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Sample records for extract aloe ferox

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  2. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill

    PubMed Central

    Wintola, Olubunmi Abosebe; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33), flavonols (35.2), proanthocyanidins (171.06) and alkaloids (60.9) were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05) in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPH* and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study showed high

  3. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD.

  4. Preliminary evaluation: the effects of Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yimei; Zhao, Guodong; Jia, Jicheng

    2008-11-20

    Genus Aloe has been traditionally utilized for medicinal purpose for decades. Compared with Aloe vera gel, the qualitative assessment for the therapeutic effects of the other two Aloe species, Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller, for their topical wound healing was less addressed. Therefore, the aim of present study is to provide the positive evidence for Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller supporting their therapeutic properties for topical treatment of skin wounds. Two types of the whole-leaf juice prepared from either Aloe ferox Miller or Aloe arborescens Miller were used in this study. Incision wound healing was investigated using both the rat and rabbit model. The wound closure rate with and without the topical administration of the whole-leaf juice were monitored. The changes in wound characteristics were traced and wound severity was scored on different days. The anti-microorganism actions of each whole-leaf juice preparation were evaluated by measuring their inhibition growth effects on four bacterial strains and three fungal spores. The toxic influence owing to topical application of Aloe whole-leaf juice on intact and damaged skin was also assessed. Our results indicated that the two types of whole-leaf juice preparations exhibit the therapeutic properties, including facilitation of the healing process, selective inhibition of the microbial growth and zero side-effect on the skin, during the observation period. It is concluded that both of Aloe whole-leaf juice preparations have the positive potential for skin medicinal application.

  5. The foliar anatomy and micromorphology of Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Wintola, Olubunmi Abosede; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aloe has been the subject of several chemotaxonomic and phytochemical investigations. Aloe ferox is an important source of biologically active compounds like anthrones, chromones, pyrones, and flavonoids. It is a plant used extensively in traditional medicine. Despite the myriad of studies on the pharmacological profile of the plant, there still exists a dearth of scientific literature on the anatomical and morphological attributes of this important medicinal plant. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the foliar anatomy and micromorphological characteristics of A. ferox using light microscope and scanning electron microscope and to determine the elemental composition of the leaf sections by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Epidermal cells varied from round, square to hexagonal, with distinctive anticlinal walls and sunken stomata, equally distributed on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were observed. There were vertically elongated palisade cells with numerous chloroplasts in the palisade mesophyll layer. The EDXS analysis revealed Ca, K, S, Al, Mg, and Si as the major constituents of crystals present in the mesophyll. Information on the foliar anatomy and micromorphology can further enlightened our perceptions on the inherent interrelationships between structure and function as regards the synthesis and secretion of bioactive secondary metabolites by plants.

  6. In Vitro Drug Absorption Enhancement Effects of Aloe vera and Aloe ferox

    PubMed Central

    Beneke, Catharina; Viljoen, Alvaro; Hamman, Josias

    2012-01-01

    The effect of whole leaf and gel materials from two aloe species (Aloe vera and A. ferox) was compared with that of the precipitated polysaccharides from these aloe materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as transport of a model compound (atenolol) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across rat intestinal tissue. All the aloe leaf materials and precipitated polysaccharides had a statistically significant effect of lowering the TEER (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, which indicates their ability to open tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. In contrast to the expectation from the TEER results, only the precipitated polysaccharides from dehydrated A. vera gel (Daltonmax 700®) had a statistically significant effect of enhancing the transport of atenolol (P < 0.05). These in vitro results therefore indicate that A. vera gel polysaccharides have potential as drug absorption enhancing agents in novel pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. PMID:22896832

  7. In Vitro Drug Absorption Enhancement Effects of Aloe vera and Aloe ferox.

    PubMed

    Beneke, Catharina; Viljoen, Alvaro; Hamman, Josias

    2012-01-01

    The effect of whole leaf and gel materials from two aloe species (Aloe vera and A. ferox) was compared with that of the precipitated polysaccharides from these aloe materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as transport of a model compound (atenolol) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across rat intestinal tissue. All the aloe leaf materials and precipitated polysaccharides had a statistically significant effect of lowering the TEER (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, which indicates their ability to open tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. In contrast to the expectation from the TEER results, only the precipitated polysaccharides from dehydrated A. vera gel (Daltonmax 700(®)) had a statistically significant effect of enhancing the transport of atenolol (P < 0.05). These in vitro results therefore indicate that A. vera gel polysaccharides have potential as drug absorption enhancing agents in novel pharmaceutical drug delivery systems.

  8. Skin permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle T; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, Jan L; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox using ketoprofen as a marker compound. The permeation studies were conducted across excised female abdominal skin in Franz diffusion cells, and the delivery of ketoprofen into the stratum corneum-epidermis and epidermis-dermis layers of the skin was investigated using a tape-stripping technique. A. vera gel showed the highest permeation-enhancing effect on ketoprofen (enhancement ratio or ER = 2.551) when compared with the control group, followed by A. marlothii gel (ER = 1.590) and A. ferox whole-leaf material (ER = 1.520). Non-linear curve fitting calculations indicated that the drug permeation-enhancing effect of A. vera gel can be attributed to an increased partitioning of the drug into the skin, while A. ferox whole leaf modified the diffusion characteristics of the skin for ketoprofen. The tape stripping results indicated that A. marlothii whole leaf delivered the highest concentration of the ketoprofen into the different skin layers. Of the selected aloe species investigated, A. vera gel material showed the highest potential as transdermal drug penetration enhancer across human skin. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot.

    PubMed

    Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot.

  10. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  11. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle T; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer(®) CM 825, Visioscan(®) VC 98 and Cutometer(®) dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter(®) MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter(®) readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel.

  12. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action.

  13. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale ferox seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2002-05-31

    Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Xu, Juan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2003-12-17

    The polysaccharide and flavonoid concentrations of two-, three-, and four-year-old Aloe vera were determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated compared to BHT and alpha-tocopherol by the DPPH radical scavenging method and the linoleic acid system at 100 microg of soluble solids per mL of ethanol. The results showed that three-year-old Aloe vera contained significantly higher levels of polysaccharides and flavonoids than two- and four-year-old Aloe vera, and no significant differences in flavonoid levels were found between three- and four-year-old Aloe vera. All the aloe extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts and reference compounds followed the order: three-year-old Aloe vera > BHT > four-year-old Aloe vera > alpha-tocopherol > two-year-old Aloe vera. The three-year-old extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity of 72.19%, which is significantly higher than that of BHT at 70.52% and alpha-tocopherol at 65.20%. These data suggest that the growth stage plays a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera.

  15. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  16. Aloe vera extract activity on human corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Ocular diseases are currently an important problem in modern societies. Patients suffer from various ophthalmologic ailments namely, conjunctivitis, dry eye, dacryocystitis or degenerative diseases. Therefore, there is a need to introduce new treatment methods, including medicinal plants usage. Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis Miller (Liliaceae)] possesses wound-healing properties and shows immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities. NR uptake, MTT, DPPH• reduction, Griess reaction, ELISA and rhodamine-phalloidin staining were used to test toxicity, antiproliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine level, and distribution of F-actin in cells, respectively. The present study analyzes the effect of Aloe vera extracts obtained with different solvents on in vitro culture of human 10.014 pRSV-T corneal cells. We found no toxicity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Aloe vera on human corneal cells. No ROS reducing activity by heptane extract and trace action by ethanol (only at high concentration 125 µg/ml) extract of Aloe vera was observed. Only ethyl acetate extract expressed distinct free radical scavenging effect. Plant extracts decreased NO production by human corneal cells as compared to untreated controls. The cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) production decreased after the addition of Aloe vera extracts to the culture media. Aloe vera contains multiple pharmacologically active substances which are capable of modulating cellular phenotypes and functions. Aloe vera ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts may be used in eye drops to treat inflammations and other ailments of external parts of the eye such as the cornea.

  17. Aloe

    MedlinePlus

    ... the aloe plant. It is used in many skin care products. Aloe poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... Diarrhea Loss of vision Rash Severe abdominal pain Skin irritation Throat swelling (which may also cause breathing difficulty) Vomiting

  18. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of triterpenoid-rich extracts from Euryale ferox shell on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaibo; Meng, Shaohua; Wang, Guoze; Gong, Zhaobin; Sun, Wenkai; He, Guoqing

    2014-07-01

    The antioxidant effects of the triterpenoid-rich extracts from Euryale ferox shell (ES) have been confirmed in vitro. This study examined whether the triterpenoid-rich extract from ES eases human hyperglycemia and diabetes caused by metabolic disorders. Normal and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were used as controls for the four groups that received the triterpenoid-rich extracts of ES suspended in distilled water orally at doses of 200, 300, 400, 500±2 mg/L. Body weight, blood glucose and pancreatic tissue morphology were observed after 4 weeks. The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) proteins, which are related to the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo, were also investigated. Compared with the model group (LD50 900±2 mg/L), it was found that the triterpenoid-rich extracts of ES could regulate glucose metabolism (P<0.01) and cause body weight to return to normal levels (P<0.05). Islet morphology recovered well, the expression of the negative regulation protein PTP1B gene was reduced and insulin receptor IRS-1 protein expression was increased. These data prove that the triterpenoid-rich extracts from ES have a therapeutic effect on diabetes by insulin resistance.

  20. Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Study the Genetic Diversity of Eight Aloe Species.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Shahira M; El Sayed, Abeer M; Salama, Maha M

    2016-10-01

    The genus Aloe comprises over 400 species of flowering succulent plants. Aloe leaves are used in the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal ulcers, cardiovascular disease, tumors, burns, and diabetes. They are rich in anthraquinones, such as aloin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, aloinoside A, and aloinoside B. The various species of Aloe show chemical and morphological similarity and diversity, which depend on the genotype and environmental conditions. In a continuity to our interest in the genus Aloe, this study targets the authentication of eight different Aloe species, Aloe vera (A1), Aloe arborescens (A2), Aloe eru (A3), Aloe grandidentata (A4), Aloe perfoliata (A5), Aloe brevifolia (A6), Aloe saponaria (A7), and Aloe ferox (A8), grown in Egypt by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA. Twelve decamer primers were screened in amplification with genomic DNA extracted from all species, of which five primers yielded species-specific reproducible bands. Out of 156 loci detected, the polymorphic, monomorphic, and unique loci were 107, 26, and 23, respectively. Based on a dendrogram and similarity matrix, the eight Aloe species were differentiated from each other and showed more divergence. Aloe species prevailed similarity coefficients of 54-70 % by which they could be classified into three major groups. Thus, this technique may contribute to the identification of these Aloe species that have great morphological similarity in the Egyptian local markets.

  1. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-04-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent.

  2. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  3. Analysis of Aloe-based phytotherapeutic products by using nano-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore; Aturki, Zeineb; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Rocco, Anna; Ferranti, Anna; Mercolini, Laura; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2010-09-01

    This article proposes a chromatographic method for the analysis of extracts of Aloe plants. The method was developed with a laboratory assembled nano-LC system coupled with a UV detector, followed by an IT-mass spectrometer. With a step gradient mode of ACN/H(2)O mixtures and employing a capillary column packed with C(18) (100 μm id), a complete separation of the following anthrones was achieved: aloin (in its two isomeric forms A and B), 5-hydroxyaloin and 7-hydroxyaloin (in its two isomeric forms A and B). The optimized nano-LC-MS method was validated for the quantification of aloin, the main component of Aloe with known pharmacological activities. RSD values obtained for retention time and peak areas were 1.3 and 12.1%, respectively. LOD and LOQ values of 0.4 and 1.5 μg/mL were obtained for each aloin isomer. The method was applied to the analysis of Aloe vera and A. ferox extracts in order to acquire a fingerprint, characteristic for each plant. Several phenolic compounds were detected by UV and identified by MS. A. vera and A. ferox showed different profiles and it was possible to discriminate them. Several commercial formulations, declared to contain Aloe extracts, were analyzed. Comparing their chromatograms with those obtained from A. vera and A. ferox, it was possible to recognize the Aloe species and to determine aloin.

  4. A comparative study of three Aloe species used to treat skin diseases in South African rural communities.

    PubMed

    Coopoosamy, Roger M; Naidoo, Kuben K

    2013-05-01

    Aloe species have been noted to be a miracle cure used by indigenous people of southern Africa. Geographically, each of the three Aloe species-Aloe arborescens, Aloe excelsa, and Aloe ferox-has a specific habitat. Although some species overlap in geographical regions, the species most abundant in a region is most often utilized by indigenous people. All three species display similar curative properties, aiding in wound healing, cures against other skin ailments, and some systemic conditions. All three Aloe species indicated high inhibitory activity against all gram-positive bacteria under investigation. The ethanol extract was most effective and inhibited all gram-positive bacteria and two gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli). All fungal species under investigation were successfully inhibited by both the boiled water as well as the ethanol extract, substantiating the traditional usage of this species.

  5. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B; Avila, G; Segura, D; Escalante, B

    1996-12-01

    We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind-paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The antiinflammatory agents indomethacin and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type delta 5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have antiinflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological properties as well as stability of ointments containing aloe extract (Aloe arborescens Mill.) or aloe extract associated to neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Bujak, T

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to work out methods of quality assessment of ointments containing dry extract from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. (Lilliaceae) and also of ointments containing both of dry extract and neomycin sulphate. The stability of the ointments, stored at 20 degrees C, was studied and the following criteria were considered: chromatographic analysis (TLC), pH of the ointments, the content of the substances in the dry extract converted to aloenin, the content of aloenin and aloin, anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the ointments, the size of the particles of the dry extract and of neomycin sulphate in the ointment suspension and the sterility of the ointments. After two years of storage at 20 degrees C, the ointments prepared with the anhydrous lipophilic base, did not change their physicochemical characteristics and neomycin in those ointments retained almost 100% of starting anti-microbial activity. Water or propylene glycol significantly decreased the stability of the biologically active substances of the dry extract in the ointments. Besides, in the ointments containing the dry extract and neomycin sulphate, the presence of water or propylene glycol induced degradation of the biologically active substances of the dry extract and a decrease in the anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the ointments. Considering the physicochemical and microbiological stability, the most advisable base for the ointments with aloe and neomycin sulphate was composed of white vaseline, liquid paraffin, solid paraffin, cholesterol.

  7. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  9. Evaluation of bioactive potential of an Aloe vera sterol extract.

    PubMed

    Bawankar, Raksha; Deepti, V C; Singh, Pooja; Subashkumar, Rathinasamy; Vivekanandhan, Govindasamy; Babu, Subramanian

    2013-06-01

    We prepared a crude gel material from Aloe vera succulent leaf tissues. The ethanolic extract of lyophilized A. vera gel was used for the GC-MS analysis. Hexadecanoic acid (22.22%) was identified as major compound. Sitosterol and stigmasterol were found to be 2.89% and 2.1% in the extract. HPLC analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of stigmasterol. The concentration of sterol extract needed to scavenge DPPH free radical by 50% was calculated as 5.2 mg mL(-1). In the FRAP assay, the sterol extract showed significant hydroxyl radical scavenging in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 value 1.17 µg mL(-1)). Concentration of the sample required to reduce lipid peroxidation was found to be 4.18 µg mL(-1), and the extract also possessed acetylcholinesterase activity (IC50 - 5.26 µg mL(-1)). Catalase activity was 0.196 μM H2 O2 decomposed min(-1) µg(-1) protein, whereas the peroxidase activity was 17.01 μM of pyragallol oxidized min(-1) µg(-1) protein. The extract recorded higher activity against growth of S. greseus and C. albicans in the experiments carried out to determine antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Extraction optimization, isolation, preliminary structural characterization and antioxidant activities of the cell wall polysaccharides in the petioles and pedicels of Chinese herbal medicine Qian (Euryale ferox Salisb.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Wang, Xinsheng; Wang, Hong; Shen, Bei; He, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2014-03-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides in the petioles and pedicels of Qian (Euryale ferox Salisb.) (EFPP) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted technique. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize extraction parameters for the maximum purity of polysaccharides. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 32 min, ultrasonic power of 270W and liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 mL/g. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental purity of polysaccharides was 62.57% ± 1.68%, which was very close to the predicted. The crude EFPP were isolated using DEAE-52 column and four major fractions (EFPP-1, EFPP-2, EFPP-3 and EFPP-4) were obtained. Typical functional groups of polysaccharides were characteristic for EFPP-1, EFPP-3 and EFPP-4 from FT-IR spectrum. Furthermore, the crude EFPP and three fractions (EFPP-1, EFPP-3 and EFPP-4) possessed appreciable in vitro antioxidant effects on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing powers. Then, the crude EFPP and EFPP-4 could effective against H2O2-induced injury on HUVEC and VSMC through enhancement of T-AOC, SOD and CAT activities and decrease of MDA content.

  11. Identification and discrimination of three common Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Ya Nan; Lee, Min Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-09-15

    Aloe arborescens, Aloe barbadensis and Aloe ferox are the most widely cultivated and used among 500 aloe species due to their potent bioactivity. However, the difference of aloe species is neglected and labeled only one name Aloe in the market without specifying aloe species discrimination in general. Furthermore, differences in bioactivity and side effects from different aloe species have not been well investigated. This study develops an effective method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of three common aloe species using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the three aloe species. The developed HPLC-MS/MS method coupled with multivariate analysis can be applied to discriminate three aloe species successfully. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  13. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity.

  14. An aqueous extract of the marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox stimulates L-type Ca2+-current by direct interaction with the Cav1.2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Christ, Torsten; Wüst, Melinda; Matthes, Jan; Jänchen, Michael; Jürgens, Susanne; Herzig, Stefan; Wettwer, Erich; Dobrev, Dobromir; Matschke, Klaus; Mebs, Dietrich; Ravens, Ursula

    2004-12-01

    Marine organisms have attracted much attention as a source of pharmacological tools or potential drugs. We have produced and screened a library of sponge extracts in search of biologically active compounds that may contain useful pharmaceutical lead structures. Sponges were collected from various locations and their aqueous extracts were freeze dried. Murine right and left atria were used to screen 75 extracts for putative cardiac effects. Among seven extracts with a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect the extract C47 from Ectyoplasia ferox proved to be the most active and was chosen for further analysis. C47 also produced a beta-adrenoceptor-independent, propranolol-resistant positive inotropic effect in human atrial trabeculae. To elucidate one possible mode of action the effects of C47 on L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) were measured with a standard patch-clamp technique. In isolated human atrial myocytes exposure to C47 increased peak amplitude of I(Ca,L) in a concentration-dependent manner. The threshold concentration was 15 microg/ml. In addition, voltage dependency of activation and steady-state inactivation were shifted to more negative potentials. C47 slowed the initial phase of time-dependent current inactivation and the recovery from inactivation. In cell-attached patches of HEK 293 cells expressing human Ca(v)1.2 addition of C47 to the bath solution did not affect gating properties, whereas inclusion of the extract into the pipette solution strongly increased single-channel activity, suggesting a direct effect on the pore-forming channel subunit. Despite its robust effect on I(Ca,L) C47 enhanced cardiac force of contraction by only a fraction of the maximum increase caused by high extracellular concentrations of Ca(2+) and failed to increase vascular tone. These findings suggest that the effect of C47 is restricted to the Ca(2+) channel.

  15. A biochemical and cellular approach to explore the antiproliferative and prodifferentiative activity of Aloe arborescens leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Manzo, Nicola; Vivo, Maria; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Crescenzi, Elvira; Pollice, Alessandra; Tudisco, Raffaella; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Viola

    2013-12-01

    Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Liliaceae family), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. Although less characterized than the commonest Aloe vera, Aloe arborescens is known to be richer in beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. It is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. However, very few studies have addressed the biological effects of Aloe at molecular level. The aim of the research is to provide evidences for the antiproliferative properties of Aloe arborescens crude leaf extract using an integrated proteomic and cellular biological approach. We analysed the composition of an Aloe arborescens leaf extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We found it rich in Aloe-emodin, a hydroxylanthraquinone with known antitumoral activity and in several compounds with anti-oxidant properties. Accordingly, we show that the Aloe extract has antiproliferative effects on several human transformed cell lines and exhibits prodifferentiative effects on both primary and immortalized human keratinocyte. Proteomic analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the presence of proteins with a strong antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity specifically induced in human keratinocytes by Aloe treatment supporting its application as a therapeutical agent.

  16. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study.

  17. Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Sivagnanam, Karuran; Subramanian, Sorimuthu

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of antioxidant property in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg to diabetic rats significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and increased hemoglobin. The increased levels of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxides in tissues of diabetic rats were reverted back to near normal levels after the treatment with gel extract. The extract treatment also resulted in a significant increase in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. These results clearly show the antioxidant property of Aloe vera gel extract. The extract was also more effective than glibenclamide in restoring the values of these parameters.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and identification of three phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xin Sheng; Shen, Bei; Yue, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2013-09-09

    This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney), GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  19. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. Aim The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. Materials and Methods A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman’s rank correlation method. Results Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-value<0.001). Aloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-value<0.001) and better than the control group. Conclusion Aloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound

  20. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing.

    PubMed

    Nimma, Vijaya Lakshmi; Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman's rank correlation method. Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-value<0.001). Aloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-value<0.001) and better than the control group. Aloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound healing.

  1. The Use of Aloe Vera Extract as a Novel Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:25031484

  2. Antifungal effects of different plant extracts and their major components of selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Shalaby, N M; Elgamal, M H; Mousa, A S

    1999-08-01

    Different extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of Aloe eru A. Berger, A. vera L. Webb & Berth and A. arborescens Mill. were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium moniliforme. The toxicity of the isolated pure components were evaluated on the tested fungi. A comparative chromatographic study was performed to differentiate between natural components existing in various fractions and extracts of Aloe species and specific spray reagents were used for the detection of anthraquinones in the isolated components.

  3. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  5. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  6. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  7. Safety evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide extract of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The gel of the Aloe vera plant has been used safely for oral and external applications. Previously, we found phytosterols derived from an extract of Aloe vera gel obtained with an organic solvent to have hypoglycemic and antiobesity effects. While developing of functional foods using Aloe vera gel, we produced an active Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) using a supercritical carbon dioxide (CO₂) extraction procedure. In this study, we tested the safety of AVGE in vitro and in vivo. In an acute oral toxicological test in which AVGE was administered to rats at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight, there were no deaths or apparent abnormalities at necropsy. In a 90-d toxicity test in which rats were continuously administrered AVGE at 30 or 150 mg/kg, euthanized, and subjected to pathological examinations, no abnormalities attributable to the AVGE were found. AVGE was nonmutagenic in the Ames test and a chromosomal aberration test at concentrations of up to 5000 μg/plate and 1600 μg/plate, respectively, and in an in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test at up to 150 mg/kg/d. AVGE can be safely used as a functional food material. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Sierra-García, Gerardo Daniel; Castro-Ríos, Rocío; González-Horta, Azucena; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chávez-Montes, Abelardo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, the composition, actions, and clinical applications of acemannan in medicine and its effectiveness as an adjunct in the treatment of diseases are presented. An electronic literature search was performed up to January 2014 for studies and research presenting data to validate the efficacy of acemannan. A total of 50 titles, abstracts and full-text studies were selected and reviewed. Acemannan has various medicinal properties like osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial, which accelerate healing of lesions. Also, acemannan is known to have antiviral and antitumor activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. It was concluded that Aloe vera has immense potential as a therapeutic agent. Even though the plant is a promising herb with various clinical applications in medicine and dentistry, more clinical research needs to be undertaken to validate and explain the action of acemannan in healing, so that it can be established in the field of medicine and a more precise understanding of the biological activities of these is required to develop Aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source.

  9. Acute inflammation and hematological response in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, G; Ledic-Neto, J; Gonçalves, E L T; Brum, A; Maraschin, M; Martins, M L

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia supplemented with the mixture of natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (1:1) at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in diet during 15 days. Thirty-six fish were distributed into four treatments with three replicates: fish supplemented with 0.5% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 1% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 2% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1), injected with 500 µg carrageenin and unsupplemented fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin. Six hours after injection, samples of blood and exudate from the swim bladder of fish were collected. It was observed an increase in the leukocyte count in the swim bladder exudate of fish supplemented with extracts of propolis and Aloe injected with carrageenin. The most frequent cells were macrophages followed by granular leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. Supplementation with propolis and Aloe to 0.5% caused a significant increase in the number of cells on the inflammatory focus mainly macrophages, cells responsible for the phagocytic activity in tissues, agent of innate fish immune response.

  10. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

  11. Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole-Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  12. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a nondecolorized [corrected] whole leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water study).

    PubMed

    Boudreau, M D; Beland, F A; Nichols, J A; Pogribna, M

    2013-08-01

    Extracts from the leaves of the Aloe vera plant (Aloe barbadensis Miller) have long been used as herbal remedies and are also now promoted as a dietary supplement, in liquid tonics, powders or tablets, as a laxative and to prevent a variety of illnesses. We studied the effects of Aloe vera extract on rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. We gave solutions of nondecolorized extracts of Aloe vera leaves in the drinking water to groups of rats and mice for 2 years. Groups of 48 rats received solutions containing 0.5%, 1% or 1.5% of Aloe vera extract in the drinking water, and groups of mice received solutions containing 1%, 2%, or 3% of Aloe vera extract. Similar groups of animals were given plain drinking water and served as the control groups. At the end of the study tissues from more than 40 sites were examined for every animal. In all groups of rats and mice receiving the Aloe vera extract, the rates of hyperplasia in the large intestine were markedly increased compared to the control animals. There were also increases in hyperplasia in the small intestine in rats receiving the Aloe vera extract, increases in hyperplasia of the stomach in male and female rats and female mice receiving the Aloe vera extract, and increases in hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph nodes in male and female rats and male mice receiving the Aloe vera extract. In addition, cancers of the large intestine occurred in male and female rats given the Aloe vera extract, though none had been seen in the control groups of rats for this and other studies at this laboratory. We conclude that nondecolorized Aloe vera caused cancers of the large intestine in male and female rats and also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine, small intestine, stomach, and lymph nodes in male and female rats. Aloe vera extract also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine in male and female mice and hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph node in male mice and hyperplasia of the stomach

  13. Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora leaf extract against Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kaingu, Fredrick; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Lele; Tao, Jianping; Waihenya, Rebecca; Kutima, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora crude leaf extract was tested in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria tenella. Sixty 22-day-old birds were divided into six groups of ten birds each. Three treatment groups A, B, and C were fed with the extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/day, respectively) mixed in feed for 10 days, and three control groups: group D (drug control) administered 300 mg/l of sulfachloropyrazine sodium soluble powder in drinking water for 5 days, group E (infected/non-medicated positive control), and group F (uninfected/non-medicated negative control). Except for group F, all groups were orally inoculated with 75,000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The effects of the extract on E. tenella infection were evaluated by severity of bloody diarrhea, body weight (BW) gain, oocyst output, and lesion score. No bird in the treated groups died of coccidiosis, and severity of bloody diarrhea was milder than in the positive control group. BW gains in the treated groups were significantly higher than in group E (p < 0.05). The lesion scores of the treated groups were significantly lower than that of group E. Oocyst output in groups A, B, and C were 11.23, 8.24, and 6.82 × 10(6), respectively. As compared with the negative control group (12.84 × 10(6)), the reductions in oocyst production were 12.54, 35.83, and 46.88%, respectively. Oocyst output significantly reduced with an increase in Aloe dosage. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe secundiflora extract presents an alternative anticoccidial agent for the control of avian coccidiosis.

