. This case reports the use of intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO in a patient with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). A 34-year-old female presented to the emergency department with sudden onset severe shortness of breath. Due to difficulty establishing intravenous access, an intraosseous needle was inserted into the left tibia. Echocardiography identified severe right ventricular dilatation with global systolic impairment and failure, indicative of PE. Due to the patient's hemodynamic compromise a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase) bolus was administered through the intraosseous route. After transfer to the intensive care unit, venous-arterial ECMO was initiated as further therapy. The patient recovered and was discharged 36 days after admission. This is the first report of combination intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO as salvage therapy for massive PE. PMID:25709256

  20. Chest compression quality, exercise intensity, and energy expenditure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation using compression-to-ventilation ratios of 15:1 or 30:2 or chest compression only: a randomized, crossover manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Se-Jung; Kim, Young-Min; Baek, Hee Jin; Kim, Se Hong; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to compare the compression quality, exercise intensity, and energy expenditure in 5-minute single-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using 15:1 or 30:2 compression-to-ventilation (C:V) ratios or chest compression only (CCO). Methods This was a randomized, crossover manikin study. Medical students were randomized to perform either type of CPR and do the others with intervals of at least 1 day. We measured compression quality, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) score, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure during CPR. Results Forty-seven students were recruited. Mean compression rates did not differ between the 3 groups. However, the mean percentage of adequate compressions in the CCO group was significantly lower than that of the 15:1 or 30:2 group (31.2±30.3% vs. 55.1±37.5% vs. 54.0±36.9%, respectively; P<0.001) and the difference occurred within the first minute. The RPE score in each minute and heart rate change in the CCO group was significantly higher than those of the C:V ratio groups. There was no significant difference in maximal oxygen uptake between the 3 groups. Energy expenditure in the CCO group was relatively lower than that of the 2 C:V ratio groups. Conclusion CPR using a 15:1 C:V ratio may provide a compression quality and exercise intensity comparable to those obtained using a 30:2 C:V ratio. An earlier decrease in compression quality and increase in RPE and heart rate could be produced by CCO CPR compared with 15:1 or 30:2 C:V ratios with relatively lower oxygen uptake and energy expenditure. PMID:27752633

  1. Extracorporeal Life Support for Pediatric Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher R.; McMullan, D. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents an essential component in the treatment of the pediatric patient with refractory heart failure. Defined as the use of an extracorporeal system to provide cardiopulmonary support, ECLS provides hemodynamic support to facilitate end-organ recovery and can be used as a salvage therapy during acute cardiorespiratory failure. Support strategies employed in pediatric cardiac patients include bridge to recovery, bridge to therapy, and bridge to transplant. Advances in extracorporeal technology and refinements in patient selection have allowed wider application of this therapy in pediatric heart failure patients. PMID:27812522

  2. External cardiovascular resuscitation of the anesthetized pony.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, H C; Fessler, J F; Latshaw, H S; Moore, A B; Bottoms, G D

    1981-10-01

    External cardiac massage and concomitant respiratory support were used successfully 6 of 8 anesthetized ponies sustaining unexpected cardiac arrest while being used in a study of shock. Approximately 20 thoracic compressions/min maintained systolic and diastolic aortic blood pressures in excess of 50% of the corresponding base-line values in 5 ponies. The high success rate was attributed to early recognition of the problem, the small size of the patient, and the relatively short duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (average, 2.9 minutes). It was concluded that external cardiac message can be effective for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in selected equine patients that have sustained cardiac arrest.

  3. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  8. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  9. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  10. Injuries associated with resuscitation - An overview.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Langlois, Neil E I

    2015-07-01

    External cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a potentially lifesaving intervention aimed at preserving the cerebral function of a person in cardiac arrest. However, certain injuries can be caused by the various techniques employed. Although these are seldom consequential, they may complicate the forensic evaluation of cases. Fractures of the ribs and sternum are the most common internal injuries and are frequently acknowledged as a consequence of resuscitation. Nonethlesss, the recognition that less common fractures such as of the larynx or injuries involving the stomach, spleen, heart and liver can occur due to resuscitation will assist the forensic examiner assess the significance of these findings when they present in cases of sudden death.

  11. Anticoagulation management associated with extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Sniecinski, Roman M; Levy, Jerrold H

    2015-06-01

    The use of extracorporeal circulation requires anticoagulation to maintain blood fluidity throughout the circuit, and to prevent thrombotic complications. Additionally, adequate suppression of hemostatic activation avoids the unnecessary consumption of coagulation factors caused by the contact of blood with foreign surfaces. Cardiopulmonary bypass represents the greatest challenge in this regard, necessitating profound levels of anticoagulation during its conduct, but also quick, efficient reversal of this state once the surgical procedure is completed. Although extracorporeal circulation has been around for more than half a century, many questions remain regarding how to best achieve anticoagulation for it. Although unfractionated heparin is the predominant agent used for cardiopulmonary bypass, the amount required and how best to monitor its effects are still unresolved. This review discusses the use of heparin, novel anticoagulants, and the monitoring of anticoagulation during the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine

    PubMed Central

    Passaroni, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a brief review of the development of cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods A review of the literature on the development of extracorporeal circulation techniques, their essential role in cardiovascular surgery, and the complications associated with their use, including hemolysis and inflammation. Results The advancement of extracorporeal circulation techniques has played an essential role in minimizing the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can range from various degrees of tissue injury to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Investigators have long researched the ways in which cardiopulmonary bypass may insult the human body. Potential solutions arose and laid the groundwork for development of safer postoperative care strategies. Conclusion Steady progress has been made in cardiopulmonary bypass in the decades since it was first conceived of by Gibbon. Despite the constant evolution of cardiopulmonary bypass techniques and attempts to minimize their complications, it is still essential that clinicians respect the particularities of each patient's physiological function. PMID:26107456

  13. Highlighting Indication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in endocrine emergencies.

    PubMed

    Chao, Anne; Wang, Chih-Hsien; You, Hao-Chun; Chou, Nai-Kwoun; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, I-Hui; Tseng, Li-Jung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2015-08-24

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been repeatedly used to rescue patients with cardiopulmonary arrest. However, its clinical utility in endocrine emergencies remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case series of 12 patients presenting with refractory shock secondary to endocrine emergencies who were rescued by ECMO support. Patients were identified between 2005 and 2012 from our ECMO registry. The diagnostic distribution was as follows: pheochromocytoma crisis (n = 4), thyroid storm (n = 5), and diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 3). The initial presentation of pheochromocytoma crisis was indistinguishable from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and frequently accompanied by paroxysmal hypertension and limb ischemia. Thyroid storm was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas neurological symptoms were common in diabetic ketoacidosis. The clinical outcomes of patients with endocrine emergencies were compared with those of 80 cases with AMI who received ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The cardiac function and the general conditions showed a significantly faster recovery in patients with endocrine emergencies than in those with AMI. We conclude that ECMO support can be clinically useful in endocrine emergencies. The screening of endocrine diseases should be considered during the resuscitation of patients with refractory circulatory shock.

  14. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4–6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions. PMID:26543849

  15. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4-6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions.

  16. Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices, techniques and team roles: 2011 survey results of the United States' Extracorporeal Life Support Organization centers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-12-01

    In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon" S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70% reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals. PMID:22416604

  17. Action sequence for layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pepe, P E; Gay, M; Cobb, L A; Handley, A J; Zaritsky, A; Hallstrom, A; Hickey, R W; Jacobs, I; Berg, R A; Bircher, N G; Zideman, D A; de Vos, R; Callanan, V

    2001-04-01

    Although some minor modifications were forged, the general consensus was to maintain most of the current guidelines for phone first/phone fast, no-assisted-ventilation CPR, the A-B-C (vs C-A-B) sequence of CPR, and the recovery position. The decisions to leave these guidelines as they are were based on a lack of evidence to justify the proposed changes, coupled with a reluctance to make revisions that would require major changes in worldwide educational practices without such evidence.Nonetheless, some major changes were made. The time-honored procedure ol pulse check by lay rescuers was eliminated altogether and replaced with an assessment for other signs of circulation. Likewise, it was recommended that even the professional rescuer now check for these other signs of circulation. Although professional rescuers may simultaneously check for a pulse, they should do so only for a short period of time (within 10 seconds). There was also enthusiasm for deleting the ventilation aspect of EMS dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions that are provided to rescuers at the scene who are inexperienced in CPR. lt was made clear, though, that the data are applicable only to adult patients who are receiving CPR and that the data are appropriate most for EMS systems with rapid response times. PMID:11290966

  18. [Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications, limitations and practical implementation].

    PubMed

    Lunz, D; Philipp, A; Dolch, M; Born, F; Zausig, Y A

    2014-09-01

    Due to the technical advances in pumps, oxygenators and cannulas, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (va-ECMO) or extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been widely used in emergency medicine and intensive care medicine for several years. An accepted indication is peri-interventional cardiac failure in cardiac surgery (postcardiotomy low cardiac output syndrome). Furthermore, especially the use of va-ECMO for other indications in critical care medicine, such as in patients with severe sepsis with septic cardiomyopathy or in cardiopulmonary resuscitation has tremendously increased. The basic indications for va-ECMO are therapy refractory cardiac or cardiopulmonary failure. The fundamental purpose of va-ECMO is bridging the function of the lungs and/or the heart. Consequently, this support system does not represent a causal therapy by itself; however, it provides enough time for the affected organ to recover (bridge to recovery) or for the decision for a long-lasting organ substitution by a ventricular assist device or by transplantation (bridge to decision). Although the outcome for bridged patients seems to be favorable, it should not be forgotten that the support system represents an invasive procedure with potentially far-reaching complications. Therefore, the initiation of these systems needs a professional and experienced (interdisciplinary) team, sufficient resources and an individual approach balancing the risks and benefits. This review gives an overview of the indications, complications and contraindications for va-ECMO. It discusses its advantages in organ transplantation and transport of critically ill patients. The reader will learn the differences between peripheral and central cannulation and how to monitor and manage va-ECMO. PMID:25074647

  19. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  20. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  1. Extracorporeal photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Fritz

    1996-03-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that extracorporeal photochemotherapy may have an important role to play in the blood banking industry's efforts to improve the safety of the blood supply, as well as in the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and viral infections. Unfortunately, the transition from preclinical research to clinical practice has been hampered by a lack of suitable, user-friendly, and affordable light sources. It appears, however, that many forms of extracorporeal photochemotherapy could substantially benefit from solid state light sources similar to the ones originally developed for plant growth experiments in space.

  2. Massive Pulmonary Embolism Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction: Successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as bridge to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yung-Kun; Siao, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsu-Heng; Chen, Yao-Li

    2016-07-01

    Prolonged cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) results in death if its aetiology cannot be corrected immediately. We describe the case of a 75-year-old man with chest pain and his electrocardiogram (ECG) revealing ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVf. Inferior wall myocardial infarction was subsequently diagnosed. Before performing emergency coronary angiography, however, a sudden cardiac arrest with PEA developed and the patient was placed on advanced cardiac life support. Oxygenation support for the extracorporeal membrane was initiated approximately 65min after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency coronary arteriogram showed no obstructive lesions in the right coronary artery. This result, however, was not consistent with the ECG findings, and thus, a massive pulmonary embolism was suspected. Subsequent pulmonary artery angiography showed severe emboli in bilateral branches of the pulmonary arteries. Catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase was administered, which ultimately failed, and surgical embolectomy was performed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. After the above intervention, the patient was discharged on hospital day 60 without any sequelae or neurological deficits. PMID:26935163

  3. Contemporary Outcomes of Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Cardiogenic Shock at a Large Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Truby, Lauren; Mundy, Lily; Kalesan, Bindu; Kirtane, Ajay; Colombo, Paolo C; Takeda, Koji; Fukuhara, Shinichi; Naka, Yoshifumi; Takayama, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Refractory cardiogenic shock (RCS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and current mainstays of medical therapy appear inadequate. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) represents an increasingly accepted therapy for RCS. Demographics, past medical history, preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and adverse events were collected for consecutive patients who received VA-ECMO support for RCS at our institution from March 2007 to December 2013. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with a mean age of 56.9 ± 16.1 years were included. Etiologies of RCS included postcardiotomy shock in 70 patients (39%), acute myocardial infarction in 46 patients (26%), primary graft failure in 17 patients (10%), and acute decompensated heart failure in 24 patients (13%). Mean arterial pressure before VA-ECMO support was 59.4 ± 22.8 mm Hg and 30.7% (n = 55) were undergoing active cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the time of cannulation. Overall, 38.6% of patients (n = 69) survived to discharge and 44.7% of patients (n = 80) survived to 30 days. Myocardial recovery was achieved in 79.7% of survivors (n = 55) and 39.1% were transitioned to a more durable device. Univariate analysis identified age (p = 0.002) and etiology of RCS (p = 0.041) as the most significant predictors of in-hospital mortality. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for RCS appears successful as salvage therapy. Age and etiology should be considered when evaluating patients for VA-ECMO.

  4. Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults.

    PubMed

    Lafç, Gökhan; Budak, Ali Baran; Yener, Ali Ümit; Cicek, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Since the first successful application of the heart-lung machine in 1953 by John Gibbon [1], great efforts have been made to modify the bypass techniques and devices in order to allow prolonged extracorporeal circulation in the intensive care unit (ICU), commonly referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO uses classic cardiopulmonary bypass technology to support circulation. It provides continuous, non-pulsatile cardiac output and extracorporeal oxygenation [2]. Veno-venous ECMO (VV ECMO) provides respiratory support, while veno-arterial ECMO (VA ECMO) provides cardio-respiratory support to patients with severe but potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory deterioration refractory to standard therapeutic modalities. ECMO is a temporary form of life support providing a prolonged biventricular circulatory and pulmonary support for patients experiencing both pulmonary and cardiac failure unresponsive to conventional therapy. Despite the advent of newer ventricular assist devices that are more suitable for long term support, ECMO is simple to establish, cost-effective to operate.

  5. [Cardiopulmonary Comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Frederik; von Hardenberg, Albrecht; Böhm, Michael; Bals, Robert; Maack, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary diseases are primary causes of global morbidity and mortality. Since the prevalence of both cardiac and pulmonary diseases increases with age, cardiopulmonary comorbidities inflict especially the elderly. Due to the tight physiological connection of the heart and the lung, diseases of both organs affect each other beyond a mere coincidence. At the same time, due to the similarity of their respective symptoms, their differentiation is challenging in clinical practice and therefore, comorbidities can be easily overlooked. This article provides an overview on the characteristics of cardiopulmonary comorbidities and their specific-, but also mutual pathophysiology. PMID:26886042

  6. 'Not for resuscitation': the student nurses' viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Candy, C E

    1991-02-01

    A variable proportion of hospital in-patients were deemed 'not for resuscitation'. Using a qualitative methodology, this phenomenon was investigated, placing particular emphasis upon the effect on nursing care. A total of 71 student nurses from two district general hospitals were interviewed and from transcriptions of tape recordings of the interviews, utilizing a grounded theory approach, the following conceptual categories were identified: the patients; decision making; changes in nursing care? are patients and/or their relatives consulted? the unsuccessful resuscitation; the right to die; and dying and death. Up to 40% of patients on medial wards, and up to 100% of patients on geriatric and psychiatric wards, were deemed 'not for resuscitation'. The most junior members of the medical team had the power to make this decision without consultation with the nursing staff, patients or relatives. Nurses spent more time attending to patients 'not for resuscitation', but physiotherapists and medical staff withdrew. Informants felt that subjecting patients to cardiopulmonary resuscitation was incompatible with a dignified death. Senior members of the nursing staff were felt to be unfeeling in dealing with the distress of their juniors when laying out deceased patients. More discussion and joint decision making between health care professionals would alleviate some of the student nurses' distress concerning patients who are 'not for resuscitation'.

  7. Recommendations in dispatcher-assisted bystander resuscitation from emergency call center.

    PubMed

    García del Águila, J; López-Messa, J; Rosell-Ortiz, F; de Elías Hernández, R; Martínez del Valle, M; Sánchez-Santos, L; López-Herce, J; Cerdà-Vila, M; Roza-Alonso, C L; Bernardez-Otero, M

    2015-01-01

    Dispatch-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been shown as an effective measure to improve the survival of this process. The development of a unified protocol for all dispatch centers of the different emergency medical services can be a first step towards this goal in our environment. The process of developing a recommendations document and the realization of posters of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, agreed by different actors and promoted by the Spanish Resuscitation Council, is presented.

  8. Dying, sudden cardiac death and resuscitation technology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy M

    2008-04-01

    Many nurses will be familiar with the demanding role of caring for a patient who requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation following a sudden, life-threatening illness or event. This paper examines the phenomenon of sudden cardiac death and in particular, focuses on the medical-technical discourse of dying and death in the context of resuscitation for the victims of sudden cardiac arrest. The process of dying is distinguished from the end point of death by drawing upon biomedical determinants and definitions of death. Comparison is made between the use of resuscitation techniques in an attempt to reverse 'clinical death' and the notion of a 'natural death' that is proffered as a means to a 'good' or 'ideal' death. The humanistic versus technological imperative is further deliberated by examining the role of the emergency team in end of life care and includes consideration of the effects that medical dominance may have on the dying process. The practice of family witnessed resuscitation is recognised as one way in which a holistic approach to emergency resuscitative care may be achieved.

  9. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... resuscitation supplies for emergency treatment. The device does not include any equipment used...

  10. [Resuscitation after intoxication with amitriptylin].

    PubMed

    Fippel, A; Berkel, H; Finkemeyer, S; Knape, R; Hoitz, J

    2005-09-01

    Intoxications with tricyclic antidepressants are often life threatening situations. In consequence of interference with many organ systems specific treatment consists in transportation to hospital under cardiopulmonary monitoring by physicians. The multiple possibilities of complications require the following treatments: continuous monitoring of the cardiovascular system, gastrolavage, application of carbon through a nasogastric tube, intubation and controlled ventilation in case of coma and continuous stand by for defibrillation. Additionally patients with stable parameters should be monitored in intensive care units because often there are no precursors of cardiac or pulmonary complications. We report the case of a 49-year old women with ingestion of 2500 mg of amitriptyline who suffered from multiple cardiac arrhythmias with following cardiac arrests and who required multiple defibrillations and resuscitation.

  11. [Renin-angiotensin system under extracorporeal circulation during heart valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Heck, I; Hack, G; Wickenhöfer, R

    1983-08-01

    Angiotensin I (A I), angiotensin II (A II) and the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were measured in 15 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for mitral or aortic valve replacement. During cardiopulmonary bypass A I, A II, A I/II ratio and arteriovenous A II--difference decreased markedly, whereas the activity of ACE fell only during a small 15 min period after start of extracorporeal circulation. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed.

  12. [Prehospital cardiac resuscitation in Queretaro, Mexico. Report of 3 cases. Importance of an integral emergency medical care system].

    PubMed

    Fraga-Sastrías, Juan Manuel; Aguilera-Campos, Andrea; Barinagarrementería-Aldatz, Fernando; Ortíz-Mondragón, Claudio; Asensio-Lafuente, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a health problem that represents 33,000 to 150,000 or more deaths per year. The few existent reports show mortality as high as 100% in contrast to some international reports that show higher survival rates. In Queretaro, during the last 5 years there were no successful resuscitation cases. However, in 2012 some patients were reported to have return of spontaneous circulation. We report in this article 3 cases with return of spontaneous circulation and pulse at arrival to the hospital. Two of the patients were discharged alive, one of them with poor cerebral performance category. Community cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and better emergency medical system response times, are related with survival. This poorly explored health problem in Queretaro could be increased with quality and good public education, bystander assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, police involvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, public access defibrillation programs and measurement of indicators and feedback for better results.

  13. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2015-12-22

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. PMID:26434495

  14. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. PMID:26449873

  15. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2015-12-22

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document.

  16. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document.

  17. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kavi, Tapan; Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  18. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  19. Extracorporeal Photophoresis

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) for the treatment of refractory erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD). Background Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a general name for a group of skin affecting disorders caused by malignant white blood cells (T lymphocytes). Cutaneous T cell lymphoma is relatively uncommon and represents slightly more than 2% of all lymphomas in the United States. The most frequently diagnosed form of CTCL is mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic variant Sezary syndrome (SS). The relative frequency and disease-specific 5-year survival of 1,905 primary cutaneous lymphomas classified according to the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification (Appendix 1). Mycosis fungoides had a frequency of 44% and a disease specific 5-year survival of 88%. Sezary syndrome had a frequency of 3% and a disease specific 5-year survival of 24%. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma has an annual incidence of approximately 0.4 per 100,000 and it mainly occurs in the 5th to 6th decade of life, with a male/female ratio of 2:1. Mycosis fungoides is an indolent lymphoma with patients often having several years of eczematous or dermatitic skin lesions before the diagnosis is finally established. Mycosis fungoides commonly presents as chronic eczematous patches or plaques and can remain stable for many years. Early in the disease biopsies are often difficult to interpret and the diagnosis may only become apparent by observing the patient over time. The clinical course of MF is unpredictable. Most patients will live normal lives and experience skin symptoms without serious complications. Approximately 10% of MF patients will experience progressive disease involving lymph nodes, peripheral blood, bone marrow and visceral organs. A

  20. Pediatric Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Children have unique physiologic, physical, psychological, and social needs compared with adults. Although adhering to the basic tenets of burn resuscitation, resuscitation of the burned child should be modified based on the child's age, physiology, and response to injury. This article outlines the unique characteristics of burned children and describes the fundamental principles of pediatric burn resuscitation in terms of airway, circulatory, neurologic, and cutaneous injury management. PMID:27600126

  1. Ultrastructural changes in the human lung following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, E; Dittrich, H; Gieseking, R; Enders, H J

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the degree of the pathological changes presenting in the lungs of patients after elective cardiac operations in cardiopulmonary bypass and to determine their prognosis, lung biopsies were taken from the right lower lobe of 36 patients after extracorporeal circulation and studied ultrastructurally. Prepump biopsies from the same presenting anterior portion of the lower lobe of the lung served as controls. Perivascular and interstitial edema featured prominently. Intraalveolar edema and extravasated corpuscular blood elements were observed, too. Damages to the mitochondria and to the lamellar bodies and swelling of the endothelial and alveolar cells were major observations following cardiopulmonary bypass lasting more than 60 minutes. These changes were also prominent in those lungs presenting with severe edema and fibrosis. Many intact type-II pneumocytes presented with enhanced metabolic and secretory activities. Merocrine and apocrine secretions were observed after extracorporeal circulation. The alveoli of the postpump lungs contained numerous detached normal appearing type-II pneumocytes, in contrast to the paucity of such cells in the alveoli of the control biopsies. The prognosis for the patients depends on any one or combination of any of the following factors: the pathological changes present in the lungs prior to the extracorporeal circulation, the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass, the rate of the elimination of the surfactant and finally the ability of the undamaged type-II pneumocytes to step up the synthesis and secretion of the surface acting agent.