  14. Effect of aloe vera leaf gel extract on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in rats with streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sriram, N; Arulselvan, P; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to promote deterioration of membrane function and impair intra cellular metabolism in the organism. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats treated with STZ showed significant alterations in the activities of membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days significantly restored the alterations in enzymes activity to near normalcy. These results were compared with glibenclamide, a reference drug. Thus, the present study confirms that Aloe vera gel extract possesses a significant beneficial effect on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases.

  15. Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on oxidative stress in rats treated with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Subramanian, S

    2005-02-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying diabetes and diabetic-related complications. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging systems. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in the plasma and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as a standard reference drug. Oral administration of ethanolic extract at a concentration of 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and alpha-tocopherol and significant improvement in ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and insulin in the plasma of diabetic rats. Similarly, the treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and significant improvement in reduced glutathione in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract appeared to be more effective than glibenclamide in controlling oxidative stress. Thus, this study confirms the ethnopharmacological use of Aloe vera in ameliorating the oxidative stress found in diabetes.

  16. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Dal'Belo, Susi Elaine; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves

    2006-11-01

    The polysaccharide-rich composition of Aloe vera extracts (Aloe barbadensis Miller), often used in cosmetic formulations, may impart moisturizing properties to the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cosmetic formulations containing different concentrations of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract on skin hydration, after a single and a 1- and 2-week period of application, by using skin bioengineering techniques. Stable formulations containing 5% (w/w) of a trilaureth-4 phosphate-based blend were supplemented with 0.10%, 0.25% or 0.50% (w/w) of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract and applied to the volar forearm of 20 female subjects. Skin conditions in terms of the water content of the stratum corneum and of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Corneometer CM 825 and Tewameter TM 210) were analysed before and after a single and 1- and 2-week period of daily application. After a single application, only formulations supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) of Aloe vera extract increased the water content of the stratum corneum, while after the 2-week period application, all formulations containing the extract (0.10%, 0.25% and 0.50%) had the same effect, in both cases as compared with the vehicle. TEWL was not modified after a single and after 1- and 2-week period of application, when compared with the vehicle. Our results show that freeze-dried Aloe vera extract is a natural effective ingredient for improving skin hydration, possibly through a humectant mechanism. Consequently, it may be used in moisturizing cosmetic formulations and also as a complement in the treatment of dry skin.

  18. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  19. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  20. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  1. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  2. Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yolanda Y; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Tortoriello, Jaime; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a widespread pathology associated with the metabolic syndrome, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension. Finding an adequate treatment for this pathology is an important goal in medicine. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of an extract from Aloe vera gel containing a high concentration of polyphenols on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. A polyphenol-rich Aloe vera extract (350 mg/kg) with known concentrations of aloin (181.7 mg/g) and aloe-emodin (3.6 mg/g) was administered orally for a period of 4 weeks to insulin resistant ICR mice. Pioglitazone (50 mg/kg) and bi-distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Body weight, food intake, and plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The insulin resistance value was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Results showed that the polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera was able to decrease significantly both body weight (p < 0.008) and blood glucose levels (p < 0.005) and to protect animals against unfavorable results on HOMA-IR, which was observed in the negative control group. The highest glucose levels during the insulin tolerance curve test were in the negative control group when compared to the Aloe vera extract and pioglitazone treated mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Aloe vera gel could be effective for the control of insulin resistance.

  3. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p < 0.05). Tibial length was significantly increased in the high dose aqueous extract group (15-26%). The differences in growth could not be attributed to circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 as the levels were not significantly different. The caecum was significantly enlarged in the rats that received the high doses of both extracts. Although, there was no significant difference in the non-fasting plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides, the hepatic lipid and glycogen content were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the high dose aqueous extract group. The plasma alanine transaminase was not affected by the treatments, however the high doses of the extracts significantly increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Short term administration of Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  4. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two Aloe greatheadii var. davyana extracts.

    PubMed

    Botes, Lisa; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Loots, Du Toit

    2008-09-12

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae) is used among rural South African communities to treat arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure and diabetes, despite very little supporting scientific evidence. Due to increased interest by both the scientific community and industry regarding the medicinal uses of this plant species, we identified, quantified and compared the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two extracts of A. greatheadii; a leaf gel extract (LGE) and a 95 % aqueous ethanol leaf gel extract (ELGE), using various modified extraction procedures, GC-MS and spectrophotometry. Apart from extensively characterizing this medicinal plant with regards to its organic acid, polyphenols/phenolic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, alkane, pyrimidine, indole, alkaloid, phytosterol, fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid contents and antioxidant capacities, we describe a modified extraction procedure for the purpose of general phytochemical characterization, and compare this to a 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction technique. From the results it is clear that A. greatheadii contains a variety of compounds with confirmed antioxidant capacity and other putative health benefits (such as blood glucose, cholesterol and cortisol lowering properties) relating to the prevention or treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypertension. The results also indicate that separate ethyl acetate/diethyl ether and hexane extractions of the LGE, better serve for general phytochemical characterization purposes, and 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction for concentrating selective groups of health related compounds, hence justifying its use for biological in vivo efficacy studies.

  5. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  6. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  7. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-01-01

    The skin, being a cell-renewal system, is one of the first organs to be affected in total-body irradiation during radiotherapy. An attempt has been made in the present study to explore radiation-induced biochemical alterations caused by whole-body gamma irradiation and their modulation in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera leaf extract (AVE). Mice were selected for this study from an inbreed colony and divided into four different groups: I (double-distilled water-treated group): considered as normal; II (Aloe vera-treated group): the animals were administered 1 g/kg body-wt/day Aloe vera leaf extract; III (radiation-treated group): the animals were exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min; and IV (combination group): animals were administered Aloe vera leaf extract continuously for 15 consecutive days, and on the 15th day they were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma radiation after 30 minutes of extract administration. The animals from the above groups were autopsied after 6 hours, 24 hours, and at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of radiation. Biochemical estimations of DNA, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide-dismutase were made. Total DNA, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the skin, and glutathione (GSH) in the liver and blood significantly decreased compared to normal, but lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver and blood increased in the irradiated control group. In contrast, in experimental animals, DNA, catalase, and SOD in the skin and GSH in the liver and blood increased significantly, whereas LPO in the liver and blood decreased in comparison to irradiated control animals. Thus, Aloe vera leaf extract is found to have damage-resistant properties against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

  8. Antibacterial activities of crude extract of Aloe barbadensis to clinically isolated bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ruchi; Mishra, Avinash

    2010-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations were obtained for gram negative bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with ethanol extract; however, no inhibitory effect was noted for aqueous extract. Ethanolic extract possesses great inhibitory activity for gram positive bacteria, E. bovis followed by S. aureus. Among gram negative bacteria, highest inhibitory effect was observed with P. aeruginosa, followed by M. morganii, P. mirabilis, and P. vulgaris, which was significant (p < 0.01) than E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antimicrobial activity tests of crude extract of A. barbadensis were carried out to validate the use of traditional medicinal herbal and results of this study tend to give credence to the common use of A. barbadensis gel and leaf.

  9. Acute effect of Aloe vera gel extract on experimental models of pain.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Naveen; Mehta, Ashish K; Sharma, Amit K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    The present study was performed to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on behavioural parameters of pain. Pain assessment was performed by the tail-flick and formalin tests. A. vera (100 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.)) produced an insignificant decrease in the pain response in the tail-flick and formalin tests. Moreover, A. vera (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not have significant effect on the tail-flick test. However, A. vera (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased the second phase of the formalin-induced pain. Thus, these findings suggest that A. vera exerts its effect by a peripheral mechanism of action rather than central.

  10. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera extract into natural Tragacanth Gum as a novel green wound healing product.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-12-01

    Application of natural materials in wound healing is an interest topic due to effective treatment with no side effects. In this paper, Aloe Vera extract was encapsulated into Tragacanth Gum through a sonochemical microemulsion process to prepare a wound healing product. FESEM/EDX and FT-IR proved the successfully formation of the nanocapsules with spherical shape by cross-linking aluminum ions with Tragacanth Gum. The therapeutic characteristics of the prepared wound healing product were investigated using antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and wound healing assays. Relative high antimicrobial activities with the microbial reduction of 84, 91 and 80% against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, a cell viability of 98% against human fibroblast cells and a good wound healing activity with considerable migration rate of fibroblast cells are the important advantages of the new formed wound healing product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshanakrishna, K R; Chandramohan, G; Ilaiyaraja, N; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, A S

    2010-08-01

    The present work was undertaken with a view to study the effect of oral feeding of 2% Aloe vera gel extract (AGE) for 30 days on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced oxidative stress in rats. It was observed that AOM administration resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, with reduction in hepatic glutathione (GSH), vitamin A and uric acid contents. AOM-induced reduction in hepatic GSH and uric acid was brought back to normal by AGE. There was a significant raise in hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities as a result of feeding of the extract. Ingestion of the extract effected reduction in AOM-induced colonic GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PD and glutathione S-transferase and femur bone marrow micronuclei formation. Hence, it is suggested that Aloe vera gel extract possess the ability to reduce AOM- induced oxidative stress and toxicity in liver.

  12. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  13. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples.

  14. [Studies on chemical constituents from seeds of Euryale ferox].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-lin; Zhang, Ya-qiong; Xie, Xiao-yan; Che, Yan-yun

    2014-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the seeds of Euryale ferox. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 and their structures were identified by physico-chemical and spectral analysis. Seven compounds were purified from the 95% ethanol extract. These constituents were elucidated as protocatechuic acid (1), gallic acid (2), gallic acid ethyl ester(3),5 ,7-dihydroxychromone(4), β-sitosterol(5), daucosterol(6), and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone(7), respectively. All compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. Meeting report: First National Meeting on Aloe, April 20-21, 2013, Isernia, Italy. New perspectives in Aloe research: from basic science to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Laudato, Massimiliano; Borrelli, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Aloe preparations have maintaining their popularity over the of course time. Aloe latex is used for its laxative effects; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments and internally for variety of disturbances; aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer.

  16. Beneficial effects of aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Ravi, Kasiappan; Sivagnanam, Karuran; Subramanian, Sorimuthu

    2006-03-01

    The effect of diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism is well established. The association of hyperglycaemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess lipid-lowering properties. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-hyperlipidaemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. 2. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, hepatic transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), plasma and tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. 3. In addition, the decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein-and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in diabetic rats were restored to near normal levels following treatment with the extract. 4. The fatty acid composition of the liver and kidney was analysed by gas chromatography. The altered fatty acid composition in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats was restored following treatment with the extract. 5. Thus, the results of the present study provide a scientific rationale for the use of Aloe vera as an antidiabetic agent.

  17. Leukocyte phagocytosis and lysozyme activity in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Geovana; de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Tavares Gonçalves, Eduardo Luiz; Brum, Aline; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Maraschin, Marcelo; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2014-08-01

    Although there is evidence on the benefits in the use of immunostimulants in aquaculture, there are few commercial products being used. This study evaluated the use of natural substances as potential sources for the production of immunostimulants. Propolis and Aloe barbadensis have been widely studied and its extracts have different chemical constituents responsible for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant. Tilapia juveniles were fed for two weeks with diets supplemented mix of propolis extracts and aloe (1:1) in different concentrations: 0.5, 1 e 2%. After the experimental period, fish blood was collected for hematoimmunological as follows : hematocrit, total plasma protein, erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), differential leukocyte count, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antimicrobial activity, serum antimicrobial activity (evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterococcus durans and Escherichia coli). Except for higher number of thrombocytes in 1%-supplemented fish, the rest did not show significant difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Kanyadhara, Swetha; Dodoala, Sujatha; Sampathi, Sunitha; Punuru, Priyanka; Chinta, Gopichand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is being used since ages by human kind for treating various ailments including various inflammatory conditions, but scientific validation has not been done for analgesic activity against neuropathic pain. Objective: The current study was designed to systematically evaluate the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of A. vera (EEAV) against sciatic nerve ligation (SCNL) induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Nociceptive threshold of EEAV against thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were performed on 0, 7, 14 and 21st day post-SCNL. Serum total protein, serum nitrite, in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Sciatic nerve homogenate was used to estimate myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calcium levels. Histopathology of the sciatic nerve was done to confirm the biochemical findings. Results: Treatment with ethanolic extract has increased the threshold for the nociception in thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia models. A significant improvement of in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and decreased LPO levels were observed on treatment with A. vera. Significant decrease in serum nitrite, protein, calcium and MPO levels were observed, indicating protection against damage caused by SCNL. Conclusion: The results of the present study validate the use of EEAV to treat neuropathic pain. This effect may be attributed to the decreased migration of neutrophils and due to the anti-oxidant properties of A. vera. Further studies to confirm the mechanism of action will help develop suitable A. vera formulations for neuropathic pain therapy. PMID:25593400

  19. Shape- and Size-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Plant Extract and Their Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Logaranjan, Kaliyaperumal; Raiza, Anasdass Jaculin; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Pandian, Kannaiyan

    2016-12-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was performed at room temperature using Aloe vera plant extract in the presence of ammoniacal silver nitrate as a metal salt precursor. The formation of AgNP was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at different time intervals. The shape and size of the synthesized particle were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and further supported by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/Raman scattering (SERS) study. UV-visible spectrum has shown a sharp peak at 420 nm and further evidenced by FTIR peak profile (at 1587.6, 1386.4, and 1076 cm(-1) with corresponding compounds). The main band position with SERS was noticed at 1594 cm(-1) (C-C stretching vibration). When samples were heated under microwave radiation, AgNP with octahedron shapes with 5-50 nm were found and this method can be one of the easier ways to synthesis anisotropic AgNP, in which the plant extract plays a vital role to regulate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Enhanced antibacterial effects (two- to fourfold) were observed in the case of Aloe vera plant protected AgNP than the routinely synthesized antibiotic drugs. Shape and size-controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis extracts on hematological parameters and parasitism in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Geovana; Brum, Aline; Jeronimo, Gabriela Tomas; Maraschin, Marcelo; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diet supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis on hematological parameters and parasitism in tilapia. One hundred and eighty fish were distributed among 12 water tanks forming four treatments: fish supplemented with a 1:1 mixture of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% propolis and aloe extracts. After the fish had been fed on the experimental diets for 15 and 21 days, blood samples were taken and parasites collected. The monogeneans Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. halli, C. thurstonae and Scutogyrus longicornis were identified in the gills. Between the sampling times, there were increases in the numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes, as observed after 21 days, possibly due to the stress level over the course of the assay and/or accumulation of substances in the organism. Supplementation with the mixture of propolis and aloe for 15 days showed the highest efficacy against the parasites. This was possibly due to the association between the two compounds. The results demonstrated that supplementation with mixtures of extracts did not produce hematological alterations and also favored a significant reduction in the number of gill parasites. The best results were achieved after 15 days of feeding with a diet with 0.5% and 1% supplementation with the extract mixture, which increased efficiency by 83 and 85% respectively.

  1. Antifungal Effect of Malaysian Aloe vera Leaf Extract on Selected Fungal Species of Pathogenic Otomycosis Species in In Vitro Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Saniasiaya, Jeyasakthy; Salim, Rosdan; Mohamad, Irfan; Harun, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Methods This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract (50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL) using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans. The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined. Conclusions The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger (p < 0.001). Malaysian Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger. PMID:28042402

  2. Antifungal Effect of Malaysian Aloe vera Leaf Extract on Selected Fungal Species of Pathogenic Otomycosis Species in In Vitro Culture Medium.

    PubMed

    Saniasiaya, Jeyasakthy; Salim, Rosdan; Mohamad, Irfan; Harun, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract (50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL) using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans. The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined. The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger (p < 0.001). Malaysian Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger.

  3. Evaluation of wound healing treated with latex derived from rubber trees and Aloe Vera extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Marcelo Luiz; Reis, Paulo Roberto Melo; Araújo, Lilhian Alves de; Araújo, Ana Carolina Vicente; Santos, Maisa Helena de Abreu Silva; Miguel, Marina Pacheco

    2016-09-01

    To compare the use of latex derivative and Aloe vera extract to wound healing. Twenty one rats were randomly divided into three groups and each one had a wound made by incision. The treatment consisted in: derivative of latex (GL), Aloe vera extract (GA) and saline solution (GC). The wound area was measured on the 7th, 14th and 21st days and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation were done. The comparison between the measurements of the wounds presented statistical difference in GC and GA from the 7th day of evaluation and GL from the 14th day. The extent of the wound was significantly smaller by the 7th day in GL. Histologically, in GL, the neovascularization was significant on the 7th, 14th and 21st days. On the 21st day the scar was large and little mature. In GA and GC, the findings were similar on the 7th, 14th and 21st days with a slight better organization of skin and collagen on the 21st in GA. Statistical analysis did not allow for the definition of the best topical agent. The latex had the highest angiogenesis, but a possible foreign body granuloma. Aloe vera has revealed a healing process adequated temporally in histology.

  4. In vitro wound healing and cytotoxic activity of the gel and whole-leaf materials from selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle T; Mazumder, Anisha; Dwivedi, Anupma; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2017-03-22

    Aloe vera is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world with applications in the cosmetic industry and also in the tonic or health drink product market. Different parts of Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii are used as traditional medicines for different applications. Although wound healing has been shown for certain aloe gel materials (e.g. A. vera ) previously, there are conflicting reports on this medicinal application of aloe leaf gel materials. The present study aimed at determining the wound healing properties of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii, as well as their cytotoxic effects on normal human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to chemically fingerprint the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials by identifying characteristic marker molecules of aloe gel and whole-leaf materials. An MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the various aloe whole-leaf and gel materials on HaCaT cells. Wound healing and in vitro cell migration were investigated with HaCaT cells by means of the CytoSelect™ assay kit. The in vitro wound healing assay suggested that all the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials examined, exhibited faster wound healing activity than the untreated control group. After 48h, all the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials almost completely caused full wound closure, displaying 98.07% (A. marlothii whole-leaf), 98.00% (A. vera gel), 97.20% (A. marlothii gel), 96.00% (A. vera whole-leaf), 94.00% (A. ferox gel) and 81.30% (A. ferox whole-leaf) wound closure, respectively. It was noteworthy that the gel materials of all the three aloe species exhibited significantly faster (p<0.05) wound healing actions when compared to their respective whole-leaf materials at 32h. The gel and whole-leaf materials of A. vera, A. ferox and A. marlothii have shown the ability to heal wounds at a faster rate and to a larger extent than untreated keratinocytes. The MTT assay

  5. Effect of Aloe vera whole leaf extract on short chain fatty acids production by Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Eubacterium limosum.

    PubMed

    Pogribna, M; Freeman, J P; Paine, D; Boudreau, M D

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Aloe vera whole leaf extract on pure and mixed human gut bacterial cultures by assessing the bacterial growth and changes in the production of short chain fatty acids. Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Eubacterium limosum were incubated with Aloe vera extracts [0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%; (w/v)] for 24 and 48 h. Short chain fatty acids production was measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. A significant linear increase in growth response to Aloe vera supplementation was observed at 24 h for each of the bacterial cultures; however, only B. infantis and a mixed bacterial culture showed a significant positive linear dose response in growth at 48 h. In pure bacteria cultures, a significantly enhanced dose response to Aloe vera supplementation was observed in the production of acetic acid by B. infantis at 24 h and of butyric acid by E. limosum at 24 and 48 h. In the mixed bacterial culture, the production of propionic acid was reduced significantly at 24 and 48 h in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas butyric acid production showed a significant linear increase. The results indicated that Aloe vera possessed bacteriogenic activity in vitro and altered the production of acetic, butyric and propionic acids by micro-organisms selected for the study. The results of the study suggest that consumption of a dietary supplement, Aloe vera, may alter the production of short chain fatty acids by human intestinal microflora.

  6. Acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera, is effective in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration.

    PubMed

    Bhalang, Kanokporn; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha; Rungsirisatean, Nuttanit

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the safety and effectiveness of acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera, in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration. A skin patch test was performed on 100 healthy subjects, and 0.5% acemannan in Carbopol® 934P NF (Lubrizol Corporation, USA) was applied to the oral mucosa of the lower lip of 50 healthy participants 3 times/day for 7 days. Oral examinations and blood tests measuring liver and kidney function were performed prior to, and following, 7 days of application to assess the side-effects of acemannan when used on oral mucosa. Another 180 subjects with recurrent aphthous ulceration randomly received one of three treatments: 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (HOE Pharmaceuticals, Malaysia), 0.5% acemannan in Carbopol® 934P NF, or pure Carbopol® 934P NF. Medications were applied to the ulcers 3 times/day for 7 days. Measurements of ulcer size and patient satisfaction ratings were performed on days 2, 5, and 7. Pain ratings were recorded daily. No subjects exhibited allergic reactions or side-effects to acemannan. There were no significant differences between the blood test values before and after 7 days of acemannan application. The effectiveness of acemannan in reducing ulcer size and pain was superior to that of control, but inferior to that of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide. Patients were mostly satisfied with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide and acemannan treatment. Acemannan can be used for the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration in patients who wish to avoid the use of steroid medication, although the effectiveness was not comparable to that of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide.

  7. Cloud point extraction of aloe anthraquinones based on non-ionic surfactant aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Jian; Li, Fen-Fang; Xing, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Non-ionic surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system had been investigated to extract aloe anthraquinones. It had the advantage of using a single auxiliary chemical to induce phase separation above cloud point at a low concentration. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen for its excellent phase-separating ability and low cloud point. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction were discussed such as equilibrium temperature and time, concentrations of surfactant and inorganic electrolytes, pH, etc. Under the optimised conditions, the highest extraction yield 96.93% was obtained. The reverse extraction of anthraquinones from surfactant-rich phase was achieved with a recovery of 70.35% by adjusting pH. Compared with conventional purification methods, this CPE technique can be completed in one operation; besides, it is a low-cost method and an environment friendly one.

  8. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  9. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  10. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Tippayawat, Patcharaporn; Phromviyo, Nutthakritta; Boueroy, Parichart; Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2016-01-01

    There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV) with antibacterial activity. AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 (o)C for 6 h and 200 (o)C for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively utilized in pharmaceutical

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Phromviyo, Nutthakritta; Boueroy, Parichart; Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV) with antibacterial activity. Methods AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. Results The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 oC for 6 h and 200 oC for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively utilized in

  13. Shape- and Size-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Plant Extract and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logaranjan, Kaliyaperumal; Raiza, Anasdass Jaculin; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Pandian, Kannaiyan

    2016-11-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was performed at room temperature using Aloe vera plant extract in the presence of ammoniacal silver nitrate as a metal salt precursor. The formation of AgNP was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at different time intervals. The shape and size of the synthesized particle were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and further supported by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/Raman scattering (SERS) study. UV-visible spectrum has shown a sharp peak at 420 nm and further evidenced by FTIR peak profile (at 1587.6, 1386.4, and 1076 cm-1 with corresponding compounds). The main band position with SERS was noticed at 1594 cm-1 (C-C stretching vibration). When samples were heated under microwave radiation, AgNP with octahedron shapes with 5-50 nm were found and this method can be one of the easier ways to synthesis anisotropic AgNP, in which the plant extract plays a vital role to regulate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Enhanced antibacterial effects (two- to fourfold) were observed in the case of Aloe vera plant protected AgNP than the routinely synthesized antibiotic drugs.

  14. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:28216559

  15. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-02-14

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  16. Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Bani; Magnusson, Maria K; Isaksson, Stefan; Larsson, Fredrik; Öhman, Lena

    2016-02-17

    Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear. The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated polyclonally in the presence or absence of AVH200® and AVE200. The T cell phenotype was investigated by flow cytometry, cell proliferation was determined by CFSE dye and thymidine assay, respectively and cytokine secretion was determined by MSD® Multi-Spot Assay system and ELISA. The presence of AVH200® resulted in a reduced expression of CD25 among CD3(+) T cells and suppression of T cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AVH200® reduced the expression of CD28 on CD3(+) T cells. AVH200® also reduced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A in PBMC cultures. The AVH200® dose dependent reduction in T cell activation and proliferation recorded in the cell cultures was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally, AVH200® was found to be more effective as compared to AVE200 in reducing T cell activation and proliferation. AVH200® has the potential to reduce the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of healthy human blood T cells. Our study suggests that AVH200® has a suppressive effect on human blood T cells in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methanolic extracts of Aloe secundiflora Engl. inhibits in vitro growth of tuberculosis and diarrhea-causing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mariita, Richard M.; Orodho, John A.; Okemo, Paul O.; Kirimuhuzya, Claude; Otieno, Joseph N.; Magadula, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The emergence of resistance to antimicrobials by pathogens has reached crisis levels, calling for identification of alternative means to combat diseases. Objective: To determine antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extract of Aloe secundiflora Engl. from Lake Victoria region of Kenya. Materials and Methods: Extract was tested against four strains of mycobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis), Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and a fungus Candida albicans. activity of the extract was determined using BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system. General antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined using standard procedures: zones of inhibition, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentrations (MBCs/MFCs). Results: The extract was potent against M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. kansasii where it completely inhibited growth (Zero growth units (GUs)) in all the extract concentrations used. It gave strong antimycobacterial activity (157 GUs) against M. tuberculosis. It showed strong antimicrobial activity (P≤0.05), giving inhibition zones ≥9.00 mm against most microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa (MIC 9.375 mg mL-1 and MBC of 18.75 mg mL-1), E. coli (both MIC and MBC of 18.75 mg mL-1), S. aureus and S. typhi (both with MIC and MBC of 37.5 mg mL-1). Preliminary phytochemistry revealed presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Conclusion: The data suggests that Aloe secundiflora could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents. The result gives scientific backing to its use by the local people of Lake Victoria region of Kenya, in the management of conditions associated with the tested microorganisms. PMID:21772752

  18. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output. PMID:25050311

  19. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD.

  20. Extraction and purification of anthraquinones derivatives from Aloe vera L. using alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-jian; Li, Fen-fang; Xu, Xue-lei

    2013-08-01

    An alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of 1-propanol and (NH4)2SO4 was employed to purify anthraquinones (AQs) extracted from Aloe vera L. The main influencing system parameters such as type of alcohol, type and concentration of salt, temperature and pH were investigated in detail. Under the optimal extraction conditions, AQs can be extracted into alcohol-rich phase with high extraction efficiency, meanwhile majority polysaccharides, proteins, mineral substances and other impurities were extracted into salt-rich phase. Partitioning of AQs is dependent on hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond interaction, and salting-out effect in ATPS. Temperature also played a great role in the partitioning. After ATPS extraction, alcohol can be recycled by evaporation; moreover, salt can be recycled by dilution crystallization method. Compared with other liquid-liquid extractions, this alcohol/salt system is much simpler, lower in cost with easier recovery of phase-forming components, which has the potential scale-up in down-processing of active ingredients in plant.