  2. Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Guyette, Francis X; Reynolds, Joshua C; Frisch, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is a dynamic disease that tests the multitasking and leadership abilities of emergency physicians. Providers must simultaneously manage the logistics of resuscitation while searching for the cause of cardiac arrest. The astute clinician will also realize that he or she is orchestrating only one portion of a larger series of events, each of which directly affects patient outcomes. Resuscitation science is rapidly evolving, and emergency providers must be familiar with the latest evidence and controversies surrounding resuscitative techniques. This article reviews evidence, discusses controversies, and offers strategies to provide quality cardiac arrest resuscitation.

  3. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  4. Vascular access in resuscitation: is there a role for the intraosseous route?

    PubMed

    Anson, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a time-tested procedure which has been incorporated into the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Intravenous access is often difficult to achieve in shock patients, and central line placement can be time consuming. Intraosseous vascular access, however, can be achieved quickly with minimal disruption of chest compressions. Newer insertion devices are easy to use, making the intraosseous route an attractive alternative for venous access during a resuscitation event. It is critical that anesthesiologists, who are often at the forefront of patient resuscitation, understand how to properly use this potentially life-saving procedure. PMID:24481418

  5. Role of the family support person during resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Elita-Mae; James, Jayne Elizabeth

    This article discusses family witnessed resuscitation and describes the need for a healthcare professional to be available to support the family before and during this experience. Careful explanation and emotional support are required during the event and if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is unsuccessful, further explanation and support will be required. A family support person is usually a nurse but could also be a hospital chaplain or social worker. The chaplain's background and ability to interpret medical information, combined with the emotional and spiritual support he or she can offer, make the chaplain suitable for this role. However, for some patients and families a chaplain's involvement might not be appropriate. The authors suggest that further research and evidence-based guidance should be developed to maximise the benefits of a family support person's presence during witnessed resuscitation.

  6. Witnessed resuscitation by relatives.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R

    2000-02-01

    Witnessed resuscitation is the process of active 'medical' resuscitation in the presence of family members. Witnessed resuscitation though not as yet wide spread in practice is becoming established. Early reports of programs designed to promote such a process first appeared in the early 1980s. More recent work appears to show both public support and a desire for inclusion in the resuscitation process. Some research has been produced that indicates both satisfaction and psychological benefit for those relatives enabled to witness. Limited work only, exists pertaining to the effects on health care providers and these reports currently do not show any significant deleterious effects. Approval of witnessed resuscitation programs is not universal amongst all groups of health care workers. Concerns about the ethics of witnessed resuscitation and its medico-legal implications have been raised. The quality of the initial witnessed resuscitation reports is however variable and there is a great need for further work to validate the initial findings particularly in the areas of psychological stressors in staff and risk management implications.

  7. Evaluation of a Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Curriculum for Junior and Senior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderschmidt, Hannelore Falk

    An adaptation of the standard American Heart Association training program was utilized to teach secondary school students cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Students, at both junior and senior high levels, were randomly assigned to practice and no-practice groups, of ten students each. All were taught CPR procedures didactically, but…

  8. [Limits of resuscitation. I. Thanatophysiologic and therapeutic limits].

    PubMed

    Schneider, D

    1981-05-15

    Neither apodictic demands nor administration measures are suited to satisfy the various problems of the duty of treatment in the borderline region between life and death. An exact knowledge of the thanatophysiologic limits of the possibility of resuscitation during and after an anoxia and ischaemia is necessary. By effective cardiopulmonary measures of resuscitation, such as external heart massage with production of systolic pressure of 8-13 kPa as well as respiration with F1O2 1.0, the cardiac resuscitation time with immediate sufficiency (1. limit 4-41/2 min) may be prolonged to the cerebral resuscitation time from 8-10 minutes. Probably, the new concept of specific measures of cerebral resuscitation may definitively prolong also this 2nd limit. Furthermore, the fundamentals of the decision are discussed, for omitting or finishing a reanimation, or for reducing the intensive treatment. If the clinical syndrome of the dissociated cerebral death is present, without planned taking off an organ there is no necessity to render the finish of the intensive therapy dependent on legal regulations concerning the performance of organ transplantations.

  9. Continuous chest compression pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation after witnessed electrocution.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-06-01

    Electrical injury is a relatively infrequent but potentially devastating multisystem injury with high morbidity and mortality. We describe the case of an 11-year-old boy who suffered loss of his consciousness after touching an electrical cable.

  10. Experience with an emergency resuscitation system.

    PubMed

    Raithel, S C; Swartz, M T; Braun, P R; Dake, S B; Taub, J O; Zambie, M A; Miller, L W; Deligonul, U; McBride, L R; Pennington, D G

    1989-01-01

    The need for a portable extracorporeal support system that can be rapidly initiated for various types of cardiopulmonary failure is well known. The authors report on a system consisting of 3/8 inch tubing, a Sci-Med membrane oxygenator, Omnitherm heat exchanger, Biomedicus or Sarns centrifugal pump, portable battery, and oxygen tanks. The system is mounted on a cart for easy mobility and can be primed in 5-10 min. USCI, DLP, or Axiom cannulas can be inserted femorally. Over 30 months, 29 patients, aged 19-78 years, underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for cardiac arrest during catheterization (10 patients), shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction (MI) (10 patients), elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) support (four patients), postcardiotomy failure (four patients), and exposure hypothermia (one patient). Adequate support was achieved in all but one patient. Device flows ranged from 0.2 to 6.0 l/min. There were six survivors (elective PTCA support, three patients; cardiac arrest during catheterization, three patients). Complications included bleeding (15 patients), deep venous thrombosis (three patients), and pump failure (one patient). A portable ECMO system has been developed that allows rapid institution of circulatory support.

  11. [Guidelines for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest and resuscitation in the pediatric population: the pediatria utstein-style].

    PubMed

    Tormo Calandín, C; Manrique Martínez, I

    2002-06-01

    Children who require cardiopulmonary resuscitation present high mortality and morbidity. The few studies that have been published on this subject use different terminology and methodology in data collection, which makes comparisons, evaluation of efficacy, and the performance of meta-analyses, etc. difficult. Consequently, standardized data collection both in clinical studies on cardiorespiratory arrest and in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the pediatric age group are required. The Spanish Group of Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation emphasizes that recommendations must be simple and easy to understand. The first step in the elaboration of guidelines on data collection is to develop uniform definitions (glossary of terms). The second step comprises the so-called time intervals that include time periods between two events. To describe the intervals of cardiorespiratory arrest different clocks are used: the patient's watch, that of the ambulance, the interval between call and response, etc.Thirdly, a series of clinical results are gathered to determine whether the efforts of cardiopulmonary resuscitation have a positive effect on the patient, the patient's family and society. With the information gathered a registry of data that includes the patient's personal details, general data of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation, treatment, times of performance and definitive patient outcome is made.

  12. Resuscitation injuries complicating the interpretation of premortem trauma and natural disease in children.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, John

    2006-01-01

    Minor soft tissues injuries are common in both adults and children who have had cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Potentially life-threatening injuries are rare. The pre-arrest history in a resuscitated adult often assists the pathologist to interpret autopsy findings. In contrast, an infant or child may not have a reliable history. In this situation, it may be difficult if not impossible to distinguish resuscitation injuries from pre-existing accidental or inflicted trauma. I describe two children who had significant autopsy-documented injuries initially attributed to abuse. The State filed murder charges against the caretaker in each case. However, further history and review of the medical records suggested that resuscitation rather than pre-arrest trauma caused almost all of the injuries. The State dismissed the charges in the first case. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict in the second. It is essential to consider the entire history and not just autopsy findings when performing a death investigation.

  13. Use of high-dose epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate during neonatal resuscitation: is there proven benefit?

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Myra H; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2006-03-01

    For adults and pediatric age patients, high-dose intravenous epinephrine was recommended if standard-dose epinephrine failed to achieve return of spontaneous circulation. More recent trials suggest that high-dose epinephrine is not beneficial and may result in increased harm. There are no randomized clinical studies of high-dose versus standard-dose intravenous epinephrine in neonates. Routine use of high-dose epinephrine during neonatal resuscitation cannot be recommended. Although sodium bicarbonate has been used during neonatal resuscitation, the only randomized controlled trial of its use during brief neonatal resuscitation showed no benefit. Sodium bicarbonate infusion during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has several known and potential side effects. The use of sodium bicarbonate infusion should be discouraged during brief CPR. Whether sodium bicarbonate is beneficial for infants who require prolonged CPR despite adequate ventilation is unknown.

  14. Telemedicine for neonatal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of readiness for neonatal resuscitation in low-risk maternity settings is challenging. The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) algorithm is a community standard in the United States; yet training is biannual, and exposure to enough critical events to be proficient at timely implementation of the algorithm and the advanced procedures is rare. Evidence supports hands-free leadership to help prevent task saturation and communication to promote patient safety. Telemedicine for neonatal resuscitation involves the addition of remote, expert NRP leadership (a NICU-based neonatal nurse practitioner) via camera link to augment effectiveness of the low-risk birth center team. Unanticipated outcomes to report include faster times to transfer initiation and neuroprotective cooling. The positive impact of remote NRP leadership could lead to use of telemedicine to support teams at birthing centers throughout the United States as well as around the world.

  15. Use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenator in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Makdisi, George; Makdisi, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The superiority of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) compared with medical therapy for patients with aortic stenosis (AS) who are not suitable candidates for surgery had been proven. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is rarely used in TAVR. Reports of early use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenator (ECMO) have promising outcomes. ECMO offers the option of cardiac support rescue in case of intraoperative hemodynamic instability and can be instituted in advance when hemodynamic instability is expected. Here we review the English literature about the use of ECMO in TAVR procedures, and discuss the indications and rationale for its use as well as its advantages. PMID:27668226

  16. Extracorporeal life support as a bridge to lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-06-01

    Patients who are excellent candidates for lung transplantation often die on the waiting list because they are too sick to survive until an organ becomes available. Improvements in lung transplant outcomes, patient selection, and artificial lung device technologies have made it possible to bridge these patients to successful life-saving transplantation. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) should be tailored to minimize morbidity and provide the appropriate mode and level of cardiopulmonary support for each patient's physiologic requirements. Novel device refinements and further development of ECLS in an ambulatory and simplified manner will help maintain these patients in better condition until transplantation. PMID:21511087

  17. [Successful resuscitation in accidental hypothermia following drowning].

    PubMed

    Fritz, K W; Kasperczyk, W; Galaske, R

    1988-05-01

    After breaking through thin ice, a 4-year-old boy drowned in a lake. A quickly alerted rescue helicopter found and recovered the child, drifting underneath the clear, thin ice. Primary resuscitation by the helicopter crew was unsuccessful. Upon arrival in the hospital the child had fixed, dilated pupils and asystole. Core temperature was 19.8 degrees C. Rewarming was conducted slowly while cardiopulmonary resuscitation was continued. Twenty minutes after arrival at the hospital, ventricular complexes appeared in the ECG (temperature 22.1 degrees C); after another 10 min this converted to sinus rhythm. At short intervals, blood gas analyses and electrolyte determinations were carried out and corrected adequately. For cerebral protection methohexital was given and the child was hyperventilated. Seventy minutes after arrival at the hospital the child was brought to the pediatric ICU with stable circulation. There, further rewarming (centrally/peripherally combined) was carried out, aiming at 1 degree C rewarming per hour until a normal temperature was reached. The patient had to be kept on the ventilator for 10 days and after another 2 weeks was discharged home. He had recovered completely without any cerebral damage. One of the reasons why 88 min of cardiac arrest were tolerated by this patient without sequelae may have been rapid and deep hypothermia.

  18. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  19. Family-witnessed resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Melanie

    2010-09-01

    Family-witnessed resuscitation is a controversial subject for healthcare professionals and support for the practice is not universal (Albarran and Stafford 1999, Kissoon 2006). Research suggests, however, that the advantages of this form of resuscitation for relatives far outweigh the disadvantages, and that hospital staff can support the practice without hindering the clinical care of patients. This article explores the ethical issues raised, as well as the views of patients, families and staff on the subject, and suggests that there should be guidelines on the practice in all emergency departments where it is likely to take place.

  20. Resuscitation duration inequality by patient characteristics in emergency department out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minoo; Kim, Joonghee; Kim, Kyuseok

    2014-01-01

    Objective Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients unresponsive to basic life support are frequently transferred to emergency departments (EDs) for further resuscitation. Although some survive with good neurologic outcomes, additional resuscitation in EDs is often futile. Without a dedicated termination of resuscitation (TOR) rule for ED resuscitation, the decision when to stop the resuscitation is up to emergency physicians. In this study, we assessed the association between patient characteristics and duration of resuscitation in EDs to understand how emergency physicians decide when to terminate cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods A retrospective analysis of the OHCA registry of a single ED was conducted. Adult (18 years or older) patients without any return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after unsuccessful ED advanced cardiac life support were included. The primary endpoint was duration of resuscitation attempts. Prehospital and demographic factors were assessed as independent variables. The relationship between these factors and duration of resuscitative attempts was analyzed with multivariable quantile regression. Results From January 2008 to August 2012, ED resuscitation was terminated without ROSC in 266 patients (53.5%). The duration of resuscitative attempts was significantly shorter if any of the currently recognized poor prognostic factors was present. Interestingly, controversial factors such as female sex and older age were significantly associated with shorter resuscitation duration, while factors definitively indicating poor prognosis, such as severe trauma and poor baseline neurological status, showed no significant association. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that physicians adjust the resuscitation duration according to their subjective prediction of futility despite the absence of evidence-based TOR guidelines.

  1. Biliary extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Rawat, B; Burhenne, H J

    1990-01-01

    Biliary extracorporeal lithotripsy has been considered one of the alternatives to surgery for the treatment of gallstones in the bile ducts and in the gallbladder. Although this technique can fragment almost all gallstones, the clinical effectiveness of this new treatment modality must be measured by successful elimination of all fragments. Some physical principles, stone targeting, patient protocol, complications, and clinical results are presented.

  2. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Matthew M.; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S.; Mains, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients.

  3. Witnessed resuscitation: beneficial or detrimental?

    PubMed

    Terzi, Angela B; Aggelidou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the existing literature and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of witnessed resuscitation for health professionals, relatives, and patients themselves. Keywords "witnessed resuscitation," "patient perspective," "health professionals," and "resuscitation room" were entered into MEDLINE, Medscape, and Science Direct databases. The issue of witnessed resuscitation, along with the benefits and disadvantages of its implementation, is discussed widely with increasing controversy among health professionals. Many authors accept the existence of benefits of witnessed resuscitation, but they each have reservations on certain aspects of the practice. Although witnessed resuscitation has demonstrable benefits, the dearth of research literature on the subject makes it difficult to come to a concrete conclusion about its value in practice. More studies are needed focusing on the impact of witnessed resuscitation on staff, family members, and patients. Larger sample sizes are needed in future studies, and studies are needed in which geographical, cultural, religious, and sociological factors are taken into consideration.

  4. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes.

  5. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Matthew M.; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S.; Mains, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  6. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Matthew M; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S; Mains, Charles W; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  7. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes. PMID:16043184

  8. Out-of-hospital resuscitation in East Sussex: 1981 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S J; Holmberg, S; Quinn, E; Baker, K; Grainger, R; Vincent, R; Chamberlain, D A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of extended training in advanced life support on the outcome of resuscitation. DESIGN--Analysis of the successful resuscitations from 1981 to 1989. SETTING--Brighton and East Sussex. RESULTS--248 patients were resuscitated from cardiac or respiratory arrest in the community and subsequently survived to leave hospital. Their mean age was 64 years and one year survival was 77%. In most cases the cause of collapse was cardiac but 38 (15%) suffered a respiratory arrest. In 140 of the successful resuscitations (56%) collapse occurred before the arrival of the ambulance. Basic life support, with ventilation and chest compression where necessary, was sufficient to revive 35 (14%) of the patients. Defibrillation was also required in 107 patients (43%), and in a further 106 patients (43%) who had prolonged cardiorespiratory arrest requiring endotracheal intubation and the use of several drugs. Review of ambulance forms and case notes showed that in 87 cases (35%) the abilities of the paramedical ambulance staff in advanced resuscitation techniques contributed decisively to the success of resuscitation. These skills are illustrated by eight case reports. CONCLUSIONS--Extended training for ambulance staff increases the likelihood of successful resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Though instruction in defibrillation must have the highest priority, full paramedical training can bring appreciable additional benefits. Images PMID:8280528

  9. The impact of the code drugs: cardioactive medications in cardiac arrest resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly; Breed, Meghan; Alibertis, Kostas; Brady, William J

    2012-02-01

    The goal of treating patients who present with cardiac arrest is to intervene as quickly as possible to affect the best possible outcome. The mainstays of these interventions, including early activation of the emergency response team, early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and early defibrillation, are essential components with demonstrated positive impact on resuscitation outcomes. Conversely, the use of the code drugs as a component of advanced life support has not benefited these patients to the same extent as the basic interventions in a general. Although short-term outcomes are improved as a function of these medications, the final outcome has not been altered significantly in most instances. PMID:22107975

  10. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  11. Use of Doppler ultrasound in the management of uteroplacental perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, D C; Pryde, P G; Shah, D M; Iruretagoyena, J I

    2016-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass, the extreme of non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy, presents unique challenges to minimize maternal and fetal risk. We present our experience with a woman who was diagnosed with a left atrial myxoma following an ischemic cerebrovascular accident. We discuss clinical management specific to cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy and delivery in the context of a multidisciplinary team approach. We recommend using intermittent Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive real-time assessment of uteroplacental perfusion during non-obstetric surgery in pregnancy. Monitoring of perfusion facilitates active feedback for appropriate in utero resuscitation in these cases. PMID:27021885

  12. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  13. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. PMID:27600123

  14. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saites, Victoria Anne; Hadler, Rachel; Gutsche, Jacob Thomas; Laudanski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Symptoms: Acute respiratory insufficiency • anemia • thrombocytopenia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hematological disease characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to various triggers, resulting in rapid multi-organ failure. Its incidence may be underestimated due to its rarity, its variable clinical presentation, and its high mortality rate prior to diagnosis. Oftentimes, HLH is mistaken for refractory sepsis and improperly treated as such. Left untreated, the disease is universally fatal. With treatment, case series of adults with HLH report a 30-day mortality of up to 44% and an overall mortality of up to 75%. Case Report: We describe the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a previously healthy young man with HLH and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a common sequela of HLH. ECMO was employed to provide temporary hemodynamic support, allowing for recovery of pulmonary function compromised during the initial cytokine storm. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, implementation of ECMO provided the time necessary for the eventual diagnosis and treatment of HLH. Conclusions: Although limited case reports and case series suggest that the use of ECMO in pediatric patients with HLH is associated with high mortality, our experience suggests that ECMO should not be rejected as a supportive modality in adults with HLH who have potentially recoverable cardiopulmonary function. We believe that ECMO may be appropriately instituted in select patients with HLH, or in rapidly deteriorating patients with an unknown illness refractory to conventional therapy, to allow for end-organ recovery, to reach a diagnosis, and to administer appropriate therapy. PMID:27670223

  15. Lactate clearance for initiating and weaning off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a child with regressed left ventricle after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Chauhan, Sandeep; Bisoi, A K; Sahoo, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    We hereby report a child with transposition of great arteries and regressed ventricle who underwent arterial switch operation (ASO) with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and "integrated" extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit. The significance of lactate clearance as a guide to initiate and terminate veno-arterial ECMO in a post ASO child with regressed left ventricle is discussed.

  16. Lactate clearance for initiating and weaning off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a child with regressed left ventricle after arterial switch operation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Chauhan, Sandeep; Bisoi, A. K.; Sahoo, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    We hereby report a child with transposition of great arteries and regressed ventricle who underwent arterial switch operation (ASO) with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and “integrated” extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit. The significance of lactate clearance as a guide to initiate and terminate veno-arterial ECMO in a post ASO child with regressed left ventricle is discussed. PMID:26750700

  17. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  18. Hypoxaemia during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Muir, A. L.; Davidson, I. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blood oxygenation was studied in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass using the Rygg-Kyvsgaard bubble oxygenator. Oxygenation was satisfactory in perfusions carried out at normothermia and during hypothermia. During the rewarming phase of hypothermic perfusions hypoxaemia occurred. This could be prevented by a ganglion blocking agent (trimetaphan) given during the cooling phase. PMID:5565791

  19. The impact of in-house surgeons and operating room resuscitation on outcome of traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, D B; Shackford, S R; McGill, T; Mackersie, R; Davis, J; Hansbrough, J

    1989-08-01

    As trauma systems develop, more patients can potentially benefit from immediate surgery. With in-house surgeons available, enthusiasm for direct transfer from the scene to the operating room (OR) has developed in many institutions. The purpose of this study was to define precisely which patients should be taken to the OR for resuscitation. Three hundred twenty-three patients were taken to the OR directly from the field during a 4-year period (6.9% of trauma activations). Indications included the following: (1) cardiac arrest--one vital sign present, (2) persistent hypotension despite field intravenous fluid, and (3) uncontrolled external hemorrhage. A board-certified surgeon and resuscitation team met the field transport team in the OR in all cases. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with blunt trauma was not accompanied by survival even with immediate surgery by a trained surgeon and it wastes valuable OR resources. Patients with prehospital hypotension unresponsive to fluid resuscitation indicate the need for rapid surgery. Patients with blunt injuries even with hypotension infrequently undergo operations in less than 20 minutes and can be resuscitated in traditional areas where better roentgenograms are obtained. Penetrating injuries to the chest and abdomen with hypotension are the primary indications for OR resuscitation. It can be anticipated with field communication and accompanied by enhanced survival. PMID:2757502

  20. Brain Resuscitation in the Drowning Victim

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Branche, Christine M.; Clark, Robert S.; Friberg, Hans; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; Holzer, Michael; Katz, Laurence M.; Knape, Johannes T. A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed. When cardiac arrest is present, chest compressions with rescue breathing are recommended due to the asphyxial insult. In the comatose patient with restoration of spontaneous circulation, hypoxemia and hyperoxemia should be avoided, hyperthermia treated, and induced hypothermia (32–34 °C) considered. Arterial hypotension/hypertension should be recognized and treated. Prevent hypoglycemia and treat hyperglycemia. Treat clinical seizures and consider treating non-convulsive status epilepticus. Serial neurologic examinations should be provided. Brain imaging and serial biomarker measurement may aid prognostication. Continuous electroencephalography and N20 somatosensory evoked potential monitoring may be considered. Serial biomarker measurement (e.g., neuron specific enolase) may aid prognostication. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of any specific brain-oriented neuroresuscitative pharmacologic therapy other than that required to restore and maintain normal physiology. Following initial stabilization, victims should be transferred to centers with expertise in age-specific post-resuscitation neurocritical care. Care should be documented, reviewed, and quality improvement assessment performed. Preclinical research should focus on models of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Clinical research should focus on improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation, re-oxygenation/reperfusion strategies, therapeutic hypothermia

  1. Vascular access for extracorporeal life support: tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Jeremie; Olland, Anne; Renaud, Stephane; Lejay, Anne; Santelmo, Nicola; Massard, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    In thoracic surgery, extracorporeal life support (ECLS) techniques are performed to (I) provide a short to mid term extracorporeal mechanical support; (II) realize the gas exchanges; and (III)—depending the configuration of the circuit—substitute the failed heart function. The objective of this review is to describe the rational of the different ECLS techniques used in thoracic surgery and lung transplantation (LTx) with a specific attention to the vascular access. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is the most common ECLS technique used in thoracic surgery and represents the best strategy to support the lung function. VV ECMO needs peripheral vascular access. The selection between his double-site or single-site configuration should be decided according the level of O2 requirements, the nosological context, and the interest to perform an ECLS ambulatory strategy. Venoarterial (VA) ECMO uses peripheral and/or central cannulation sites. Central VA ECMO is mainly used in LTx instead a conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to decrease the risk of hemorrhagic issues and the rate of primary graft dysfunction (PGD). Peripheral VA ECMO is traditionally realized in a femoro-femoral configuration. Femoro-femoral VA ECMO allows a cardiocirculatory support but does not provide an appropriate oxygenation of the brain and the heart. The isolated hypercapnic failure is currently supported by extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) devices inserted in jugular or subclavian veins. The interest of the Novalung (Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) persists due to his central configuration indicated to bridge to LTx patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension. The increasing panel of ECLS technologies available in thoracic surgery is the results of a century of clinical practices, engineering progress, and improvements of physiological knowledges. The selection of the ECLS technique—and therefore the vascular access to implant the device—for a given

  2. The ethics of newborn resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2009-12-01

    It is widely believed in neonatology and obstetrics that there are situations in which it is inappropriate to attempt newborn resuscitation, and other times when newborn resuscitation is obligatory despite parental refusal. In each case, an ethical justification for the decision needs to be identified. This essay is intended to provide guidance in deciding when resuscitation should be attempted, and in identifying ethical considerations that should be taken into account. It specifically addresses the issue of extreme prematurity, including an analysis of current recommendations, the data, relevant rights of patient and parents, and a discussion of the relative merits of withholding resuscitation vs providing resuscitation and possibly withdrawing intensive care later. In addition to extreme prematurity, the considerations presented are also relevant to a wider spectrum of newborn problems, including Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18, and severe congenital anomalies.

  3. [Complicated but successful resuscitation after amniotic fluid embolism].

    PubMed

    Bouman, E A; Gutiérrez y Leon, J A; van der Salm, P C; Christiaens, G C; Bruinse, H W; Broeders, I A

    2001-04-14

    A 33-year-old woman, gravida IV, para III with unexplained polyhydramnios was admitted to give birth at 29 weeks of pregnancy. Directly after the spontaneous breaking of the membranes, asystolia occurred. Following emergency resuscitation the sinus rhythm returned. Upon the relaparotomy due to a large filling requirement and increasing abdomen size, 'crush' lesions to the spleen and liver were visible; following this a splenectomy was carried out and tampons applied to the liver. After seven months the patient had slight residual symptoms; three weeks after his birth her son was transferred in good condition to another hospital. Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare complication of pregnancy with often serious complications for mother and child. The diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms of cardiac arrest or sudden profound shock, acute respiratory failure, and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation, occurring in most cases during or soon after delivery, in the absence of an alternative cause (in particular primary cardiopulmonary causes). If the clinical picture deviates from the expected post-resuscitation course alternative diagnoses or resuscitation injuries must be considered.

  4. [New guidelines on resuscitation in adults: What has changed?].

    PubMed

    Klein, Hermann H

    2016-03-01

    In October 2015, new guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were published, which represent a revision of the guidelines 2010. The new recommendations are based on an update of knowledge on resuscitation, which was evaluated for the first time by GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The key messages of the guidelines 2010 were retained in 2015. Adult basic life support consists of a sequence of 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100-120/min with a depth of 5 to maximally 6 cm and 2 ventilations. As soon as possible, an automated external defibrillator (AED) should be applied. Interruptions of chest compressions should be minimized. To improve bystander CPR emergency medical dispatchers should diagnose cardiac arrest when informed about unconscious persons not breathing normally. In this case, emergency medical staff should inform bystanders to resuscitate with compression only CPR until the arrival of an emergency team. In postresuscitation care, mild hypothermia (body temperature 32-34 °C) has been replaced by targeted temperature management in unconscious patients. Now, the guidelines recommend a constant body temperature between 32-36 °C for at least 24 h. Fever should be prevented or treated. PMID:26754534

  5. Failure of sodium bicarbonate to improve resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guerci, A D; Chandra, N; Johnson, E; Rayburn, B; Wurmb, E; Tsitlik, J; Halperin, H R; Siu, C; Weisfeldt, M L

    1986-12-01

    To determine the value of sodium bicarbonate in resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation and the prevention of spontaneous refibrillation, sodium bicarbonate (1 meq/kg) or placebo was administered on a random basis to 16 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs 18 min after the induction of ventricular fibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Defibrillation was attempted 2 min after the administration of bicarbonate or placebo. All animals were successfully defibrillated, but three of eight bicarbonate-treated and two of eight control animals died in electromechanical dissociation (p = NS). Spontaneous refibrillation occurred in three animals in each group (p = NS). Successful resuscitation was not dependent on treatment, arterial or mixed venous Pco2, or arterial or mixed venous pH but correlated strongly with coronary perfusion pressure (p less than .003). Spontaneous refibrillation occurred without relation to any identifiable variable. The gradient between diastolic aortic and right atrial pressures was 24 +/- 2 mm Hg in controls and 23 +/- 2 mm Hg in treated animals over the entire 20 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = NS). However, among animals successfully resuscitated, mean diastolic coronary perfusion pressure averaged 27 +/- 2 mm Hg compared with 20 +/- 1 mm Hg among those dying in electromechanical dissociation (p less than .02). For the final 2 min of resuscitation, after drug administration, these gradients were 31 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively (p less than .01). Microsphere determined myocardial perfusion correlated with the diastolic aortic-right atrial perfusion pressure gradient (r = .86) and was 0.43 +/- 0.03 ml/min/g in survivors and 0.22 +/- 0.01 ml/min/g in nonsurvivors (p less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3022965

  6. Randomized trial of volume infusion during resuscitation of asphyxiated neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Myra; Garcia, Damian; Margraf, Linda; Perlman, Jeffrey; Laptook, Abbot

    2007-04-01

    Despite its use, there is little evidence to support volume infusion (VI) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study compares 5% albumin (ALB), normal saline (NS), and no VI (SHAM) on development of pulmonary edema and restoration of mean arterial pressure (MAP) during resuscitation of asphyxiated piglets. Mechanically ventilated swine (n=37, age: 8 +/- 4 d, weight: 2.2 +/- 0.7 kg) were progressively asphyxiated until pH <7.0, Paco2 >100 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) <100 bpm, and MAP <20 mm Hg. After 5 min of ventilatory resuscitation, piglets were randomized blindly to ALB, NS, or SHAM infusion. Animals were recovered for 2 h before euthanasia and lung tissue sampled for wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) as a marker of pulmonary edema. SHAM MAP was similar to VI during resuscitation. At 2 h post-resuscitation, MAP of SHAM (48 +/- 13 mm Hg) and ALB (43 +/- 19 mm Hg) was higher than NS (29 +/- 10 mm Hg; p=0.003 and 0.023, respectively). After resuscitation, SHAM piglets had less pulmonary edema (W/D: 5.84 +/- 0.12 versus 5.98 +/- 0.19; p=0.03) and better dynamic compliance (Cd) compared with ALB or NS (Cd: 1.43 +/- 0.69 versus 0.97 +/- 0.37 mL/cm H2O, p=0.018). VI during resuscitation did not improve MAP, and acute recovery of MAP was poorer with NS compared with ALB. VI was associated with increased pulmonary edema. In the absence of hypovolemia, VI during neonatal resuscitation is not beneficial.

  7. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  8. Future Therapies in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Erica I; Subramanian, Madhu; Arnoldo, Brett D; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1940s, the resuscitation of burn patients has evolved with dramatic improvements in mortality. The most significant achievement remains the creation and adoption of formulae to calculate estimated fluid requirements to guide resuscitation. Modalities to attenuate the hypermetabolic phase of injury include pharmacologic agents, early enteral nutrition, and the aggressive approach of early excision of large injuries. Recent investigations into the genomic response to severe burns and the application of computer-based decision support tools will likely guide future resuscitation, with the goal of further reducing mortality and morbidity, and improving functional and quality of life outcomes. PMID:27600132

  9. The history of extracorporeal oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Lim, M W

    2006-10-01

    Extracorporeal oxygenators are artificial devices that substitute for anatomical lungs by delivering oxygen to, and extracting carbon dioxide from, blood. They were first conceptualised by the English scientist Robert Hooke (1635-1703) and developed into practical extracorporeal oxygenators by French and German experimental physiologists in the 19th century. Indeed, most of the extracorporeal oxygenators used until the late 1970s were derived from von Schroder's 1882 bubble oxygenator and Frey and Gruber's 1885 film oxygenator. As there is no intervening barrier between blood and oxygen, these are called 'direct contact' oxygenators; they contributed significantly to the development and practice of cardiac surgery till the 1980s. Membrane extracorporeal oxygenators introduce a gas-permeable interface between blood and oxygen. This greatly decreased the blood trauma of direct-contact extracorporeal oxygenators, and enabled extracorporeal oxygenators to be used in longer-term applications such as the intensive therapy of respiratory distress syndrome; this was demonstrably beneficial for neonates but less so for older patients. Much work since the 1960s focused on overcoming the gas exchange handicap of the membrane barrier, leading to the development of high-performance microporous hollow-fibre oxygenators that eventually replaced direct-contact oxygenators in cardiac theatres. PMID:16978315

  10. The history of extracorporeal oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Lim, M W

    2006-10-01

    Extracorporeal oxygenators are artificial devices that substitute for anatomical lungs by delivering oxygen to, and extracting carbon dioxide from, blood. They were first conceptualised by the English scientist Robert Hooke (1635-1703) and developed into practical extracorporeal oxygenators by French and German experimental physiologists in the 19th century. Indeed, most of the extracorporeal oxygenators used until the late 1970s were derived from von Schroder's 1882 bubble oxygenator and Frey and Gruber's 1885 film oxygenator. As there is no intervening barrier between blood and oxygen, these are called 'direct contact' oxygenators; they contributed significantly to the development and practice of cardiac surgery till the 1980s. Membrane extracorporeal oxygenators introduce a gas-permeable interface between blood and oxygen. This greatly decreased the blood trauma of direct-contact extracorporeal oxygenators, and enabled extracorporeal oxygenators to be used in longer-term applications such as the intensive therapy of respiratory distress syndrome; this was demonstrably beneficial for neonates but less so for older patients. Much work since the 1960s focused on overcoming the gas exchange handicap of the membrane barrier, leading to the development of high-performance microporous hollow-fibre oxygenators that eventually replaced direct-contact oxygenators in cardiac theatres.

  11. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Outcomes after Cardiopulmonary Arrest in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert S.; Scott, Bryonnie; Carter, Simon J.; Taylor, Matthew; Peirce, Eleanor; Davies, Patrick; Maconochie, Ian K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary arrest in children is an uncommon event, and often fatal. Resuscitation is often attempted, but at what point, and under what circumstances do continued attempts to re-establish circulation become futile? The uncertainty around these questions can lead to unintended distress to the family and to the resuscitation team. Objectives To define the likely outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children, within different patient groups, related to clinical features. Data Sources MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-Process & Other non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and Cochrane central register of trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment database, along with reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included articles. Study Eligibility Criteria Prospective cohort studies which derive or validate a clinical prediction model of outcome following cardiopulmonary arrest. Participants and Interventions Children or young people (aged 0 – 18 years) who had cardiopulmonary arrest and received an attempt at resuscitation, excluding resuscitation at birth. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Risk of bias assessment developed the Hayden system for non-randomised studies and QUADAS2 for decision rules. Synthesis undertaken by narrative, and random effects meta-analysis with the DerSimonian-Laird estimator. Results More than 18,000 episodes in 16 data sets were reported. Meta-analysis was possible for survival and one neurological outcome; others were reported too inconsistently. In-hospital patients (average survival 37.2% (95% CI 23.7 to 53.0%)) have a better chance of survival following cardiopulmonary arrest than out-of-hospital arrests (5.8% (95% CI 3.9% to 8.6%)). Better neurological outcome was also seen, but data were too scarce for meta-analysis (17% to 71% ‘good’ outcomes, compared with 2.8% to 3.2%). Limitation Lack of consistent outcome reporting and

  12. Mobile extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, V; Bailey, M J

    1991-01-01

    During the last 18 months, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been provided at Epsom District Hospital using a mobile unit containing a Dornier HM4 lithotriptor. Patients with upper ureteric and renal stones were selected for treatment, which was performed without anaesthesia or sedation as a day-case procedure; 83 patients were treated, 5 of them with bilateral stones. Seventy patients required 1 treatment session, 17 required 2 and 1 patient required 3. There were no serious complications but 3 patients needed ureteroscopy to remove obstructing stones. The overall success rate was 86%. The cost to treat each NHS patient was 253 pounds. Mobile lithotripsy as a day-case procedure is a safe and cost-effective means of treating urolithiasis and can be performed in a District General Hospital.

  13. Translating into Practice Cancer Patients’ Views on Do-Not-Resuscitate Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Olver, Ian N.; Eliott, Jaklin A.

    2016-01-01

    Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders are necessary if resuscitation, the default option in hospitals, should be avoided because a patient is known to be dying and attempted resuscitation would be inappropriate. To avoid inappropriate resuscitation at night, if no DNR order has been recorded, after-hours medical staff are often asked to have a DNR discussion with patients whose condition is deteriorating, but with whom they are unfamiliar. Participants in two qualitative studies of cancer patients’ views on how to present DNR discussions recognized that such patients are at different stages of understanding of their situation and may not be ready for a DNR discussion; therefore, a one-policy-fits-all approach was thought to be inappropriate. To formulate a policy that incorporates the patient’s views, we propose that a standard form which mandates a DNR discussion is replaced by a “blank sheet” with instructions to record the progress of the discussion with the patient, and a medical recommendation for a DNR decision to guide the nursing staff in case of a cardiac arrest. Such an advance care directive would have to honor specifically expressed patient or guardian wishes whilst allowing for flexibility, yet would direct nurses or other staff so that they can avoid inappropriate cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a patient dying of cancer. PMID:27690104

  14. Thrombin during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, L Henry; Colman, Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ignites a massive defense reaction that stimulates all blood cells and five plasma protein systems to produce a myriad of vasoactive and cytotoxic substances, cell-signaling molecules, and upregulated cellular receptors. Thrombin is the key enzyme in the thrombotic portion of the defense reaction and is only partially suppressed by heparin. During CPB, thrombin is produced by both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathways and activated platelets. The routine use of a cell saver and the eventual introduction of direct thrombin inhibitors now offer the possibility of completely suppressing thrombin production and fibrinolysis during cardiac surgery with CPB. PMID:17126170

  15. Modern use of extracorporeal life support in pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, Scott C; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use during pregnancy and the postpartum period are thought to be associated with an increased risk for maternal or fetal bleeding complications. We present our recent institutional experience in managing pregnant and postpartum patients with ECMO. We also performed a literature review of modern use of ECMO in pregnant and postpartum patients utilizing Pubmed and Embase databases. ECMO was used for severe cardiopulmonary failure due to multiple conditions. Based on published reports, overall maternal and fetal survival on ECMO were 80% and 70%, respectively. Mild-to-moderate vaginal bleeding was reported in a few cases, with rare occurrences of catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. There was no consensus on an optimal anticoagulation strategy in these patients, though most preferred to keep anticoagulation at lower therapeutic levels. We conclude that ECMO, in well-selected pregnant and postpartum patients, appears to be safe and associated with low risk of maternal and fetal complications.

  16. A physiological model for extracorporeal oxygenation controller design.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marian; Weyer, Soren; Stollenwerk, Andre; Kopp, Rudger; Arens, Jutta; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Long term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used in cases of severe lung failure to maintain sufficient gas exchange without the need to apply higher ventilation pressures which damage the lung additionally. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass devices is well established inside the operating room. The usage of such devices as long-term support in the intensive care unit is still experimental and limited to few cases. This is because neither machine architecture nor staff situation provides for the long term application scenario. In the joint research Project "smart ECLA" we target an advanced ECMO device featuring an automation system capable of maintaining gas concentrations automatically. One key requirement for systematic controller design is the availability of a process model, which will be presented in this article. PMID:21096765

  17. Extracorporeal adsorption of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Staubach, K H; Rosenfeldt, J A; Veit, O; Bruch, H P

    1997-02-01

    In a porcine endotoxin shock model using a continuous intravenous endotoxin infusion of 250 ng/kg body weight per hour, the cardiorespiratory and hematologic parameters were studied while applying a new on-line polymyxin B immobilized adsorption system. This preliminary report shows that the new adsorbent can remove endotoxin selectively from the circulation and confers a good amount of protection from endotoxin-induced cardiopulmonary decompensation as well as hematologic alterations. Survival time could be extended from 216 min to 313 min. Whereas cardiac output and mean arterial pressure declined critically after 3 h in the controls, the treated group remained stable for another 3 h. These data show that endotoxin adsorption by polymyxin B coupled covalently to acrylic spheres as an adjunctive on-line measure in the septic syndrome seems feasible. PMID:10225785

  18. Overcoming resistance to family-witnessed resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Jordahl, Erica; Hyde, Yolanda M; Kautz, Donald D

    2015-01-01

    Giving family members the option of being present during resuscitation has been shown to be beneficial for both family and staff. However, only a small percentage of intensive care units have policies promoting family-witnessed resuscitation. This article reviews current research showing the benefits of family-witnessed resuscitation, outlines how to successfully integrate a family facilitator during resuscitation, and includes research that has been effective in changing the prevailing attitudes of staff. The authors also argue for the resuscitation team to practice ethical and cultural humility when involving family members so that all resuscitation efforts are a success, whether the patient lives or dies.

  19. Witnessed resuscitation: good practice or not?

    PubMed

    Rattrie, E

    Should relatives be given the choice to witness the resuscitation of a family member? From the available literature, three main topic areas emerge: research studies that allow witnessed resuscitation, the effects on relatives of witnessed resuscitation, and A&E staff attitudes towards witnessed resuscitation. There is abundant literature on the positive effects for relatives of witnessing the attempted resuscitation of a loved-one, the main benefit being that the grieving process was made easier. However, staff attitudes are mixed, making witnessed resuscitation a controversial topic.

  20. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhwan; Perales Villarroel, José Paul; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Hong, Angela; Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest. PMID:26770657

  1. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhwan; Villarroel, José Paul Perales; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Hong, Angela; Lampe, Joshua W; Becker, Lance B

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  2. Is extracorporeal rewarming indicated in avalanche victims with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiorespiratory arrest?

    PubMed

    Mair, Peter; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Birgit; Moroder, Luca; Ruttmann, Elfriede

    2014-12-01

    International guidelines recommend using extracorporeal rewarming in all hypothermic avalanche victims with prolonged cardiac arrest if they have patent airways and a plasma potassium level≤12 mmol/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome data to determine if available experience with extracorporeal rewarming of avalanche victims supports this recommendation. At Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, 28 patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest following an avalanche accident were resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation. Of these patients, 25 were extricated from the snow masses with no vital signs and did not survive to hospital discharge. Three patients had witnessed cardiac arrest after extrication and a core temperature of 21.7°C, 22°C, and 24.0°C, two of whom survived long-term with full neurological recovery. A search of the literature revealed only one asystolic avalanche victim with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiac arrest (core temperature 19°C) surviving long-term. All other avalanche victims in the medical literature surviving prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest suffered witnessed arrest after extrication with a core temperature below 24°C. Our results suggest that prognosis of hypothermic avalanche victims with unwitnessed asystolic cardiac arrest and a core temperature>24°C is extremely poor. Available outcome data do not support the use of extracorporeal rewarming in these patients.

  3. Is extracorporeal rewarming indicated in avalanche victims with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiorespiratory arrest?