  1. Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol.

  2. In vitro study of the PLA2 inhibition and antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the present work we determined the total phenolic content of Aloe vera leaf skin (AVLS) extracts by using various solvents (hexane, chloroform-ethanol (1/1), ethyl acetate, butanol and water). We have also evaluated the antioxidant and the anti-PLA2 properties of these extracts by measuring their inhibition potency on the human pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2 (group IIA). Results The water extract exhibits the highest inhibitory effect with an IC50 = 0.22 mg/ml and interestingly no effect was observed on the digestive phospholipase A2 (group IB) even at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities were also analyzed and the most active extracts were observed when using chloroform ethanol (1/1) and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 0.274 and 0.326 mg/ml, respectively). Analysis of the total phenolic content reveals that the water extract, with the best anti-PLA2 effect, was poor in phenolic molecules (2 mg GAE/g). This latter value has to be compared with the chloroform-ethanol and the ethyl acetate extracts (40 and 23.8 mg GAE/g, respectively), mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity. Conclusion A significant correlation was established between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity but not with the anti PLA2 activity. Results from phytochemical screening suggest that the anti PLA2 molecules were probably catechin tannins compounds. PMID:21310091

  3. Ultrasonic extraction and HPLC determination of anthraquinones, aloe-emodine, emodine, rheine, chrysophanol and physcione, in roots of Polygoni multiflori.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yue; Zuo, Yuegang

    2009-01-01

    Polygoni multiflori, one of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases commonly associated with aging, is known to contain active anthraquinone ingredients. However, the content of the anthraquinones varies among P. multiflori samples with collection season and sites. Thus, simple, reliable and accurate analytical methods for determining of anthraquinones in P. multiflori products are needed for the quality control and pharmacological studies. To develop an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five anthraquinones, aloe-emodine, rheine, emodine, chrysophanol and physcione, in the roots of P. multiflori. Anthraquinones were extracted from the roots of P. multiflori using aqueous alcohol solutions or hot water under ultrasonication. Separation and quantitation of anthraquinones was accomplished using a reversed-phase C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-water-phosphoric acid (600:400:1), and the detection wavelength of 254 nm. Seventy per cent aqueous ethanol showed the highest extraction efficiency for anthraquinones from roots of P. multiflori when compared with four other extraction solvents tested. All calibration curves were linear over the concentration range tested with the square of correlation coefficients >0.999. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.89, 1.1, 1.6, 1.7 and 2.0 ng for chrysophanol, aloe-emodine, rheine, emodine and physcione, respectively. Emodine and physcione were found in the samples tested at concentrations of 0.341 and 0.197 mg/g, respectively. The described HPLC methods are simple, accurate and selective techniques for separation and quantification of anthraquinones in roots of P. multiflori and other plant samples.

  4. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. Objective: The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. Results: While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. Conclusions: This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux. PMID:24143044

  5. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-10-01

    Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux.

  6. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and aloe vera solutions as root canal irrigants in human extracted teeth contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, S; Khosravifar, N; Sedighshamsi, M; Motamedifar, M

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001). Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  7. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, S.; Khosravifar, N.; SedighShamsi, M.; Motamedifar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament. PMID:24738089

  8. Aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Thomas, Chunpen; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(C5H8O2)3) and aloe vera plant-extracted solution. The influences of different reaction temperatures and times on the structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline and have particle sizes of ˜6-30 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the inverse cubic spinel structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. The hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature show superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 samples increases with increasing reaction temperature and time.

  9. Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Altincik, Ayca; Sönmez, Ferah; Yenisey, Cigdem; Duman, Soner; Can, Ayse; Akev, Nuriye; Kirdar, Sevin; Sezak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.

  10. Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model

    PubMed Central

    Altincik, Ayca; Sönmez, Ferah; Yenisey, Çigdem; Duman, Soner; Can, Ayse; Akev, Nuriye; Kirdar, Sevin; Sezak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Results: Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. Conclusion: It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. PMID:24987181

  11. Aloe vera

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  12. Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model.

    PubMed

    Boonyagul, Sani; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2014-07-01

    Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H] thymidine incorporation assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization. In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  13. Effect of an extract of Aloe vera on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Cecília Maria de Carvalho Xavier; Costa, Monique Batista da; Silva, Natália Chilinque Zambão da; Silva, Maurício Ferreira da; Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda; Silva, Roseane Pereira da; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera is a tropical plant popularly known in Brazil as babosa. We have investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 and laboratorial parameters in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were divided into treated and control groups. In the treated group, Aloe vera was given by gavage (5mg/mL/day) during 10 days. The control group received sorbitol by the same way and period. One hour after the last dose, we injected 0.1mL of Na99mTcO4 by orbital plexus. After 60 min, all the animals were killed. Samples were harvested from the brain, liver, heart, muscle, pancreas, stomach, femur, kidneys, blood, testis and thyroid and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI/g) was determined. Biochemical dosages were performed. There was a significant increase of %ATI/g in blood, femur, kidneys, liver, stomach, testis and thyroid and also in blood levels of AST and ALT. A significant decrease in levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and urea occurred. The statistical analyses were performed by Mann-Whitney test and T-Student test (p<0.05). The aqueous extract of Aloe vera facilitated the uptake of Na99mTcO4 in organs of rats and it was responsible to a high increase of levels of AST and ALT.

  14. In vitro drug permeation enhancement potential of aloe gel materials.

    PubMed

    Lebitsa, Tebogo; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lu, Zhilei; Hamman, Josias

    2012-05-01

    Aloe vera gel previously showed the ability to increase the bioavailability of vitamins and to enhance the in vitro transport of a macromolecular drug across intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of other species of aloe to act as drug absorption enhancement agents. The effect of gel materials from three South African aloes; Aloe ferox, A. marlothii and A. speciosa on the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability of atenolol across excised intestinal tissue of the rat as well as the transport of FITC-dextran across Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The aloe gel materials exhibited the ability to statistically significantly reduce the transepithelial electrical resistance of excised rat intestinal tissue but did not significantly increase the transport of atenolol across this in vitro tissue model at the concentrations tested. At least one concentration of each aloe gel material enhanced the transport of FITC-dextran statistically significantly across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The aloe gel materials showed potential to act as drug absorption enhancing agents across intestinal epithelia. The absorption enhancement effect was dependent on the type of in vitro model and type of drug was investigated.

  15. Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Nordgren, R

    1995-03-01

    Cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD11 line cells produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate derived from the Aloe vera plant. Neither cell type produced detectable amounts of NO in response to similar concentrations of yeast mannan, another complex carbohydrate. Nitric oxide production was dose dependent and inhibitable by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine. In addition, the production of NO was inhibited by preincubation of ACM with concanavalin A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ACM-induced NO synthesis may be mediated through macrophage mannose receptors, and macrophage activation may be accountable for some of the immunomodulatory effects of ACM in chickens.

  16. Investigation on structural properties of M-type strontium hexaferrite synthesized in presence of neem and aloe-vera plant leaves extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Neha; Jotania, Rajshree B.

    2017-05-01

    M-type strontium hexaferrite powder samples were synthesized using a green synthesis route with and without presence of Aloe vera and Neem leaves extract. The dry brownish precursors of strontium hexaferrite were recovered from a mixed solution of metal salts and leaves extract, heated at 100 °C. The obtained precursors were pre-heated at 500 °C for 4 hrs. followed by final heating at 950 °C for 4 hrs. in a muffle furnace to obtain SrFe12O19 hexaferrite powder. The obtained SrFe12O19 hexaferrite powder samples characterized at room temperature in order to check phase purity and structural properties. XRD analysis confirms that samples prepared without and with Aloe vera leaves extract (heated at 950 °C for 4 hrs.) show formation of α-Fe2O3 and M-phase; while the sample prepared in presence of Neem leaves extract (heated at 950 °C for 4 hrs.) show formation of mono phase of strontium hexaferrite. Lattice parameter (a) and cell volume (V) are found to increase in the samples prepared in presence of Aloe vera and Neem leaves extract.

  17. In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Djeraba, A; Quere, P

    2000-05-01

    Acemannan (ACM 1), a beta-(1,4) -acetylated mannan isolated from Aloe vera, can be used as an effective adjuvant in vaccination against some avian viral diseases. Our results demonstrate a quick and lasting in vivo priming effect of ACM 1 on macrophage response after intramuscular inoculation in chickens (500 microg per 2-month-old bird). In response to IFN-gamma in vitro, monocytes from ACM 1-treated chickens exhibited a strong enhancement of NO production from 3 to 9 days p.i., but a weaker effect on MHC II cell surface antigen expression on day 3 p.i. A stimulating effect of ACM 1 treatment was also observed on spontaneous and inducible NO production for splenocytes only on day 3 p.i. By that time, splenocytes exhibited a strong higher capacity to proliferate in response to the T cell-mitogen PHA. At the same time, the in vivo capacity to produce NO, measured by the (NO(-)(2)+NO(-)(3)) serum level after intravenous LPS injection, increased greatly from 3 to 9 days p.i. In conclusion, ACM 1 was able efficiently and durably to increase the activation capacity of macrophages from the systemic immune compartment (in particular from the blood and spleen after an intramuscular injection) in chickens, especially for NO production. These findings provide a better understanding of the adjuvant activity of ACM 1 for viral and tumoral diseases.

  18. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties.

  19. Liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera leaf gel extract significantly enhance proliferation and collagen synthesis in human skin cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Kitamoto, Dai; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vela leaf gel extract (AGE) are widely used as cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients because of its versatile skin care properties. In order to enhance the bioavailability of AGE, liposomes encapsulating AGE were prepared and examined for their interfacial and biochemical properties. The liposomes prepared from a soybean lecithin (SLP-WHITE, 1.0 wt%) by the Bangham method gave relatively a good trapping efficiency up to the AGE concentration of 0.5 wt%. The stable liposomes were then prepared from 1.0 wt% of SLP-WHITE and different concentrations of AGE by the mechanochemical method using a homogenizer and microfluidizer. The liposomes obtained from 0.25 wt% of AGE were confirmed to be small unilamellar vesicles with a diameter of less than 200 nm, and remained well dispersed for at least two weeks. The obtained liposomes encapsulating AGE were further examined for the effects on proliferation and type I collagen synthesis in normal human neonatal skin fibroblasts, NB1RGB cells. Liposomal AGE clearly showed higher proliferation rate than that of AGE alone. In addition, compared to the control, liposomal AGE significantly increased the collagen synthesis by 23%, while AGE alone showed a small effect. Liposomal AGE was also assayed for the effect on proliferation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, NHEK(F) cells. Interestingly, liposomal AGE fractions containing 4 and 20 microg/mL of the extract considerably increased the proliferation rate by 77% and 101%, respectively. In contrast, AGE alone fractions containing 4 and 20 microg/mL of the extract increased the rate by 41% and 60%, respectively. Accordingly, the bioavailability and skin care properties of AGE will be significantly enhanced by liposome encapsulation, and the present liposomal AGE should have a great potential as an effective skin care formulation.

  20. Water-soluble egg membrane enhances the immunoactivating properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F; Newman, Robert A; Jensen, Gitte S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a blend of two natural ingredients on immune parameters relevant for their current topical use and potential support of microcirculation in skin tissue. Materials and methods A blend (BL) of Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8i, oleandrin-free) and hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) was applied to human whole-blood cultures for 24 hours, with each separate ingredient serving as a control. Immune-cell subsets were analyzed for expression levels of the activation markers CD69 and CD25. Culture supernatants were analyzed for cytokines, chemokines, and immunoregulating peptides. Results BL increased CD69 expression on lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD3–CD56+ natural killer cells, and CD25 expression on natural killer cells. The number of CD69+CD25+ lymphocytes increased in cultures treated with BL and the separate ingredients. BL triggered production of multiple cytokines and chemokines, where CC chemokines MIP1α and MIP3α, as well as cytokines involved in wound healing – Groα, Groβ, ENA78, and fractalkine – reached levels manyfold above treatment with either NAE-8i or WSEM alone. Conclusion Data on BL showed that WSEM strongly enhanced NAE-8i’s effects on immunoactivation in vitro. This has potential relevance for support of immunity in skin tissue, including antibacterial and antiviral defense mechanisms, wrinkle reduction, and wound care. PMID:27843333

  1. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.99). NMR was found to be suitable for the automated simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 parameters in A. vera.

  2. Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Azam, Ameer; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Said, Mansour S; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2016-06-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesised through a simple and efficient biogenic synthesis approach, exploiting the reducing and capping potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera) leaf extract (ALE). ALE-capped ZnO nanoparticles (ALE-ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. XRD analysis provided the average size of ZnONPs as 15 nm. FTIR spectral analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and proteins present in ALE, in nucleation and stability of ZnONPs. Flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) data analyses revealed the surface binding and internalization of ZnONPs in Gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli) cells, respectively. Significant antibacterial activity of ALE-ZnONPs was observed against extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) positive E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates exhibiting the MIC and MBC values of 2200, 2400 μg/ml and 2300, 2700 μg/ml, respectively. Substantial inhibitory effects of ALE-ZnONPs on bacterial growth kinetics, exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation, unequivocally suggested the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential. Overall, the results elucidated a rapid, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and convenient method for ALE-ZnONPs synthesis, for possible applications as nanoantibiotics or drug carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The effect of Euryale ferox (Makhana), an herb of aquatic origin, on myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Das, Samarjit; Der, Peter; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2006-09-01

    Fox nut or gorgon nut (Euryale ferox--Family Nymphaeaceae), popularly known as Makhana, has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to cure a variety of diseases including kidney problems, chronic diarrhea, excessive leucorrhea and hypofunction of the spleen. Based on the recent studies revealing antioxidant activities of Euryale ferox and its glucosides composition, we sought to determine if Euryale ferox seeds (Makhana) could reduce myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Two different models were used: acute model, where isolated rat hearts were preperfused for 15 min with Krebs Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer containing three different doses of makhana (25, 125 or 250 microg/ml) followed by 30 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion; and chronic model, where rats were given two different doses of makhana (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) for 21 days, after which isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. In both cases, the hearts of the Makhana treated rats were resistant to ischemic reperfusion injury as evidenced by their improved post-ischemic ventricular function and reduced myocardial infarct size. Antibody array technique was used to identify the cardioprotective proteins. The Makhana-treated hearts had increased amounts of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and thioredoxin-related protein-32 (TRP32) compared to the control hearts. Western blot analysis confirmed increased expression of TRP32 and thioredoxin proteins. In vitro studies revealed that Makhana extracts had potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activities. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate cardioprotective properties of Makhana and suggest that such cardioprotective properties may be linked with the ability of makhana to induce TRP32 and Trx-1 proteins and to scavenge ROS.

  5. The content of secondary phenol metabolites in pruned leaves of Aloe arborescens, a comparison between two methods: leaf exudates and leaf water extract.

    PubMed

    Gutterman, Yitzchak; Chauser-Volfson, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Aloe arborescens plants, originating from the deserts of South Africa, are grown in the Introduction Garden at Sede Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel. In previous studies, we developed agro-technical methods to raise the content of secondary phenol metabolites (SPhMs) in the Aloe leaves. Plants that are subjected to repeated leaf pruning respond by increasing the content of their SPhMs. The SPhMs found in Aloe arborescens include barbaloin, aloenin and derivatives of aloeresin. Such compounds are used for many purposes, including human skin protection from sun and fire burns and high radiation, as products of the pharmaceutics and cosmetics industries, and as food supplements for treating stomach ulcers and diabetes. In the current study, the SPhMs were separated from pruned leaves of the same A. arborescens plants at the same time by two methods: (1) exudation by squeezing the tissues of the leaves, (2) immersion of the leaves' pruned cut bottom in water and collection of the extract. The exudates and extract were frozen, freeze-dried to a powder and the SPhMs were then separated by chromatography. The yield of powder from water extraction from pruned leaves was much lower than the yield from the exudates. However, higher percentages of the powder from the water extraction contained SPhMs (between 80 and 92.7%). The content of powder in leaf exudates from pruned leaves was much higher because the SPhMs were squeezed out from the cells and tissues. However, the percentages of SPhMs in this powder were much lower (between 39 and 62%).

  6. In vitro anti-proliferative activities of Aloe perryi flowers extract on human liver, colon, breast, lung, prostate and epithelial cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Jassas, Ebtesam; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Farshori, Nida Nayyar

    2016-03-01

    Natural products, especially plant extracts have offered vast opportunities in the field of drug development due to its chemical diversity. The genus Aloe has for long been used for medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemicals and anti-cancer potential of Aloe perryi flowers. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and proteins. While alkaloids and saponins were absent. The percentage inhibition of various extracts (viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous) of A. perryi flowers on seven human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa) has been evaluated using MTT assay. All the extracts significantly inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The petroleum ether extract was most active, where the inhibition was recorded as 92.6%, 93.9%, 92%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 82% and 85.7% for HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A-549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa cells, respectively. The results also revealed that HCT-116 cells were more sensitive among all the cell lines studied.

  7. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  8. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Radha, Maharjan H; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera ( lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F; McGaw, Lyndy J; Coopoosamy, Roger M; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium-based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90-100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  10. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F.; McGaw, Lyndy J.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium–based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90–100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  11. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and skin regenerative properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves (nae-8(®)).

    PubMed

    Benson, Kathleen F; Newman, Robert A; Jensen, Gitte S

    2015-01-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of an Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8(®)), compared to an extract of A. vera gel alone (ALOE), and to an aqueous extract of N. oleander (AQ-NOE) in bioassays pertaining to dermatologic potential with respect to antioxidant protection, anti-inflammatory effects, and cytokine profiles in vitro. Cellular antioxidant protection was evaluated in three separate bioassays: The cellular antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, protection of cellular viability and prevention of apoptosis, and protection of intracellular reduced glutathione levels, where the last two assays were performed using human primary dermal fibroblasts. Reduction of intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested using polymorphonuclear cells in the absence and presence of oxidative stress. Changes to cytokine and chemokine profiles when whole blood cells and human primary dermal fibroblasts were exposed to test products were determined using a 40-plex Luminex array as a method for exploring the potential cross-talk between circulating and skin-resident cells. The NAE-8(®) provided significantly better antioxidant protection in the CAP-e bioassay than AQ-NOE. NAE-8(®) and AQ-NOE both protected cellular viability and intracellular reduced glutathione, and reduced the ROS formation significantly when compared to control cells, both under inflamed and neutral culture conditions. ALOE showed minimal effect in these bioassays. In contrast to the NAE-8(®), the AQ-NOE showed induction of inflammation in the whole blood cultures, as evidenced by the high induction of CD69 expression and secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines. The treatment of dermal fibroblasts with NAE-8(®) resulted in selective secretion of cytokines involved in collagen and hyaluronan production as well as re-epithelialization during wound healing. NAE-8(®), a novel component of a commercial cosmetic product, showed

  12. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and skin regenerative properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves (nae-8®)

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F; Newman, Robert A; Jensen, Gitte S

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of an Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8®), compared to an extract of A. vera gel alone (ALOE), and to an aqueous extract of N. oleander (AQ-NOE) in bioassays pertaining to dermatologic potential with respect to antioxidant protection, anti-inflammatory effects, and cytokine profiles in vitro. Methods Cellular antioxidant protection was evaluated in three separate bioassays: The cellular antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, protection of cellular viability and prevention of apoptosis, and protection of intracellular reduced glutathione levels, where the last two assays were performed using human primary dermal fibroblasts. Reduction of intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested using polymorphonuclear cells in the absence and presence of oxidative stress. Changes to cytokine and chemokine profiles when whole blood cells and human primary dermal fibroblasts were exposed to test products were determined using a 40-plex Luminex array as a method for exploring the potential cross-talk between circulating and skin-resident cells. Results The NAE-8® provided significantly better antioxidant protection in the CAP-e bioassay than AQ-NOE. NAE-8® and AQ-NOE both protected cellular viability and intracellular reduced glutathione, and reduced the ROS formation significantly when compared to control cells, both under inflamed and neutral culture conditions. ALOE showed minimal effect in these bioassays. In contrast to the NAE-8®, the AQ-NOE showed induction of inflammation in the whole blood cultures, as evidenced by the high induction of CD69 expression and secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines. The treatment of dermal fibroblasts with NAE-8® resulted in selective secretion of cytokines involved in collagen and hyaluronan production as well as re-epithelialization during wound healing. Conclusion NAE-8®, a novel component of a commercial cosmetic

  13. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  14. Aloe vera Non-Decolorized Whole Leaf Extract-Induced Large Intestinal Tumors in F344 Rats Share Similar Molecular Pathways with Human Sporadic Colorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pandiri, Arun R.; Sills, Robert C.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Ton, Thai-Vu T.; Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Flake, Gordon P.; Malarkey, David E.; Olson, Greg R.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Walker, Nigel J.; Boudreau, Mary D.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5–8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels. PMID:21937742

  15. Aloe vera non-decolorized whole leaf extract-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share similar molecular pathways with human sporadic colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun R; Sills, Robert C; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Peddada, Shyamal D; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Flake, Gordon P; Malarkey, David E; Olson, Greg R; Pogribny, Igor P; Walker, Nigel J; Boudreau, Mary D

    2011-12-01

    Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5-8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels.

  16. Wound Healing Activity of Extracts and Formulations of Aloe vera, Henna, Adiantum capillus-veneris, and Myrrh on Mouse Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Samira; Galehdari, Hamid; Kesmati, Mahnaz; Rezaie, Anahita; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among the most important factors in wound healing pathways are transforming growth factor beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Fibroblasts are the main cell in all phases wound closure. In this study, the extracts of plant materials such as Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe vera, and henna and one mixture of them were used to treatment of normal mouse skin fibroblasts. Methods: Cytotoxic effects of each extract and their mixture were assessed on mouse skin fibroblasts cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We performed migration assays to assess migration properties of mouse skin fibroblasts cells in response to the extracts. Changes in the gene expression of the Tgfβ1 and Vegf-A genes were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: A. capillus-veneris, C. molmol and henna extract improved the expression of Tgfβ1 gene. All used extracts upregulated the expression of Vegf-A gene and promoted the migration of mouse fibroblast cells in vitro. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the mentioned herbal extracts might be effective in wound healing, through the improvement in the migration of fibroblast cells and regulating the gene expression of Tgfβ1 and Vegf-A genes in fibroblast cells treated with extracts. PMID:28382194

  17. Two new tocopherol polymers from the seeds of Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Two new tocopherol polymers, chroman-type dimer named ferotocodimer A (1) and spiro-type trimer named ferotocotrimer E (2), were isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by CD and ROESY experiments.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Growth Control Properties of Nonoscale Structure Produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis Extract on Clinical Isolates of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Arjomandzadegan, Mohammad; Hosseiny, Hossein

    2017-07-31

    The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial properties of microemulsion structure produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis extract as a new tool of nanoscale drug-like materials. Aloe vera var. littoralis (A. littoralis) extract was prepared by distillation method. A nonocarrier structure in the microemulsion system was prepared from the extract. Serial concentrations were prepared from 8 mg/mL extract and the nonocarrier containing 0.1 mg/mL pure extract and were evaluated by a disk diffusion method for 35 Salmonella clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microbroth dilution assay using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) Microplate Reader apparatus. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. From 35 clinical isolates of Salmonella, 17 isolates-including resistant isolates of S.E.1103 and S.E.49-had a zone of inhibition (ZI) of 7 to 32 mm in 0.007 mg/mL of the extract. S.E.76 isolate exposed to 30 µg/mL ceftazidime disk had a ZI of 12 mm but had 10 mm in 7µg/mL of A. littoralis extract. The inhibitory effect of a nanocarrier at a concentration of 25 µg/mL by 20 mm ZI was comparable by the ceftazidime (30 µg/mL) effect. MIC50 was 0.25 mg/mL and MBC50 was 0.5 mg/mL by MTT method for the extract. It was shown that A.littoralis extract had antioxidant activity of 31.67 µM/mg that could be increased based on concentration. It was concluded that the nanocarrier had a significant effect on the studied isolates in comparison with ordinary antibiotics and had potential for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material in complementary medicine.

  20. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  1. Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro production of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

    2004-04-01

    In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetics of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of a rhubarb peony decoction and rhubarb extract to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xin; Li, Jun-Song; Peng, Wen-Wen; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li-Hua; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to clarify the rationality of herbaceous compatibility of a rhubarb peony decoction (DaHuang-Mu-Dan-Tang, RPD) by comparing the pharmacokinetics of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats' plasma after oral administration of RPD and rhubarb extract. A rapid, sensitive LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of the plasma concentrations of the three analytes after oral administration RPD and rhubarb extract. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats' plasma after oral administration. Compared with administration of single rhubarb, the C(max) of rhein in RPD was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the T1/2 of aloe-emodin and emodin were increased significantly (p < 0.05) after administration of RPD. In addition, the T(max) of rhein and emodin were also increased significantly (p < 0.05) in RPD. These results indicated that the absorption of rhein in rats was suppressed after oral administration RPD. Moreover, The time for rhein and emodin to reach the peak concentration was delayed and the elimination of aloe-emodin and emodin was also postponed in RPD. This study could provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine in terms of pharmacokinetics.

  3. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS.

  4. Effect of daily drinking of Aloe vera gel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity and oral pathogenic bacteria in healthy volunteer: a short-term study.

    PubMed

    Prueksrisakul, Titipong; Chantarangsu, Soranun; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Aloe vera gel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oral pathogenic bacteria in healthy volunteer. Fifty-three healthy volunteers were participated and interviewed for history of allergy, current systemic diseases and medications. Participants were received 250 mL of A. vera gel extract daily for 14 consecutive days. At days 0 and 15 of the experiment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. The plasma TAC was evaluated by ferric reducing ability of plasma technique. The biochemical markers, including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), serum albumin (ALB), serum globulin (GLB), total bilirubin (TB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were measured. The antibacterial effect of A. vera gel extract against Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus mutans was also investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test to compare between baseline and 14 days post-intervention. Neither allergy nor side effects of A. vera gel extract was detected. After 14 days of A. vera gel extract consumption, plasma TAC was significantly greater than that of baseline (p = 0.001). ALP, TB, TP and GLB were significantly increased (p < 0.05) which were still within normal range. AST, ALT, ALB, BUN, Cr and CrCl were not significantly different. A. vera gel extract significantly reduced the number of Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05), not S. mutans. Our data revealed that A. vera gel extract significantly increased plasma TAC, and decreased the number of Lactobacillus spp. without any clinical side effects.

  5. An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using animal model with diabetic foot ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Daburkar, Mohan; Lohar, Vikram; Rathore, Arvind Singh; Bhutada, Pravin; Tangadpaliwar, Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the preventive effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using diabetic foot ulcer (DFUs) protocol in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into untreated control (Group I), untreated DFUs (Group II), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract (Group III), DFUs treated with topical A. vera gel (Group IV), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract and topical A. vera gel (Group V). The rats in the treatment groups were daily administered the A. vera gel and ethanolic extract for 9 days. Fasting blood glucose levels and percentage of wound ulcer contraction were measured on day 3, 6, and 9. Statistical Analysis used: The results are expressed as a mean ± Standard Error Mean (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) after Newman–Keuls test. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant in all cases. Results: Oral administration of A. vera gel ethanolic extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. Topical application of A. vera gel at a dose 30 mg/kg body weight per day to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in no change in blood glucose and plasma insulin. Oral administration as well as topical application of A. vera gel ethanolic extract and gel significantly reduced the blood glucose, improved the plasma insulin, and significantly increased DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to improve the wound ulcer healing as well as the breaking strength on day 9. Conclusions: Present findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of A. vera gel ethanolic extract, and showed that the gel attenuated the diabetic foot wound in rats. PMID:25035641

  6. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  7. Influence of precipitation pulses on long-term Prosopis ferox dynamics in the Argentinean intermontane subtropics.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariano S; Villalba, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Biological processes in arid communities are associated with episodic precipitation pulses. We postulate that annual to decadal-scale precipitation pulses modulate the dynamics of the intermontane Prepuna woodlands. To study this hypothesis, we have assessed the influence of precipitation pulses on the rates of growth and survival of Prosopis ferox in the Prepuna woodlands during the past century. Tree ages from several P. ferox stands were used to reconstruct the establishment patterns at each sampling site. Ring-width chronologies provided the basis to assess the influence of annual versus multiannual precipitation pulses on radial growth and establishment over time. Both the radial growth and the stand dynamics of P. ferox at the regional scale were found to be largely modulated by climate, with precipitation the dominant factor influencing interannual variations in P. ferox ring-widths. Our analysis of dendrochronological dating data on 885 individuals of P. ferox revealed a period of abundant establishment from the mid-1970s to beginning of 1990 s, which is coincident with an interval of remarkable above-average precipitation. However, tree-growth and establishment patterns at the local scale in the Prepuna also reflected land-use changes, particularly long-term variations in livestock intensity. The P. ferox dynamics documented here substantiates the hierarchical concept of "resource-pulse" in dry ecosystems, with precipitation pulses of different lengths modulating distinct dynamic processes in the P. ferox woodlands. Interannual variations in precipitation influence year-to-year patterns of P. ferox radial growth, whereas multiannual oscillations in rainfall influence episodic events of tree establishment. The long-term interval considered in this study enabled us to disentangle the roles of natural versus human controls on P. ferox dynamics in the region.

  8. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  9. Facile one step synthesis of novel TiO2 nanocoral by sol-gel method using Aloe vera plant extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Palani, N. S.; Thirumal, V.; Jose, Sujin P.; Wang, Fu-Ming; Ilangovan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol gel method using Aloe vera plant extract as a biological capping agent and a cauliflower-nanocoral morphology was observed in this technique. The assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder was calcined at a range of temperatures (300-600 °C) for 1 h. The influence of A. vera plant extract on the thermal, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 nanopowder was evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis was employed to study the thermal properties of the assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The crystallinity, phase transformation and the crystallite size of the calcined samples were studied by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD result confirmed the presence of TiO2 with anatase phase. FT Raman spectra showed the Raman active modes pertaining to the TiO2 anatase phase and Raman band shift was also observed with respect to particle size variation. The different functional group vibrations of as dried pure A. vera plant extract were compared with the mixture of TiO2 and A. vera plant extract by FT-IR analysis. The scanning electron microscopy images apparently showed the formation of spherical shaped NPs and also it demonstrated the effect of A. vera plant extract on the reduction of particles size. The surface area of the TiO2 NPs was measured through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Transmission electron microscopy images ascertained that the spherical shaped TiO2 NPs were formed with cauliflower-nanocoral morphology decorated with nanopolyps with the size range between 15 and 30 nm.

  10. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  11. Antiviral activity of an aqueous extract derived from Aloe arborescens Mill. against a broad panel of viruses causing infections of the upper respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Glatthaar-Saalmüller, B; Fal, A M; Schönknecht, K; Conrad, F; Sievers, H; Saalmüller, A

    2015-09-15

    A number of antiviral therapies have evolved that may be effectively administered to treat respiratory viral diseases. But these therapies are very often of limited efficacy or have severe side effects. Therefore there is great interest in developing new efficacious and safe antiviral compounds e.g. based on the identification of compounds of herbal origin. Since an aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens Mill. shows antiviral activity against viruses causing infections of the upper respiratory tract in vitro we hypothesised that a product containing it such as Biaron C(®) could have an antiviral activity too. Antiviral activity of Bioaron C(®), an herbal medicinal product consisting of an aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens Mill., Vitamin C, and Aronia melanocarpa Elliot. succus, added as an excipient, was tested in vitro against a broad panel of viruses involved in upper respiratory tract infections. These studies included human adenovirus and several RNA viruses and were performed either with plaque reduction assays or with tests for the detection of a virus-caused cytopathic effect. Our studies demonstrated an impressive activity of Bioaron C(®) against members of the orthomyxoviridae - influenza A and influenza B viruses. Replication of both analysed influenza A virus strains - H1N1 and H3N2 - as well as replication of two analysed influenza B viruses - strains Yamagatal and Beiying - was significantly reduced after addition of Bioaron C(®) to the infected cell cultures. In contrast antiviral activity of Bioaron C(®) against other RNA viruses showed a heterogeneous pattern. Bioaron C(®) inhibited the replication of human rhinovirus and coxsackievirus, both viruses belonging to the family of picornaviridae and both representing non-enveloped RNA viruses. In vitro infections with respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus, both belonging to the paramyxoviridae, were only poorly blocked by the test substance. No antiviral activity of Bioaron C(®) was

  12. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  13. Ingestion of plastic marine debris by longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox) in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Lesley A; Morishige, Carey L; Bruland, Gregory L; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2013-04-15

    Plastic marine debris affects species on most trophic levels, including pelagic fish. While plastic debris ingestion has been investigated in planktivorous fish in the North Pacific Ocean, little knowledge exists on piscivorous fish. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of occurrence and the composition of ingested plastic marine debris in longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox), a piscivorous fish species captured in the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery. Nearly a quarter (47 of 192) of A. ferox sampled contained plastic marine debris, primarily in the form of plastic fragments (51.9%). No relationship existed between size (silhouette area) or amount of plastic marine debris ingested and morphometrics of A. ferox. Although A. ferox are not consumed by humans, they are common prey for fish commercially harvested for human consumption. Further research is needed to determine residence time of ingested plastic marine debris and behavior of toxins associated with plastic debris.

  14. Green route for preparing extra-small TiO2 nanoparticles using aloe extracts and their application in degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Chunfeng; Fu, Yunzhi; Chen, Yongjun; Xue, Xinghua; Mazidi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with high-photocatalysis properties both in ultraviolet and visible-light regions were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method, and an aloe leaf extract (ALE) was used as the cap. When the Ti)∶)CHOH∶ALE volume ratio was equal to 0.5∶8∶40, the reaction time was 6 h, and crystallization occurred at 80°C for 2 h, the TiO2NPs had been synthesized. XRD analysis showed that the structure of TiO2NPs without thermal treatment was anatase. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed their average size, which was around 5 nm. The products showed an excellent photocatalytic property for methyl orange in the presence of UV and sunlight with the characterization of UV-vis. The photocatalytic activity was optimized by adjusting the amount of TiO2, the pH value, and the calcination temperature. Results indicated that ALE acted as a cap and nano-TiO2 could be synthesized without calcination.

  15. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co1-xNixFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co2+, Ni2+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87-62.50 nm. The VSM results at room temperature indicated the ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples. Superparamagnetic behavior was observed in NiFe2O4 sample. The coercivity (Hc) and remanance (Mr) values were related to the particle sizes of samples. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased by a factor of 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g, whereas the coercivity (Hc) was decreased by a factor of 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe for a sample with x = 0.75. In addition to the cations distribution, the increase of aspect ratio (surface to volume ratio) due to the decrease of particle size could significantly affect the magnetic properties of the materials.

  16. Encephalomyelitis by Toxoplasma gondii in a captive fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox).

    PubMed

    Corpa, J M; García-Quirós, A; Casares, M; Gerique, A C; Carbonell, M D; Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Uzal, F A; Ortega, J

    2013-03-31

    Encephalomyelitis due to Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). The animal had ataxia, atrophy of hind limb muscles and progressive wasting before dying 12 months after the onset of clinical signs. Toxoplasmosis was suspected antemortem based on clinical signs and the detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR on EDTA-blood from live animal. Necropsy revealed necrotizing gastritis and severe emaciation. The main histological lesions included non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with dilation of myelin sheaths and swollen axons in the spinal cord, and multifocal gliosis in the brain with intralesional protozoan cysts that stained positive for T. gondii immunohistochemistry. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in a fossa, and a new host record. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebrosides and tocopherol trimers from the seeds of Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Row, Lie-Ching; Ho, Jiau-Ching; Chen, Chiu-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Two new cerebrosides, ferocerebrosides A (1) [(2S,3R,4E,8E,2'R)-1-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N-(2'-hydroxydocosanoyl)-4,8-sphingadienine] and B (2) [(2S,3R,4E,8E,2'R)-1-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N-(2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl)-4,8-sphingadienine], two new tocopherol trimers, ferotocotrimers C (5) and D (6), and two known tocopherol trimers, IVb (3) and IVa (4), were isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, with LC50 values of 0.17 and 0.20 mM, respectively.

  18. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and mutagenic investigation of the South African tree aloe (Aloe barberae).

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, A R; Amoo, S O; Stafford, G I; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2009-07-30

    In recent times, many products ranging from aloe drinks to aloe gels, powders, capsules, and creams have appeared on the commercial market prepared from different aloe species including Aloe barberae. These products are used in ethnomedicine to treat various conditions including gastrointestinal disorders, insect bites, skin burns and other skin injuries by traditional communities. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities as well as genotoxic effects of different extracts of Aloe barberae. Organic and water extracts of the upper stem, young bark, mature bark, leaves and roots of the South African tree aloe (Aloe barberae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial [gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria as well as the fungus Candida albicans], anti-inflammatory (COX-1 and COX-2) and mutagenic properties (Ames test). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to compare the phytochemical profiles of different extracts of Aloe barberae. The petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the mature bark, leaves and roots exhibited good activity against all the bacteria and fungus Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.195 to 1.56 mg/ml. All the PE extracts evaluated showed a high activity (>70%) in both COX-1 and COX-2 assays. Apart from the organic extracts of the root with consistently good activity (>70%), all the remaining extracts showed moderate activity (40-69%) in COX-1 assay. The PE extracts also showed a dose dependent increase in activity. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the leaves and root EtOH extracts indicated the presence of compounds that could absorb UV light (wavelength: 190-820 nm). None of the extracts had a mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay against a tester strain, TA98. Activity observed in the bark, leaves and roots of Aloe barberae validates

  19. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-02

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  20. Antiplasmodial potential and quantification of aloin and aloe-emodin in Aloe vera collected from different climatic regions of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Manila; Yadav, Amita; Rohilla, Pooja; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2017-07-17

    In this study, Aloe vera samples were collected from different climatic regions of India. Quantitative HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography) analysis of important anthraquinones aloin and aloe-emodin and antiplasmodial activity of crude aqueous extracts was done to estimate the effects of these constituents on antiplasmodial potential of the plant. HPTLC system equipped with a sample applicator Linomat V with CAMAG sample syringe, twin rough plate development chamber (20 x 10 cm), TLC Scanner 3 and integration software WINCATS 1.4.8 was used for analysis of aloin and aloe-emodin amount. The antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was assessed against a chloroquine (CQ) sensitive strain of P. falciparum (MRC-2). Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of selected samples was determined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended method that was based on assessing the inhibition of schizont maturation in a 96-well microtitre plate. EC (effective concentration) values of different samples were observed to predict antiplasmodial potential of the plant in terms of their climatic zones. A maximum quantity of aloin and aloe-emodin i.e. 0.45 and 0.27 mg/g respectively was observed from the 12 samples of Aloe vera. The inhibited parasite growth with EC50 values ranging from 0.289 to 1056 μg/ml. The antiplasmodial EC50 value of positive control Chloroquine was observed 0.034 μg/ml and EC50 values showed by aloin and aloe-emodin was 67 μg/ml and 22 μg/ml respectively. A positive correlation was reported between aloin and aloe-emodin. Antiplasmodial activity was increased with increase in the concentration of aloin and aloe-emodin. The quantity of aloin and aloe-emodin was decreased with rise in temperature hence it was negatively correlated with temperature. The extracts of Aloe vera collected from colder climatic regions showed good antiplasmodial activity and also showed the presence of higher amount of aloin and aloe

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Yoon Taek; Kim, Eun-A; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Kim, Young-Sun; Cho, Jin Hun; Jang, Hyeang-Su; Jeon, You-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain and aloe vera (all in gel formulation), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain, and aloe vera (all in gel formulations), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis—an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using dentin shavings collected at 2 depths of 200 and 400 μm. The total colony forming units at the end of 1, 3, and 5 days were assessed. Results: The overall percentage inhibition of bacterial growth (200 and 400 μm depth) was 100% with chlorhexidine gel. This was followed by M. citrifolia gel (86.02%), which showed better antimicrobial efficacy as compared with aloe vera gel (78.9%), papain gel (67.3%), and calcium hydroxide (64.3%). There was no statistical difference between data at 200 and 400 μm depth. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine gel showed the maximum antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, whereas calcium hydroxide showed the least. Among the natural intracanal medicaments, M. citrifolia gel consistently exhibited good inhibition up to the 5th day followed by aloe vera gel and papain gel. PMID:22876022

  3. Aloe vera Plant Extracted Green Synthesis, Structural and Opto-Magnetic Characterizations of Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple Aloe vera plant extracted green synthesis route. Powder XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel gahnite structure without other impurities. The lattice parameter increased from 8.089 to 8.125 A with increasing CO²⁺ content. The average crystallite sizes were estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found to be in the range of 15.72 nm to 26.53 nm. FT-IR spectra showed vibrational stretching frequencies corresponding to the spinel structure. HR-SEM and HR-TEM images showed the features of well particle shaped crystals with nano-sized grains. The elemental compositions of Co, Zn, Al and O were quantitatively obtained from EDX analysis. The band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk method by UV-Visible DRS method, and the values are decreased with increasing the Co²⁺ content (4.12 eV to 3.67 eV), due to the formation of sub bands in between the energy gap. PL spectra showed emission bands in UV as well as in the visible regions for ZnAl₂O₄ and Co-doped ZnAl₂O4, due to the defect centers acting as the trap levels. VSM measurements revealed that pure ZnAl₂O₄ has diamagnetic, while Co doped ZnAl₂O₄ samples (x = 0.2 to 0.8) have superparamagnetism, whereas the sample CoAl₂O₄ has ferromagnetic in nature. Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was found that the sample Co₀.₆Zn₀.₄Al₂O₄ showed 93.25% conversion with 99.56% selectivity, whereas for pure ZnAl₂O₄, the conversion was only 86.31% with 92.85% selectivity.

  4. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  5. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  6. The abundance of large, piscivorous Ferox Trout (Salmo trutta) in Loch Rannoch, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Alastair; MacDonald, Alisdair I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferox Trout are large, long-lived piscivorous Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Due to their exceptionally large size, Ferox Trout are highly sought after by anglers while their life-history strategy, which includes delayed maturation, multiphasic growth and extended longevity, is of interest to ecological and evolutionary modelers. However, despite their recreational and theoretical importance, little is known about the typical abundance of Ferox Trout. Methods To rectify this situation a 16 year angling-based mark-recapture study was conducted on Loch Rannoch, which at 19 km2 is one of the largest lakes in the United Kingdom. Results A hierarchical Bayesian Jolly-Seber analysis of the data suggest that if individual differences in catchability are negligible the population of Ferox Trout in Loch Rannoch in 2009 was approximately 71 fish. The results also suggest that a single, often unaccompanied, highly-experienced angler was able to catch roughly 8% of the available fish on an annual basis. Discussion It is recommended that anglers adopt a precautionary approach and release all trout with a fork length ≥400 mm caught by trolling in Loch Rannoch. There is an urgent need to assess the status of Ferox Trout in other lakes. PMID:27833812

  7. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.

  8. Aloe Vera in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  9. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  10. Development of microsatellite markers for Euryale ferox (Nymphaeaceae), an endangered aquatic plant species in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Ayumi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji; Imanishi, Junichi; Natuhara, Yosihiro; Morimoto, Yukihiro

    2011-08-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate genetic diversity and genetic structure of Euryale ferox, a vulnerable aquatic plant. Ten microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for this species. Eight loci showed polymorphisms with two or three alleles per locus. As for the polymorphic markers, the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.00 to 0.08 and 0.17 to 0.64, respectively. The 10 microsatellite markers described here will be useful for investigating genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow between populations of E. ferox.

  11. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  12. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  13. Phenolic constituents in dried flowers of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and their in vitro antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Keyhanian, Shirin; Stahl-Biskup, Elisabeth

    2007-06-01

    The dried flowers from Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) (Asphodelaceae) were analysed by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS, verifying chlorogenic, caffeic, 5-P-coumaroylquinic, caffeoylshikimic, 5-feruloylquinic, 5-P-CIS-coumaroylquinic, P-coumaric and ferulic acid as well as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, isoorientin, isovitexin and their 7-O-glucosides, saponarin and lutonarin. On searching for anthranoids in the flower extract, aloe-emodin as well as the glycosylchromone aloeresin B could be identified. Aloin A and B, the laxative principle of the drug Curaçao-Aloes, are not accumulated in the dried flowers. The polyphenol content of three different batches was 0.73 - 1.01% (+/- 0.05%) and the flavonoid content 0.24 - 0.34% (+/- 0.01%). The hydrophilic antioxidative capacity amounted to 85.7 - 94.9 (+/- 0.5) micromol TEAC/g dried Aloe vera flower and was directly correlated with the polyphenol and flavonoid contents.

  14. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  15. Molecular biology, phytochemistry and bioactivity of three endemic Aloe species from Mauritius and Réunion Islands.

    PubMed

    Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, Mala; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Lavergne, Christophe; Khoyratty, Shannoo; Da Silva, Denis; Frederich, Michel; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-01-01

    Aloe tormentorii, A. purpurea and A. macra are used as multipurpose folk medicines in Réunion and Mauritius Islands and are mistaken for the introduced Aloe vera. To compare the phytochemical, antimicrobial and DNA profiles of Aloe endemic to Mauritius and Réunion with the profiles of A. vera. Methodology - Leaf extracts of these Aloe species were analysed using standard phytochemical screening techniques, TLC and by HPLC. These extracts were also assayed for antimicrobial activity using microdilution techniques. Genetic diversity was studied using RAPD markers. Phytochemical and antimicrobial assays and RAPD analysis showed that Mascarene Aloe species were very different from A. vera. This study is the first report highlighting the differences between Aloe sp.p from Mascarene and Aloe vera at the metabolic and genomic level. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [GPC Fingerprint Chromatograms of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Polysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-e; Xie, Dan; Qian, Jie; Dong, Yin-mao

    2015-10-01

    To establish the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) fingerprint chromatograms of polysaccharides in Aloe vera leaf gel from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats for evaluating the quality of Aloe vera leaf gel products commercially available and testing common adulterated substances. The samples were prepared by water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method. GPC separation was performed on a Shodex SUGAR KS-805 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 7 μm) column and a Shodex SUGAR KS-803 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 6 μm) column at the temperature of 60 degrees C by eluting with 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 (containing 0.2 per thousand NaN) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the chromatographic effluent was detected by refractive index detector (RID) at the temperature of 50 degrees C. The common pattern of GPC fingerprint chromatograms was established and four common peaks were demarcated. The similarities of samples from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats were over 0.9. Taking the GPC fingerprint chromatograms for the qualified model, three commercially available aloe products were evaluated to be made of Aloe vera by the different manufacturing processes and four common adulterated substances of aloe polysaccharides were identified effectively. The method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility, and it can be used for the identification and quality evaluation of Aloe vera leaf gel products.

  17. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  18. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected.

  19. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  20. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown.

  1. Protective effects of Aloe sterols against UVB-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yao, Ruiqing; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2017-03-01

    Aloe vera is a traditional medical plant whose gel has been widely used in skin care. Previously, we have identified Aloe sterols from Aloe vera as active ingredients. This study investigated the protective effects of Aloe sterols without polysaccharides, against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging in mice using Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. Aloe vera gel extract was supplemented in the diet (12 or 120 ppm), and HR-1 hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 7 weeks. Skin measurements and histological and analytical studies were performed. Repeated UVB irradiation induced rough wrinkling of skin with water content reduction and hyperkeratosis. AVGE administration resulted in the significant improvement of UVB-induced skin dryness, epidermal thickness, and wrinkle formation. The AVGE group also suppressed the degenerations of dermal collagen fibers and the appearance of cutaneous apoptosis cells induced by UVB. Furthermore, AVGE administration reduced the excess elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MMP-13) in UVB-exposed skin. The dietary ingestion of Aloe sterols protected against chronic UVB damage in mouse skin, and our results suggest that Aloe sterols may prevent skin photoaging through the anti-inflammation and MMP regulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Patterns in micronekton diversity across the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre observed from the diet of longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Elan J.; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Choy, C. Anela

    2017-07-01

    We examined the diet of a common midwater predator, the longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox, n=1371), with respect to fork length, season, and capture location within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). While A. ferox fed diversely across 97 prey families, approximately 70% of its diet by wet weight consisted of seven prey families (fishes: Sternoptychidae, Anoplogastridae, Omosudidae, Alepisauridae; hyperiid amphipods: Phrosinidae; octopods: Amphitretidae; polychaetes: Alciopidae). Altogether, these micronekton prey families constitute a poorly known forage community distinct from those exploited by other pelagic predators and poorly sampled by conventional methods. We demonstrate ontogenetic variation in diet between two size classes of A. ferox (<97 cm fork length=;small;, ≥97 cm fork length=;large;). Large A. ferox consumed more fish and octopods, fewer crustaceans, and were more cannibalistic than small A. ferox. Ontogenetic shifts in vertical foraging habitat were observed as the consumption of larger and more mesopelagic prey with increasing fork length. Spatial and seasonal variation in the diet of A. ferox is consistent with expected patterns of variation in prey distribution with respect to oceanographic features of the NPSG. Within both size classes, the diets of specimens collected from the oligotrophic core of the NPSG were more diverse than those collected near the boundaries of the gyre and appeared to track seasonal variation in the position of the northern boundary of the gyre. Our data suggest seasonal and spatial variability in the composition of midwater forage communities exploited by A. ferox across the NPSG, and demonstrate that sustained monitoring of diet could provide valuable insights into long-term changes in these understudied communities.

  3. ALOE VERA: A SHORT REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Surjushe, Amar; Vasani, Resham; Saple, D G

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:19882025

  4. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases.

  5. Body size, blood feeding activity, and fecundity of Psorophora howardii, Psorophora ciliata, and Psorophora ferox (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Fulcher, Ali; Hossain, Tanjim; Davidson, Claudia; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-03-01

    Field-collected female Psorophora howardii (Coquillett), Psorophora ciliate (F.), and Psorophora ferox (Humboltd) mosquitoes were tested in laboratory conditions to measure body size, blood engorgement duration, bloodmeal size, fecundity, and egg morphology. Mean bloodmeal size was significantly different among the three species of mosquitoes, whereas there was no difference in blood engorgement duration. Mean body weights and wing lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox. Seven days after bloodmeals, oviposition rates for Ps. howardii, Ps. ciliata, and Ps.ferox were 18.8, 56.2, and 0%, respectively. The mean number of total eggs produced per female for the three species was 59, 81, and 73, respectively. Mean egg lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox, and egg diameters for each of the three species were significantly different from one another. Length per diameter ratios of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly smaller than Ps. ferox. Bloodmeal size was positively related to body weight, but not related to blood engorgement duration, and the total egg number was positively related to bloodmeal size.

  6. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p < 0.05) increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities. Alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction was abrogated by Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  7. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M{sub s} of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac){sub 3}, M(acac){sub 3} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, whereas the

  8. [Low level of allozyme polymorphism in relict aquatic plants of the Far East Nelumbo komarovii Grossh. and Euryale ferox Salisb].

    PubMed

    Koren', O G; Iatsunskaia, M S; Nakonechnaia, O V

    2012-09-01

    Using allozyme analysis, genetic variation of two relict aquatic plants from Primorsky krai, Komarov lotus (Neliumbo komarovii Grossh.) and Gorgon plant (Euryale ferox Salisb.), was examined. The absence of allozyme variation in the Primorye populations of Neliumbo komarovii along with low polymorphism level in the population of Euryale ferox (P95 = 7.69; A = 1.07; Ho = 0.072; He = 0.038) was demonstrated. Since the data for the species examined are reported for the first time ever, the pheonotypes and genetic interpretation of the enzyme systems tested are presented. The izoenzyme profiles of N. komarovii were compared with the data reported for N. nucifera from China. The absence ofallozyme variation in N. komarovii, along with extremely low level of variation revealed for E. ferox, is discussed in association with the evolutionary histories of these species, their dispersal after the Pleistocene-Holocene cooling, and survival on this territory in range boundaries.

  9. Assessment of Aloe vera (L.) genotoxic potential on Escherichia coli and plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Paes-Leme, Alessandra A; Motta, Ellen S; De Mattos, Jose C P; Dantas, Flavio J S; Bezerra, Roberto J A C; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano

    2005-11-14

    Aloe vera is a tropical plant, known in Brazil as babosa and several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for topic use. Since people use Aloe vera topically, they could be exposed to solar ultraviolet light in addition and it might cause a cross damage effect between these agents. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of Aloe vera pulp extract, associated or not to UVA radiation, on Escherichia coli-deficient repair mutants and plasmid DNA, in order to test its genotoxic potential. Data obtained from analysis of survival fractions, bacterial transformation and agarose gel electrophoresis suggest that Aloe vera has genotoxic properties, but it seems not to be able to damage the cell membrane.

  10. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study)

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments. PMID:24551800

  11. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study).

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.

  12. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  13. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin. PMID:27736988

  14. Barbaloin in aloe species.

    PubMed

    Groom, Q J; Reynolds, T

    1987-08-01

    Barbaloin levels in the exudates from the leaves of 68 species of ALOE in the Kew collection have been determined by light absorption at 375 nm following separation by HPLC. The exudates from most species contained between 10-20% although a few concentrations of around 30% were found. The level in the leaf was usually around 1% of thedry weight in plants grown in glasshouses at Kew although some species were found to contain up to 5%. The highest concentrations of barbaloin were found in exudates from young mature leaves just below the apex and the level decreased in older leaves towards the base of the plant. Species in the natural groupings of the genus, Section ANGUIALOE and Group 4, all had appreciable concentrations of barbaloin in the leaf exudates. Species containing barbaloinwere distributed throughout the large heterogeneous Sections EUALOE and PACHYDENDRON with no apparent taxonomic significance.