    PubMed

    Mair, Peter; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Birgit; Moroder, Luca; Ruttmann, Elfriede

    2014-12-01

    International guidelines recommend using extracorporeal rewarming in all hypothermic avalanche victims with prolonged cardiac arrest if they have patent airways and a plasma potassium level≤12 mmol/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome data to determine if available experience with extracorporeal rewarming of avalanche victims supports this recommendation. At Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, 28 patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest following an avalanche accident were resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation. Of these patients, 25 were extricated from the snow masses with no vital signs and did not survive to hospital discharge. Three patients had witnessed cardiac arrest after extrication and a core temperature of 21.7°C, 22°C, and 24.0°C, two of whom survived long-term with full neurological recovery. A search of the literature revealed only one asystolic avalanche victim with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiac arrest (core temperature 19°C) surviving long-term. All other avalanche victims in the medical literature surviving prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest suffered witnessed arrest after extrication with a core temperature below 24°C. Our results suggest that prognosis of hypothermic avalanche victims with unwitnessed asystolic cardiac arrest and a core temperature>24°C is extremely poor. Available outcome data do not support the use of extracorporeal rewarming in these patients. PMID:25531463

  4. Priming Reduced Extracorporeal Circulation Setup (PRECiSe) with the DeltaStream diagonal pump.

    PubMed

    Beholz, Sven; Kessler, Michael; Thölke, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang F

    2003-12-01

    Different systems for beating heart procedures and low priming systems limited to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have been introduced. We describe Priming Reduced Extracorporeal Circulation Setup (PRECiSe), a new low priming system which sup-plies all the features of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). PRECiSe incorporates the DeltaStream diagonal pump, which pumps blood from the right atrium to the aorta via a membrane oxygenator and a filter; the system is placed beneath the patient's head resulting in extremely short tubing. A reservoir allows the use of suckers and vents. Autologous blood priming furthers reduces hemodilution. In a safety study the system was used for extracorporeal circulation in 11 patients undergoing CABG without adverse effects. By use of PRECiSe mean priming was reduced to 268.5 ml resulting in minimal hemo-dilution and transfusion requirements.

  5. Successful extracorporeal life support in sudden cardiac arrest due to coronary anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Wan; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Sik; Bang, Duk Won; Hyon, Min-Su; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Byoung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has recently been reported to have a survival benefit in patients with cardiac arrest. It is now used widely as a lifesaving modality. Here, we describe a case of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in a young athlete with an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus. Resuscitation was successful using ECLS before curative bypass surgery. We highlight the efficacy of ECLS for a patient with SCA caused by a rare, unexpected aetiology. In conclusion, ECLS was a lifesaving modality for SCA due to an anomalous coronary artery in this young patient. PMID:27354896

  6. Virtual extracorporeal circulation process.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, F; Montevecchi, F M; Fumero, R

    1997-06-01

    Virtual instruments for an extracorporeal circulation (ECC) process were developed to simulate the reactions of a patient to different artificial perfusion conditions. The computer simulation of the patient takes into account the hydraulic, volume, thermal and biochemical phenomena and their interaction with the devices involved in ECC (cannulae dimensions, oxygenator and filter types, pulsatile or continuous pump and thermal exchangers). On the basis of the patient's initialisation data (height, weight, Ht) and perfusion variables (pump flow rate, water temperature, gas flow rate and composition) imposed by the operator, the virtual ECC monitors simulated arterial and venous pressure tracings in real time, along with arterial and venous flow rate tracings, urine production tracing and temperature levels. Oxyhemoglobin arterial and venous blood saturation together with other related variables (pO2, pCO2, pH, HCO3 are also monitored. A drug model which allows the simulation of the effect of vasodilator and diuretic drugs is also implemented. Alarms are provided in order to check which variables (pressure, saturation, pH, urine flow) are out of the expected ranges during the ECC simulation. Consequently the possibility of modifying the control parameters of the virtual devices of the ECC in run-time mode offers an interaction mode between the operator and the virtual environment. PMID:9259211

  7. Touch during preterm infant resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kitchin, L W; Hutchinson, S

    1996-10-01

    Preterm infants frequently require resuscitation in the delivery room. Under the intense circumstances of providing lifesaving interventions, caregivers may be unaware of the amount and kind of touch an infant receives. The purpose of this qualitative, ethologic study was to describe the kinds of touch that occur during resuscitation of premature infants immediately after delivery as viewed on videotape. The convenience sample consisted of ten videotapes of premature infant resuscitation performed at a tertiary care center. Using Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence, a description of kinds of touch--including mechanical and human touch--was developed. Descriptive research conceptualizing touch promotes awareness of current practice and may lead to alterations in clinical practice that best support the adaptive response in the depressed infant. PMID:9035643

  8. Resuscitation of the newly born.

    PubMed

    Johannson, A B; Biarent, D

    2002-01-01

    International guidelines developed recommendations in the resuscitation of the new-born: at least one person trained in resuscitation of the newly born should attend every delivery. A minority of the new-borns require active resuscitation to achieve regular respiration, heart rhythm above 100/min, pink colour and adequate tone. Establishment of adequate ventilation should be of primary concern. Most new-borns who require positive-pressure ventilation can be adequately ventilated with a bag and mask. All healthcare providers, who may be asked to deal with an emergency delivery, should master such technique. In case of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, thorough oropharyngeal suctioning should be perform before the delivery of the chest. Tracheal aspiration of mecomium should be perform only in depressed child. Very few infants require chest compressions and much less administration of drugs. Umbilical access remains the most widely recommended access in new-born. Adequate transfer to Neonatal Unit improves outcome. PMID:12503356

  9. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  10. Code Status and Resuscitation Options in the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Haresh L.; Patel, Neal R.; Choma, Neesha N.; Grande, Jonathan; Giuse, Dario A.; Lehmann, Christoph U.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The advance discussion and documentation of code-status is important in preventing undesired cardiopulmonary resuscitation and related End of Life interventions. Code-status documentation remains infrequent and paper-based, which limits its usefulness. This study evaluates a tool to document code-status in the electronic health records at a large teaching hospital, and analyzes the corresponding data. Methods Encounter data for patients admitted to the Medical Center were collected over a period of 12 months (01-APR-2012 – 31-MAR-2013) and the code-status attribute was tracked for individual patients. The code-status data were analyzed separately for adult and pediatric patient populations. We considered 131,399 encounters for 83,248 adult patients and 80,778 encounters for 55,656 pediatric patients in this study. Results 71% of the adult patients and 30% of the pediatric patients studied had a documented code-status. Age and severity of illness influenced the decision to document code-status. Demographics such as gender, race, ethnicity, and proximity of primary residence were also associated with the documentation of code-status. Conclusion Absence of a recorded code-status may result in unnecessary interventions. Code-status in paper charts may be difficult to access in cardiopulmonary arrest situations and may result in unnecessary and unwanted interventions and procedures. Documentation of Code-status in electronic records creates a readily available reference for care providers. PMID:25447035

  11. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  12. The resuscitation package in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Demertzis, Lee M; Kollef, Marin H

    2010-09-01

    Sepsis and its attendant complications are commonly encountered in the intensive care unit. Early recognition of sepsis is critical because it allows for rapid deployment of a multifaceted resuscitation package. The cornerstones of sepsis management are antibiotic therapy, source control, and hemodynamic resuscitation. In select patients, ancillary therapies are indicated, such as activated protein C, corticosteroids, and glycemic control. Given the complexity of sepsis management, optimal care can be delivered as a bundle-a protocol encompassing the above interventions. The evidence behind the various components of sepsis management are reviewed here.

  13. [Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Cardio-Pulmonary Arrest : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Kuribayashi, Sohei; Kawamura, Masataka; Nakano, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Matsushima, Asako; Fujimi, Satoshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    A 40-year-old woman withuntreated type II diabetes mellitus was discovered withcardiopulmonary arrest in her room. On admission, she had ventricular fibrillation. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, her own pulse restarted. The plasma glucose was 722 mg/dl and venous PH was 6.704. Abdominal computed tomography revealed gas within the parenchyma of the left kidney. We diagnosed her with emphysematous pyelonephritis and conducted emergency nephrectomy. Urinary and blood cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. Antibiotic therapy was initiated with doripenem and she was restrictively treated with intravenous insulin to control her plasma glucose. On the 8th day of hospital stay, she underwent resection of the small intestine because of necrosis. After multidisciplinary therapy, she was discharged with complete resolution of the infection. PMID:27624108

  14. Hypothermic cardiac arrest rescued with cardiopulmonary bypass and decompressive laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Simon G; Davidson, Michael J; Javid, Sara; Patel, Amy N; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Patel, Vihas

    2010-12-01

    Hypothermic cardiac arrest is a relatively uncommon presentation to United States Emergency Departments. During 1979-2002, the Centers for Disease Control reported that an average of 689 deaths per year in the US were attributed to exposure to excessive natural cold. Severe hypothermia (<30°C) confers marked depression of critical metabolic and biochemical functions, but may also provide protection to the brain and other organs while resuscitation is undertaken. For all hypothermic patients, measures designed to prevent further heat loss and begin rewarming should be instituted, but should not delay routine Advanced Cardiac and Trauma Life Support procedures. Rewarming methods include passive rewarming (insulation, removal from environment), active external rewarming (heating blankets, radiant heat, warm water immersion), and active core rewarming (warm inhalation, warmed intravenous fluids, gastrointestinal irrigation, bladder irrigation, dialysis, thoracostomy lavage, and cardiopulmonary bypass). PMID:21036798

  15. Protective and biogenesis effects of sodium hydrosulfide on brain mitochondria after cardiac arrest and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hao; Xie, Xuemeng; Chen, Di; Zhang, Jincheng; Zhou, Yaguang; Yang, Guangtian

    2014-10-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in brain injury after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor compounds preserve mitochondrial morphology and function during ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we sought to explore the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on brain mitochondria 24h after cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6min cardiac arrest and then resuscitated successfully. Rats received NaHS (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 1.67ml/kg) 1min before the start of CPR intravenously, followed by a continuous infusion of NaHS (1.5mg/kg/h) or vehicle (5ml/kg/h) for 3h. Neurological deficit was evaluated 24h after resuscitation and then cortex was collected for assessments. As a result, we found that rats treated with NaHS revealed an improved neurological outcome and cortex mitochondrial morphology 24h after resuscitation. We also observed that NaHS therapy reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and calcium overload, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pores, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated ATP level and ameliorated the cytochrome c abnormal distribution. Further studies indicated that NaHS administration increased mitochondrial biogenesis in cortex at the same time. Our findings suggested that administration of NaHS 1min prior CPR and followed by a continuous infusion ameliorated neurological dysfunction 24h after resuscitation, possibly through mitochondria preservation as well as by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis.

  16. Remote ischemic preconditioning improves post resuscitation cerebral function via overexpressing neuroglobin after cardiac arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ran; Yu, Tao; Lin, Jia-Li; Ren, Guang-Dong; Li, Yi; Liao, Xiao-Xing; Huang, Zi-Tong; Jiang, Chong-Hui

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on post resuscitation cerebral function in a rat model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. The animals were randomized into six groups: 1) sham operation, 2) lateral ventricle injection and sham operation, 3) cardiac arrest induced by ventricular fibrillation, 4) lateral ventricle injection and cardiac arrest, 5) remote ischemic preconditioning initiated 90min before induction of ventricular fibrillation, and 6) lateral ventricle injection and remote ischemic preconditioning before cardiac arrest. Reagent of Lateral ventricle injection is neuroglobin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides which initiated 24h before sham operation, cardiac arrest or remote ischemic preconditioning. Remote ischemic preconditioning was induced by four cycles of 5min of limb ischemia, followed by 5min of reperfusion. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by current and lasted for 6min. Defibrillation was attempted after 6min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The animals were then monitored for 2h and observed for an additionally maximum 70h. Post resuscitation cerebral function was evaluated by neurologic deficit score at 72h after return of spontaneous circulation. Results showed that remote ischemic preconditioning increased neurologic deficit scores. To investigate the neuroprotective effects of remote ischemic preconditioning, we observed neuronal injury at 48 and 72h after return of spontaneous circulation and found that remote ischemic preconditioning significantly decreased the occurrence of neuronal apoptosis and necrosis. To further comprehend mechanism of neuroprotection induced by remote ischemic preconditioning, we found expression of neuroglobin at 24h after return of spontaneous circulation was enhanced. Furthermore, administration of neuroglobin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides before induction of remote ischemic preconditioning showed that the level of neuroglobin was decreased then partly abrogated

  17. Burn Resuscitation in the Austere Environment.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael; Jeng, James; Moghazy, Amr

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous (IV) cannulation and sterile IV salt solutions may not be options in resource-limited settings (RLSs). This article presents recipes for fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of burns occurring in RLSs. Burns of 20% total body surface area (TBSA) can be resuscitated, and burns up to 40% TBSA can most likely be resuscitated, using oral resuscitation solutions (ORSs) with salt supplementation. Without IV therapy, fluid resuscitation for larger burns may only be possible with ORSs. Published global experience is limited, and the magnitude of burn injuries that successfully respond to World Health Organization ORSs is not well-described. PMID:27600127

  18. [Relationship between location of stress erosive gastritis and brain damage in resuscitated patients].

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Mitsugi

    2002-03-01

    Patients after resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest often show stress erosive gastritis. This study investigated the relationship between the location of gastric mucosal injury and the degree of brain damage. Forty-five resuscitated patients with gastrointestinal bleeding complications were enrolled and were examined by esophagogastric fiberscope after 72 hours of hospitalization. Their brainstem and cerebral functions were evaluated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and electrical encephalogram (EEG), respectively. Thirty patients showed complications with acute gastric lesions. Ten patients had gastric mucosal injury in the antrum and they all showed a good response for BAEP (I, III and V waves were positive). In contrast, patients without antral gastric mucosal lesions showed poor response for ABR (defect of III and V waves) and EGG (Hockerday Grade III or IV). These results indicate that fair brainstem function is necessary for stress erosive gastritis in gastric antrum.

  19. The Ethical and Legal Framework for the Decision Not to Resuscitate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Melinda A.; Cassel, Christine K.

    1984-01-01

    Practicing physicians are frequently faced with the question of whether or not to institute cardiopulmonary resuscitation in case of cardiac or respiratory arrest in a patient in hospital. Medical training has usually not included any systematic analysis of this issue from either an ethical or a legal standpoint. Many physicians may be unaware that ethical and legal principles, as well as professional guidelines, exist to guide such decision making. In practice, physicians make this decision without the benefit of training in ethical analysis. The problem is especially acute in teaching hospitals when young physicians unacquainted with formal ethics or the law must often make decisions emergently. Studies show some discrepancy between ethical and legal principles and the actual decision making by physicians. For this reason, we recommend an approach that will enable physicians to make and implement decisions not to resuscitate that are consistent with current ethical and legal standards. PMID:6702189

  20. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    PubMed

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:25771524

  1. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    PubMed

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest.

  2. Sex- and gender-specific research priorities in cardiovascular resuscitation: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Resuscitation Research Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Jane G; Perman, Sarah M; Barr, Gavin C; McGregor, Alyson J; Miller, Andrew C; Napoli, Anthony M; Napoli, Anthony F; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Deutsch, Steven; Kayea, Tami; Becker, Lance

    2014-12-01

    Significant sex and gender differences in both physiology and psychology are readily acknowledged between men and women; however, data are lacking regarding differences in their responses to injury and treatment and in their ultimate recovery and survival. These variations remain particularly poorly defined within the field of cardiovascular resuscitation. A better understanding of the interaction between these important factors may soon allow us to dramatically improve outcomes in disease processes that currently carry a dismal prognosis, such as sudden cardiac arrest. As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," our group sought to identify key research questions and knowledge gaps pertaining to both sex and gender in cardiac resuscitation that could be answered in the near future to inform our understanding of these important issues. We combined a monthly teleconference meeting of interdisciplinary stakeholders from largely academic institutions with a focused interest in cardiovascular outcomes research, an extensive review of the existing literature, and an open breakout session discussion on the recommendations at the consensus conference to establish a prioritization of the knowledge gaps and relevant research questions in this area. We identified six priority research areas: 1) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest epidemiology and outcome, 2) customized resuscitation drugs, 3) treatment role for sex steroids, 4) targeted temperature management and hypothermia, 5) withdrawal of care after cardiac arrest, and 6) cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and implementation. We believe that exploring these key topics and identifying relevant questions may directly lead to improved understanding of sex- and gender-specific issues seen in cardiac resuscitation and ultimately improved patient outcomes.

  3. Massive Air Embolism During Interventional Laser Therapy of the Liver: Successful Resuscitation Without Chest Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Roth, Ute; Empen, Klaus

    2002-08-15

    We report on a rare, acute, life-threatening complication during percutaneous thermal therapy for hepatic metastases. Massive cardiac air embolism occurred during a maneuver of deep inspiration after the dislodgement of an introducer sheath into a hepatic vein. The subsequent cardiac arrest was treated successfully by immediate transthoracic evacuation of the air by needle aspiration followed by electrical defibrillation. In procedures that may be complicated by gas embolism, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should not be initiated before considering the likelihood of air embolism, and eventually aspiration of the gas.

  4. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  5. Hyperamylasemia following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Chung, Y T; Wu, G J; Hwang, F Y; Chen, K T; Peng, W L; Hung, C R

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the occurrence of postbypass hyperamylasemia, 75 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied from March 1989 to January 1990. There were 49 males and 26 females. Among them, 27 had congenital heart disease, 30 had valvular disease, and 18 had coronary artery disease. There were 27 patients with at least one elevated serum amylase sample after operation. Thus, the overall incidence of hyperamylasemia was 36%. As compared with the preoperative data (1.3%), there was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hyperamylasemia (p less than 0.05). Three patients had overt clinical pancreatitis postoperatively. There was no positive correlation between the serum amylase level and the occurrence of pancreatitis (p greater than 0.05). Forty-two cases had a significant elevation of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) after CPB. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with pulsatile and nonpulsatile CPB (p greater than 0.05). Three patients (4%) died in our series. The causes of death were heart failure in two and fulminant pancreatitis associated with low cardiac output in one. Although our experience in dealing with pancreatitis improved survival, mortality was still high (33.3%) in our series. Nevertheless, there was no apparent correlation between mortality and postbypass hyperamylasemia (p greater than 0.05). Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of the occurrence of hyperamylasemia, and the analysis revealed that patients with coronary artery disease were susceptible to postbypass hyperamylasemia. Our studies indicate that the use of total serum amylase or ACCR to monitor for the occurrence of pancreatitis in postbypass patients is inadequate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1377742

  6. Efficacy of emergent percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in cardiac or respiratory failure: fight or flight?

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sung Ho; Lee, Young Tak; Sung, Kiick; Min, Sunkyung; Kim, Wook Sung; Park, Pyo Won; Ha, Yi-Kyung

    2009-08-01

    We retrospectively evaluated early outcome and conducted this study to determine the predictive factors for percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) weaning and hospital discharge. From January 2004 to December 2006, 92 patients diagnosed as cardiac or respiratory failure underwent PCPS using the Capiox emergent bypass system (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan). The mean+/-S.D. age was 56+/-18 (range, 14-85) years and 59 (64%) were male. The mean duration of PCPS was 90.9+/-126.0 h and that of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was 51.1+/-27.8 min. The rate of weaning was 59/92 (64%) and the rate of survival to discharge was 39/92 (42%). The results indicated that the etiologic disease (myocarditis) and the cause of PCPS (cardiopulmonary arrest) are significantly correlated with weaning, whereas cardiopulmonary arrest and a shorter CPR duration (<60 min) are considerably correlated with survival. On the contrary, elderly patients (>75 years) have similar rates of weaning and survival compared with younger patients. PCPS provides an acceptable survival rate and outcome in patients with cardiac or respiratory failure. Prompt application and selection of patients with a specific disease (myocarditis) provides good results. It is also effective in elderly patients, providing hospital survival similar to that for younger patients.

  7. [Respiratory and extracorporeal lung support].

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christopher; Roewer, Norbert; Muellenbach, Ralf M

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most commonly used form of respiratory support to restore or maintain adequate gas exchange. However, mechanical ventilation does not provide a physiological form of breathing. Neither does it provide an optimal ventilation / perfusion ratio due to passive movement of the diagphragm favoring the non-dependent parts of the lung. Furthermore, patients are in danger of ventilator-associated/induced lung injury (VALI/VILI). Hence, lung protective ventilation is mandatory in patients with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and should likewise be used in the operating room. Extracorporeal pulmonary support is required in case mechanical ventilation is unable to secure sufficient gas exchange or VILI is imminent. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) acts as lung replacement therapy and may improve survival along with treatment in an ARDS-center. PMID:27631452

  8. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  9. A Case of Survival after Cardiac Arrest and 3½ Hours of Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Nusbaum, Derek M.; Bassett, Scott T.; Gregoric, Igor D.; Kar, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    Although survival rates after cardiac arrest remain low, new techniques are improving patients' outcomes. We present the case of a 40-year-old man who survived a cardiac arrest that lasted approximately 3½ hours. Resuscitation was performed with strict adherence to American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Advanced Cardiac Life Support guidelines until bedside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation could be placed. A hypothermia protocol was initiated immediately afterwards. The patient had a full neurologic recovery and was bridged from dual ventricular assist devices to a total artificial heart. On hospital day 160, he underwent orthotopic heart and cadaveric kidney transplantation. On day 179, he was discharged from the hospital in ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case in which a patient survived with good neurologic outcomes after a resuscitation that lasted as long as 3½ hours. Documented cases of resuscitation with good recovery after prolonged arrest give hope for improved overall outcomes in the future. PMID:24808789

  10. Neonatal Resuscitation in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Berkelhamer, Sara K; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D; Niermeyer, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Almost one quarter of newborn deaths are attributed to birth asphyxia. Systematic implementation of newborn resuscitation programs has the potential to avert many of these deaths as basic resuscitative measures alone can reduce neonatal mortality. Simplified resuscitation training provided through Helping Babies Breathe decreases early neonatal mortality and stillbirth. However, challenges remain in providing every newborn the needed care at birth. Barriers include ineffective educational systems and programming; inadequate equipment, personnel and data monitoring; and limited political and social support to improve care. Further progress calls for renewed commitments to closing gaps in the quality of newborn resuscitative care. PMID:27524455

  11. Monitoring End Points of Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Matthews, Marc R

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses commonly used methods of monitoring and determining the end points of resuscitation. Each end point of resuscitation is examined as it relates to use in critically ill burn patients. Published medical literature, clinical trials, consensus trials, and expert opinion regarding end points of resuscitation were gathered and reviewed. Specific goals were a detailed examination of each method in the critical care population and how this methodology can be used in the burn patient. Although burn resuscitation is monitored and administered using the methodology as seen in medical/surgical intensive care settings, special consideration for excessive edema formation, metabolic derangements, and frequent operative interventions must be considered. PMID:27600124

  12. [Thanatological problems in cardiopulmonary surgery].