  15. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farshad, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm), with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm), each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020). The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value. PMID:26636116

  16. Aloe-emodin inhibits proliferation of adult human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Popadic, Dusan; Savic, Emina; Ramic, Zorica; Djordjevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Medenica, Ljiljana; Popadic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE) is a plant-derived hydroxyanthraquinone with several biological activities. It is present in a variety of skin-conditioning agents containing aloe extracts, but its influence on keratinocyte growth was not examined so far. We investigated the influence of AE on human keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. AE significantly inhibited proliferation of cultivated human keratinocytes at 5 μM concentration, as revealed by incorporation of radioactive thymidine. The antiproliferative effect of AE was accompanied with induction of apoptosis, but not necrosis, as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Based on the half maximal inhibitory concentration values, we demonstrated that AE may impair proliferation of keratinocytes at concentrations far below the industry standards for commercial products containing aloe extracts. Therefore, further research of AE effects on the human skin and proper labeling of products are necessary for maximizing benefits from aloe extracts and to avoid undesired responses.

  17. Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Dat, Anthony D; Poon, Flora; Pham, Kim B T; Doust, Jenny

    2012-02-15

    Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae Family that is commonly grown in tropical climates. Animal studies have suggested that Aloe vera may help accelerate the wound healing process. To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcers). We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (9 September 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE (2005 to August Week 5 2011), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 8 September 2011), Ovid EMBASE (2007 to 2010 Week 35), Ovid AMED (1985 to September 2011) and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 9 September 2011). We did not apply date or language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of Aloe vera, aloe-derived products and a combination of Aloe vera and other dressings as a treatment for acute or chronic wounds. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. An objective measure of wound healing (either proportion of completely healed wounds or time to complete healing) was the primary endpoint. Two review authors independently carried out trial selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment, checked by a third review author. Seven trials were eligible for inclusion, comprising a total of 347 participants. Five trials in people with acute wounds evaluated the effects of Aloe vera on burns, haemorrhoidectomy patients and skin biopsies. Aloe vera mucilage did not increase burn healing compared with silver sulfadiazine (risk ratio (RR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 2.85). A reduction in healing time with Aloe vera was noted after haemorrhoidectomy (RR 16.33 days, 95% CI 3.46 to 77.15) and there was

  18. Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and molecular profiling of activity.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, James; Chavez, Jennifer; Jacobs, Lori; Munger, Corey; Chinnah, Tony; Chow, Jimmy T; Williamson, David; Yates, Kenneth

    2004-12-20

    Products derived from the inner gel of the Aloe vera L. plant have demonstrated multiple clinical activities, and are used routinely to accelerate wound healing. However, typical of natural products, the complex nature of Aloe vera gels may contribute to diverse pharmacologic activities. Our focus on the hematopoietic activities of Aloe vera extracts is extended by these functional studies, which used purified fractions from Aloe vera gel and included a preliminary organ-specific in vitro molecular profile. Studies using a >99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera extracts revealed increased hematopoietic and hematologic activity compared to the starting material. In addition, this fraction differentially regulated liver and lung cytokine mRNA levels, resulting in significant increases in message for hematopoietic cytokines [granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF)]. This profile of activity differed from another fraction obtained from Aloe vera, suggesting the potential for diverse pharmacologic activity. The molecular studies were undertaken using co-cultures of organ slices to limit the amount of purified material required. In summary, these studies revealed significant hematopoietic activity by both pharmacologic and molecular analysis using a >99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera gels.

  19. Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjana; Gupta, Ashok K; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Parimal K

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types.

  20. Isolation and identification of compounds responsible for antioxidant capacity of Euryale ferox seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Wei; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhou, Li-Li; Hou, Fan-Fan; Wang, Kai-Jin; Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Ning; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2011-02-23

    Euryale ferox seed is consumed medicinally or for food in China. The present study revealed it to contain significant antioxidant activity, which may be associated with its medical applications as a proteinuria inhibitor of diabetic nephropathy. This study resulted in the identification of 3 new sesquineolignans, named euryalins A-C (1-3), and 16 known compounds, which were all first isolated from this plant apart from 5,7,4-trihydroxy-flavanone. The antioxidant potential of the partial isolates was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and mesangial cellular assay. Compounds 2, rel-(2α,3β)-7-O-methylcedrusin (4), syringylglycerol-8-O-4-(sinapyl alcohol) ether (5), and (+)-syringaresinol (7) were found to be most active on DPPH assay, whereas compounds 2, 4, 7, (1R,2R,5R,6S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, and buddlenol E could significantly inhibit high glucose-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in mesangial cells. The results suggested that E. ferox seed could be considered as an excellent source of natural antioxidants and is useful in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Labial cartilages in the smalltooth sandtiger shark, Odontaspis ferox (lamniformes: odontaspididae) and their significance to the phylogeny of lamniform sharks.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenshu; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Kim, Sun H

    2009-06-01

    Using computed tomography, we discovered labial cartilages (splanchnocranial components) in an enigmatic lamniform shark, Odontaspis ferox (smalltooth sandtiger). We demonstrate that the presence of labial cartilages is plesiomorphic in Lamniformes, affirming that their "reduction" cannot be used as a synapomorphy for the order. Rather, their loss occurred through lamniform phylogeny.

  2. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively.

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of an actin gene in aloe.

    PubMed

    Wen, S S; He, D W; Liao, C M; Li, J; Wen, G Q; Liu, X H

    2014-07-04

    Aloe (Aloe spp), containing abundant polysaccharides and numerous bioactive ingredients, has remarkable medical, ornamental, calleidic, and edible values. In the present study, the total RNA was extracted from aloe leaf tissue. The isolated high-quality RNA was further used to clone actin gene by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result of sequence analysis for the amplified fragment revealed that the cloned actin gene was 1012 bp in length (GenBank accession No. KC751541.1) and contained a 924-bp coding region and encoded a protein consisting of 307 amino acids. Homologous alignment showed that it shared over 80 and 96% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of actin from other plants, respectively. In addition, the cloned gene was used for phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences, and the results suggested that the actin gene is highly conserved in evolution. The findings of this study will be useful for investigating the expression patterns of other genes in Aloe.

  4. Aloe-Vera: A Nature’s Gift to Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Devi, Prabha; Girish

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1Aloe-Barbadensis Mill (Liliaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and other countries for anti-inflammatory and cosmetic purposes (Diez-Martinez 1981, Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). Two components are obtained from the fresh leaves of Aloe-Barbadensis, a bitter yellow juice (exudate), which drains from the transversally cut leaves used as a laxative (Ishii et al 1990) and a mucilaginous gel from leaf parenchyma, which has been used as a remedy for a variety of pathological states such as arthritis, gout, acne, dermatitis, burns and peptic ulcers induced by epithelial alterations (Cap-passo and Ganginella 1997, Reynolds and Dweek 1999). The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of Aloe-Vera gel as a healing agent in an endodontic procedure called pulpotomy. Fifteen primary molars were treated for pulpotomy using ‘Aloe-Vera gel’. Patients were recalled after 1 month to check for any clinical symptoms. None of the patients reported with clinical symptoms of pain, mobility, abscess and histopathological evaluation done following extraction after 2 months showed positive signs of healing. PMID:27507917

  5. A novel angiogenic factor derived from Aloe vera gel: beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol.

    PubMed

    Moon, E J; Lee, Y M; Lee, O H; Lee, M J; Lee, S K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Sung, C K; Choi, J S; Kim, K W

    1999-01-01

    Aloe vera gel has a beneficial effect on wound healing. Because angiogenesis is an essential process in wound healing, we hypothesized that Aloe vera gel might contain potent angiogenic compounds. Here we demonstrate that Aloe vera gel and its extracts are angiogenic on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryo. Out of the three compounds purified from the final fraction of Aloe vera gel, beta-sitosterol showed a potent angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. In the presence of heparin, beta-sitosterol stimulated neovascularization in the mouse Matrigel plug assay and the motility of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in an in vitro wound migration assay. Thus beta-sitosterol is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds.

  6. Larvicidal activity of selected aloe species against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culiciade).

    PubMed

    Chore, Judith K; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Mireji, Paul O

    2014-01-01

    Management of mosquito vectors by current classes of mosquitocides is relatively ineffective and necessitates prospecting for novel insecticides with different modes of action. Larvicidal activities of 15 crude extracts from three geographically isolated Aloe ngongensis (Christian), Aloe turkanensis (Christian), and Aloe fibrosa (Lavranos & L.E.Newton) (Xanthorrhoeaceae) species (five each) were evaluated against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in Hasselquist) (Diptera: Culiciade L.) yellow fever mosquito. Freshly collected leaves were separately shade-dried to constant weight at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) and powdered. Each powder was macerated in solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) for 72 h and subsequently filtered. Third-instar larvae (n = 25) of the mosquito were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations for 24 h to establish dose response relationships. All the fractions of A. ngongensis were active below 1 mg/ml except A. fibrosa and A. turkanensis. The highest activity (LC50) mg/ml was obtained with extracts of A. fibrosa hexane (0.05 [0.04-0.06]), followed by A. ngongensis hexane (0.11 [0.08-0.15]) and A. turkanensis ethyl acetate (0.11 [0.09-0.12]). The activities are apparently Aloe species specific and extraction solvent dependent. These findings suggest that extracts from selected Aloe species have mosquitocidal principles that can be exploited in development of new insecticides.

  7. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Case of Chaunocephalosis by Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an Oriental White Stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-10-01

    We intended to describe a case of chaunocephalosis and morphological characteristics of its causative agent, Chaunocephalus ferox, recovered from an oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in the Republic of Korea. An oriental white stork was referred to the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk in Korea in February 2014 for severe depression with cachexia and it died the next day. At necropsy, the stomach was severely expanded and 7 thick-walled nodules were observed in the upper part of the intestine. Although the stomach was filled with full of foreign materials, the intestine was almost empty. The nodules were globular and total 9 flukes were recovered. They were 8,030-8,091 μm in length and 3,318-3,333 μm in maximum width. Because the flukes had bulbous forebody with short narrow subcylindrical hindbody, 27 collar spines, and vitelline follicles not reaching to the posterior end, the specimens were identified as being C. ferox. The cyst formation induced thickening of the intestinal wall with narrowing of the lumen that could have contributed to the gastric impaction to the death of the host. This is the first described case of chaunocephalosis and its causative agent C. ferox found from an oriental white stork in Korea.

  9. A Case of Chaunocephalosis by Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an Oriental White Stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2016-01-01

    We intended to describe a case of chaunocephalosis and morphological characteristics of its causative agent, Chaunocephalus ferox, recovered from an oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in the Republic of Korea. An oriental white stork was referred to the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk in Korea in February 2014 for severe depression with cachexia and it died the next day. At necropsy, the stomach was severely expanded and 7 thick-walled nodules were observed in the upper part of the intestine. Although the stomach was filled with full of foreign materials, the intestine was almost empty. The nodules were globular and total 9 flukes were recovered. They were 8,030–8,091 μm in length and 3,318–3,333 μm in maximum width. Because the flukes had bulbous forebody with short narrow subcylindrical hindbody, 27 collar spines, and vitelline follicles not reaching to the posterior end, the specimens were identified as being C. ferox. The cyst formation induced thickening of the intestinal wall with narrowing of the lumen that could have contributed to the gastric impaction to the death of the host. This is the first described case of chaunocephalosis and its causative agent C. ferox found from an oriental white stork in Korea. PMID:27853124

  10. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mangaiyarkarasi, S. P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Kaur, Roopam Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family. The name Aloe derives from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning shining bitter substance while “vera” in Latin means true. It contains various minerals and vitamins. It has got various properties such as immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiinflammatory in nature. A. vera can play a significant role in dentistry in treatment of lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, alveolar osteitis, periodontitis, etc. PMID:26015726

  11. [Mechanisms of therapeutic action of aloe].

    PubMed

    Anuszewska, Elżbieta L

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aloe was traditionally applied for the medicinal practice over thousands of years and used for treatment of wide range of medical indication from stomach disorders to cancer. Fresh leaves of aloe contain various groups of chemical compounds such as: glycoproteins, polysaccharides, anthraquinone derivatives, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids and many others, which show multidirectional therapeutic action. These active components are responsible for immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects of aloe Recent data confirmed that aloe possess a unique therapeutic profile and has positive potential for medical application.

  12. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  13. Feasibility of Iodine and Bromine analysis in Genesis AloS collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of solar, meteoritic and terrestrial elemental abundances provides understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. Yet, the majority of the solar abundances are based on meteoritic values [1-6]. As a continuation of our noble gas measurements of the Solar Wind (SW) [7] we attempted to evaluate the possibility of SW-iodine and SW-bromine analyses in the Genesis Solar Wind Aluminum on Sapphire collectors (AloS) using the conversions: 127I(n,γβ)128Xe, 79Br(n,γβ)80Kr and 81Br(n,γβ)82Kr. To estimate the extent of terrestrial halogen contamination in Genesis collectors, several flown fragments of AloS were submerged in methanol (for 1 hour and for 48 hours), rinsed, dried, sealed under vacuum in fused quartz ampoules and irradiated at the Missouri University Research Reactor receiving fluence ˜ 2E+19 thermal neutrons/cm2. Single step laser extraction using 1064 nm laser ablation of 0.7 cm2 area demonstrated clear signature of solar wind as indicated by 129Xe/132Xe = 1.045 ± 0.005, while 128Xe/132Xe = 1.01 ± 0.03 had a 12-fold excess compared to the solar value. Longer washing apparently reduces iodine contamination 4 times, implying that it is surface correlated. Krypton analysis showed 17% excess in 82Kr and 3-fold excess in 80Kr in agreement with their production ratio. A longer 48-hour washing reduced Br contamination 50 times. In order to better separate SW halogens from ubiquitous terrestrial contamination we employed a depth-profiling of AloS using 266 nm laser ablation. Laser beam power was increased in 12 consecutive steps using a combination of controlled defocusing and attenuation by a polarizing beamsplitter. Depth profile analysis revealed that terrestrial halogen contamination is present at the surface and at the interface between Al and sapphire substrate and is more pronounced for iodine, as indicated by 128Xe/132Xe ratio that is higher than atmospheric and solar wind values in all 12 rasters. While washing procedure

  14. Vitamin C and aloe vera supplementation protects from chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shamaan, N A; Kadir, K A; Rahmat, A; Ngah, W Z

    1998-01-01

    The effects of vitamin C and aloe vera gel extract supplementation on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150 g) by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) was investigated. The severity of the carcinogenesis process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) histochemically in situ and in plasma and liver fractions. In addition, plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver microsomal uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity were also determined. Administration of DEN/AAF caused an increase in the surface area and number of enzyme-positive foci (both GGT and GSTP) compared with control. Supplementation of vitamin C or aloe vera gel extract to the cancer-induced rats suppressed this increase significantly (P < 0.05; P < 0.001). Increases in liver UDPGT, GGT, and GSTP activities were also observed with cancer induction that were again suppressed with either vitamin C or aloe vera gel supplementation. Plasma GGT in the DEN/AAF rats were determined monthly for the duration of the experiment and found to be reduced as early as 1 mo with aloe vera gel supplementation and 2 mo with vitamin C supplementation. In conclusion, vitamin C and aloe vera gel extract supplementation were found to be able to reduce the severity of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. RAPD and ISSR Marker-Based Comparative Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Among Indian Germplasms of Euryale ferox: an Aquatic Food Plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Priya, Priti; Singh, Nena; Kumar, Mukesh; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Lokendra; Singh, Indu Shekhar; Kumar, Nitish

    2016-12-01

    Euryale ferox Salisbury is an important aquatic food plant cultivated largely in eastern India. E. ferox is a monotypic genus, and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability present in the primary gene pool. Knowledge of the genetic structure of the population is limited, and there are very few reports available on the genetic diversity of E. ferox. In this study, comprehensive research on the genetic diversity of 16 germplasms of E. ferox was carried out using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 320 RAPD and 95 ISSR primers screened initially, 61 primers (40 RAPD and 21 ISSR) gave reproducible bands and were selected for further work. Amplification of the 40 RAPD primers gave 533 polymorphic bands with an average of 13.32 polymorphic bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 37.5 to 100, with an average of 88.3 %. The 21 ISSR primers produced 259 bands, of which 214 were polymorphic, with an average of 10.19 polymorphic bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphism using ISSR primers ranged from 50 to 100, with a mean of 82.6 %. Jaccard's coefficient ranged from 0.45 to 0.69 (RAPD), 0.50 to 0.77 (ISSR) and 0.48 to 0.71 (RAPD and ISSR). Molecular characterization of different germplasms of E. ferox not only is essential for its conservation but also can be used in further breeding programmes.

  16. Candelabra aloe (Aloe arborescens) in the therapy and prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections: traditional use and recent research results.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Petra; Fal, Andrzej M; Jambor, Jerzy; Michalak, Anna; Noster, Britta; Sievers, Hartwig; Steuber, Anke; Walas-Marcinek, Natalia

    2013-02-01

    Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European countries for many decades. Originally introduced to support the healing and recovery in cornea transplant patients, aqueous A. arborescens extracts soon became popular in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with a focus on toddlers and children. Recent preclinical and clinical data show that immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, and antiviral effects contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. Based on its well documented, longstanding traditional use and its excellent safety and tolerability, A. arborescens may be considered a valuable addition to the spectrum of herbal medicinal products for the treatment and prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections, in particular common cold, in adults and children.

  17. Photochemistry and phototoxicity of aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Vath, Peter; Wamer, Wayne G; Falvey, Daniel E

    2002-04-01

    Photochemical pathways leading to the phototoxicity of the aloe vera constituent aloe emodin were studied. The results indicate a photochemical mechanism involving singlet oxygen to be the most likely pathway responsible for the observed phototoxicity. Aloe emodin was found to efficiently generate singlet oxygen when irradiated with UV light (phidelta = 0.56 in acetonitrile). The survival of human skin fibroblast cells in the presence of aloe emodin was found to decrease upon irradiation with UV light. A further decrease in cell survival was observed in D2O compared with H2O, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen as the primary pathway. Laser flash photolysis experiments were also carried out on aloe emodin alone and in the presence of various biological substrates. Aloe emodin proved to be relatively photostable (phi = 1 x 10(-4)) and a poor photo-oxidant (E*red = +1.02 V). Only absorption bands caused by the triplet state of aloe emodin (lambdamax = 480 nm) and the aloe emodin conjugate base (lambdamax = 520 nm) were observed in the transient spectra.

  18. Molecular evolution of plant haemoglobin: two haemoglobin genes in Nymphaeaceae Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Guldner, E; Desmarais, E; Galtier, N; Godelle, B

    2004-01-01

    We isolated and sequenced two haemoglobin genes from the early-branching angiosperm Euryale ferox (Nymphaeaceae). The two genes belong to the two known classes of plant haemoglobin. Their existence in Nymphaeaceae supports the theory that class 1 haemoglobin was ancestrally present in all angiosperms, and is evidence for class 2 haemoglobin being widely distributed. These sequences allowed us to unambiguously root the angiosperm haemoglobin phylogeny, and to corroborate the hypothesis that the class 1/class 2 duplication event occurred before the divergence between monocots and eudicots. We addressed the molecular evolution of plant haemoglobin by comparing the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates in various groups of genes. Class 2 haemoglobin genes of legumes (functionally involved in a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria) show a higher nonsynonymous substitution rate than class 1 (nonsymbiotic) haemoglobin genes. This suggests that a change in the selective forces applying to plant haemoglobins has occurred during the evolutionary history of this gene family, potentially in relation with the evolution of symbiosis.

  19. Chemical Components from Aloe and their Inhibition of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Lin Ying; Li, Wei; Kang, Jong Seong; Hwang, Inkyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Korea, Aloe is routinely ingested as a traditional medicine or as a component of health beverages. Objective: To research the inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities of components from Aloe. Materials and Methods: the compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC Rp-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS). All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO, which actively suppresses immune functions by catalyzing the rate limiting reaction in the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Results: In this phytochemical study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1-7) isolated from the Aloe extract; the IC50 values of these compounds ranged from 39.41 to 53.93 µM. Enzyme kinetic studies of their modes of inhibition indicated that all of the compounds were uncompetitive inhibitors. Conclusion: The aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate can be used as a source of novel natural IDO inhibitors and merit testing as therapeutic agents in the treatments of cancer and immunopathologic diseases, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. SUMMARY In this study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1−7) isolated from the Aloe extract. Abbreviation used: IDO: inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, TMS: tetramethylsilane, HMQC: heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, HMBC: heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, COSY: 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide PMID:28216884

  20. [Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a possible role in skin protection].

    PubMed

    Kostálová, D; Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Kardosová, A

    2004-09-01

    Aloe vera is widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. It has been long recognized as an effective natural remedy for its wound-healing properties and its positive influence on other inflammatory skin disorders. Major proteins and mono- and polysaccharides were identified and analysed from Aloe vera commercial extract. Molecular weight of proteins calculated from the sets of molecular weight reference standards, ranged from 70 kDa for the largest to 14 kDa for the smallest ones. IR spectral analysis of the carbohydrate fraction shows that the main carbohydrate copound is acetylated (1 --> 4)-beta-D-mannan substituated with D-galactose and D-glucose. The results have shown that proteins and polysaccharides are a necessary component in the study of biological activity of Aloe vera leaf extract.

  1. Antimutagenicity and antigenotoxicity of Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller in Aspergillus nidulans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Berti, A P; Palioto, G F; Rocha, C L M S C

    2016-09-02

    Medicinal plants such as Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller are used by the general population to treat various diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimutagenicity of these two species using a methG1 system in Aspergillus nidulans and the comet assay in rats. The animals were treated with the plants at concentrations of 360 and 720 mg/kg body weight (1 and 2, respectively) by gavage for 14 days, followed by the administration of etoposide on treatment day 8. Blood samples were prepared for analysis of DNA damage. For the test in A. nidulans, the biA1methG1 lineage conidia were treated for 4 h with both plant species at concentrations of 4 and 8% (w/v). Then, they were washed and plated on a selective medium for frequency analysis of survival and mutation. The results of the comet assay showed that both plants were antigenotoxic compared to etoposide, which was not a typical response of methG1 systems, where only the highest concentration of plant extracts usually exhibit beneficial effects. This study demonstrates the potential antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of the Aloe plants tested and, therefore, supports their use as a form of preventive therapy and for health maintenance by the population.

  2. A severe case of cutaneous myiasis in São Gonçalo, Brazil, and a simple technique to extract New World screw-worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Batista-da-Silva, J A; Borja, G E M; Queiroz, M M C

    2012-08-01

    This work describes a severe case of myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in a 59-year-old patient living in an urban area of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. The patient had an open wound on the right shoulder parasitized by 287 larvae. In order to remove the larvae, the wound was washed with NaCl and solid vaseline was applied onto the wound and covered with gauze and adhesive tape. After 90 min, the larvae were killed by asphyxiation and were removed using sterile forceps and NaCl. This procedure left the wound completely clean.

  3. Aloe vera for prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo Hua; Yang, Liu; Chen, Hai Ying; Chu, Jian Feng; Mei, Lijuan

    2014-06-04

    Up to 80% of hospitalised patients receive intravenous therapy at some point during their admission. About 20% to 70% of patients receiving intravenous therapy develop phlebitis. Infusion phlebitis has become one of the most common complications in patients with intravenous therapy. However, the effects of routine treatments such as external application of 75% alcohol or 50% to 75% magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) are unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to prevent and alleviate infusion phlebitis. To systematically assess the effects of external application of Aloe vera for the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis associated with the presence of an intravenous access device. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (last searched February 2014) and CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1). In addition the TSC searched MEDLINE to week 5 January 2014, EMBASE to Week 6 2014 and AMED to February 2014. The authors searched the following Chinese databases until 28 February 2014: Chinese BioMedical Database; Traditional Chinese Medical Database System; China National Knowledge Infrastructure; Chinese VIP information; Chinese Medical Current Contents; Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database; and China Medical Academic Conference. Bibliographies of retrieved and relevant publications were searched. There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (qRCTs) were included if they involved participants receiving topical Aloe vera or Aloe vera-derived products at the site of punctured skin, with or without routine treatment at the same site. Two review authors independently extracted the data on the study characteristics, description of methodology and outcomes of the eligible trials, and assessed study quality. Data were analysed using RevMan 5

  4. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Ravi, K; Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of hypoglycemic activity in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera gel. Effects of oral administration of A. vera extract at a concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight on (a) normal fasted rats, (b) oral glucose-loaded rats, and (c) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been studied. A. vera extract maintain the glucose homeostasis by controlling the carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

  5. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  6. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  7. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg-1. Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  8. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    PubMed Central

    Colorado-Ríos, Jhonny; Muñoz, Diana; Montoya, Guillermo; Márquez, Diana; Márquez, Maria-Elena; López, Juan; Martínez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile. PMID:24317472

  9. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Wallace D.; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks. PMID:23554812

  10. Toxicologic assessment of a commercial decolorized whole leaf aloe vera juice, lily of the desert filtered whole leaf juice with aloesorb.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies-examined grossly and microscopically-that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks.

  11. Phytomodulatory potentials of Aloe vera against Salmonella OmpR-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Praveen; Rampuria, Anjali; Tewari, Rupinder; Koul, Ashwani

    2008-08-01

    Mediators released during inflammatory response play an essential role in eliminating microbes or microbial products. However, the uncontrolled release of cytotoxic substances characterized by extensive inflammation may adversely affect normal tissues. Under such conditions it is important to manage the hyperinflammation in order to change the clinical manifestations of the disease. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation by Aloe vera, a plant known to contain antiinflammatory ingredients. It was observed that outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) extracted from the wild type strain of S. typhimurium caused inflammation of greater magnitude compared with the OMPs extracted from its mutant construct as evident from the oedema test as well as the hyperalgesic (flicking) response of the animals under experimental conditions. However, Aloe vera applied topically, administered intraperitoneally or in combination modulated the inflammatory response. The maximum effect was observed with the combined formulation indicating modulation at local as well as systemic levels. The results reveal that this modulation could be due to the potential of Aloe vera to decrease peroxidative damage via a decrease in the levels of monokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6) and an increase in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, the presence of SOD in Aloe vera itself might be responsible for enhancing its levels in the macrophages. On the other hand, no significant change in the catalase activity was observed by Aloe vera treatment. The use of Aloe vera, therefore, seems to have a promising role in the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation.

  12. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  13. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  14. A multi-analytical approach for the identification of aloe as a colorant in oil-resin varnishes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Adriana; Shibayama, Nobuko; Kirby, Daniel P

    2011-03-01

    Aloe plants have been widely documented in artists' treatises dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century as a source of colorant to achieve lustrous golden glazes on tin- and silver-foiled objects and warm-toned finishes on musical instruments, such as violins. Aloe extracts contain characteristic anthraquinone and phenolic components which impart a distinctive orange tone and fluorescence to mixtures containing them. Because of the low concentration of colorant in the coatings and its probable degradation by high temperature during manufacture, the identification of aloe in heated oil-resin mixtures represents an analytical challenge. For this reason, the possible presence of aloe in glazes and coatings has been largely overlooked. This paper describes various analytical approaches to the identification of aloe in historic samples, from comparison with results obtained from reference standards and mock-up samples. Complementary analytical techniques including thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, laser desorption-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry and surface-enhanced Raman scattering were used. Different chemical markers were identified by the individual methods and the advantages and limitations of each technique for the identification of aloe in oil-resin varnishes are discussed.