    PubMed

    Klochkov, N D; Timofeev, I V

    1992-01-01

    The pattern of immediate causes of death and types of terminal states (mechanisms of death) has been examined on the basis of thanatological analysis of 190 deaths occurred after operations on the heart (valve prosthesis) and lung (pneumonectomy). The differences in the thanatological profile of the respective surgical units are shown. Ways for reducing postoperative death in cardiopulmonary surgery are discussed.

  13. [The behaviour of the granular alveocytes in chronic pulmonary congestion, pulmonary fibrosis and after extracorporeal circulation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, E; Gieseking, R; Dittrich, H; Klinke, F; Enders, H J

    1981-09-01

    The granular alveocytes, known to be the site of the production of the surfactant, undergo characteristic changes following chronic pulmonary congestion and the succeeding fibrosis, and after extracorporeal circulation. Congestion is accompanied by cell edema and the breakdown of the lamellar bodies. With fibrosis the cells are shrunken and present with little if any lysosomes. The nuclei are pyknotic or demonstrate karyolysis. Vacuolar degeneration of the lamellar bodies and progressive degeneration of the mitochondria are observed. The extracorporeal circulation damages many granular alveocytes. The degree of damage correlates with the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass and with the degree of the prepump pathological changes present in the lungs. On the other and the extracorporeal circulation induces in the intact cells enhanced surfactant production, during which the different developmental stages of the lamellar body increasingly accumulate within the cell. In conclusion, pulmonary congestion and fibrosis reduce the activity of the granular alveocytes. The extracorporeal circulation enhances structurally favourable conditions in the granular alveocytes for the increased release of the surfactant in the immediate post-operative phase - a process which could be regarded as an autoregulatory mechanism.

  14. Resuscitation and auto resuscitation by airway reflexes in animals.

    PubMed

    Tomori, Zoltan; Donic, Viliam; Benacka, Roman; Jakus, Jan; Gresova, Sona

    2013-01-01

    Various diseases often result in decompensation requiring resuscitation. In infants moderate hypoxia evokes a compensatory augmented breath - sigh and more severe hypoxia results in a solitary gasp. Progressive asphyxia provokes gasping respiration saving the healthy infant - autoresuscitation by gasping. A neonate with sudden infant death syndrome, however, usually will not survive. Our systematic research in animals indicated that airway reflexes have similar resuscitation potential as gasping respiration. Nasopharyngeal stimulation in cats and most mammals evokes the aspiration reflex, characterized by spasmodic inspiration followed by passive expiration. On the contrary, expiration reflex from the larynx, or cough reflex from the pharynx and lower airways manifest by a forced expiration, which in cough is preceded by deep inspiration. These reflexes of distinct character activate the brainstem rhythm generators for inspiration and expiration strongly, but differently. They secondarily modulate the control mechanisms of various vital functions of the organism. During severe asphyxia the progressive respiratory insufficiency may induce a life-threatening cardio-respiratory failure. The sniff- and gasp-like aspiration reflex and similar spasmodic inspirations, accompanied by strong sympatho-adrenergic activation, can interrupt a severe asphyxia and reverse the developing dangerous cardiovascular and vasomotor dysfunctions, threatening with imminent loss of consciousness and death. During progressive asphyxia the reversal of gradually developing bradycardia and excessive hypotension by airway reflexes starts with reflex tachycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in prompt hypertensive reaction, followed by renewal of cortical activity and gradual normalization of breathing. A combination of the aspiration reflex supporting venous return and the expiration or cough reflex increasing the cerebral perfusion by strong expirations, provides a powerful resuscitation and

  15. Resuscitation and auto resuscitation by airway reflexes in animals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Various diseases often result in decompensation requiring resuscitation. In infants moderate hypoxia evokes a compensatory augmented breath – sigh and more severe hypoxia results in a solitary gasp. Progressive asphyxia provokes gasping respiration saving the healthy infant – autoresuscitation by gasping. A neonate with sudden infant death syndrome, however, usually will not survive. Our systematic research in animals indicated that airway reflexes have similar resuscitation potential as gasping respiration. Nasopharyngeal stimulation in cats and most mammals evokes the aspiration reflex, characterized by spasmodic inspiration followed by passive expiration. On the contrary, expiration reflex from the larynx, or cough reflex from the pharynx and lower airways manifest by a forced expiration, which in cough is preceded by deep inspiration. These reflexes of distinct character activate the brainstem rhythm generators for inspiration and expiration strongly, but differently. They secondarily modulate the control mechanisms of various vital functions of the organism. During severe asphyxia the progressive respiratory insufficiency may induce a life-threatening cardio-respiratory failure. The sniff- and gasp-like aspiration reflex and similar spasmodic inspirations, accompanied by strong sympatho-adrenergic activation, can interrupt a severe asphyxia and reverse the developing dangerous cardiovascular and vasomotor dysfunctions, threatening with imminent loss of consciousness and death. During progressive asphyxia the reversal of gradually developing bradycardia and excessive hypotension by airway reflexes starts with reflex tachycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in prompt hypertensive reaction, followed by renewal of cortical activity and gradual normalization of breathing. A combination of the aspiration reflex supporting venous return and the expiration or cough reflex increasing the cerebral perfusion by strong expirations, provides a powerful resuscitation

  16. Exhaled CO2 Parameters as a Tool to Assess Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching during Neonatal Resuscitation in a Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott Shang-shun; Cheung, Po-Yin; O'Reilly, Megan; LaBossiere, Joseph; Lee, Tze-Fun; Cowan, Shaun; Bigam, David L.; Schmölzer, Georg Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), partial pressure of exhaled CO2 (PECO2), and volume of expired CO2 (VCO2) can be continuously monitored non-invasively to reflect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion status. Although ETCO2 ≥14mmHg has been shown to be associated with return of an adequate heart rate in neonatal resuscitation and quantifying the PECO2 has the potential to serve as an indicator of resuscitation quality, there is little information regarding capnometric measurement of PECO2 and ETCO2 in detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survivability in asphyxiated neonates receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods Seventeen newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented, and exposed to 45-minute normocapnic hypoxia followed by apnea to induce asphyxia. Protocolized resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Respiratory and hemodynamic parameters including ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, heart rate, cardiac output, and carotid artery flow were continuously measured and analyzed. Results There were no differences in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters between surviving and non-surviving piglets prior to CPR. Surviving piglets had significantly higher ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, cardiac index, and carotid artery flow values during CPR compared to non-surviving piglets. Conclusion Surviving piglets had significantly better respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during resuscitation compared to non-surviving piglets. In addition to optimizing resuscitation efforts, capnometry can assist by predicting outcomes of newborns requiring chest compressions. PMID:26766424

  17. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a 1,360-g Premature Neonate after Repairing Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Youn Ju; Han, Sung Joon; Chong, Yoo Young; Kang, Min-Woong; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    With advancements in complex repairs in neonates with complicated congenital heart diseases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly used as cardiac support. ECMO has also been increasingly used for low birth weight (LBW) or very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. However, since prematurity and LBW are risk factors for ECMO, the appropriate indications for neonates with LBW, especially VLBW, are under dispute. We report a case of ECMO performed in a 1,360-g premature infant with VLBW due to cardiopulmonary bypass weaning failure after repairing infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous return. PMID:27733999

  18. Severe Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Acute Pulmonary Edema Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Following Initiation of Chemotherapy for Metastatic Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ethan; Wolbrink, Traci; Mack, Jennifer; Rowe, R Grant

    2016-05-01

    We present an 8-year-old male with metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) who developed precipitous cardiopulmonary collapse with severe tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) 48 hr after initiation of chemotherapy. Despite no detectable pulmonary metastases, acute hypoxemic respiratory failure developed, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Although TLS has been reported in disseminated ARMS, this singular case of life-threatening respiratory deterioration developing after initiation of chemotherapy presented unique therapeutic dilemmas. We review the clinical aspects of this case, including possible mechanisms of respiratory failure, and discuss the role of ECMO utilization in pediatric oncology. PMID:26713672

  19. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  20. Clinical results and pump analysis of the Gyro pump for long-term extracorporeal life support.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Takamitsu; Takano, Tamaki; Michinaga, Yuuki; Yokokawa, Michihiro; Wada, Yuko; Seto, Tatsuichirou; Fukui, Daisuke; Amano, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Rescuing patients in severe cardiac failure with extracorporeal support remains challenging. The Gyro pump is a centrifugal blood pump and was now used for cardiopulmonary bypass, although it was originally developed for long-term cardiac assist. Little is known about clinical experiences using this pump. Here, we report on the clinical results of long-term extracorporeal life support for over 4 days using the Gyro pump with Excelung, a hollow fiber oxygenator coated with silicone and heparin. Seven patients underwent extracorporeal life support with 15 pump and oxygenator combinations. Gyro and Excelung were used for venoarterial extracorporeal support in six patients and for right ventricular support in one patient. Patient characteristics, pump driving conditions, and blood chemistry were obtained retrospectively. All pumps were subsequently disassembled and examined macroscopically, with 6 of 15 pumps also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The patient mortality rate was 57.1%. Mean duration of support was 10.5 ± 7.2 days per pump and oxygenator combination. Lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were generally maintained below 1000 and 100 IU/L, respectively, after the first 4 days of pump driving. Thrombi were found in two pumps, one used without anticoagulation and the other driven at a very slow rotational speed. SEM revealed no wear in the male bearings and very low wear and deformation (0.02 ± 0.03 mm) in the female bearings. The combination of Gyro and Excelung may be applicable for long-term biventricular and right ventricular support, although proper anticoagulation should be administrated to avoid thrombus formation inside the pump.

  1. Liquid Ventilation for the Induction of Ultrafast Hypothermia in Resuscitation Sciences: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kohlhauer, Matthias; Berdeaux, Alain; Kerber, Richard E; Micheau, Philippe; Ghaleh, Bijan; Tissier, Renaud

    2016-06-01

    Liquid ventilation was initially proposed for lung lavage and respiratory support. More recently, it was also investigated as an experimental strategy for ultrafast cooling or organ preservation during ischemic disorders. The goal of this article is to identify and review the studies that investigated liquid ventilation in the field of resuscitation sciences. An exhaustive analysis of the literature was performed using the Medline database up to 15th September 2015. Articles were selected according to their relevance. All articles focusing on respiratory support were excluded. On the basis of 76 retrieved studies from the Medline database, 29 were included in this review. All studies were experimental reports and most of them investigated the cooling properties of liquid ventilation in animal models of experimental cardiac arrest or coronary artery occlusion in rabbits or pigs. Animal studies demonstrated a wide range of potential applications of total liquid ventilation in resuscitation sciences. This strategy is able to provide ultrafast cooling, independent of the body weight. In animal models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it was shown to provide potent benefits widely linked to cooling rapidity. PMID:26910322

  2. Quality management in cardiopulmonary imaging.

    PubMed

    Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2011-02-01

    Increased scrutiny of the practice of medicine by government, insurance providers, and individual patients has led to a rapid growth of quality management programs in health care. Radiology is no exception to this trend, and quality management has become an important issue for individual radiologists as well as their respective practices. Quality control has been a mainstay of the practice of radiology for many years, with quality assurance and quality improvement both relative newcomers. This article provides an overview of quality management in the context of cardiopulmonary imaging and describes specific areas of cardiopulmonary radiology in which the components of a quality management program can be integrated. Specific quality components are discussed, and examples of quality initiatives are provided.

  3. Enalapril protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in a swine model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoxing; Zhang, Qian; Yuan, Wei; Wu, Junyuan; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) protect against local myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was designed to explore whether ACEIs exert cardioprotective effects in a swine model of cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Male pigs were randomly assigned to three groups: sham-operated group, saline treatment group and enalapril treatment group. Thirty minutes after drug infusion, the animals in the saline and enalapril groups were subjected to ventricular fibrillation (8 min) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (up to 30 min). Cardiac function was monitored, and myocardial tissue and blood were collected for analysis. Enalapril pre-treatment did not improve cardiac function or the 6-h survival rate after CA and resuscitation; however, this intervention ameliorated myocardial ultrastructural damage, reduced the level of plasma cardiac troponin I and decreased myocardial apoptosis. Plasma angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang-(1–7) levels were enhanced in the model of CA and resuscitation. Enalapril reduced the plasma Ang II level at 4 and 6 h after the return of spontaneous circulation whereas enalapril did not affect the plasma Ang-(1–7) level. Enalapril pre-treatment decreased the myocardial mRNA and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Enalapril treatment also reduced the myocardial ACE/ACE2 ratio, both at the mRNA and the protein level. Enalapril pre-treatment did not affect the upregulation of ACE2, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and MAS after CA and resuscitation. Taken together, these findings suggest that enalapril protects against ischemic injury through the attenuation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis after CA and resuscitation in pigs. These results suggest the potential therapeutic value of ACEIs in patients with CA. PMID:27633002

  4. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4230 Cardiopulmonary... with an oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to remove gas bubbles from the blood....

  5. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4230 Cardiopulmonary... with an oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to remove gas bubbles from the blood....

  6. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4230 Cardiopulmonary... with an oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to remove gas bubbles from the blood....

  7. Sepsis Resuscitation: Fluid Choice and Dose.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Rice, Todd W

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research.

  8. Gelatin colloids in the resuscitation of trauma.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C

    2006-12-01

    To date, the specific role of gelatins in trauma resuscitation remains under-investigated. Their adverse affects are well described and relate principally to the provocation of allergic responses whilst their influence upon haemostasis is relatively benign in comparison to the other colloids. However, their benefits are only sparsely documented and the evidence to choose one gelatin over another virtually non-existent. As knowledge of the microcirculatory dysfunction inherent in the shocked state increases, the role of the gelatins in trauma resuscitation is being increasing sidelined by other colloids--notably the starches. Their role beyond a basic resuscitation tool is now uncertain.

  9. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  10. Hyperinvasive approach to out-of hospital cardiac arrest using mechanical chest compression device, prehospital intraarrest cooling, extracorporeal life support and early invasive assessment compared to standard of care. A randomized parallel groups comparative study proposal. “Prague OHCA study”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has a poor outcome. Recent non-randomized studies of ECLS (extracorporeal life support) in OHCA suggested further prospective multicenter studies to define population that would benefit from ECLS. We aim to perform a prospective randomized study comparing prehospital intraarrest hypothermia combined with mechanical chest compression device, intrahospital ECLS and early invasive investigation and treatment in all patients with OHCA of presumed cardiac origin compared to a standard of care. Methods This paper describes methodology and design of the proposed trial. Patients with witnessed OHCA without ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation) after a minimum of 5 minutes of ACLS (advanced cardiac life support) by emergency medical service (EMS) team and after performance of all initial procedures (defibrillation, airway management, intravenous access establishment) will be randomized to standard vs. hyperinvasive arm. In hyperinvasive arm, mechanical compression device together with intranasal evaporative cooling will be instituted and patients will be transferred directly to cardiac center under ongoing CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). After admission, ECLS inclusion/exclusion criteria will be evaluated and if achieved, veno-arterial ECLS will be started. Invasive investigation and standard post resuscitation care will follow. Patients in standard arm will be managed on scene. When ROSC achieved, they will be transferred to cardiac center and further treated as per recent guidelines. Primary outcome 6 months survival with good neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1–2). Secondary outcomes will include 30 day neurological and cardiac recovery. Discussion Authors introduce and offer a protocol of a proposed randomized study comparing a combined “hyperinvasive approach” to a standard of care in refractory OHCA. The protocol is opened for sharing by other cardiac centers with available ECLS and

  11. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Villányi, K; Pusztai, C; Székely, J; Götz, F

    1996-05-12

    In 27 children aged 4-17 years extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed for renal and ureteral calculi between January 1 1993 and December 31 1994 at the University Medical School of Pécs. A total of 32 calculi was treated requiring 34 ESWL sessions. All treatments were done with the standard Dornier Compact Mobile Lithotripter device. The mean size of the stones was 10.65 mm and the number of shock waves averaged 2607. No serious intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered. No auxiliary procedures were performed. The stonefree rate was 27/32 stones (84.4%) 3 months after treatment. 5 patient has residual stone fragments. Lithotripsy using Dornier Compact Mobile device in our series of pediatric patients was found safe and effective.

  12. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Lampel, A; Lazica, M; Thüroff, J W

    1997-05-01

    In general, the criteria for treatment of urolithiasis in children are the same as those for adults. Today, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the method of choice for treatment of most pediatric urinary stones. Stone-free rates between 57% and 97% at short-term follow-up and 57%-92% at long-term follow-up have proven the efficacy of ESWL treatment in children. So far, there is no evidence of negative side effects of ESWL treatment in children in the long-term, confirming the safety of ESWL treatment seen in the short-term results. In particular, neither induction of hypertension nor deterioration of renal function have been detected in children when limitation of shock wave energy and shock wave numbers have been carefully observed.

  13. Clinical review: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The H1N1 flu pandemic led to a wider use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), proving its power in hypoxemic emergencies. The results obtained during this pandemic, more than any randomized trial, led to the worldwide acceptance of the use of membrane lungs. Moreover, as centers that applied this technique as rescue therapy for refractory hypoxemia recognized its strength and limited technical challenges, the indications for ECMO have recently been extended. Indications for veno-venous ECMO currently include respiratory support as a bridge to lung transplantation, correction of lung hyperinflation during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and respiratory support in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome, possibly also without mechanical ventilation. The current enthusiasm for ECMO in its various aspects should not, however, obscure the consideration of the potential complications associated with this life-saving technique, primarily brain hemorrhage PMID:22188792

  14. History of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

    PubMed

    Hessel, Eugene A

    2015-06-01

    The development of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thereby permitting open-heart surgery, is one of the most important advances in medicine in the 20th century. Many currently practicing cardiac anesthesiologists, cardiac surgeons, and perfusionists are unaware of how recently it came into use (60 years) and how much the practice of CPB has changed during its short existence. In this paper, the development of CPB and the many changes and progress that has taken place over this brief period of time, making it a remarkably safe endeavor, are reviewed. The many as yet unresolved questions are also identified, which sets the stage for the other papers in this issue of this journal.

  15. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  16. Part 1: executive summary: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    PubMed

    Field, John M; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Sayre, Michael R; Chameides, Leon; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Hemphill, Robin; Samson, Ricardo A; Kattwinkel, John; Berg, Robert A; Bhanji, Farhan; Cave, Diana M; Jauch, Edward C; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Neumar, Robert W; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Perlman, Jeffrey M; Sinz, Elizabeth; Travers, Andrew H; Berg, Marc D; Billi, John E; Eigel, Brian; Hickey, Robert W; Kleinman, Monica E; Link, Mark S; Morrison, Laurie J; O'Connor, Robert E; Shuster, Michael; Callaway, Clifton W; Cucchiara, Brett; Ferguson, Jeffrey D; Rea, Thomas D; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2010-11-01

    The goal of therapy for bradycardia or tachycardia is to rapidly identify and treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable or symptomatic due to the arrhythmia. Drugs or, when appropriate, pacing may be used to control unstable or symptomatic bradycardia. Cardioversion or drugs or both may be used to control unstable or symptomatic tachycardia. ACLS providers should closely monitor stable patients pending expert consultation and should be prepared to aggressively treat those with evidence of decompensation.

  17. Using Virtual World Training to Increase Situation Awareness during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Creutzfeldt, Johan; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is a critical non-technical skill which affects outcome during emergency medical endeavors. Using a modified self-report instrument a significant increase of SA was found during multiplayer virtual world CPR team training among 12 medical students. Further a correlation between SA and attention was noted. Being a vital factor during the process of video-game play, we argue that this skill is suitably practiced using this training method.

  18. Overestimation of the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation as a function of CPR certification level.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D R; Abrams, J; Tangel, L

    2000-02-01

    67 college students holding three different levels of certification in CPR estimated the survival rates of people given this procedure. Students not certified in CPR estimated the survival rate to be 51.2%, those previously certified estimated 43.8%, and those currently certified estimated 27.0%. Although knowledge of CPR was associated with greater accuracy, all three groups significantly overestimated the actual survival rate of 10%.

  19. Manual and automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): a comparison of associated injury patterns.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Love, Jennifer C

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare patterns of trauma associated with AutoPulse(®) CPR and manual CPR. Finalized autopsy records from 175 decedents brought to the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences were reviewed, 87 received manual-only CPR, and 88 received AutoPulse(®) CPR (in combination with manual CPR as per standard protocol). The characteristic pattern observed in manual-only CPR use included a high frequency of anterior rib fractures, sternal fractures, and midline chest abrasions along the sternum. The characteristic pattern observed in AutoPulse(®) CPR use included a high frequency of posterior rib fractures, skin abrasions located along the anterolateral chest and shoulder, vertebral fractures, and a few cases of visceral injuries including liver lacerations, splenic lacerations, and hemoperitoneum. Knowledge of the AutoPulse(®) CPR injury pattern can help forensic pathologists differentiate therapeutic from inflicted injuries and therefore avoid an erroneous assessment of cause and manner of death.

  20. Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Transport by EC-145 With a Custom-Built Sled.