  15. [Effect of aloe vera polysaccharide on the release of cytokines and nitric oxide in cultured human keratinocytes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-dong; Huang, Li-ying; Wu, Bo-yu; Jiang, Qiong; Wang, Zhong-cheng; Lin, Xin-hua

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracted from Aloe Barbadensis on the release of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured human keratinocytes. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), TGF-beta1, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and NO in the supernatants of keratinocyte culture in which culture media containing 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 microg/ml, respectively of aloe polysaccharide were assayed. In the control group equal volume of media without the polysaccharide was used. Compared with control group, the levels of TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF in the supernatants of cultured keratinocytes were significantly higher when aloe polysaccharide was added (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and they were positively correlated to the concentration of aloe polysaccharide (P<0.01). However, aloe polysaccharide markedly decreased the level of NO in a dose dependent manner (P<0.01). Aloe polysaccharide could promote keratinocytes to secrete TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF, and inhibit the release of NO.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  17. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  18. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants.

  19. The effect of Aloe vera gel on viability of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sholehvar, Fatemeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Vahdati, Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. Aloe vera L. (Liliaceae) contains the polysaccharide of acemannan that was shown to be a trigger factor for cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. This study sought to determine the viability of DPSCs in Aloe vera in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Twelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability. Aloe vera showed a significant higher viability than HBSS (74.74%). The 50% Aloe vera showed higher viability (97.73%) than other concentrations. PDT in 50% concentration was 35.1 h and for HBSS was 49.5 h. DPSCs were spindle shaped and were positive for CD73 and negative for CD34 and CD45. Karyotyping was normal. Aloe vera as an inexpensive and available herb can improve survival of avulsed or broken teeth in emergency cases as a transfer media. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lowther, William; Lorick, Kevin; Lawrence, Susan D; Yeow, Wen-Shuz

    2012-12-01

    Methods necessary for the successful transformation and regeneration of Aloe vera were developed and used to express the human protein, interferon alpha 2 (IFNα2). IFNα2 is a secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the cellular response to viral infection. Transgenic plants were regenerated from callus cultures initiated from zygotic embryos. Expression of the IFNA2 transgene in transformed plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and IFNα2 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human A549 cells treated with transgenic aloe extracts for 6 h induced expression of the interferon stimulated gene 54, indicating activation of the IFN signaling pathway. The biological activity of the aloe produced IFNα2 was assessed using an antiviral assay with A549 cells treated with extracts from both the rind and pulp fractions of the shoot and subsequently infected with the lytic encephalomyocarditis virus. The highest level of activity attributable to recombinant IFNα2 was determined to be 625 IU/mg of total soluble protein (TSP) in the rind and 2,108 IU/mg TSP in the pulp. Two daughter plants that vegetatively budded during the course of this study were also confirmed to express IFNα2. These results confirm that Aloe vera is capable of expressing a human protein with biological activity, and that a secreted protein targeting the apoplast can be detected in the pulp fraction of the plant.

  1. An HPLC Procedure for the Quantification of Aloin in Latex and Gel from Aloe barbadensis Leaves.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Mariscal-Domínguez, María F; Cruz-Flores, Paola; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Sanches-Silva, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Aloin is an anthraquinone-C-glycoside present in Aloe vera. This compound is extremely variable among different species and highly depends on the growing conditions of the plants. The quantification of aloin in different extraction preparations has been a frequent problem due to the high instability of the compound. The aim of the present study is to develop and validated an analytical method for aloin detection in fresh and dry samples of Aloe barbadensis gel and latex using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Phosphate buffered saline (pH 3) was selected as the extraction solvent. The aloin was separated using a Zorbax Eclipse AAA column (4.6 × 150 mm) at 35°C, and water and acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. Under these conditions, the method precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.71% for FL, 4.41% for dry latex, 0.81% for fresh gel and 4.42% for dry gel samples. Aloe latex was determined to have a greater amount of aloin than aloe gel. The method validation was satisfactory and exhibited adequate linearity, repeatability and accuracy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Aloe vera leaf gel: a review update.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T; Dweck, A C

    1999-12-15

    Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas. Treatment of inflammation is still the key effect for most types of healing but it is now realized that this is a complex process and that many of its constituent processes may be addressed in different ways by different gel components. A common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents. There have also been, however, persistent reports of active glycoprotein fractions from both Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. There are also cautionary investigations warning of possible allergic effects on some patients. Reports also describe antidiabetic, anticancer and antibiotic activities, so we may expect to see a widening use of aloe gel. Several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for use as itself or in formulations and there may be moves towards isolating and eventually providing verified active ingredients in dosable quantities

  3. PALSAR system on the ALOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Norimasa; Hamazaki, Takashi

    1998-12-01

    The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) is considered to be one of the follow-on sensors of JERS-1 SAR. PALSAR is designed to achieve high radiometric performance as well as observation flexibility, in addition to the data continuity of JERS-1. It has a beam steering capability using an active phased array antenna, and a multi-polarization capability. In order to achieve high radiometric performance, the system parameters have been carefully designed, and some internal calibration procedures have been investigated. Based on the current design, PALSAR can acquire the data from 8 to 60 degrees of incidence angle. A noise equivalent backscattering coefficient is from -30 to -25 dB depending on the incidence angle. The required radiometric stability is within 1 dB over one scene. The status of development is currently the Bread Board Model (BBM) phase, and NASDA has manufactured the antenna system and tested it both electronically and mechanically. This paper describes the PALSAR system design as well as some results from BBM development.

  4. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

    PubMed

    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations.

  5. ALOS-2 launch and initial checkout result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Saruwatari, Hideki; Hatooka, Yasushi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 has an enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for interferometry SAR (INSAR) data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. ALOS-2 was launched on 24th May 2014, and has been completed the initial functional verifications of onboard components and systems. This paper describes the initial operation and checkout results including the comparison with the previous SAR satellite image and the disaster monitoring. Some key features of orbit control and determination to improve the coherency of the repeat-pass INSAR observation are evaluated.

  6. In vitro evaluation of UV opacity potential of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Shyam; Datta, P K; Dutta Gupta, S

    2009-04-01

    In this study, lyophilized crude and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms (S24, RM, TN, OR, and RJN) of Aloe vera L. were tested for their ultraviolet (UV) opacity potential. UV absorption profiles, sun protection factor (SPF), and percentage blocking of UVA and UVB were considered to test UV opacity potential. Both the extracts showed UV absorption and followed the same path in the wavelength range of 250-400 nm in all the germplasms. Methanolic extract showed a stronger absorptivity than the crude lyophilized extract. Among the tested germplasms, maximum UV opacity property with a SPF of 9.97% and 79.12% UVB blocking was obtained with RJN, whereas a poor response was evident in TN with a SPF of 1.37% and 28.5% UVB blocking at 4 mg/ml methanolic extract. To our knowledge the present work for the first time documents UV opacity properties of A. vera L. gel and opens up new vistas in Aloe gel characterization.

  7. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  8. Isolation, Purification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents from Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Rubina; Tripathi, Priyanka; Jeyakumar, Ebenezer

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p – coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases. PMID:24031440

  9. Isolation, Purification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Rubina; Tripathi, Priyanka; Jeyakumar, Ebenezer

    2009-10-01

    The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p - coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases.

  10. Clinical Effectiveness of Aloe Vera in the Management of Oral Mucosal Diseases- A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587

  11. Physicochemical characterization of microwave assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola John

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using different biological extracts is gaining recognition for its numerous applications in different disciplines. Although different approaches (physical and chemical) have been used for the synthesis of AgNP, the green chemistry method is most preferable because of its high efficacy, cost effectiveness, and environmental benignity. Aloe Vera (AV) contains chemical compounds (anthraquinones) that are known to possess antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties and the extract is a good chemical reduction agent for AgNP. Hence, it was hypothesized that a microwave assisted synthesis will produce highly concentrated, homogeneous, stable and biologically active AgNP. Thus, the main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of microwave assisted synthesis of AgNP, the effect of pulse laser treatment on size reduction of a microwave synthesized AgNP, and the physicochemical characterization of AgNP synthesized with Aloe Vera water and ethanol extract. The experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 was first conducted to optimize the experimental variables, thus establishing the optimum variables to apply in the second phase. The experiment in Phase 1 was conducted using three-factor factorial experimental design comprised of the following factors: 1) Extraction Solvent, 2) Heating Methods, 3) pH; and their corresponding levels were water and ethanol, conventional and microwave, pH (7, 8, 10 and 12), respectively. All synthesis was conducted at constant temperature of 80°C. Phase II experimental treatments were Laser ablation (0, 5, and 10 min) and Storage time (Week 1, 2 & 3). The Phase I of the results showed that increased AgNP concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by synthesis time, hence, (15 min) gave the highest concentration. The solvent type, heating methods and pH had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the concentration AgNP. Hence, ethanol extract (99.2 ppm), microwave method

  12. Changes in urinary compositions among children after consuming prepared oral doses of aloe (Aloe vera Linn).

    PubMed

    Kirdpon, Sukachart; Kirdpon, Wichit; Airarat, Wanchai; Thepsuthammarat, Kaewjai; Nanakorn, Somsong

    2006-08-01

    1) To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal children, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2) To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3) To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation. Experimental study. Thirteen healthy boys between 9 and 13 years of age were enrolled (with informed permission) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of fresh prepared aloe gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hour urine was collected one day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of consumption, and Day 8 (one day after completion). The authors determined the urine volume, osmolality, potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, oxalate, Permissible Increment in Calcium (PI Ca), Permissible Increment in Oxalate (PI Ox), Concentration Product Ratio of Calcium Phosphate (CPR CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. The citrate and tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg, respectively. The 24-hr urine volume and urinary citrate excretion were significantly increased (p < 0.05). The PI Ca and the PI Ox were also significantly increased (p < 0.05). The other measurements were unremarkable. One hundred grams of fresh Aloe vera gel contains 96.3 milligrams of citrate and 158.9 milligrams of tartrate and were in the mid-range among Thai fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe gel consumption shows potential for preventing kidney stone formation among children.

  13. Effect of aloe (Aloe vera Linn.) on healthy adult volunteers: changes in urinary composition.

    PubMed

    Kirdpon, Sukachart; Kirdpon, Wichit; Airarat, Wanchai; Trevanich, Anothai; Nanakorn, Somsong

    2006-08-01

    1. To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal volunteers, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2. To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3. To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation. Experimental study; before and after experiment with no control group Thirty one healthy male medical students between 18 and 23 years of age were enrolled (with informed consent) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of fresh aloe gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hr urine was collected one day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of consumption, and Day 8 (one day after completion). The authors determined the urine volume, osmolality, potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, oxalate, Permissible Increment in calcium (PI in calcium), Permissible Increment in oxalate (PI in oxalate), Concentration product ratio of calcium phosphate (CPR of CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. The citrate and tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg, respectively. The urinary excretion of oxalate was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The PI in calcium was significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the citrate excretion and PI in oxalate were consistently, albeit non-significantly, increased. The mean CPR values of CaPO4 were decreased non-significantly. The other measurements were unremarkable. Fresh Aloe vera gel (100 g) contains 96.3 mg of citrate and 158.9 mg of tartrate. This is mid-range for Thai fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe consumption shows its potential for preventing kidney stone formation among adults.

  14. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  15. Quantitative colorimetric analysis of aloe polysaccharides as a measure of Aloe vera quality in commercial products.

    PubMed

    Eberendu, Alexis R; Luta, Gabriela; Edwards, Joshua A; McAnalley, Bill H; Davis, Brice; Rodriguez, Santiago; Henry, C Ray

    2005-01-01

    Aloe vera inner leaf gel has been used as a medicinal remedy for many years. Yet some aloe products do not demonstrate beneficial effects, indicating that poor quality products are reaching the market. Therefore, an efficient and accurate method is needed to evaluate the quality of aloe products. This paper describes a quick, quantitative colorimetric assay that has been developed for the determination of glucomannan in aloe gel and products. With this method, interference by non-aloe polysaccharides or other extraneous components was absent or negligible. Data indicate that the glucomannan can be determined at parts per million (mg/L) in aqueous solutions with an accuracy of 100 +/- 5% at a 10 mg/L concentration. The correlation coefficient is 0.999, and linearity is from 0.9 to 72.7 mg/L in the test solution. The method is inexpensive, simple, sensitive, and reproducible. This method was applied to determine the polysaccharide content of commercial aloe products. Both qualitative and quantitative information can be obtained in about 5 min.

  16. Study of silicone vehicles for Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, V; Montoya, R; Ruiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of different surfactants on the synthesis of a silicone latex is studied. Distinct formulations were mixed and then tested with regard to stability as a function of time and temperature. The ones with the best characteristics for acting as a vehicle for the active cosmetic ingredient Aloe vera are indicated.

  17. [Advances in the research of promotion effect of Aloe vera on wound healing and its clinical use].

    PubMed

    Song, X F; Chen, X D

    2016-10-20

    Aloe vera has been widely investigated and used as folk medicine since ancient time. Biologically active substances in its gel include polysaccharides, glycoprotein, enzymes, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, and so on, which play important roles in anti-inflammatory response, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant activity, immunoregulation effects, and especially in wound healing. In this paper, we review the advances in the mechanism and clinical application of Aloe vera and its extract on wound healing, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of various kinds of wounds.

  18. Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera Supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

    PubMed

    Shirali, Saeed; Barari, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Khodadi, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy) and 4 cancer groups: control (cancer only), training, Aloe Vera and Aloe Vera + training. Breast cancer tumors were generated in mice by implantind. The training program comprised six weeks of swimming training accomplished in three sessions per week. Training time started with 10 minutes on the first day and increased to 60 minutes in the second week and the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute at a constant rate. Aloe Vera extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg BW was administrated to rats by intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the study period, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Significant differences were concluded at p<0.05 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Tukey tests to analyze the data. The results showed significant increase in levels of serum. COX-2 and VEGF levels in the cancer group compared with the healthy group. Administration of Aloe Vera extract caused significant decrease in the COX-2 level in the cancer group. Also, in the training (swimming exercise) and Aloe Vera + training cancer groups, we observed significant decrease in the VEGF level as compared to controls. Our results suggest that Aloe Vera and training inhibit the COX pathway and cause decrease production of prostaglandin E2. Hence administration of Aloe Vera in combination with endurance training might synergistically improve the host milieu in mice bearing breast cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Grace, Olwen M; Buerki, Sven; Symonds, Matthew R E; Forest, Félix; van Wyk, Abraham E; Smith, Gideon F; Klopper, Ronell R; Bjorå, Charlotte S; Neale, Sophie; Demissew, Sebsebe; Simmonds, Monique S J; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-02-26

    Aloe vera supports a substantial global trade yet its wild origins, and explanations for its popularity over 500 related Aloe species in one of the world's largest succulent groups, have remained uncertain. We developed an explicit phylogenetic framework to explore links between the rich traditions of medicinal use and leaf succulence in aloes. The phylogenetic hypothesis clarifies the origins of Aloe vera to the Arabian Peninsula at the northernmost limits of the range for aloes. The genus Aloe originated in southern Africa ~16 million years ago and underwent two major radiations driven by different speciation processes, giving rise to the extraordinary diversity known today. Large, succulent leaves typical of medicinal aloes arose during the most recent diversification ~10 million years ago and are strongly correlated to the phylogeny and to the likelihood of a species being used for medicine. A significant, albeit weak, phylogenetic signal is evident in the medicinal uses of aloes, suggesting that the properties for which they are valued do not occur randomly across the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic investigation of plant use and leaf succulence among aloes has yielded new explanations for the extraordinary market dominance of Aloe vera. The industry preference for Aloe vera appears to be due to its proximity to important historic trade routes, and early introduction to trade and cultivation. Well-developed succulent leaf mesophyll tissue, an adaptive feature that likely contributed to the ecological success of the genus Aloe, is the main predictor for medicinal use among Aloe species, whereas evolutionary loss of succulence tends to be associated with losses of medicinal use. Phylogenetic analyses of plant use offer potential to understand patterns in the value of global plant diversity.

  20. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. Results: This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05) reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05) taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05) was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05) increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Conclusion: Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut. PMID:28717305

  1. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05) reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05) taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05) was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05) increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut.

  2. Anticancer potential of aloes: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory attributes.

    PubMed

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P; Ofir, Rivka; Bishayee, Anupam

    2012-06-01

    Aloe is a genus of medicinal plants with a notable history of medical use. Basic research over the past couple of decades has begun to reveal the extent of Aloe's pharmaceutical potential, particularly against neoplastic disease. This review looks at Aloe, both the genus and the folk medicine, often being called informally "aloes", and delineates their chemistry and anticancer pharmacognosy. Structures of key compounds are provided, and their pharmacological activities reviewed. Particular attention is given to their free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties. This review highlights major research directions on aloes, reflecting the enormous potential of natural sources, and of the genus Aloe in particular, in preventing and treating cancer. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations.

  4. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  5. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anthony E.; Belmont, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min−1. Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min−1. These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe. PMID:27284273

  6. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kenneth R; Jones, Anthony E; Belmont, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min(-1). Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min(-1). These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe.

  7. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  8. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-11-01

    High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl2/Fox nutshell) ratios (1-2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500-700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at -196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m2/g, 2124 m2/g, 1.96 cm3/g, and 1.68 cm3/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  9. Functional morphology of digestion in the stomachless, piscivorous needlefishes Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox (Teleostei: Beloniformes).

    PubMed

    Manjakasy, Jennifer M; Day, Ryan D; Kemp, Anne; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2009-10-01

    Belonidae are unusual in that they are carnivorous but lack a stomach and have a straight, short gut. To develop a functional morphological model for this unusual system the gut contents and alimentary tract morphology of Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox were investigated. The posterior orientation of the majority of the pharyngeal teeth supports the swallowing of whole large prey, but not their mastication. Mucogenic cells are abundant in the mucosa lining, particularly the esophagus, and their secretions are likely to protect the gut lining from damage while lubricating passage of the prey. Esophagus, anterior intestine, posterior intestine, and rectum all have highly reticulate mucosae. The anterior three gut sections are distensible to accommodate the passage of prey. However, following ingestion large prey are passed to the highly distensible posterior intestine where they rest head first against the ileorectal valve. Alimentary pH ranges from neutral to weakly acidic. Fish prey is digested head first with the head being largely digested while the remainder of the body is still intact. The nondistensibility of the rectum and the small aperture provided by the ileorectal valve suggest the products of intestinal digestion are either small particulates or fluids that pass into rectum where they are absorbed. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Optimization of the preparation of pectin from Aloe using a Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lijing; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Xingyuan; Chen, Weijie; Li, Yingchang; Liu, Chang; Sun, Jing; Yu, Xiaolei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijie

    2014-05-25

    The extraction condition of pectin from Aloe vera barbadensis Mill was optimized by a Box-Behnken design. The effect of parameters of extraction water proportion (EWP), extraction pH (EpH), extraction temperature (ETe), extraction time (ETi), alcohol precipitation pH (APpH)and alcohol precipitation temperature (APTe) on the extraction yield of pectin was investigated by a software of Design Export 8.0.5b. The maximum extraction yield was obtained with the EWP of 20:1, EpH of 1.5, ETe of 90°C, ETi of 120min, APpH of 3.0 and APTe of 50°C, which was consistent with the experimental value. We also found out that the pectin content decreased gradually during storage and sucrose concentration had a significant impact on the viscosity of pectin.

  11. Formulation development, optimization and evaluation of aloe vera gel for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To formulate and optimize a herbal gel of Aloe vera extract containing Carbopol 934 as gelling agent and to investigate the effects of topical application of Carbopol 934 gel containing Aloe vera extract on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of viscosity enhancer Carbopol 934 were tried and finally gel that showed good spreadability and consistency was selected for wound healing property of herbal gel of Aloe vera. Excision wound model was used for the study. Results: The optimized gel was evaluated for different physicochemical properties and wound healing property. Differences in wound healing were observed between the various treatments when compared to the control group. Tissue hyperplasia was lower in the control group compared to the other treated groups. In animals group treated with gel, 80.14% healing was observed up to 14th day. While in untreated group I (control) animals showed 52.68% healing of wounds on 14th day. On the other hand, control group animals also showed inflammation and pus formation up to 5th day of study, while treated animals did not showed any observable inflammation and pus formation. Conclusion: Results shows prepared gel has promising effect on the wound healing process. PMID:24143047

  12. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  14. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  15. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains.

    PubMed

    Cellini, L; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Genovese, S; Locatelli, M; Di Giulio, M

    2014-07-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a herbal remedy widely used for a variety of illnesses; A. vera leaf extracts have been promoted for detoxification, cure constipation, help flush out toxins and wastes from the body, promote digestion and are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer for cytoprotective action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of A. vera inner gel against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in Abruzzo region, Italy. The inner gel of leaves of a 5-year-old plant of A. vera was extracted, homogenized and tested from 800 to 1.56 mg ml(-1) against 14 clinical strains and one reference strain of H. pylori using the broth microdilution methodology. Furthermore, the sample of A. vera was investigated for the chemical fingerprint of anthraquinones. The inhibitory concentrations of A. vera inner gel were similar to the bactericidal ones, with values ranging from 6.25 to 800 mg ml(-1) . Fifty per cent of the detected strains, independently of their susceptibility profile, were inhibited in their growth at 100 mg ml(-1) . Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against H. pylori and, therefore, in combination with antibiotics, could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of the infection of H. pylori, especially in cases of multiresistance. The study demonstrates that the Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains. These findings may impact on the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon of H. pylori, proposing the A. vera inner gel as a novel effective natural agent for combination with antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori gastric infection. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Three-Arm Randomized Phase III Trial: Quality Aloe and Placebo Cream Versus Powder as Skin Treatment During Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Donna; Holloway, Caroline; Gabos, Zsolt; Alidrisi, Maha; Chafe, Susan; Krause, Barbara; Lees, Alan; Mehta, Nirmal; Tankel, Keith; Strickland, Faith; Hanson, John; King, Charlotte; Ghosh, Sunita; Severin, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of aloe extract in reducing radiation-induced skin injury is controversial. The purpose of the present 3-arm randomized trial was to test the efficacy of quality-tested aloe extract in reducing the severity of radiation-induced skin injury and, secondarily, to examine the effect of a moist cream versus a dry powder skin care regimen. A total of 248 patients with breast cancer were randomized to powder, aloe cream, or placebo cream. Acute skin toxicity was scored weekly and after treatment at weeks 1, 2, and 4 using a modified 10-point Catterall scale. The patients scored their symptom severity using a 6-point Likert scale and kept an acute phase diary. The aloe formulation did not reduce acute skin toxicity or symptom severity. Patients with a greater body mass index were more likely to develop acute skin toxicity. A similar pattern of increased skin reaction toxicity occurred with both study creams compared with the dry powder regimen. No evidence was found to support prophylactic application of quality aloe extract or cream to improve the symptoms or reduce the skin reaction severity. Our results support a dry skin care regimen of powder during radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. PMID:23870710

  18. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fatemeh

    2013-07-19

    The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.

  19. Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE): Design Test Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, J. Steven; And Others

    The Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE) system of evaluating teaching is presented. ALOE was developed from Arizona adaptations of the Georgia Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments and, with G. Taylor's "Functional Elements Analysis of Teaching Skills" (FEATS), forms an integrated observation package which allows…

  20. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper.

  1. Inhibition of infectious diseases by components from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norimitsu; Yoshida, Tadashi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Hattori, Makoto

    2009-04-23

    The ability to eliminate Escherichia coli K-12 from the peritoneal cavity in the early stage of infection (48 h) was improved by the pre-administration of an aloe sample to BALB/c mice. Our results suggest that the aloe sample could inhibit infectious diseases by stimulating the host defense mechanism, especially the phagocytic and killing activities of macrophages.

  2. Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Shilpakala, S R; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated and the two organisms were susceptible to the inner gel of aloe barbadensis, though it was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. The reduction for Aloe Vera (AV) needed to suppress the growth of the gram-positive bacterium was attributed to the structural differences between the two organisms.

  3. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation.

  4. Evaluation of aloin and aloe-emodin as anti-inflammatory agents in aloe by using murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2009-04-23

    The aloe ingredients responsible for physiological effects and the concentrations required to exert their biological activities are not fully understood. This study compares the anti-inflammatory effects of aloin and aloe-emodin with other polyphenols. Our results demonstrated that aloe-emodin dose-dependently inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and nitric oxide (NO) production at 5-40 microM. In addition, the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were suppressed by 40 microM aloe-emodin. Aloin also suppressed the production of NO at 5-40 microM, although it did not suppress PGE2 production. The present results indicate that aloin and aloe-emodin possibly suppress the inflammatory responses by blocking iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of aloe-emodin was comparable to that of kaempferol and quercetin, indicating aloe-emodin as a possible key constituent responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of aloe.

  5. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  6. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported.

  7. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  8. The Relation between Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Leaf Slices of Aloe arborescens Mill.

    PubMed

    Denius, H R; Homann, P H

    1972-06-01

    Leaves and leaf slices from Aloe arborescens Mill. were used to study the interrelations between Crassulacean acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and respiration. Oxygen exchange of leaf slices was measured polarographically. It was found that the photosynthetic utilization of stored malic acid resulted in a net evolution of oxygen. This oxygen production, and the decrease in acid content of the leaf tissue, were completely inhibited by amytal, although the rate of respiratory oxygen uptake was hardly affected by the presence of this inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Other poisons of respiration (cyanide) and of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (trifluoroacetate, 2-diethyl malonate) also were effective in preventing acid-dependent oxygen evolution. It is concluded that the mobilization of stored acids during light-dependent deacidification of the leaves depends on the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and of the electron transport of the mitochondria.A comparison of enzyme activities in extracts from Aloe leaves and from other plants and studies of leaf anatomy and chloroplast morphology revealed typical characteristics of C(3)-, as well as C(4)-, plants in Aloe.

  9. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  10. The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

  11. Aloe emodin inhibits the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Harhaji, Ljubica; Mijatovic, Sanja; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Popadic, Dusan; Isakovic, Aleksandra; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2007-07-30

    We demonstrate the capacity of an herbal anthraquinone aloe emodin to reduce the cytotoxicity of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) towards L929 mouse fibrosarcoma and U251 human glioma cell lines. Aloe emodin inhibited both TNF-induced cell necrosis and apoptosis, but it did not reduce cell death induced by UV radiation or hydrogen peroxide. Aloe emodin inhibited both basal and TNF-triggered activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and a selective blockade of ERK activation mimicked the cytoprotective action of the drug. On the other hand, aloe emodin did not affect TNF-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or generation of reactive oxygen species. The combination of aloe emodin and TNF caused an intracellular appearance of acidified autophagic vesicles, and the inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin or 3-methyladenine efficiently blocked the cytoprotective action of aloe emodin. These data indicate that aloe emodin could prevent TNF-triggered cell death through mechanisms involving induction of autophagy and blockade of ERK activation.