    PubMed

    Holt, Philip L; Hodge, Ashley B; Ratliff, Todd; Frazier, W Joshua; Ohnesorge, David; Gee, Samantha W

    2016-01-01

    Indications for the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in pediatrics has expanded beyond the initial historic treatment of neonates with respiratory failure. Patients with severe refractory cardiopulmonary failure may benefit from ECMO support until the primary insult has subsided or been treated. More recently, ECMO has been used by some centers as a bridge to transplant for irreversible organ failure. Nationwide Children's Hospital is a referral center that supports the use of ECMO as a bridge to transplant and is able to provide transport services for ECMO patients referred for transplant evaluation. In this report, we describe our design of a unique, custom-built sled designed specifically for the EC-145 helicopter to transport pediatric ECMO patients to our institution. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the safe and successful transport of a pediatric ECMO patient in an EC-145 helicopter. PMID:27255881

  1. Transition to routine use of venoarterial extracorporeal oxygenation during lung transplantation could improve early outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Sik; Paik, Hyo Chae; Haam, Seok Jin; Lee, Chang Young; Nam, Kyung Sik; Jung, Hee Suk; Do, Young Woo; Shu, Jee Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The study objective was to compare the outcomes of intraoperative routine use of venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) versus selective use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Between January 2010 and February 2013, 41 lung transplantations (LTx) were performed, and CPB was used as a primary cardiopulmonary support modality by selective basis (group A). Between March 2013 and December 2014, 41 LTx were performed, and ECMO was used routinely (group B). The two groups were compared retrospectively. Results The operative time was significantly longer in group A (group A, 458 min; group B, 420 min; P=0.041). Postoperatively, patients in group B had less fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion (P=0.030). Complications were not different between the two groups. The 30- and 90-day survival rates were better in group B (30-day survival: group A, 75.6%; group B, 95.1%, P=0.012; 90-day survival: group A, 68.3%; group B, 87.8%, P=0.033). The 1-year survival showed better trends in group B, but it was not significant. Forced vital capacity (FVC) at 1, 3, and 6 months after LTx was better in group B than in group A (1 month: group A, 43.8%; group B, 52.9%, P=0.043; 3 months: group A, 45.5%; group B, 59.0%, P=0.005; 6 months: group A, 51.5%; group B, 65.2%, P=0.020). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at 3 months after LTx was better in patients in group B than that in patient in group A (group A, 53.3%; group B, 67.5%, P=0.017). Conclusions Routine use of ECMO during LTx could improve early outcome and postoperative lung function without increased extracorporeal-related complication such as vascular and neurologic complications. PMID:27499961

  2. Guidelines for indications for the use of extracorporeal life support in refractory cardiac arrest. French Ministry of Health.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    Around 50,000 cardiac arrests (CA) occur each year in France and survival remains as low as 3 to 5%. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes several treatment techniques for CA that are regularly updated in French, European, and international guidelines. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been suggested as a therapeutic option in refractory CA since 1976. However, the use of this technique has remained limited to hypothermic CA and to CA occurring during the perioperative period of cardiothoracic surgery, mainly because the results of the initial trials were deceptive. The ease of use of more recent miniaturized ECLS devices has permitted a wider use of the technique in cardiac surgery departments and intensive care units (ICU). Encouraging results have been published recently by several teams in France and Taiwan, in single centre retrospective and prospective cohorts. In these studies, most CA were from toxic or cardiac causes and occurred in the hospital. In these highly selected cohorts, survival with good neurological outcome has been observed in up to 20 to 30% of cases. Nevertheless, the preliminary results of the use of ECLS in out-of-hospital CA in France are very poor, with less than 1% survival being observed. It should be emphasized that the time delay to commencing ECLS in out-of-hospital CA was far greater than that previously reported in in-hospital CA. These contrasting results lead physicians who perform CPR to question the indications and contra-indications of ECLS in these conditions and the French health authorities to question the value of such costly techniques (real cost as well as use of important and highly specialized human resources). The authors shared the following concerns that require emphasis: that an uncontrolled development of ECLS in out-of-hospital CA may lead to its abandonment because of very poor favourable outcome; that ECLS may lead to the survival of patients with poor neurological recovery and the associated

  3. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child 9 years and older; Rescue breathing ...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker... Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return... from the chest or heart during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  8. Drowning. Rescue, resuscitation, and reanimation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J P; Szpilman, D

    2001-06-01

    Several myths about drowning have developed over the years. This article has attempted to dispel some of these myths, as follows: 1. Drowning victims are unable to call or wave for help. 2. "Dry drownings" probably do not exist; if there is no water in the lungs at autopsy, the victim probably was not alive when he or she entered the water. 3. Do not use furosemide to treat the pulmonary edema of drowning; victims may need volume. 4. Seawater drowning does not cause hypovolemia, and freshwater drowning does not cause hypervolemia, hemolysis, or hyperkalemia. 5. Drowning victims swallow much more water than they inhale, resulting in a high risk for vomiting spontaneously or on resuscitation. No discussion of drowning would be complete without mentioning the importance of prevention. Proper pool fencing and water safety training at a young age are instrumental in reducing the risk for drowning. Not leaving an infant or young child unattended in or near water can prevent many of these deaths, especially bathtub drownings. Also crucial is the use of personal flotation devices whenever boating. Proper training in water safety is crucial for participation in water recreation and sporting activities, including SCUBA diving. The incidence of pediatric drowning deaths in the United States has decreased steadily over the past decade, perhaps as a result of increased awareness and attention to drowning-prevention measures (Box 1).

  9. Intensify, resuscitate or palliate: decision making in the critically ill patient with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Quentin A

    2010-01-01

    The survival prospects of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy (HM) are reviewed, as are the variables which might influence decisions about the limitation of life sustaining therapies (LLST). Approximately 40% of patients with HM admitted to ICU survive to hospital discharge and a broad admission policy is warranted. Short term survival is predicted by the severity of the underlying physiological disturbance rather than cancer specific characteristics, although the prognostic importance of neutropenia and prior stem cell transplantation remains to be clarified. Survival to hospital discharge in cancer patients following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is only 6-8%. Poor performance status and progressive deterioration despite ICU support appear to predict worse outcome. Patients should be provided with realistic information in order to make an informed decision about CPR. Decisions about LLST must be individualised. Consideration should be given to the patient's wishes and prognosis, the immediate clinical circumstances and their potential reversibility. PMID:19913962

  10. Cardiopulmonary consequences of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Caples, Sean M; Kara, Tomas; Somers, Virend K

    2005-02-01

    Ongoing research in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suggests strong associations with cardiopulmonary disorders. There is an abundance of studies describing physiological pathways in OSA that acutely impact the cardiovascular system. These mechanisms, if proven to carry over into the daytime hours, could form the basis for clinical disease. The challenge remains in disentangling these mechanistic processes from the many comorbid conditions often present in patients with OSA. Examples include male gender, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, all of which exert their own influence on the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This review discusses some of the physiological mechanisms associated with disordered breathing during sleep and explores putative cardiopulmonary disease associations.

  11. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bryan; Wiley, J Preston

    2002-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has been in use for the treatment of tendinopathies since the early 1990s. The exact mechanism by which ESWT relieves tendon-associated pain is not known; however, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that it can be an effective therapy for patients who have had repeated nonsurgical treatment failures. The highest strength of evidence is shown in randomised controlled trials, of which there are a small number. Reported results for tendinopathies of the shoulder, elbow and heel have shown consistent positive results in favour of ESWT over placebo ESWT in individuals who have failed conservative therapy. These studies provide strong evidence for ESWT as an effective therapy for the treatment of chronic treatment-resistant tendinopathies. There is still much debate over several issues surrounding ESWT that have not been adequately addressed by the literature: high- versus low-energy ESWT, shockwave dosage and number of sessions required for a therapeutic effect. Further research is needed to ascertain the most beneficial protocol for patient care.

  12. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in children].

    PubMed

    Charbit, L; Terdjman, S; Gendreau, M C; Guérin, D; Quental, P; Cukier, J

    1989-01-01

    Upper urinary tract lithiasis is a rare condition in children in comparison to its incidence in the adult population. The distribution of lithiasis in children has been reported to be 56% for idiopathic lithiasis, 20% for metabolic lithiasis, and 25% for lithiasis associated with uropathy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become the treatment of choice for upper urinary tract calculi in the adult patient as well as in children after minor changes and complementary material had permitted the utilization of the Dornier HM-3 lithotripter in these small patients. The reported 3-month success rates range from 47% to 83%, according to the number of patients or kidneys free from calculi. The series reported in the literature have a mean of about 60% completely stone-free kidneys evidenced on the X-ray of the abdomen without preparation at 3 months. Its indications and results are comparable with those of ESWL in the adult. However, the long-term results have as yet not been evaluated and, to date, its hypothetical effects on renal growth or arterial pressure have not yet been elucidated.

  13. [Inflammatory response and haematological disorders in cardiac surgery: toward a more physiological cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Baufreton, C; Corbeau, J-J; Pinaud, F

    2006-05-01

    The systemic inflammatory response in cardiac surgery is closely related to the haemostasis disturbances. It is responsible of a significant morbidity and mortality that was previously suspected to be caused by cardiopulmonary bypass alone. However, it is time now to clearly identify the factors that are material-dependent from that material-independent. From this point of view, off-pump surgery allowed for better comprehension of the multiple sources of the inflammatory response. Numerous pathways are activated, involving complement, platelets, neutrophiles and monocytes. The tissue pathway of the coagulation system, through tissue factor, is of major importance and has to be surgically considered in order to reduce the whole body inflammatory response postoperatively. The quality of the extracorporeal perfusion through its consequences on organ perfusion, particularly in the splanchnic area, also participates to this pathophysiological process. Beyond the progress of technology provided by the industry, particularly the minimally extracorporeal circulation derived from off-pump surgery evolution, the surgical approach is of major importance in the control of the systemic inflammatory response and must not be ignored yet. PMID:16488106

  14. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of primary intrahepatic stones.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Lee, S K; Min, Y I; Lee, M G; Sung, K B; Cho, K S; Lee, S G; Min, P C

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis.

  15. Selective kallikrein inhibitors alter human neutrophil elastase release during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Wachtfogel, Y T; Hack, C E; Nuijens, J H; Kettner, C; Reilly, T M; Knabb, R M; Bischoff, R; Tschesche, H; Wenzel, H; Kucich, U

    1995-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass causes hemorrhagic complications and initiates a biochemical and cellular "whole body inflammatory response." This study investigates whether a variety of selective inhibitors of the contact pathway of intrinsic coagulation modulate complement and neutrophil activation during simulated extracorporeal circulation. After 60 min of recirculation in the presence of the slow tight-binding boronic acid inhibitor, Bz-Pro-Phe-boroArg-OH (10.7 microM), complete inhibition of kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complex formation and marked inhibition of C1-C1-inhibitor complex formation and the release of human neutrophil elastase were observed. Arg15-aprotinin (3.1 microM), Ala357,Arg358 alpha 1-antitrypsin (2.6 microM), and soybean trypsin inhibitor (48.0 microM) either completely or partially inhibited the generation of kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complexes but were less effective inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase release. The second-order rate constants for the inhibition of kallikrein in purified systems are consistent with the order of effectiveness of the inhibitors in blocking human neutrophil elastase release in heparinized blood. Our results suggest that low-molecular-weight selective inhibitors of kallikrein may be effective agents in the attenuation of the contact-mediated inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass.

  16. Cardiopulmonary function and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Wahba, R W; Béïque, F; Kleiman, S J

    1995-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature dealing with cardiopulmonary function during and pulmonary function following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in order to describe the patterns of changes in these functions and the mechanisms involved as well as to identify areas of concern and lacunae in our knowledge. Information was obtained from a Medline literature search and the annual meeting supplements of Anesthesiology, Anesth Analg, Br J Anaesth, and Can J Anaesth. The principal findings were that changes in cardiovascular function due to the insufflation are characterized by an immediate decrease in cardiac index and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In the next few minutes there is partial restoration of cardiac index and resistance but blood pressure and heart rate do not change. The pattern is the result of the interaction between increased abdominal pressure, neurohumoral responses and absorbed CO2. Pulmonary function changes are characterized by reduced compliance without large alterations in PaO2, but tissue oxygenation can be adversely affected due to reduced O2 delivery. A major difficulty in maintaining normocarbia is due to the abdominal distention reducing pulmonary compliance and to CO2 absorption. End tidal CO2 tension is not a reliable index of PaCO2, particularly in ASA III-IV patients. The pattern of lung function following LC is characterized by a transient reduction in lung volumes and capacities with a restrictive breathing pattern and the loss of the abdominal contribution to breathing. Atelectasis also occurs. These changes are qualitatively similar to but of a lesser magnitude than those following "open" abdominal operations. It is concluded that the changes in cardiopulmonary function during laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery lead us to suggest judicious invasive monitoring and careful interpretation in ASA III-IV patients. Lung function following extensive procedures in sick patients has not been

  17. Thrombin and human plasma kallikrein inhibition during simulated extracorporeal circulation block platelet and neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Wachtfogel, Y T; Kettner, C; Hack, C E; Nuijens, J H; Reilly, T M; Knabb, R M; Kucich, U; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Colman, R W

    1998-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass causes hemorrhagic complications, and initiates a chemical and cellular inflammatory response. Contact of blood with synthetic surfaces leads to qualitative and quantitative alterations in platelets, neutrophils, complement, and contact systems. Despite the fact that cardiopulmonary bypass is carried out in the presence of high doses of heparin, there is significant activation of both platelets and neutrophils. Thrombin is protected on cell and fibrin surfaces from antithrombin, even in the presence of high doses of heparin (approximately 5 U/ml). We therefore studied the effect of a small (Mr = 497), highly effective (Ki = 41 pM), reversible tripeptide inhibitor of thrombin, DUP 714 (1 microM), in a well characterized model of simulated extracorporeal circulation. In the absence of DUP 714, platelet counts decreased by 75% 5 min after the start of extracorporeal bypass and increased to 48% at 120 min of recirculation. DUP 714 significantly preserved platelet counts, decreased plasma levels of platelet beta-thromboglobulin levels, but did not prevent a decrease in sensitivity of platelets to adenosine diphosphate. Kallikrein-C1-inhibitor and C1-C1-inhibitor complexes increased progressively from 0.32 U/ml to 0.67 U/ml and from 4.45 U/ml to 7.25 U/ml, respectively, during 120 min of recirculation without DUP 714. Addition of DUP 714 significantly inhibited kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complex formation but did not affect C1-C1-inhibitor complexes. In the absence of DUP 714, human neutrophil elastase levels rose from a baseline of 0.01 +/- 0.00 microg/ml to 1.18 +/- 0.21 microg/ml during 120 min of recirculation. Human neutrophil elastase release at 120 min was significantly inhibited in the presence of DUP 714 to 37% of the value with heparin alone. These results indicated that addition of this novel thrombin (and kallikrein) inhibitor to heparin preserved platelet counts, decreased platelet secretion, and provided the additional benefit of

  18. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in sedation-analgesia].

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Brandstetter, A; Chowanetz, E; Gasser, G; Mossig, H; Schmidt, P

    1988-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of combined sedation and analgesia during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy using the Dornier lithotriptor HM III. We used a combination of a benzodiazepin derivatives with an opioid. We tested the dosage of drugs needed in relation to the length of treatment, the size of the stone and the overall energy output of the lithotriptor. In addition, continuous records were made of the patient's blood pressure and the oxygen saturation in the blood, with and without oxygen insufflation. Our results show that sedation combined with analgesia is a reasonable and useable alternative to general or regional anaesthesia for extracorporeal lithotripsy.

  19. The Cardiocerebral Resuscitation protocol for treatment of out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant public health problem in most westernized industrialized nations. In spite of national and international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care, the overall survival of patients with OHCA was essentially unchanged for 30 years--from 1978 to 2008 at 7.6%. Perhaps a better indicator of Emergency Medical System (EMS) effectiveness in treating patients with OHCA is to focus on the subgroup that has a reasonable chance of survival, e.g., patients found to be in ventricular fibrillation (VF). But even in this subgroup, the average survival rate was 17.7% in the United States, unchanged between 1980 and 2003, and 21% in Europe, unchanged between 1980 and 2004. Prior to 2003, the survival of patients with OHCA, in VF in Tucson, Arizona was less than 9% in spite of incorporating previous guideline recommendations. An alternative (non-guidelines) approach to the therapy of patients with OHCA and a shockable rhythm, called Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, based on our extensive physiologic laboratory studies, was introduced in Tucson in 2003, in rural Wisconsin in 2004, and in selected EMS areas in the metropolitan Phoenix area in 2005. Survival of patients with OHCA due to VF treated with Cardiocerebral Resuscitation in rural Wisconsin increased to 38% and in 60 EMS systems in Arizona to 39%. In 2004, we began a statewide program to advocate chest compression-only CPR for bystanders of witnessed primary OHCA. Over the next five years, we found that survival of patients with a shockable rhythm was 17.7% in those treated with standard bystander CPR (mouth-to-mouth ventilations plus chest compression) compared to 33.7% for those who received bystander chest-compression-only CPR. This article on Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, by invitation following a presentation at the 2011 Danish Society Emergency Medical Conference, summarizes the results of therapy of patients with primary OHCA treated with

  20. Drugs during delivery room resuscitation--what, when and why?

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Vishal S; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2013-12-01

    Although seldom needed, the short list of medications used for delivery room resuscitation of the newborn includes epinephrine and volume expanders. Naloxone, sodium bicarbonate and the use of other vasopressors are no longer considered helpful during acute resuscitation and are more often administered in the post-resuscitative period under special circumstances. This review examines the existing literature for the two commonly used medications in neonatal resuscitation and identifies the many knowledge gaps requiring further research.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  2. Therapeutic effects of various methods of MSC transplantation on cerebral resuscitation following cardiac arrest in rats

    PubMed Central

    LEONG, KA-HONG; ZHOU, LI-LI; LIN, QING-MING; WANG, PENG; YAO, LAN; HUANG, ZI-TONG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted into the brain of rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by three different methods: Direct stereotaxic injection into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LV), intra-carotid administration (A), and femoral venous infusion (V). The three different methods were compared by observing the effects of MSCs on neurological function following global cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, in order to determine the optimum method for MSC transplantation. MSCs were transplanted in groups A, V and LV following the restoration of spontaneous circulation. Neurological deficit scale scores were higher in the transplantation groups, as compared with the control group. Neuronal damage, brain water content and serum levels of S100 calcium-binding protein B were reduced in the hippo-campus and temporal cortex of the transplantation groups, as compared with the control rats following resuscitation. MSCs were able to migrate inside the brain tissue following transplantation, and were predominantly distributed in the hippocampus and temporal cortex where the neurons were vulnerable during global cerebral ischemia. These results suggest that transplantation of MSCs may notably improve neurological function following CPR in a rat model. Of the three different methods of MSC transplantation tested in the present study, LV induced the highest concentration of MSCs in brain areas vulnerable to global cerebral ischemia, and therefore, produced the best neurological outcome. PMID:26935023

  3. [Complications of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, G J; David, R D; Fuchs, A M

    1989-01-01

    The authors reviewed treatments performed worldwide using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy since its introduction in West Germany in 1980 to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality and its potential risks. The prevention of complications related to patients or shock wave energy are discussed, as well as the cardiovascular complications related to immersion, prevention of lesions to nearby organs, treatment of ESWL-induced bleeding, treatment of post-ESWL ureteral obstruction, prevention and treatment of infection, and long-term biological effects. Currently, less than 5% of patients are excluded from treatment with ESWL due to technical reasons or increased risk of periprocedural complications. Patients with cardiac pacemakers have been treated safely. Calcifications of the ipsilateral renal artery or aorta are considered only relative contraindications. However, certain technical limitations exist; i.e., the Dornier HM-3 cannot support patients weighing more than 135 kg., and patient height is also a limiting factor. There is an impressively low incidence of complications related to the energy of the shock wave. The severity and extent of damage are dose- and pressure-dependent. The potential for induction of cardiac arrhythmias secondary to the shock wave exists; however, effective prevention is achieved by coupling the shock wave discharge to the electrocardiogram. Complications of immersion are also extremely rare and can be avoided by careful preoperative evaluation. Damage to nearby organs such as pulmonary, gastric, duodenal or colonic contusions, constitute a very infrequent complication. Elevations of liver enzymes have also been noted post-lithotripsy. However, all these changes were transient and had no significant clinical consequences. Management of post-ESWL ureteral obstruction is by endourological procedures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Damage control resuscitation: history, theory and technique

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    Damage control resuscitation (DCR) represents the natural evolution of the initial concept of damage control surgery. It currently includes early blood product transfusion, immediate arrest and/or temporization of ongoing hemorrhage (i.e., temporary intravascular shunts and/or balloon tamponade) as well as restoration of blood volume and physiologic/hematologic stability. As a result, DCR addresses the early coagulopathy of trauma, avoids massive crystalloid resuscitation and leaves the peritoneal cavity open when a patient approaches physiologic exhaustion without improvement. This concept also applies to severe injuries within anatomical transition zones as well as extremities. This review will discuss each of these concepts in detail. PMID:24461267

  5. The risk factors and prognostic implication of acute pulmonary edema in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dae-hyun; Kim, Joonghee; Rhee, Joong Eui; Kim, Taeyun; Kim, Kyuseok; Jo, You Hwan; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Yu Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary edema is frequently observed after a successful resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Currently, its risk factors and prognostic implications are mostly unknown. Methods Adult OHCA patients with a presumed cardiac etiology who achieved sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in emergency department were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped according to the severity of consolidation on their initial chest X-ray (group I, no consolidation; group II, patchy consolidations; group III, consolidation involving an entire lobe; group IV, total white-out of any lung). The primary objective was to identify the risk factors of developing severe pulmonary edema (group III or IV). The secondary objective was to evaluate the association between long-term prognosis and the severity of pulmonary edema. Results One hundred and seven patients were included. Total duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and initial pCO2 level were both independent predictors of developing severe pulmonary edema with their odds ratio (OR) being 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.04; per 1 minute) and 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.07; per 1 mmHg), respectively. The long term prognosis was significantly poor in patients with severe pulmonary edema with a OR for good outcome (6-month cerebral performance category 1 or 2) being 0.22 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.79) in group III and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.63) in group IV compared to group I. Conclusion The duration of CPR and initial pCO2 level were both independent predictors for the development of severe pulmonary edema after resuscitation in emergency department. The severity of the pulmonary edema was significantly associated with long-term outcome.