  12. Efficient protocol for rapid Aloe vera micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Molsaghi, Mozhgan; Moieni, Ahmad; Kahrizi, Danial

    2014-06-01

    Aloe vera Linn. (Liliaceae) is a medicinal plant and has a number of curative properties. Vegetative propagation has not enough potential for supplying market demand. However, via in vitro propagation makes possible the mass production of Aloe plants. The current study was conducted to investigate growth regulators' effects on proliferation of A. vera. In this study, for comparison of plant growth regulators' effects on proliferation, the shoot tips and auxiliary buds of A. vera were cultured in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Rooted plantlets were transferred to garden soil, compost, and sand in the proportion of 1:1:1, respectively, after hardening. The maximum number of shoots was obtained on the medium supplemented with 1 mg/L IAA+4 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L IAA+0.8 BAP mg/L. Rooting was also achieved in the same media composition proliferation of shoot. The acclimatized plants showed 100% of survival. The regenerated plants looked healthy, and they were morphologically similar to that of stock plants. These results suggest that in vitro culture may be used as a technique for rapid propagation of A. vera.

  13. Precise Global DEM Generation by ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) generated the global digital elevation/surface model (DEM/DSM) and orthorectified image (ORI) using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was operated from 2006 to 2011. PRISM consisted of three panchromatic radiometers that acquired along-track stereo images. It had a spatial resolution of 2.5 m in the nadir-looking radiometer and achieved global coverage, making it a suitable potential candidate for precise global DSM and ORI generation. In the past 10 years or so, JAXA has conducted the calibration of the system corrected standard products of PRISM in order to improve absolute accuracies as well as to validate the high-level products such as DSM and ORI. In this paper, we introduce an overview of the global DEM/DSM dataset generation project, including a summary of ALOS and PRISM, in addition to the global data archive status. It is also necessary to consider data processing strategies, since the processing capabilities of the level 1 standard product and the high-level products must be developed in terms of both hardware and software to achieve the project aims. The automatic DSM/ORI processing software and its test processing results are also described.

  14. Two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds in the gel of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Hart, L A; van Enckevort, P H; van Dijk, H; Zaat, R; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

    1988-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel was analyzed guided by modulatory activity with regard to the in vitro activation of human complement and of human polymorphnuclear leucocytes (PMN). Upon ultrafiltration a high (h-Mr) and a low (l-Mr) molecular mass fraction were obtained. Pre-incubation of human pooled serum with the h-Mr fraction resulted in a depletion of classical and alternative pathway complement activity. In contrast, only the l-Mr fraction could inhibit the production of free oxygen radicals by activated PMNs. The latter activity cannot be attributed to non-specific effects like toxicity, interference with stimulant binding or scavenger activity.

  15. Of hemorrhagic shock, spherical cows and Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fuller, Stephanie P

    2004-12-01

    The central question explored in this commentary is whether the beneficial effects of an Aloe vera derived drag-reducing polymer during hemorrhagic shock is due to its O2 radical scavenging properties or to changes in blood rheology.

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of Aloe vera and its fractions on response of macrophages against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Farahnejad, Zohreh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Yaraee, Roya

    2011-12-01

    Natural products are important resources in traditional medicine and have been long used for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Medicinal plants have immunomodulatory properties. Aloe is one of the herbal medicines widely used in natural treatment and alternative therapy for various types of diseases. Aloe vera has been shown to modulate the immune response. Macrophages have been shown to play an essential role as the first line of defense against invading pathogen. Candida albicans is a communal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of A. vera extract and its fractions on infected macrophages with C. albicans. Viability of intraperitoneal macrophages was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Cell viability of infected macrophages was increased by the extract and dose of some isolated fractions dependently. The extract as well as R100, R50, R30, and R10 fractions of A. vera significantly increased cell viability of macrophages in most doses. R5 and F5 fractions showed no significant difference in comparison with control group. Further studies in animal models and human are necessary to clarify the modulatory effects of A. vera on macrophage function. Isolation and purification of A. vera components are also needed to find out the effective molecules.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. PMID:27656056

  18. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two distinct human gastric carcinoma cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. We demonstrate that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Noteworthy is that the AGS cells were generally more sensitive than the NCI-N87 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by the activation of caspase-3, leading to nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These preclinical studies suggest that aloe-emodin represents a suitable and novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human gastric carcinoma.

  19. Aloe vera: Nature's soothing healer to periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Geetha; Kudva, Praveen; Dodwad, Vidya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent interest and advances in the field of alternative medicine has promoted the use of various herbal and natural products for multiple uses in the field of medicine. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research. This clinical study focuses on Aloe vera and highlights its property when used as a medicament in the periodontal pocket. Materials and Methods: A total number of 15 subjects were evaluated for clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth at baseline, followed by scaling and root planing (SRP). Test site comprised of SRP followed by intra-pocket placement of Aloe vera gel, which was compared with the control site in which only SRP was done, and clinical parameters were compared between the two sites at one month and three months from baseline. Results: Results exhibited encouraging findings in clinical parameters of the role of Aloe vera gel as a drug for local delivery. Conclusion: We conclude that subgingival administration of Aloe vera gel results in improvement of periodontal condition. Aloe vera gel can be used as a local drug delivery system in periodontal pockets. PMID:22028505

  20. Preliminary trial of aloe vera gruel on HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Olatunya, Oladele S; Olatunya, Ayomadewa M; Anyabolu, Henry C; Adejuyigbe, Ebun A; Oyelami, Oyeku A

    2012-09-01

    Ten (10) young women diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria who did not meet the national criteria for the use of antiretroviral drugs were managed with 30-40 mL of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) gruel daily. Their CD4 counts, general improvement, and physical well-being (including weight gain) were monitored over a 1-year period. The findings were compared with those of 20 age- matched controls who were on antiretroviral drugs. One (1) patient who reacted badly to antiretroviral drug switched over to aloe vera. The average weight gain among those on aloe vera was 4.7 kg compared to 4.8 kg by those on antiretroviral drug (p=0.916). The average rise in CD4 count among them was 153.7 cells/μL compared to 238.85 cells/μL among the controls (p=0.087). There was no significant side effect(s) in either group except in the 1 patient who switched over from antiretroviral drugs to aloe vera gruel. These preliminary data suggest that consumption of aloe vera may be of help to HIV-infected individuals in the tropics, given its availability and inexpensiveness.

  1. Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nari; Lee, Chan-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute life-threatening clinical condition and remains the major cause of death in intensive care units. The primary pathophysiologic event central to the septic response is an overwhelming activation of the inflammatory system and countervailing response from the anti-inflammatory system. However, the cause of this perturbation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that Aloe vera therapeutically reverses the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The administration of Aloe vera ameliorated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, as evidenced by the serum levels of biochemical parameters and histological changes. In order to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Aloe vera, the levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA at various time points. The increases in the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were attenuated by Aloe vera.In vivo administration of Aloe vera also markedly enhanced bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that Aloe vera could be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of sepsis.

  2. Identification of linear features at geothermal field based on Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) of the ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeruddin; Saepuloh, A.; Heriawan, M. N.; Kubo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has about 40% of geothermal energy resources in the world. An area with the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Wayang Windu located at West Java Province. The comprehensive understanding about the geothermal system in this area is indispensable for continuing the development. A geothermal system generally associated with joints or fractures and served as the paths for the geothermal fluid migrating to the surface. The fluid paths are identified by the existence of surface manifestations such as fumaroles, solfatara and the presence of alteration minerals. Therefore the analyses of the liner features to geological structures are crucial for identifying geothermal potential. Fractures or joints in the form of geological structures are associated with the linear features in the satellite images. The Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) was used for the basis to determine the linear features. In this study, we used satellite images of ALOS PALSAR in Ascending and Descending orbit modes. The linear features obtained by satellite images could be validated by field observations. Based on the application of STA to the ALOS PALSAR data, the general direction of extracted linear features were detected in WNW-ESE, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The directions are consistent with the general direction of faults system in the field. The linear features extracted from ALOS PALSAR data based on STA were very useful to identify the fractured zones at geothermal field.

  3. Aloe spp.--plants with vertebrate-like telomeric sequences.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hanna; Scherthan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome termini of most eukaryotes end in tracks of short tandemly repeated GC-rich sequences, the composition of which varies among different groups of organisms. Plant species predominantly contain (TTTAGGG)n repeats at their telomeres. However, a few plant species, including members of Alliaceae and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae) were found to lack such Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3)n telomeric repeats. Recently, it has been proposed that the lack of T3AG3 telomeric repeat sequences extends to all species forming the Asparagales clade. Here, we analysed the composition of Aloe telomeres by single-primer PCR and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with directly labelled Arabidopsis-type (TTTAGGG)28-43 DNA probe, and with vertebrate-type (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA and a (C3TA2)3 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. It was found that Nicotiana tabacum contained Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats, while Aloe telomeres lacked the corresponding FISH signals. Surprisingly, FISH with the highly specific vertebrate-type (C3TA2)3 PNA probe resulted in strong T2AG3-specific FISH signals at the ends of chromosomes of both Aloe and Nicotiana tabacum, suggesting the presence of T2AG3 telomeric repeats in these species. FISH with a long (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA probe also highlighted Aloe chromosome ends, while this probe failed to reveal FISH signals on tobacco chromosomes. These results indicate the presence of vertebrate-like telomeric sequences at the telomeres of Aloe spp. chromosomes. However, single-primer PCR with (TAG3)5 primers failed to amplify such sequences in Aloe, which could indicate a low copy number of T2AG3 repeats at the chromosome ends and/or their co-orientation and interspersion with other repeat types. Our results suggest that telomeres of plant species, which were thought to lack GC-rich repeats, may in fact contain variant repeat types.

  4. ALOS-2 development status and draft acquisition strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) will succeed to the radar mission of the ALOS "Daichi" which had contributed to cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring, and earth resources surveys for more than 5 years until its termination of operation in May 2011. The state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution (1m * 3m at finest in the Spotlight mode) and wide swath (up to 490km in the ScanSAR wide mode), compared to ALOS/PALSAR. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The SAR antenna consists of 5 panels with total 1,080 radiation elements which are driven by 180 Transmit-Receive-Modules in order to steer and form a beam in both range and azimuth direction. In order to reduce range ambiguities,PALSAR-2 is capable to transmit up or down chirp signal alternatively and has phase modulation with zero or pi as well. The Proto Flight Model of ALOS-2 including PALSAR-2 is under integration and testing at JAXA's Tsukuba Space Center. From experiences of the ALOS operation, a systematic observation strategy to achieve consistent data acquisitions in time and space was crucial. Since more observation modes of PALSAR-2 than those of PALSAR may trigger more conflicts among user requests, a basic observation scenario must be prepared to fulfill the mission requirements. This paper describes the current development status of ALOS-2 and a draft acquisition strategy for PALSAR-2.

  5. Photodynamic activity of aloe-emodin induces resensitization of lung cancer cells to anoikis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Yang, Wen-Hui; Hour, Mann-Jen; Wu, Chi-Yu; Peng, Wen-Huang; Bao, Bo-Ying; Han, Ping-Hsiu; Bau, Da-Tian

    2010-12-01

    Aloe-emodin was found to be a photosensitizer and possess anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin remains unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of photocytotoxicity induced by aloe-emodin in lung cancer H460 cells. According to the results of the photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced disruption of cytoskeleton, we verify that aloe-emodin with irradiation induces anoikis of H460 cells. Photosensitized aloe-emodin-induced anoikis is associated with the protein expression of α-actinin and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase members. In this study, a rapid opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the change in apoptosis-related protein expression were involved in photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced cell death. We also demonstrated that anoikis induced by aloe-emodin with irradiation is mediated through the intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways in a caspase-dependent manner in H460 cells.

  6. Continental Scale Vegetation Structure Mapping Using Field Calibrated Landsat, ALOS Palsar And GLAS ICESat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Armston, J.; Lucas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical plant profiles are important descriptors of canopy structure and are used to inform models of biomass, biodiversity and fire risk. In Australia, an approach has been developed to produce large area maps of vertical plant profiles by extrapolating waveform lidar estimates of vertical plant profiles from ICESat/GLAS using large area segmentation of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat satellite image products. The main assumption of this approach is that the vegetation height profiles are consistent across the segments defined from ALOS PALSAR and Landsat image products. More than 1500 field sites were used to develop an index of fractional cover using Landsat data. A time series of the green fraction was used to calculate the persistent green fraction continuously across the landscape. This was fused with ALOS PALSAR L-band Fine Beam Dual polarisation 25m data and used to segment the Australian landscapes. K-means clustering then grouped the segments with similar cover and backscatter into approximately 1000 clusters. Where GLAS-ICESat footprints intersected these clusters, canopy profiles were extracted and aggregated to produce a mean vertical vegetation profile for each cluster that was used to derive mean canopy and understorey height, depth and density. Due to the large number of returns, these retrievals are near continuous across the landscape, enabling them to be used for inventory and modelling applications. To validate this product, a radiative transfer model was adapted to map directional gap probability from airborne waveform lidar datasets to retrieve vertical plant profiles Comparison over several test sites show excellent agreement and work is underway to extend the analysis to improve national biomass mapping. The integration of the three datasets provide options for future operational monitoring of structure and AGB across large areas for quantifying carbon dynamics, structural change and biodiversity.

  7. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies.

  8. Neuroprotective potential of Aloe arborescens against copper induced neurobehavioral features of Parkinson's disease in rat.

    PubMed

    Abbaoui, Abdellatif; Hiba, Omar El; Gamrani, Halima

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element for the organism survival, which ensures the normal functioning of different biosystems. However, excessive levels of this heavy metal are responsible for profound physiological alterations including the central nervous system. Numerous findings sustain the involvement of heavy metals, as an environmental risk factor such as copper (Cu), in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that principally affects the motor system. The classic and evident symptoms of PD namely rigidity, tardiness of movement, and difficulty with walking, result from progressive dopaminergic neurons death within substantia nigra. Whereas, few pharmacological trials have shown a beneficial role against Cu neurotoxicity, Aloe arborescens is one of the powerful medicinal plants with an array of therapeutic effects. Thus, we aimed through the present study, to evaluate the impact of acute Cu intoxication (10μg/g B.W. i.p) for 3days on the dopaminergic system and locomotor performance, together with the possible restorative effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens gel (AEAAG) (200mg/kg B.W.). By means of immunohistochemistry, we noted, in the Cu intoxicated rats, a significant loss of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) expression within substantia nigra compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the subsequent striatal outputs, those alterations were correlated to behavioral abnormalities such as a severe drop of locomotor performance. While AEAAG administration to Cu intoxicated rats showed a noticeable beneficial effect; this potential was featured by a complete recovery of the TH expression and locomotor behavior deficiencies in the intoxicated rats. The present investigation have brought, on the one hand, an experimental evidence of an altered dopaminergic innervations following Cu intoxication and on the other hand, a new pharmacological property of Aloe arborescens that

  9. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base.

  10. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  12. Effect of different drying procedures on the bioactive polysaccharide acemannan from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Minjares-Fuentes, Rafael; Rodríguez-González, Víctor Manuel; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Eim, Valeria; González-Centeno, María Reyes; Femenia, Antoni

    2017-07-15

    The main effects of different drying procedures: spray-, industrial freeze-, refractance window- and radiant zone-drying, on acemannan, the main bioactive polysaccharide from Aloe vera gel, were investigated. All the drying procedures caused a considerable decrease in the acemannan yield (∼40%). Degradation affected not only the backbone, as indicated by the important losses of (1→4)-linked mannose units, but also the side-chains formed by galactose. In addition, methylation analysis suggested the deacetylation of mannose units (>60%), which was confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis. Interestingly, all these changes were reflected in the functional properties which were severely affected. Thus, water retention capacity values from processed samples decreased ∼50%, and a reduction greater than 80% was determined in swelling and fat adsorption capacity values. Therefore, these important modifications should be taken into consideration, since not only the functionality but also the physiological effects attributed to many Aloe vera-based products could also be affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nephroprotective Effect of the Leaves of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) against Toxicity Induced by Diclofenac Sodium in Albino Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, A; Hasan, IJ; Sarfraz, M; Jafri, L; Ashraf, MA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis against toxicity induced by diclofenac sodium in albino rabbits. Subjects and Method: Thirty-six healthy albino rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 served as the untreated control, group 2 was treated only with diclofenac sodium, group 3 with the nephroprotective drug silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with different doses of Aloe barbadensis, ie 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively after being treated with diclofenac sodium. Blood samples were collected after every five days up to fifteen days. Haematological and histopathological parameters were determined by using diagnostic kits. Results: Results of haematological studies showed that use of the powder of Aloe barbadensis normalized the level of different factors eg, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values. Histopathological studies showed that Aloe barbadensis ameliorated pyknotic nuclei in the renal epithelial cells and reduced oxidative stress by increasing the level of catalase and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Conclusion: These results have shown that Aloe barbadensis can normalize oxidative stress and can be used as an effective nephroprotective agent against drug-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27398602

  14. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Jinwan; Jin, Yoojeong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-11-14

    Metabolite profiling of four different-sized Aloe vera plants was performed using gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Amino acids, sugars, and organic acids related to growth and development were identified by sizes. In particular, the relative contents of glucose, fructose, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid increased gradually as the size of the aloe increased. Anthraquinone derivatives such as 7-hydroxy-8-O-methylaloin, 7-hydroxyaloin A, and 6'-malonylnataloins A and B increased gradually, whereas chromone derivatives decreased continuously as the size of the aloe increased. The A30 aloe (size = 20-30 cm) with relatively high contents of aloins A and B, was suggested to have antioxidant components showing the highest antioxidant activity among the four different sizes of aloe. These data suggested that MS-based metabolomic approaches can illuminate metabolite changes associated with growth and development and can explain their change of antioxidant activity.

  15. Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations.

  16. Aloe vera for Dry Mouth Denture Patients – Palliative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Samee, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Xerostomia (dry mouth) is dryness of the mouth which is due to reduced salivary flow. Lack of adequate saliva causes discomfort in denture wearing patients and decreases retention of dentures. The ability of saliva to wet the tissue surface is one of the most important properties for oral comfort and retention of complete denture in dry mouth patients. Aim This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the wetting ability of therapeutic Aloe vera saliva substitute and commercially available Aqwet saliva substitute on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of liquid saliva substitute was considered as an indicator of wettability. Materials and Methods Aloe vera liquid (Aloe vera – Group I) and Aqwet saliva substitute (Aqwet – Group II) were compared in terms of their wetting ability. Forty samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated and divided into two groups with 20 samples in each. Advancing, receding contact angles and angle of hysteresis were measured using contact angle goniometer and DSA4 software analysis. Mann-Whitney U test was applied for statistical analysis of the study. Results The mean advancing angle and receding angle of Group I (Aloe vera) was smaller than Group II (Aqwet). Mean angle of hysteresis of Group I (Aloe vera) was higher than Group II (Aqwet). Mann-Whitney U test revealed that there is no significant difference in contact angles between the two groups. Conclusion Wetting ability of Group I (Aloe vera) saliva substitute was found to be better compared to Group II (Aqwet) on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. PMID:28764287

  17. A novel sensitive detection platform for antitumor herbal drug aloe-emodin based on the graphene modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Chen, Jinghua; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Lu, Chun-Hua; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2010-12-15

    This paper has presented a novel strategy to carry out direct and sensitive determination of antitumor herbal drug aloe-emodin in complex matrices based on the graphene-Nafion modified glassy carbon (GN/GC) electrode. This proposed modified electrode showed good electrochemical response towards aloe-emodin (AE). Compared with the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified electrode, the GN/GC electrode has the advantages of higher sensitivity and lower cost. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve for AE concentration was linear in the range from 5 nmol/L to 1 μmol/L with the detection limit of 2 nmol/L. In addition, the practical analytical performance of the GN/GC electrode was examined by evaluating the selective detection of AE in natural aloe extracts and human urine samples with satisfied recovery. Therefore, the GN/GC electrode may hold great promise for fast, simple and sensitive detection and biomedical analysis of AE in complex matrices.

  18. The Relation between Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Leaf Slices of Aloe arborescens Mill 1

    PubMed Central

    Denius, Homer R.; Homann, Peter H.

    1972-01-01

    Leaves and leaf slices from Aloe arborescens Mill. were used to study the interrelations between Crassulacean acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and respiration. Oxygen exchange of leaf slices was measured polarographically. It was found that the photosynthetic utilization of stored malic acid resulted in a net evolution of oxygen. This oxygen production, and the decrease in acid content of the leaf tissue, were completely inhibited by amytal, although the rate of respiratory oxygen uptake was hardly affected by the presence of this inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Other poisons of respiration (cyanide) and of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (trifluoroacetate, 2-diethyl malonate) also were effective in preventing acid-dependent oxygen evolution. It is concluded that the mobilization of stored acids during light-dependent deacidification of the leaves depends on the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and of the electron transport of the mitochondria. A comparison of enzyme activities in extracts from Aloe leaves and from other plants and studies of leaf anatomy and chloroplast morphology revealed typical characteristics of C3−, as well as C4−, plants in Aloe. Images PMID:16658075

  19. A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.

    2013-10-01

    For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

  20. Monitoring Indicators for Mediterranean Wetland and Agricultural Area Using ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Topaloglou, C. A.; Pardalis, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Vogiatzis, M.; Andrianopoulos, A.; Takavakoglou, V.; Vougioukas, S.; Bochtis, D.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural and other human activities are a pressure to several Mediterranean wetland ecosystems. Monitoring the pressures and the state of the ecosystem is an important input to management activities. The aim of this work was to select and implement indicators for monitoring the natural and agricultural environment of a Mediterranean wetland using Earth Observation (EO), and specifically the recently launched ALOS satellite images. Multiple levels of data were collected and integrated: remote sensing data (ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, and observations during field surveys. EO and GIS methods used during monitoring of the study area involved preprocessing of the satellite images, enhancement of information, information extraction, and derivation of indicators. Geographic overlay comparison with results derived from the area in 2003 using a Terra/ASTER image was used to identify the changes that occurred during the last years. The methodology was applied in the wetland and surrounding agricultural area of Ramsar Convention site "lakes Koronia-Volvi" (Greece). Resulting thematic maps revealed and quantified the intensity of pressures in the vicinity of the protected wetland, the state of the wetland ecosystem, as well as the seasonal and long term temporal trends.

  1. In vitro angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel on calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Lee, O H; Yoon, S H; Lee, S K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Sung, C K; Choi, J S; Kim, K W

    1998-06-01

    Angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel was investigated by in vitro assay. We obtained the most active fraction from dichloromethane extract of Aloe vera gel by partitioning between hexane and 90% aqueous methanol. The most active fraction (F3) increased the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. In addition, F3 fraction induced CPAE cells to invade type 1 collagen gel and form capillary-like tube through in vitro angiogenesis assay, and increased the invasion of CPAE cells into matrigel through in vitro invasion assay. Furthermore, the effect on the mRNA expression of proteolytic enzymes which are key participants in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation was investigated by northern blot analysis. F3 fraction enhanced mRNA expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) in CPAE cells whereas the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA was not changed.

  2. Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture, chlorhexidine gel, and two natural materials Propolis and Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Bazvand, Leila; Aminozarbian, Mohammad Ghasem; Farhad, Alireza; Noormohammadi, Hamid; Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Mobasherizadeh, Sina

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of triantibiotic paste, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis in deep dentin. Ninety fresh extracted single-rooted teeth were used in a dentin block model. Seventy-five teeth were infected with E. faecalis and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15). Experimental groups were treated with triantibiotic mixture with distilled water, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, 70% ethanol + Propolis and Aloe vera. Fifteen teeth treated with distilled water as the positive control and 15 samples, free of bacterial contamination, were considered as the negative control. Gates-Glidden drill #4 was used for removal of surface dentin and Gates-Glidden drill #5 was used to collect samples of deep dentin. The samples were prepared and colony-forming units were counted. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Triantibiotic mixture group exhibited the least bacterial growth. However, the rate of bacterial growth showed no significant differences between chlorhexidine and Propolis groups (P > 0.05). Aloe vera had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, but in comparison with other medicaments, it was less effective (P < 0.05). This experimental study showed that triantibiotic mixture, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aleo vera were relatively effective against E. faecalis. All the intracanal medicements had similar effects on E. faecalis in deep dentin except for Aloe vera.

  3. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  4. Osmo-air drying of aloe vera gel cubes.

    PubMed

    Pisalkar, P S; Jain, N K; Jain, S K

    2011-04-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) cubes of 12.5 × 12.5 × 12.5 mm thick were osmosed for 4 h in sugar syrup of 30, 40 and 50°Brix concentration and temperatures of 30 and 50°C at constant syrup to fruit ratio of 5:1. Osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples were hot air dried at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C with constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The water loss, solid gain and convective drying behaviour were recorded during experiments. It was observed that water loss and solid gain ranged from 39.2 to 71.3 and 2.7 to 6.3%, respectively during osmo-drying. The moisture diffusivity varied from 2.9 to 8.0 × 10(-9) m²/s and 2.7 to 4.6 × 10(-9) m²/s during air drying of osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples, respectively. Drying air temperature and osmosis as pre-treatment affected the water loss, solid gain, diffusivity at -p ≤ 0.01.

  5. Ribosomal DNA evolution and phylogeny in Aloe (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Leitch, I J; Bennett, M D; Chase, M W; Leitch, A R

    2000-11-01

    All Aloe taxa (∼400 species) share a conserved bimodal karyotype with a basic genome of four large and three small submetacentric/acrocentric chromosomes. We investigated the physical organization of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to 13 Aloe species. The organization was compared with a phylogenetic tree of 28 species (including the 13 used for FISH) constructed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA. The phylogeny showed little divergence within Aloe, although distinct, well-supported clades were found. FISH analysis of 5S rDNA distribution showed a similar interstitial location on a large chromosome in all species examined. In contrast, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA was variable, with differences in number, location, and size of loci found between species. Nevertheless, within well-supported clades, all species had the same organizational patterns. Thus, despite the striking stability of karyotype structure and location of 5S rDNA, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA is not so constrained and has clearly changed during Aloe speciation.

  6. ALOS PALSAR and UAVSAR Soil Moisture in Field Campaigns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of our ongoing analysis of L-band radar mapping of soil moisture we are evaluating the role that ALOS PALSAR data can play in the development of radar retrieval algorithms for the future NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Differences in configurations must be assessed to det...

  7. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Singh, Prashant; Bhatia, Daksh

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

  8. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Affects Seedling Emergence, DNA Integrity, Plant Morphology, Growth Rate, and Attractiveness to Herbivore Insects in Datura ferox.