  6. Elimination of Gaseous Microemboli from Cardiopulmonary Bypass using Hypobaric Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Keith E.; Rosinski, David J.; Schonberger, Robert B.; Kubera, Cathryn; Mathew, Eapen S.; Nichols, Frank; Dyckman, William; Courtin, Francois; Sherburne, Bradford; Bordey, Angelique F; Gross, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous gaseous microemboli (GME) are delivered into the arterial circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These emboli damage end organs through multiple mechanisms that are thought to contribute to neurocognitive deficits following cardiac surgery. Here, we use hypobaric oxygenation to reduce dissolved gases in blood and greatly reduce GME delivery during CPB. Methods Variable subatmospheric pressures were applied to 100% oxygen sweep gas in standard hollow fiber microporous membrane oxygenators to oxygenate and denitrogenate blood. GME were quantified using ultrasound while air embolism from the surgical field was simulated experimentally. We assessed end organ tissues in swine postoperatively using light microscopy. Results Variable sweep gas pressures allowed reliable oxygenation independent of CO2 removal while denitrogenating arterial blood. Hypobaric oxygenation produced dose-dependent reductions of Doppler signals produced by bolus and continuous GME loads in vitro. Swine were maintained using hypobaric oxygenation for four hours on CPB with no apparent adverse events. Compared with current practice standards of O2/air sweep gas, hypobaric oxygenation reduced GME volumes exiting the oxygenator (by 80%), exiting the arterial filter (95%), and arriving at the aortic cannula (∼100%), indicating progressive reabsorption of emboli throughout the CPB circuit in vivo. Analysis of brain tissue suggested decreased microvascular injury under hypobaric conditions. Conclusions Hypobaric oxygenation is an effective, low-cost, common sense approach that capitalizes on the simple physical makeup of GME to achieve their near-total elimination during CPB. This technique holds great potential for limiting end-organ damage and improving outcomes in a variety of patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. PMID:24206970

  7. Enhanced elimination of dabigatran through extracorporeal methods.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nadia I; Brunetti, Luigi; Juurlink, David N

    2015-03-01

    Several pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dabigatran possesses a number of ideal properties for expedited removal via extracorporeal methods. However, this practice has not been prospectively evaluated in patients with life-threatening bleeding or requiring emergency surgery secondary to dabigatran-associated coagulopathy. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the published evidence surrounding extracorporeal removal of dabigatran in the setting of emergency surgery or life-threatening bleeding. A query of MEDLINE, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google Scholar using the terms dabigatran, dabigatran etexilate, hemodialysis, renal replacement therapy, hemorrhage, and atrial fibrillation was used to retrieve relevant literature. Furthermore, a manual search of the references of the identified literature was performed to capture additional data. Current evidence suggests that extracorporeal removal of dabigatran may play a role in the setting of life-threatening bleeding and emergent surgery. Conflicting evidence exists with regard to the potential for redistribution based on serum dabigatran concentrations. In addition, a number of practicalities must be considered before incorporating this technique in the clinical setting. Extracorporeal removal of dabigatran may be a treatment modality in selected patients who require emergency reversal.

  8. Extracorporeal Irradiation in Malignant Bone Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, R B; Jha, A K; Neupane, P; Chaurasia, P P; Sigdel, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) is relatively a rare method used in the management of malignant bone tumors (MBT). It consists of en block removal of the tumor bearing bone segment, removal of the tumor from the bone, irradiation and re implantation back in the body. PMID:27549504

  9. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for peyronie disease.

    PubMed

    Groth, T; Monga, M

    2003-01-01

    While surgery is the mainstay of therapy for Peyronie disease requiring correction of angulation, interest has grown in the application of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) as a minimally invasive approach. This article reviews the current literature reporting the use of ESWT for Peyronie disease.

  10. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones.

    PubMed

    Rawat, B; Fache, J S; Burhenne, H J

    1992-01-01

    Encouraging results with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic duct stones have been reported from Europe. We present our experience with the first two North American patients, treated with excellent results in one and limited clinical improvement in the other patient at 1 year follow-up. Targeting of pancreatic duct stones was achieved with either fluoroscopy or ultrasound.

  11. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of pancreatic calculi].

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, H; Hagenmüller, F; Classen, M

    1990-08-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave fragmentation of pancreatic stones is a complementary non-surgical treatment in selected patients with chronic pancreatitis. The procedure has proven to be safe and technically effective. Preliminary clinical results indicate therapeutic success rates in terms of pain disappearance or reduction in more than 90% of the patients. The indication should be taken into consideration before surgical intervention.

  12. Extracorporeal delivery of a therapeutic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Pu, Jun; Yang, Xiaolan; Feng, Tao; Liu, Fang; Wang, Deqiang; Hu, Xiaolei; Gao, Ang; Liu, Hongbo; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    To remove circulating harmful small biochemical(s)/substrates causing/deteriorating certain chronic disease, therapeutic enzyme(s) delivered via vein injection/infusion suffer(s) from immunoresponse after repeated administration at proper intervals for a long time and short half-lives since delivery. Accordingly, a novel, generally-applicable extracorporeal delivery of a therapeutic enzyme is proposed, by refitting a conventional hemodialysis device bearing a dialyzer, two pumps and connecting tubes, to build a routine extracorporeal blood circuit but a minimal dialysate circuit closed to circulate the therapeutic enzyme in dialysate. A special quantitative index was derived to reflect pharmacological action and thus pharmacodynamics of the delivered enzyme. With hyperuricemic blood in vitro and hyperuricemic geese, a native uricase via extracorporeal delivery was active in the dialysate for periods much longer than that in vivo through vein injection, and exhibited the expected pharmacodynamics to remove uric acid in hyperuricemic blood in vitro and multiple forms of uric acid in hyperuricemic geese. Therefore, the extracorporeal delivery approach of therapeutic enzymes was effective to remove unwanted circulating small biochemical(s)/substrates, and was expected to avoid immunogenicity problems of therapeutic enzymes after repeated administration at proper intervals for a long time due to no contacts with macromolecules and cells in the body. PMID:27477538

  13. Extracorporeal delivery of a therapeutic enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun; Pu, Jun; Yang, Xiaolan; Feng, Tao; Liu, Fang; Wang, Deqiang; Hu, Xiaolei; Gao, Ang; Liu, Hongbo; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    To remove circulating harmful small biochemical(s)/substrates causing/deteriorating certain chronic disease, therapeutic enzyme(s) delivered via vein injection/infusion suffer(s) from immunoresponse after repeated administration at proper intervals for a long time and short half-lives since delivery. Accordingly, a novel, generally-applicable extracorporeal delivery of a therapeutic enzyme is proposed, by refitting a conventional hemodialysis device bearing a dialyzer, two pumps and connecting tubes, to build a routine extracorporeal blood circuit but a minimal dialysate circuit closed to circulate the therapeutic enzyme in dialysate. A special quantitative index was derived to reflect pharmacological action and thus pharmacodynamics of the delivered enzyme. With hyperuricemic blood in vitro and hyperuricemic geese, a native uricase via extracorporeal delivery was active in the dialysate for periods much longer than that in vivo through vein injection, and exhibited the expected pharmacodynamics to remove uric acid in hyperuricemic blood in vitro and multiple forms of uric acid in hyperuricemic geese. Therefore, the extracorporeal delivery approach of therapeutic enzymes was effective to remove unwanted circulating small biochemical(s)/substrates, and was expected to avoid immunogenicity problems of therapeutic enzymes after repeated administration at proper intervals for a long time due to no contacts with macromolecules and cells in the body. PMID:27477538

  14. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Poli de Figueiredo, Luiz F

    2005-04-01

    Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field. PMID:15880253

  15. Disappearing Acts: Resuscitative Reflections on the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    To resuscitate means to revive or make go on. This paper is an exploration of my first six months at a Canadian university as a doctoral student. Through a chronological narrative, I explore my experiences through the governing relations of the academy as a way to provoke dialogue about the role of feminist researcher in the institution. By…

  16. Sufentanil disposition during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Flezzani, P; Alvis, M J; Jacobs, J R; Schilling, M M; Bai, S; Reves, J G

    1987-11-01

    In order to investigate the ability of a computer-assisted continuous infusion (CACI) system to maintain constant plasma levels of sufentanil during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) using pharmacokinetic data derived from healthy surgical patients to determine the infusion rate, ten patients were anaesthetized with diazepam, enflurane and oxygen until ten minutes prior to the expected time of initiation of CPB. At that point, an infusion of sufentanil, aimed to reach a central compartment concentration of 5 ng.ml-1, was started via CACI. Plasma concentrations of sufentanil, haematocrit, total protein and albumin concentrations, and nasopharyngeal and CPB inflow temperatures were obtained at predetermined intervals before and up to 90 min after the initiation of CPB. Plasma concentrations of sufentanil reached 3.8 +/- 0.4 ng.ml-1 before CPB and approached the 5.0 ng.ml-1 set point (4.7 +/- 0.4 ng.ml-1) over the 90 min of CPB. In conclusion, our results show that it is possible to obtain stable plasma levels of sufentanil on CPB using a pharmacokinetically driven infusion scheme; however, our data suggest that use of such a system may lead to accumulation of drug during CPB. PMID:2960465

  17. Cardiopulmonary loading in motocross riding.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Tomi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2007-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine physiological responses during motocross riding. Nine Finnish A-level motocross riders performed a 15-min ride at a motocross track and a test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the laboratory. Cardiopulmonary strain was measured continuously during the ride as well as in the VO2max test. During the ride, mean VO2 was 32 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (s = 4), which was 71% (s = 12) of maximum, while ventilation (V(E)) was 73% (s = 15) of its maximum. The relative VO2 and V(E) values during the riding correlated with successful riding performance (r = 0.80, P < 0.01 and r = 0.79, P < 0.01, respectively). Mean heart rate was maintained at 95% (s = 7) of its maximum. Mean blood lactate concentration was 5.0 mmol x l(-1) (s = 2.0) after the ride. A reduction of 16% (P < 0.001) in maximal isometric handgrip force was observed. In conclusion, motocross causes riders great physical stress. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for the isometric and dynamic muscle actions experienced during a ride. PMID:17497401

  18. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Luca; Sasso, Francesco; Gulino, Gaetano; Falabella, Roberto; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2008-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1980, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become the first therapeutic option in most cases of upper-tract urolithiasis, and the technique has been used for pediatric renal stones since the first report of success in 1986. Lithotripter effectiveness depends on the power expressed at the focal point. Closely correlated with the power is the pain produced by the shockwaves. By reducing the dimensions of the focus, it becomes possible to treat the patient without anesthesia or analgesia but at the cost of a higher re-treatment rate. Older children often tolerate SWL under intravenous sedation, and minimal anesthesia is applicable for most patients treated with second- and third-generation lithotripters. Ureteral stenting before SWL has been controversial. Current data suggest that preoperative stent placement should be reserved for a few specific cases. Stone-free rates in pediatric SWL exceed 70% at 3 months, with the rate reaching 100% in many series. Even the low-birth-weight infant can be treated with a stone-free as high as 100%. How can one explain the good results? Possible explanations include the lesser length of the child's ureter, which partially compensates for the narrower lumen. Moreover, the pediatric ureter is more elastic and distensible, which facilitates passage of stone fragments and prevents impaction. Another factor is shockwave reproduction in the body: there is a 10% to 20% damping of shockwave energy as it travels through 6 cm of body tissue, so the small body volume of the child allows the shockwaves to be transmitted with little loss of energy. There are several concerns regarding the possible detrimental effect of shockwaves on growing kidneys. Various renal injures have been documented with all type of lithotripters. On the other hand, several studies have not shown adverse effects. In general, SWL is considered to be the method of choice for managing the majority of urinary stones in children of all

  19. Disparities in Survival with Bystander CPR following Cardiopulmonary Arrest Based on Neighborhood Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shari L.; Bhandari, Rohit K.; Kumar, Sunil D.

    2016-01-01

    The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA) is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p = 0.05), with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, resp.). Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p = 0.04). Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p = 0.03). Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all. PMID:27379186

  20. Assessment of the delta opioid agonist DADLE in a rat model of lethal hemorrhage treated by emergency preservation and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Drabek, Tomas; Han, Fei; Garman, Robert H; Stezoski, Jason; Tisherman, Samuel A; Stezoski, S William; Morhard, Ryan C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Emergency preservation and resuscitation (EPR) is a new approach for resuscitation of exsanguination cardiac arrest (CA) victims. EPR uses a cold aortic flush to induce deep hypothermic preservation during no-flow to buy time for transport and damage control surgery, followed by resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We reported previously that 20-60 min EPR in rats was associated with intact outcome, while 75 min EPR resulted in high mortality and neurological impairment in survivors. The delta opioid agonist DADLE ([D-Ala(2),D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin) was shown previously to be protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple organs, including brain. We hypothesized that DADLE could augment neurological outcome after EPR in rats. After rapid lethal hemorrhage, EPR was initiated by perfusion with ice-cold crystalloid to induce hypothermia (15 degrees C). After 75 min EPR, resuscitation was attempted with CPB. After randomization, three groups were studied (n=10 per group): DADLE 0mg/kg (D0), 4 mg/kg (D4) or 10mg/kg (D10) added to the flush and during reperfusion. Survival, overall performance category (OPC; 1=normal, 5=death), neurological deficit score (NDS; 0-10% normal, 100%=max deficit), and histological damage score (HDS) were assessed in survivors on day 3. In D0 group, 2/10 rats survived, while in D4 and D10 groups, 4/10 and 5/10 rats survived, respectively (p=NS). Survival time (h) was 26.7+/-28.2 in D0, 36.3+/-31.9 in D4 and 47.1+/-30.3 in D10 groups, respectively (p=0.3). OPC, NDS and HDS were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, DADLE failed to confer benefit on functional or histological outcome in our model of prolonged rat EPR.

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated successfully by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a nearly drowned patient.

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Kazuma; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Asada, Toshifumi; Hiruma, Takahiro; Doi, Kento; Gunshin, Masataka; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Anraku, Masaki; Nakajima, Susumu; Nakajima, Jun; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    This report highlights about one acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) case after near-drowning resuscitated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Few cases have been reported about ECMO use for near-drowning and in most of these cases, ECMO was initiated within the first week. However, in our report, we would like to emphasize that seemingly irreversible secondary worsening of ARDS after nearly drowned patient was successfully treated by ECMO use more than 1 week after near-drowning followed by discharge without home oxygen therapy, social support, or any complication. This is probably due to sufficient lung rest for ventilator-associated lung injury during ECMO use. Based on our case's clinical course, intensive care unit physicians must consider ECMO even in the late phase of worsened ARDS after near-drowning.

  2. Small intestine perforation due to accidental press-through package ingestion in an elderly patient with Lewy body dementia and recurrent cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Tsuyoshi; Tokumaru, Aya M; Harada, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    An octogenarian with Lewy body dementia presented to our hospital in cardiac arrest and was successfully resuscitated. Although he had abdominal pain the previous day, small bowel wall oedema and ascites were the only abnormalities noted on abdominal CT. Despite treatment with catecholamines and antimicrobials, he died of recurrent cardiopulmonary arrest later the same day. An autopsy showed that the patient's death was the result of a small bowel perforation caused by accidental ingestion of a press-through package (PTP). Precautions regarding PTP use and improved packaging design are necessary to prevent PTP ingestion, especially in elderly patients with dementia. PMID:26678691

  3. 21 CFR 870.4430 - Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. 870.4430 Section 870.4430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4430 Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870.4250 Section 870.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which is... through the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  6. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. 870.4350... bypass oxygenator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange... the FDA guidance document entitled “Guidance for Cardiopulmonary Bypass Oxygenators 510(k) Submissions.”...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer. 870.4230 Section... bypass defoamer. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer is a device used in conjunction with an oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to remove gas bubbles from the blood....

  8. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  9. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  10. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  11. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  12. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  18. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  19. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  20. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  1. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  2. 17 degrees Celsius body temperature--resuscitation successful?

    PubMed

    Hungerer, Sven; Ebenhoch, Michael; Bühren, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The resuscitation of patients with accidental profound hypothermia is challenging. A 17-year-old man got lost on the first of January, after a New Year's Eve party in the foothills of the Alps. After a search of four hours, he was found unconscious with fixed pupils, a Glasgow Coma Scale of three points, and a body temperature below 20° Celsius. There were no signs for traumatic injuries. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed no heart activity. Basic life support was begun by the mountain rescue service and continued by the medical helicopter team. The patient was transferred under continuous cardiac massage, airway management with intubation and intravenous line via external jugular vein by helicopter to the nearest hospital for analysis of serum potassium. Body temperature was 17°C measured by urinary bladder electronic thermometer. The serum potassium was 7.55 mmol/L, therefore the patient was transferred by helicopter to the next cardiovascular center for rewarming with extracorporal circulation (ECC). Under the rewarming process with ECC, the heart activity restarted at 25°C with external defibrillation. The patient was rewarmed to 37.2°C after four hours of ECC. Cerebral CT scans after 24 h and 48 h revealed no significant hypoxia and after extubation the early rehabilitation process started. After six weeks, the patient regained the ability to walk and started to communicate on a basic level. After 54 days the patient presented signs of septic shock. After initial stabilization and CT diagnostic, a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative finding was a total necrosis of the small bowel and colon. The patient died on the same day. Post mortem examination showed a necrotizing enterocolitis with transmural necrosis of the bowel. Survivors of uncontrolled profound hypothermia below 20°C core temperature are rare. The epicrisis is often prolonged by complications of different causes. The present case reports a necrotizing enterocolitis with a non

  3. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  4. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in anomalous kidneys.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, S; Sarica, K; Ozdiler, E; Dinçel, C; Küpeli, S; Gögüş, O

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, stones in anomalous kidneys have been removed by open or percutaneous surgery. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) with the Dornier MPL 9000 lithotripter was performed in seven patients with horseshoe kidneys, four with pelvic ectopic kidneys, and six with malrotated kidneys. Twelve patients (71%) needed repeated treatments. A total of 11 patients (65%) in all the groups were stone free, and four patients had asymptomatic residual fragments no more than 5 mm in diameter. In the remaining two patients, no sign of stone disintegration was observed, and they underwent open surgery. Extracorporeal lithotripsy is the treatment of choice for stones in horseshoe or malrotated kidneys but is not useful for stones in most pelvic kidneys.

  5. Artificial lung and extracorporeal gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Bensberg, R; Dembinski, R; Kopp, R; Kuhlen, R

    2005-03-01

    Over the last years, several observational studies have suggested that extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) may be an important contribution to clinical algorithms for the treatment of most severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Today ECLA is used only as a rescue therapy in life threatening gas exchange disorders if maximal conventional therapy fails to prevent from hypoxemia. With subsequent reduction of complications and improvement of biocompability, extracorporeal membrane oxygentation (ECMO) indications may be extendend to treat patients earlier and not only in rescue situations along the original idea to buy the lung some time to heal by avoiding further ventilator associated lung injury. Veno-venous ECMO therapy at present is an important therapeutic option in severe ARDS with persisiting life threatening gas exchange disorder as a rescue therapy. The development of smaller, less complex and more secure ECMO or pumpless veno-arterial ECLA systems has the potential to perform controlled studies of its use in ARDS and potentially expand indications.

  6. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and lymph node calcification].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, E; Fujime, M; Niijima, T

    1987-05-01

    A female patient with calculi in the left kidney and calcified lymph nodes in the vicinity of the left renal pelvis was treated successfully with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The simultaneous action of the shock waves on the calcified lymph nodes did not cause any alteration of the lymph node structure. Thus a shock-wave treatment can be carried out even in the presence of a calcified lymph node without complications.

  7. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of pancreatic calculi].

    PubMed

    Sauerbruch, T

    1990-05-01

    Using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) pancreatic stones may be disintegrated. Acute adverse effects directly attributably to shock wave lithotripsy are rare. More than half of the patients will exhibit complete clearance of the pancreatic duct system after ESWL, endoscopic sphincterotomy and extraction of fragments. Most of the patients in whom the ducts could be cleared from the stones also showed improvement of chronic pancreatic pain. These findings, however, have to be substantiated by larger clinical studies with longer follow-up periods.

  8. [Ureterorenoscopy combined with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    González Cabrera, L A; Oro Ortiz, J

    1989-01-01

    In May 1986, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and endourologic procedures became available in the treatment of lithiasis at the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital. The present study describes our experience and the results achieved during a 12-month period using endourologic procedures. During this period 65 URS procedures were performed to treat post-ESWL ureteral obstruction, and 22 to push the stone up to the kidney for subsequent ESWL treatment.

  9. [Current status of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Wilbert, D M; Jocham, D; Eisenberger, F; Chaussy, C

    1994-11-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy has become an established standard procedure for the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Almost 100 lithotripters are installed in large and medium-sized urological departments in Germany. The number of treatments per year averages 660 ESWL sessions per hospital. Multifunctional use and non-urological ESWL therapy ensure maximum utilization of the lithotripter units. In additional hospitals mobile lithotripsy is provided. At present there is a trend toward ambulatory ESWL treatment.

  10. Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, J.

    1987-01-01

    Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has proved to be a revolutionary advance in the treatment of renal stone disease. It, itself, is non-invasive but may necessitate or be used as an adjunct to more invasive auxiliary procedures. The basic principles of lithotripsy, the clinical experience thus far and probable future applications are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3330235

  11. [Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

    2014-04-01

    A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching.

  12. Advances in neonatal extracorporeal support: the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the artificial placenta.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; Shaffer, Andrew W; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-06-01

    This review addresses the history and evolution of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), with a discussion of the indications, contraindications, modalities, outcomes, and impact of ECMO. Controversies surrounding novel uses of ECMO in neonates, namely ECMO for premature infants and ex utero intrapartum therapy with transition to ECMO, are discussed. The development of an extracorporeal artificial placenta for support of premature infants is presented, including the rationale, research, and challenges. ECMO has had a dramatic effect on the care of critically ill neonates over the past 4 decades, and there is great potential to expand these benefits in the future.

  13. [Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

    2014-04-01

    A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

  14. Advances in fluid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Lorraine N.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.

    2001-01-01

    The optimal fluid for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock would combine the volume expansion and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood without the need for cross-matching or the risk of disease transmission. Although the ideal fluid has yet to be discovered, current options are discussed in this review, including crystalloids, colloids, blood and blood substitutes. The future role of blood substitutes is not yet defined, but the potential advantages in trauma or elective surgery may prove to be enormous. PMID:11407826

  15. Naloxone during neonatal resuscitation: acknowledging the unknown.

    PubMed

    Guinsburg, Ruth; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2006-03-01

    There are no studies to support or to refute the current recommendations regarding naloxone concentration, routes for administration, and doses in neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. Given the lack of supporting evidence, naloxone should not be given routinely in the delivery room to depressed neonates whether or not they are exposed to opioids before delivery because no important improvement has been documented and the drug may have potential short- and long-term harmful effects.

  16. Rapid Switch from Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping to Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support Using Perclose ProGlide

    PubMed Central

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Adachi, Yusuke; Taniguchi, Yousuke; Wada, Hiroshi; Momomura, Shin-ichi; Fujita, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a patient who needed rapid switch from intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) to percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS)/venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. It is difficult to switch from IABP to PCPS, because 0.035-inch guidewires cannot pass the IABP guidewire lumen (0.025-inch compatible), and the IABP sheath needs to be removed together with the IABP catheter. First, a 0.025-inch guidewire was inserted into the IABP wire lumen, and then the IABP catheter together with the 8 Fr IABP sheath was removed, leaving the 0.025-inch guidewire in place. We used the Perclose ProGlide for safe and rapid exchange of the 0.025-inch guidewire for a 0.035-inch guidewire. This allowed insertion of a PCPS cannula and the prompt initiation of PCPS. PMID:26783472

  17. Design and implementation of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial (PART).

    PubMed

    Wang, Henry E; Prince, David K; Stephens, Shannon W; Herren, Heather; Daya, Mohamud; Richmond, Neal; Carlson, Jestin; Warden, Craig; Colella, M Riccardo; Brienza, Ashley; Aufderheide, Tom P; Idris, Ahamed H; Schmicker, Robert; May, Susanne; Nichol, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Airway management is an important component of resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The optimal approach to advanced airway management is unknown. The Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial (PART) will compare the effectiveness of endotracheal intubation (ETI) and Laryngeal Tube (LT) insertion upon 72-h survival in adult OHCA. Encompassing United States Emergency Medical Services agencies affiliated with the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC), PART will use a cluster-crossover randomized design. Participating subjects will include adult, non-traumatic OHCA requiring bag-valve-mask ventilation. Trial interventions will include (1) initial airway management with ETI and (2) initial airway management with LT. The primary and secondary trial outcomes are 72-h survival and return of spontaneous circulation. Additional clinical outcomes will include airway management process and adverse events. The trial will enroll a total of 3000 subjects. Results of PART may guide the selection of advanced airway management strategies in OHCA. PMID:26851059

  18. Intestinal epithelial apoptosis initiates gut mucosal injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed

    MohanKumar, Krishnan; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Kelly, David R; Garzon, Steven A; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Neonates and young infants exposed to extracorporeal circulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass are at risk of developing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with multi-organ dysfunction. We used a piglet model of ECMO to investigate the hypothesis that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that precedes villous damage during ECMO-related bowel injury. Healthy 3-week-old piglets were subjected to ECMO for up to 8 h. Epithelial apoptosis was measured in histopathological analysis, nuclear imaging, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Intestinal mast cells were isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, phospho-p38 MAPK, and fas ligand expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Piglet ECMO was associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis. Extensive apoptotic changes were noted on villus tips and in scattered crypt cells after 2 h of ECMO. After 8 h, the villi were denuded and apoptotic changes were evident in a majority of crypt cells. Increased circulating I-FABP levels, a marker of gut epithelial injury, showed that epithelial injury occurred during ECMO. We detected increased cleaved caspase-8, but not cleaved caspase-9, in epithelial cells indicating that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was active. ECMO was associated with increased fas ligand expression in intestinal mast cells, which was induced through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that initiates gut mucosal injury in a piglet model of ECMO.

  19. The Sunflower Cardiopulmonary Research Project of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Leon

    A three year project designed to determine the value of a health program incorporating a cardiopulmonary fitness program is described. The instructional programs were in heart health, pulmonary health, nutrition, and physical fitness. A noncompetitive exercise and fitness period was employed in addition to the normal physical education time.…

  20. Saline resuscitation after fixed-volume hemorrhage. Role of resuscitation volume and rate of infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M P; Gala, G J; Carlson, D E; Sutherland, B E; Gann, D S

    1992-01-01

    The authors have reported previously that small-volume resuscitation (1.8 x bled volume) with 0.9% NaCl restores blood volume and attenuates hormonal responses after large hemorrhage without correction of arterial hypotension. The authors studied the role of rate of infusion in this observation in chronically prepared dogs (aortic flow probe, right atrial pressure and volume, and arterial catheters) after 30% hemorrhage (24.1 +/- 0.4 mL/kg). After 30 minutes, subjects were observed either without treatment (no resuscitation) or with infusion of 43 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl over 3 hours by one of three protocols: (1) impulse infusion over 10 minutes, (2) variable rate infusion, bolus with tapering infusion, or (3) constant rate infusion. Significant improvement in cardiac output and in blood volume and significant decreases of vasopressin and arterial catecholamines were observed in all fluid-treated groups. This benefit was relatively independent of rate of infusion, although impulse infusion produced greater early improvement, which dissipated with time, and constant rate infusion produced better late results. In none of the fluid-treated groups were these improvements reflected in improved mean arterial pressure compared with the no resuscitation group. The authors conclude that small-volume, slow-rate saline infusion produces physiologic benefits that cannot be assessed by easily measured clinical parameters. Thus, early resuscitation after trauma could aid patients even if arterial pressure is unchanged. This benefit might be even greater in patients with uncontrolled bleeding because arterial pressure, and hence bleeding, may not be increased by resuscitation of this type. A reassessment of the value of prehospital fluid resuscitation in the injured patient is warranted. PMID:1503518

  1. Modified technique of cavoatrial tumor thrombectomy without cardiopulmonary by-pass and hypothermic circulatory arrest: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyński, Robert; Przydacz, Mikolaj; Wiatr, Tomasz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Sadowski, Jerzy; Chłosta, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditionally, tumor thrombi extending into the right atrium have been managed by open surgery with sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass circulation and hypothermic circulatory arrest, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Here, we evaluate the results of cavoatrial thrombectomy using our own, Foley catheter assisted-technique, obviating the need for thoracotomy, extracorporeal circulation, and/or hypothermic circulatory arrest. Material and methods Between June 2013 and January 2015, 4 consecutive patients underwent cavoatrial thrombectomy performed with our own, Foley catheter assisted technique, via Chevron incision, with no need for extracorporeal circulation or hypothermy for renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium. Analyses of patients’ data from a prospectively maintained database with respect to perioperative characteristics, morbidity and mortality were performed. Results The total mean duration of surgery was 255 minutes. The mean time of total IVC (inferior vena cava) occlusion was 90 seconds. The average blood loss volume, timed from the beginning of cavotomy incision until its closure, was 1200 ml. The total mean intraoperative blood loss was 3,150 ml. There was no perioperative death. Postoperative complications included one transient acute kidney injury requiring one-off hemodialysis and one re-operation due to bleeding. The follow-up time ranged between 12 to 17 months. None of the patients developed disease recurrence. All patients were still alive at the time of study completion. Conclusions Obtained results support the validity of our own, Foley catheter assisted technique, without cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium. PMID:26568872

  2. A novel approach in extracorporeal circulation: individual, integrated, and interactive heart-lung assist (I3-Assist).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Fiehe, Sandra; Kaufmann, Tim; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a well-established technique for the treatment of different cardiac and pulmonary diseases, e.g., congenital heart disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, severely ill patients who cannot be weaned from the heart-lung machine directly after surgery have to be put on ECLS for further therapy. Although both systems include identical components, a seamless transition is not possible yet. The adaption of the circuit to the patients' size and demand is limited owing to the components available. The project I³-Assist aims at a novel concept for extracorporeal circulation. To better match the patient's therapeutic demand of support, an individual number of one-size oxygenators and heat exchangers will be combined. A seamless transition between cardiopulmonary bypass and ECLS will be possible as well as the exchange of components during therapy to enhance circuit maintenance throughout long-term support. Until today, a novel oxygenator and heat exchanger along with a simplified manufacturing protocol have been established. The first layouts of the unit to allow the spill- and bubble-free connection and disconnection of modules as well as improved cannulas and a rotational pump are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Tests were performed according to current guidelines in vitro and in vivo. The test results show the feasibility and potential of the concept. PMID:24327525

  3. Timing of heparin and perfusion temperature during procurement of organs with extracorporeal support in donors after circulatory determination of death.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Hall, Candice M; Cook, Keith E; Bartlett, Robert H; Arenas, Juan D; Punch, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Despite successful resuscitation of donors after circulatory determination of death (DCD) with extracorporeal support (ECS), the technique is limited by ethical concerns about donor management (heparinization) and the complexity to operate the ECS circuit. This work studies different timing of heparin administration and the effects of ECS-perfusion temperature. Cardiac arrest (CA) was induced in swine. Heparin studies, three groups: 1) PRE5, heparin 5 minutes before CA; 2) POST5, heparin 5 minutes after CA, plus 2 minutes external chest compressions; and 3) POST30, heparin with the initiation of ECS after 30 minutes CA. Perfusion temperature study, two groups: 1) normothermic, ECS-38.5°C after 30 minutes CA and 2) room temperature, ECS-25.5°C for the first 90 minutes, followed by ECS-38.5°C. Heparin studies: ECS target flows (>50 ml/kg/min) were not achieved in the POST30 group, affecting local organ perfusion as observed with poor bile (<4 ml/min) and urine output (<25 ml/min), when compared with the other groups (normal values). Temperature study: In both groups, ECS target flows were reached, and urine/bile output was restored. Heparinization 5 minutes after CA is equivalent to premortem heparinization in this ECS-DCD model. Heparinization after CA could reduce ethical concerns. Donors after circulatory determination of death were successfully resuscitated at both temperatures, suggesting that the heat exchanger/water heater can be removed to simplify the ECS circuit.

  4. Brain microvascular function during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.R.; Husum, B.; Waaben, J.; Andersen, K.; Andersen, L.I.; Gefke, K.; Kaarsen, A.L.; Gjedde, A.

    1987-11-01

    Emboli in the brain microvasculature may inhibit brain activity during cardiopulmonary bypass. Such hypothetical blockade, if confirmed, may be responsible for the reduction of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose observed in animals subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass. In previous studies of cerebral blood flow during bypass, brain microcirculation was not evaluated. In the present study in animals (pigs), reduction of the number of perfused capillaries was estimated by measurements of the capillary diffusion capacity for hydrophilic tracers of low permeability. Capillary diffusion capacity, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose were measured simultaneously by the integral method, different tracers being used with different circulation times. In eight animals subjected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and seven subjected to hypothermic bypass, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, and capillary diffusion capacity decreased significantly: cerebral blood flow from 63 to 43 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 34 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose from 43.0 to 23.0 mumol/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 14.1 mumol/100 gm/min in hypothermia. The capillary diffusion capacity declined markedly from 0.15 to 0.03 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia but only to 0.08 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia. We conclude that the decrease of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by interruption of blood flow through a part of the capillary bed, possibly by microemboli, and that cerebral blood flow is an inadequate indicator of capillary blood flow. Further studies must clarify why normal microvascular function appears to be preserved during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  5. The effect of surface modification and aprotinin on cellular injury during simulated cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Benjamin L; Brinkman, Kelly R; Koziol, Kelly L; McCann, Martin W; Merrigan, Kellie A; Steffen, Lee P; Woods, Kylie A; Stammers, Alfred H; Hock, Lynette M

    2002-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) elicits derangements to the formed elements of blood because of the physical stresses of extracorporeal flow. Methods of reducing the impact of CPB include circuit surface modification and pharmacological supplementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aprotinin in combination with surface modification during simulated CPB. Fresh whole bovine blood was used to prime standard CPB circuits divided into four groups (N = 3): control (CTR), aprotinin 300 KIU/mL (APR), Poly (2-methoxyethylacrylate) coating (PMEA), and APR with PMEA (APR-PMEA). Physical stresses included venous reservoir negative pressure (-85 mmHg), arterial line pressure of 150 mmHg at 5 LPM, and air-blood interface, applied over a 90-minute period. Samples were drawn at the following times: 0, 10, 45, and 90 minutes. Endpoints included platelet count (PLT), plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHb), and thromboelastography (TEG). PLT did not change (138.9 +/- 15.0 vs. 102.9 +/- 21.0, p = ns) throughout the 90-minute experimental periods in any group. PFHb increased significantly (mean of 19- fold) throughout the experiment, but was not affected by any treatment. The TEG index declined in the CTR (3.6 +/- 0.4 vs. -16.2 +/- 2.9, p < .0003), PMEA (5.9 +/- 0.8 vs. -2.7 +/- 3.8, p < .02), and APR-PMEA (4.6 +/- 1.0 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.3 p < .0003) groups, but not in the APR group (3.6 +/- 2.2 vs. -1.3 +/- 3.3 p = .10). In conclusion, neither APR nor PMEA had an effect on either red cell hemolysis or PLT, but APR treatment alone significantly attenuated the derangements in coagulation induced in this extracorporeal model.

  6. Family Presence during Resuscitation: A Qualitative Analysis from a National Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Carla; Normand, Domitille; Jabre, Patricia; Azoulay, Elie; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Lapostolle, Frederic; Baubet, Thierry; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Javaud, Nicolas; Borron, Stephen W.; Vicaut, Eric; Adnet, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Background The themes of qualitative assessments that characterize the experience of family members offered the choice of observing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a loved one have not been formally identified. Methods and Findings In the context of a multicenter randomized clinical trial offering family members the choice of observing CPR of a patient with sudden cardiac arrest, a qualitative analysis, with a sequential explanatory design, was conducted. The aim of the study was to understand family members’ experience during CPR. All participants were interviewed by phone at home three months after cardiac arrest. Saturation was reached after analysis of 30 interviews of a randomly selected sample of 75 family members included in the trial. Four themes were identified: 1- choosing to be actively involved in the resuscitation; 2- communication between the relative and the emergency care team; 3- perception of the reality of the death, promoting acceptance of the loss; 4- experience and reactions of the relatives who did or did not witness the CPR, describing their feelings. Twelve sub-themes further defining these four themes were identified. Transferability of our findings should take into account the country-specific medical system. Conclusions Family presence can help to ameliorate the pain of the death, through the feeling of having helped to support the patient during the passage from life to death and of having participated in this important moment. Our results showed the central role of communication between the family and the emergency care team in facilitating the acceptance of the reality of death. PMID:27253993

  7. [Extracorporeal perfusion of the sheep rumen].

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Bajo, M; Várady, J; Szányiová, M

    1977-06-01

    We constructed a modified perfusion apparatus and elaborated a method of extracorporal perfusion of the rumen of sheep. As perfusates we used the bovine plasma diluted in a ratio of 1:1 of an isotonic sodium chloride (NaCl) solution and the whole autologous blood. Transaminases GOT and GPT, ammonia and pH were determined in the perfusate. The different perfusions were evaluated according to previously determined perfusion conditions and criteria. A subject for discussion is the question of suitability of the parameters under examination for judging the state of the perfused organ. The described method is suitable for the study of metabolical processes in the rumen wal.

  8. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: role of the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Barth, K H; Pahira, J J; Elliott, L P

    1985-06-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary calculi. ESWL may be applied to the majority of patients requiring stone removal and is expected to replace, to a large degree, percutaneous stone removal (PSR), now practiced jointly by interventional radiologists and endourologists in most institutions. In a number of cases, ESWL and PSR will be complementary procedures. Technically, ESWL can be considered a radiologic procedure; thus far, radiologists are not participating in its use. In the authors' opinion, ESWL should be a combined urologic radiologic procedure analogous to PSR; this will allow the most rational and effective treatment.

  9. Renal function following extracorporeal lithotripsy in children.

    PubMed

    Corbally, M T; Ryan, J; FitzPatrick, J; Fitzgerald, R J

    1991-05-01

    Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has revolutionised the management of urinary calculous disease, the long-term effects of ESWL on renal function are not known. This study of 18 children demonstrated a mild, statistically insignificant decrease of 15% in DTPA measured glomerular filtration rate following ESWL. In view of this, we recommend that pretherapy and posttherapy estimates of renal function be obtained in all patients undergoing ESWL. Long-term follow-up is necessary to further quantify the effects of ESWL on the developing kidney.

  10. [Physical parameters of extracorporeal shock waves].

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Ueberle, F; Rupprecht, G

    1998-10-01

    Prerequisites for the successful investigation of the mechanism of action of ESWT (extracorporeal shockwave therapy) and the establishment of treatment standards, are the ability to measure, and a knowledge of, the physical parameters involved. The most accurate measurements are obtained with laser hydrophones. Various parameters (amplitude, rise time, pulse width, pressure pulse decay, rarification phase) of a typical shock wave can thus be determined. These can then be used to calculate energy flux density, focal extent, focal volume and as well as focal energy, effective energy in a defined area, and effective biological energy. These parameters can be utilized to work out a theoretical treatment protocol.

  11. The steinstrasse: a legacy of extracorporeal lithotripsy?

    PubMed

    Coptcoat, M J; Webb, D R; Kellet, M J; Whitfield, H N; Wickham, J E

    1988-01-01

    32 steinstrasse formations in the first 600 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatments required intervention. Their radiological appearance has been classified into 3 types and the aetiology of each type is discussed. 24 cases received a primary needle nephrostomy to relieve obstruction and of these 18 passed spontaneously, 5 required ureteroscopic manipulation and 1 underwent open surgery. Primary ureteroscopic removal was successful in 3 out of 5 cases. 3 upper ureteric steinstrassen were removed by a percutaneous intrarenal approach. A suggested plan of management for complicated steinstrassen is outlined.

  12. Perinephric abscess following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Pautler, Stephen E.; Vallely, John F.; Denstedt, John D.

    1998-10-01

    Since the introduction and widespread use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), various complications have been noted. Perinephric hematoma and ureteral obstruction may be anticipated by urologists as potential problems. We report the first case of perinephric abscess encountered after 17 895 SWL treatments at our institution. A 65 year old woman presented 4 months following a second SWL procedure with a perinephric abscess and was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage. A review of the English literature revealed only 3 other cases of perinephric abscess following SWL. This diagnosis should be considered in early and late presentations of flank pain following SWL.

  13. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Schaden, Wolfgang; Mittermayr, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are among the most common foot disorders with ulceration, infection, and gangrene that may ultimately lead to lower extremity amputation. The goals of treatment include the control of diabetes and proper shoe wear. An effective therapy and appropriate foot care are important in wound healing in DFUs. Recently, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) was reported to significantly promote and accelerate the healing of complex soft tissue wounds as compared to the standard methods of treatment in DFUs. ESWT showed positive results in short-term and long-term outcomes in diabetic patients suffering from foot ulcers. In this article, we review the clinical results of ESWT in DFUs.

  14. [Extracorporeal shockwave nephro-uretero-lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Lopatkin, N A; Martov, A G; Beshliev, L A

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been widely introduced in the treatment of nephro-uretero-lithiasis during the last decade as it provides a noninvasive removal of the stones from the upper urinary tracts. The paper covers the history, techniques, indications, contraindications, anesthesia, complications and results of the method. Positive and negative characteristics of ESWL equipment (lithotriptors) are considered. The experience with 5000 lithotripsies led the authors to the conclusion that ESWL does not solve all the problems in the treatment of nephro-uretero-lithiasis and should be introduced only in large clinics practicing actively x-ray endoscopy and equipped with modern endoscopic and ultrasonic urologic units.

  15. [Calcinosis cutis treatment with extracorporeal shockwave therapy].

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Sune Møller; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Lund, Lars

    2015-05-25

    Calcinosis cutis is a rare disease entity characterized by deposits of calcium in the skin and subcutaneous tissue causing hard-to-heal ulcers. This is a case report on a patient with femoral ulcers in connection with densely mineralized skin caused by ketobemidon injections. Next to surgical excision of calcified tissue the patient received extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). On the basis of excellent healing, partial skin transplant was feasible. We advocate for randomized trials on ESWT as an adjunctive therapy for complex non-healing wounds.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 2016: an update

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Warwick; MacLaren, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an important issue for intensivists, critical care nurses, surgeons, cardiologists, and many others. There has been a continued increase in the number of centres performing ECMO. This review examines novel applications and recent trends in the use of ECMO over the last 2 years. These include ECMO to facilitate the safe use of other treatments, changing the timing of initiation, newer equipment and better biocompatibility, and the ability of ECMO programs to essentially choose which cluster of potential complications they are prepared to accept. ECMO continues to evolve, diversify in its applications, and improve in safety. PMID:27158464

  17. [Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for children].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, A; Matsuda, H; Uemura, T; Kohri, K; Kurita, T; Kanbara, N; Tamura, M

    1988-06-01

    We performed extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on a 5-year-old and 8-year-old. Ureteral calculi in both patients were disintegrated, and all fragments were passable spontaneously. The 5-year-old girl was the youngest of the cases of ESWL reported in Japan. As this patient was 107 cm in height, we put a styrofoam layer on the back of this patient. This protected her lung from the shock wave, and the height limit was released from the ESWL treatment. These cases and the peculiarities and devices for ESWL in the pediatric field are discussed. PMID:3223460

  18. Should relatives witness resuscitation? Ethical issues and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenczweig, C

    1998-01-01

    In winning second prize in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Carolyn Rosenczweig raised questions about the role patients' family members should be allowed to play during resuscitative efforts by medical staff. She concluded that even though their presence might complicate resuscitation attempts, "blanket policies that exclude all relatives from being present seem a knee-jerk reaction." PMID:9526478

  19. Age and disability biases in pediatric resuscitation among future physicians.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rocksheng; Knobe, Joshua; Feigenson, Neal; Mercurio, Mark R

    2011-11-01

    This study examined whether biases concerning age and/or disability status influenced resuscitation decisions. Medical students were randomly chosen to read 1 of 4 vignettes, organized in a 2 (age: infant vs school-age) × 2 (disability: preexisting vs no preexisting) between-subjects design. The vignettes described a pediatric patient experiencing an acute episode who required resuscitation. Following resuscitation, patients with existing disability would continue to have disability, whereas those without would develop disability. Participants indicated whether they would resuscitate, given a 10% chance of success. There was a significant main effect of disability: Medical students displayed a preference for resuscitating previously disabled children compared with previously healthy children when prognosis was held constant, F(1, 121) = 4.89, p = .03. This differential treatment of the two groups cannot easily be morally justified and poses a quandary for educators.

  20. Should relatives be denied access to the resuscitation room?

    PubMed

    Ardley, Christine

    2003-02-01

    Within a health care system that promotes choice and autonomy, it no longer seems appropriate to exclude relatives from the resuscitation room. There is a growing body of research that suggests there are indeed many long-term benefits to be gained from witnessing the resuscitation of a loved one. There seems no doubt that relatives would like the opportunity to spend the last few valuable minutes with their loved one to say goodbye. However, it is the views of many staff working in the critical care setting that appear to be preventing witnessed resuscitation from becoming normal practice. This paper considers the staffs', the relatives' and the patients' perspectives on witnessed resuscitation and concludes that the majority of relatives should not be denied access to the resuscitation room.