    PubMed Central

    Ballare, C. L.; Scopel, A. L.; Stapleton, A. E.; Yanovsky, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    To study functional relationships between the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on different aspects of the physiology of a wild plant, we carried out exclusion experiments in the field with the summer annual Datura ferox L. Solar UV-B incident over Buenos Aires reduced daytime seedling emergence, inhibited stem elongation and leaf expansion, and tended to reduce biomass accumulation during early growth. However, UV-B had no effect on calculated net assimilation rate. Using a monoclonal antibody specific to the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD), we found that plants receiving full sunlight had more CPDs per unit of DNA than plants shielded from solar UV-B, but the positive correlation between UV-B and CPD burden tended to level off at high (near solar) UV-B levels. At our field site, Datura plants were consumed by leaf beetles (Coleoptera), and the proportion of plants attacked by insects declined with the amount of UV-B received during growth. Field experiments showed that plant exposure to solar UV-B reduced the likelihood of leaf beetle attack by one-half. Our results highlight the complexities associated with scaling plant responses to solar UV-B, because they show: (a) a lack of correspondence between UV-B effects on net assimilation rate and whole-plant growth rate, (b) nonlinear UV-B dose-response curves, and (c) UV-B effects of plant attractiveness to natural herbivores. PMID:12226382

  9. ALOS-PALSAR Performances on a Multiple Sensor DInSAR Scenario for Deformation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Pablo; Arbiol, Roman; Pala, Vicenc

    2008-11-01

    The Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya (ICC) has developed its own DInSAR processing chain during the past years. Initial topographic interferometry applications have evolved into Multi Image Differential Interferometry (MI DInSAR) for terrain deformation monitoring purposes. The appearance of the JAXA's L-band sensor ALOS-PALSAR opens new possibilities to increase the amount of useful information which serve as input to these techniques and brings complementarity to the already successful C-band missions as ESA's ERS and ENVISAT. In the frame of deformation monitoring, PALSAR benefits and L-C band combination strategies are here investigated. L-band coherence enhancement in rural areas is addressed, allowing information retrieval on areas that would be inaccessible at C-band. Furthermore, PALSAR polarimetric channels combination is investigated in order to increase the number of pixels from whom deformation values can be extracted. Deformation results employing PALSAR and ENVISAT data are presented.

  10. Aloe barbadensis Miller mediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunalan, Sangeetha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.

  11. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kudalkar, Mithun D.; Nayak, Aarati; Bhat, Kishore S.; Nayak, Ranganath N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test. Results: The results showed that the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly decreased by the use of doxycycline, Neem and Aloe vera. A 53.5% reduction in the MMP-2 and 52.5% reduction in the MMP-9 activity was seen when samples were subjected to Neem treatment at the concentration of 1500 μg/ml. Tissues treated with Aloe vera in the concentration of 2000 μg/ml showed a 20.09% reduction in the MMP-2 and 20.4% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Doxycycline in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, showed an 82.1% reduction in the MMP-2 and 82.6% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Neem and Aloe vera on MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during periodontitis. PMID:25364206

  12. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kudalkar, Mithun D; Nayak, Aarati; Bhat, Kishore S; Nayak, Ranganath N

    2014-01-01

    A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test. The results showed that the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly decreased by the use of doxycycline, Neem and Aloe vera. A 53.5% reduction in the MMP-2 and 52.5% reduction in the MMP-9 activity was seen when samples were subjected to Neem treatment at the concentration of 1500 μg/ml. Tissues treated with Aloe vera in the concentration of 2000 μg/ml showed a 20.09% reduction in the MMP-2 and 20.4% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Doxycycline in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, showed an 82.1% reduction in the MMP-2 and 82.6% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Neem and Aloe vera on MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during periodontitis.

  13. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity.

  14. Pan-Tropical Forest Cover from Alos-Palsar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Bishop, J. B.; Cormier, T.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Holecz, F.

    2010-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Forest carbon monitoring is a crucial component for the scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle as well as the success of crediting developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Now, tropical and subtropical nations are challenged to establish Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification systems using remote sensing technology. We report on progress using ALOS-PALSAR data in such endeavors. 2. PAN-TROPICAL ALOS PALSAR DATA A database of ~ 17,000 ALOS-PALSAR FBD scenes has been compiled to generate a 2007 pan-tropical dataset to produce forest cover (forest/non-forest) estimates. All scenes are radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed using based on a pre-compiled SRTM global digital elevation data sets. Ancillary data like layover, shadow and local incidence angle are computed and stored for each scene. After pre-processing, data are available in 8-bit filtered (Gamma-MAP) and dB-scaled three-band composites of L-hh/L-hv/Ratio hh-hv (Figure 1), as well as unfiltered power data. More than 95 % of the data are from the FBD acquisition cycles in 2007 with missing tracks filled with data from 2008 and 2009 cycles. 3. FOREST COVER CLASSIFICATION Using ancillary satellite data a pan-tropical network of calibrated reference data was generated. These data are used to classify swath data to be combined to continental forest/non-forest cover classification mosaics. The pan-tropical map is validated with withheld training data for testing, as well as through independent operator verification with very high-resolution image data from optical sensors. A pilot study region in the Xingu Watershed in Mato Grosse, Brazil (300,000 km2) showed map agreements between ALOS-PALSAR and Landsat-TM derived classifications of greater than 99 percent [1]. 4. RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL FOREST MONITORING Global estimates of forest cover are currently produced from various sources at various spatial and temporal

  15. Efficacy of aloe vera gel as an adjuvant treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sarwar; Ali, Iqbal; Giri, K Y; Gokkulakrishnan, S; Natu, Subodh S; Faisal, Mohammad; Agarwal, Anshita; Sharma, Himanshu

    2013-12-01

    Definitive therapy is not defined for the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). This study evaluated the efficacy of aloe vera gel as an adjuvant treatment of OSMF. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 subjects with OSMF divided into medicinal treatment (submucosal injection of hyaluronidase and dexamethasone, n = 30) and surgical treatment (n = 30) categories. Each category was randomly divided into groups A (with aloe vera, n = 15 per category) and B (without aloe vera, n = 15 per category). Follow-up assessment for various symptoms was performed, and results were analyzed using paired and unpaired Student t tests. The group receiving aloe vera had a significant improvement in most symptoms of OSMF (P < .01) compared with the non-aloe vera group, in both the medicinal and surgical categories. Aloe vera gel was effective as an adjuvant in treatment of OSMF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbiological stabilization of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Juan E; Guanoquiza, Manuel I; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Vega-Galvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2012-09-03

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 1 and 3 min at 20 °C) on the microbiological shelf-life and microbiota composition of Aloe vera gel during 90 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, as well as moulds and yeasts, were enumerated after HHP treatment and through cold storage. Randomly selected isolates from the count plates were identified by standard methods and the API identification system. Results showed that HHP treatment at or over 400 MPa for 3 min were effective to keep the microbial counts to undetectable levels during the whole storage period, and consequently the microbiological shelf-life of A. vera gel was extended for more than 90 days at 4 °C. The microbiota in the untreated A. vera gel was dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (mostly Rahnella aquatilis) and yeasts (mostly Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria tentatively identified as Arthrobacter spp. and Micrococcus/Kocuria spp. were the predominant microorganisms in samples pressurized at 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min, while Bacillus megaterium predominating in samples treated at 400 MPa for 1 min. At 400 MPa for 3 min and above, the microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 90 days; however, viable spore-formers were detected by enrichment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  18. Analysis of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Murphy, Timothy P

    2004-12-20

    A procedure was developed for the determination of low levels of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin A (barbalin) in aloe products based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives of these analytes in the presence of Chrysophanol used as internal standard. The method was used to analyze several aloe based commercial products (liquids, gels and solids). Wide variation in the level of these anthraquinones was observed among the different products. The method had a sensitivity of 0.005 ppm of aloe-emodin and 0.05 ppm of aloin.

  19. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  20. Aloe vera and gibberellin. Anti-inflammatory activity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H; Maro, N P

    1989-01-01

    Aloe vera inhibits inflammation and adjuvant-induced arthritis. The authors' laboratory has shown that A. vera improves wound healing, which suggests that it does not act like an adrenal steroid. Diabetic animals were used in this study because of their poor wound healing and anti-inflammatory capabilities. The anti-inflammatory activity of A. vera and gibberellin was measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by measuring the inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration into a site of gelatin-induced inflammation over a dose range of 2 to 100 mg/kg. Both Aloe and gibberellin similarly inhibited inflammation in a dose-response manner. These data tend to suggest that gibberellin or a gibberellin-like substance is an active anti-inflammatory component in A. vera.

  1. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K(+) channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  2. Studies of aloe. VI. Cathartic effect of isobarbaloin.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Takino, Y; Toyo'oka, T; Tanizawa, H

    1998-11-01

    The cathartic effect of isobarbaloin, a stereoisomer of barbaloin (compound principally responsible for the cathartic activity of Aloe), was examined in male rats by oral administration. Individual differences in sensitivity in the laxative activity of isobarbaloin and barbaloin was not found. The cathartic activity (ED50) of isobarbaloin in barbaloin positive rats was 19.2 mg/kg, nearly equal to that of barbaloin (19.5 mg/kg). Also, isobarbaloin administered orally was demonstrated to decompose to aloe-emodin-9-anthrone (active metabolite of barbaloin) as well as to barbaloin. Therefore, it is considered that the mechanism underlying the cathartic effect of isobarbaloin is the same as that of barbaloin.

  3. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  4. Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Russell, Christopher; Patel, Sapna; Patel, Rekha

    2004-12-20

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroy-3-[hydroxymethyl]-anthraquione) purified from Aloe vera leaves has been reported to have antitumor activity. The objectives of our research were to determine how aloe-emodin regulates the cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein kinase C (PKC) during glioma growth and development. To establish the cell cycle effects of aloe-emodin on brain cells [transformed glia cell line (SVG) and human glioma U-373MG cell line (U-373MG)], cells were treated with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control) or aloe-emodin (40 microM). Results from flow cytometry demonstrated that aloe-emodin delayed the number of cells entering and exiting DNA synthesis (S) phase in both SVG and U-373MG cells indicating that aloe-emodin may inhibit S phase progression. Assessment of cell viability demonstrated that SVG and U-373MG glioma cell were highly sensitive to aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-induced decreased proliferation was sustained at 48-96 h. A PKC activity assay was quantified to establish the role of PKC in aloe-emodin's mode of action. Exposure of SVG and U-373MG glioma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed PKC activity and reduced the protein content of most of the PKC isozymes. We determined that cancer growth inhibition by aloe-emodin was due to apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death). Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that aloe-emodin represents a novel antitumor chemotherapeutic drug.

  5. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin following intravenous and oral administrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Aloe-emodin, a natural polyphenolic anthraquinone, has shown various beneficial bioactivities in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin. Aloe-emodin was intravenously and orally administered to rats. The concentrations of aloe-emodin and rhein, a metabolite of aloe-emodin, were determined by HPLC method prior to and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase/β-glucuronidase. The results showed that the systemic exposures of aloe-emodin and its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin glucuronides (G) > rhein sulfates (S) > aloe-emodin > rhein and rhein G when aloe-emodin was given intravenously. In contrast, when aloe-emodin was administered orally, the parent form of aloe-emodin was not absorbed per se, and the systemic exposures of its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin G > rhein G > rhein. In conclusion, the metabolites of aloe-emodin are more important than the parent form for the bioactivities in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Aloins and Aloin-Emodin in Aloe Vera Raw Materials and Finished Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.09.

    PubMed

    Kline, David; Ritruthai, Vicha; Babajanian, Silva; Gao, Quanyin; Ingle, Prashant; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary

    2017-02-28

    A single-laboratory validation study is described for a method of quantitative analysis of aloins (aloins A and B) andaloe-emodin in aloe vera raw materials and finished products. This method used HPLC coupled with UV detection at 380 nm for the aloins and 430 nm for aloe-emodin. The advantage of this test method is that the target analytes are concentrated from the sample matrix (either liquid or solid form) using stepwise liquid-liquid extraction (water-ethyl acetate-methanol), followed by solvent evaporation and reconstitution. This sample preparation process is suitable for different forms of products. The concentrating step for aloins and aloe-emodin has enhanced the method quantitation level to 20 parts per billion (ppb). Reversed-phase chromatography using a 250 × 4.6 mm column under gradient elution conditions was used. Mobile phase A is 0.1% acetic acid in water and mobile phase B is 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile. The HPLC run starts with a 20% mobile phase B that reaches 35% at 13 min. From 13 to 30 min, mobile phase B is increased from 35 to 100%. From 30 to 40 min, mobile phase B is changed from 100% back to the initial condition of 20% forre-equilibration. The flow rate is 1 mL/min, with a 100 μL injection volume. Baseline separation (Rs > 2.0) for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin was observed under this chromatographic condition. This test method was validated with raw materials of aloe vera 5× (liquid) and aloe vera 200× (powder) and finished products of aloe concentrate (liquid) and aloe (powder). The linearity of the method was studied from 10 to 500 ppb for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin, with correlation coefficients of 0.999964, 0.999957, and 0.999980, respectively. The test method was proven to be specific, precise, accurate, rugged, and suitable for the intended quantitative analysis of aloins and aloe-emodin in raw materials and finished products. The S/N for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin at 10 ppb level were 12, 10, and 8

  7. Surface change detection in glacier regions using ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, N.; Ono, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mountainous glaciers are important water resources in the high mountainous region. The glaciers not only supply water for drinking and agriculture, but also produce energy in hydroelectric power plants to local communities. The recent rapid glacier retreat is at high risk for severe water shortage in the near future. And the melting water of glacier sometimes leads to landslide disaster or glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). Actually, the debris flow happened and damaged the buildings at the valley of Pacuni glacier in Bolivia in December 2007. Consequently, the monitoring of the glacier regions is very important both to manage water resources and to mitigate the damage from landslide disaster. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite “DAICHI” (ALOS) has three sensors, two visible imagers and one L-band polarimetric SAR, and has been observing the land surface since 2006. This study discusses the availability of the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) of ALOS for surface change detection in glacier regions in Bolivia. The observation by PALSAR is unaffected by weather. And this characteristic is the most important for the glacier monitoring. Some glaciers and their surrounding mountainous regions are selected as a test sites for this study and many landslides near Pacuni glacier were detected by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using PALSAR data of ALOS.

  8. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of anthraquinone components from Aloe.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Jang Hoon; Li, Wei; Jo, A Reum; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-15

    Aloe is a short-stemmed succulent herb widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and as raw material in cosmetics and heath foods. In this study, we isolated and identified two new anthraquinone derivatives, aloinoside C (6) and aloinoside D (7), together with six known compounds from an aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were evaluated. Compounds 1-8 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 4.1±0.6 to 41.1±4.2 μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-8 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 6 and 8 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2-5 and 7 were the mixed-type. Molecular docking increases our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of all compounds. These results demonstrate that compounds 1-8 from Aloe are potential sEH inhibitors.

  9. Assessment of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel on haematology, plasma biochemistry, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iji, O T; Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-11-28

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract on markers of hepatic damage, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic fragility using the Wistar rats. Forty male Wistar rats divided into four groups of ten rats per group were used in the study. Group I which served as the control received 0.9% physiological saline while those in groups II, III and IV received Aloe vera gel (100, 250 and 500mg/kg), respectively, for four weeks. There was significant increase in the haemoglobin concentration while the PCV, RBC count, MCH and MCHC though showed some marginal increases but the increases were not significant in all the treated rats. No significant change was also observed in the erythrocyte osmotic fragility. However, there were significant reductions in plasma ALT, AST and ALP levels in animals that received the gel compared with the control while the plasma albumin and total protein values were higher than those of the control. All the animals that received the gel also showed significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol ratio compared with the control. In a similar manner, those animals that were administered with 500mg/kg gel had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol ratio than those of the control. This study showed that, chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract had no significant effects on the haematological parameters of the rats and did not affect erythrocyte osmotic resistance. It however showed some cholesterol lowering action.

  10. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at <0.1 parts per million. In the present study there was a complete absence of any histological alteration in samples from the cecum, colon (proximal, mid and distal regions). Similar concentrations of non-decolorized (unpurified, high anthraquinone) Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon.

  11. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) and HbA1c by 1.05% (p = 0.004). Significant reductions of both endpoints were maintained in all subgroup analyses. Additionally, the data suggest that patients with an FBG ≥200 mg/dL may see a greater benefit. A mean FBG reduction of 109.9 mg/dL was observed in this population (p ≤ 0.0001). The Egger statistic showed publication bias with FBG but not with HbA1c (p = 0.010 and p = 0.602, respectively). These results support the use of oral aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better

  12. Investigation of Land Subsidence using ALOS PALSAR data: a case study in Mentougou (Beijing, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Xiang, Jie; Xie, Shuai; Liu, Jing; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Mining activities have been documented for centuries in Mentougou, and land subsidence resulting from mining operations has already been known over the past few decades. However, there has been ongoing concern that excessive groundwater extraction may lead to further subsidence. Therefore it is critical to map the land cover changes to understand the actual impact of these activities. So, the land cover changes from 2006 to 2011 were examined based on multi-source remote sensing imageries( including ALOS and landsat-7) by using object-oriented classifications combined with a decision tree and retrospective approaches. Also, land subsidence in Mentougou between 2006 and 2011 has been mapped using the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analysis with the ALOS L-band SAR data. We processed 14 ascending SAR images during May 2006 to July 2011. Comparison of InSAR measurements with the land cover changes and pre-existing faults suggest that mining activities is the main cause of land subsidence. The land subsidence observed from InSAR data are approximately up to 15 mm/year in open-pit mining area and up to 24 mm/year in underground mining areas. The InSAR result are validated by the ground survey data in several areas, and the comparison between the InSAR result with the mining schedule showed there were some correlations between them. The result underline the potential use of InSAR measurements to provide better investigation for land subsidence, and also suggest that the most influential factors for land subsidence is underground coal mine.

  13. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management.

  14. Protective role of Aloe vera against X-ray induced testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bala, S; Chugh, N A; Bansal, S C; Garg, M L; Koul, A

    2017-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the possible radioprotective potential of an Aloe vera extract against whole-body X-ray irradiation-induced testicular alterations in mice. Male balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control, A. vera, X-ray and A. vera pre-treated + X-ray irradiated. Histopathological examination revealed significant structural alterations in testes after X-ray exposure, which was also associated with the presence of apoptotic cells as assessed by TUNEL assay. X-ray irradiation resulted in elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, a reduction in glutathione concentration and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Sperm count/motility and testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the irradiated group. Irradiated animals pre-treated with A. vera extract revealed an improvement in antioxidant status, inhibition of lipid peroxides, apoptotic cell formation and enhanced testicular parameters when compared to the X-ray-exposed group. These findings suggest that A. vera extract could ameliorate X-ray-induced damage due to its free radical scavenging properties and its potential to boost cellular antioxidant defence machinery. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Phenolic constituents, antioxidant and preliminary antimycoplasmic activities of leaf skin and flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    López, Aroa; de Tangil, Miguel Suárez; Vega-Orellana, Orestes; Ramírez, Ana S; Rico, Milagros

    2013-04-26

    The methanol extracts of leaf skins and flowers of Aloe vera from the Canary Islands were analyzed for their phenolic profiles and screened for their antioxidant and antimycoplasmic activities. The use of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) allowed the identification of 18 phenolic constituents. Leaf skin extracts were characterized by the abundance of catechin, sinapic acid and quercitrin. Gentisic acid, epicatechin and quercitrin were the most prominent phenolic compounds of the flowers. The in vitro antioxidant activities determined by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric antioxidant reducing power (FRAP) assays revealed that both extracts exhibited antioxidant activity, being the leaf skin extract the most active fraction. The leaf skin extract was also found to be active against the microbial strains tested. Therefore, A. vera extracts from leaf skin and flowers can be considered as good natural antioxidant sources.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of 16 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electro Spray Ionization Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Qinan; Wu, Chengying; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, efficient analytical method was established for the qualification and quantification of 16 nucleosides and nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ideal separation of 16 target compounds was achieved on Xbridge Amide HILIC column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient elution in 11 min by optimized conditions. Variations of nucleosides and nucleobase in samples from different cultivation regions ranging from 190.50 to 1594.30 μg/g were obvious. The total nucleoside contents were higher than total nucleobases, especially in the compositions of guanosine, cytidine and 2'-deoxyguanosine. Samples 1-18 with dense thorns were better characters than samples 19-26 without thorns in terms of nucleosides and nucleobases concentrations in general. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for 16 analytical substances were investigated to be 0.11-6.33 ng/mL and 0.35-21.1 ng/mL, respectively. And the method was first applied to large aquatic plants with good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. All present information provided a scientific and rational reference for quality assessment and control of Euryale ferox Salisb. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes to Inner Gel of Aloe barbadensis Miller

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Valerie A.; Bradbury, Fiona; Cameron, Pamela; Shakir, Eisin; Rahman, Sabita R.; Stimson, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (or Aloe vera) has widespread use in health products, and despite numerous reports on the whole plant, little work has been performed on the inner gel, which has been used extensively in these products. This report describes the in vitro susceptibilities of two bacteria to this component. PMID:12604556

  18. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.

  19. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ERα Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ERα protein levels, thereby suppressing ERα transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ERα and increased ERα ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ERα dissociation and ERα ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ERα degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ERα degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ERα distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ERα protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

  20. The effect of aloe vera on ischemia--Reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Guven, Mustafa; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Aslan, Esra; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Cosar, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 level and SOD activity were observed in the groups which obtained from the AV and MP groups when compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group. When all results were analysed it was seen that the aloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro susceptibilities of Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes to inner gel of Aloe barbadensis Miller.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Valerie A; Bradbury, Fiona; Cameron, Pamela; Shakir, Eisin; Rahman, Sabita R; Stimson, William H

    2003-03-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (or Aloe vera) has widespread use in health products, and despite numerous reports on the whole plant, little work has been performed on the inner gel, which has been used extensively in these products. This report describes the in vitro susceptibilities of two bacteria to this component.

  2. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Visuthikosol, V; Chowchuen, B; Sukwanarat, Y; Sriurairatana, S; Boonpucknavig, V

    1995-08-01

    In a study of twenty-seven patients with partial thickness burn wound, they were treated with aloe vera gel compared with vaseline gauze. It revealed the aloe vera gel treated lesion healed faster than the vaseline gauze area. The average time of healing in the aloe gel area was 11.89 days and 18.19 days for the vaseline gauze treated wound. Statistical analysis by using t-test and the value of P < 0.002 was statistically significant. In histologic study, it showed early epithelialization in the treated aloe vera gel area. Only some minor adverse effects, such as discomfort and pain were encountered in the 27 cases. This study showed the effectiveness of aloe vera gel on a partial thickness burn wound, and it might be beneficial to do further trials on burn wounds.

  3. Signaling pathway for aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human H460 lung nonsmall carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Feng-Tsgh; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2003-08-10

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects through an unknown mechanism. Our study investigated the mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in the human lung nonsmall cell carcinoma cell line H460. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced apoptosis of H460 cells involves modulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p38 protein expression. The relationship of various signals involved in cell death, such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p38, has been investigated in the regulation of apoptotic cell death of aloe-emodin. We demonstrated that the expression of p38 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin.

  4. Aloe QDM complex enhances specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing in vivo in metabolic disease mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Jiyeon; An, Jinho; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2017-03-01

    We developed spontaneous diet-induced metabolic disease in mice by feeding them a high-fat diet for 23 weeks and administered Aloe QDM complex for 16 weeks to examine its restorative effect on immune disorders and metabolic syndrome. A series of immune functional assays indicated Aloe QDM complex enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and antigen-specific immunity as determined by the restored functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and IgG production. The elevated serum TNF-α level was also regulated by Aloe QDM complex treatment, which suggested its complex therapeutic potential. As for metabolic phenotypes, oral administration of Aloe QDM complex significantly improved diabetic symptoms, including high fasting glucose levels and glucose tolerance, and distinctly alleviated lipid accumulation in adipose and hepatic tissue. The simultaneous restoration of Aloe QDM complex on metabolic syndrome and host immune dysfunction, especially on the specific CTL killing was first elucidated in our study.

  5. Inhibitory activity of Aloe vera gel on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2012-03-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and immune-boosting properties. In the present study we investigated the inhibitory activities of Aloe vera gel on some cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans), periodontopathic (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis) and an opportunistic periodontopathogen (Bacteroides fragilis) isolated from patients with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Twenty isolates of each of these bacteria were investigated for their sensitivity to Aloe vera gel using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. S. mutans was the species most sensitive to Aloe vera gel with a MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, while A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and B. fragilis were less sensitive, with a MIC of 25-50 µg/ml (P < 0.01). Based on our present findings it is concluded that Aloe vera gel at optimum concentration could be used as an antiseptic for prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  6. Analysis of the effect of ionosphere in L-band ALOS interferograms of the Gulf of Corinth in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, P.; Briole, P.; Herekakis, T.; Belehaki, A.

    2009-04-01

    A series of L-band PALSAR/ALOS single (HH) and dual (HH-VV) polarisation data over the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, have been acquired. Differential interferograms were calculated from these data. The Gulf of Coring seismic area is also monitored with 6 permanent GPS receivers. For the epochs of PALSAR observations, we extracted from the dual-frequency GPS data the ionospheric delay in the line of sight of each satellite. At some stations equipped with receivers collecting P1 and P2, the absolute delay can be estimated. At all stations, relative delays from L1 and L2 were extracted from the data. We analyze our results and discuss the possible influence of the ionosphere in the differential interferograms as well as in singles (of dual polarisation) images and its weight compared to the tropospheric noise.

  7. [Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloe species and effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Akira; Takeo, Satoshi

    2003-07-01

    Cinnamoyl, p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, caffeoyl aloesin, and related compounds were isolated from Aloe species. The antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities of these compounds were examined based on the structure-activity relationship. It was suggested that the bioactivities may link to acyl ester groups in aloesin, together with those of aloesin-related compounds. However, investigations using the contact hypersensitivity response indicated a preventive effect of aloesin on the UV-B-induced immune suppression. Furthermore, aloesin inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase and dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) oxidase activities of tyrosinase from normal human melanocyte cell lysates. These results show that aloesin prevents not only UV-B-induced immune suppression, but also could be a positive pigment-altering agent for cosmetic application. In preclinical study, aloe extract was investigated using phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction in adult bronchial asthma, and high molecular-weight materials, such as polysaccharide and glycoprotein fractions, were identified as active ingredients. The neutral polysaccharides, aloemannan and acemannan showed antitumor, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, and glycoprotein fractions with bradykinindegrading and cell proliferation-stimulating activities were identified from the nondialysate fraction of the gel part of Aloe species. Verectin fractionated from Aloe vera gel was examined biochemically and immunochemically, and verectin antibody was used in the appraisal of commercial Aloe vera gel products. It was reported that aloesin stimulates the proliferation of cultured human hepatoma SK-Hep 1 cells. Thus aloesin, related compounds, and high molecular-weight materials, such as aloemannan and verectin, may act in concert to exert therapeutic properties for wounds, burns and inflammation. The biodisposition of fluoresceinylisothiocyanate (FITC)--labeled aloemannan (FITC-AM) with the homogenate from

  8. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. InSAR Monitoring of Landslides using RADARSAT and Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Pierre-Jean, A.; Pavlic, G.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of InSAR monitoring of several landslides using RADARDAT, and ALOS satellites. InSAR techniques are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment. Our research has shown that differential InSAR and coherent target monitoring techniques using field corner reflectors are useful to monitor landslide activity along strategic transportation and energy corridors. The Mackenzie Valley in northern Canada is experiencing one of the highest rates on mean annual air temperature for any region in Canada, thereby triggering melting in the permafrost, which results in active layer detachment slides. There are approximately 2000 landslides along the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline route. In addition, the Trans Canada Highway in the Canadian Rockies are affected by several rock avalanches and slow retrogressive slides. The ALOS PALSAR InSAR results show that we can observe deformation on both vegetated and exposed rock areas on the Little Smokey slide and the Frank Slide. RADARSAT-1 InSAR images indicate the different level of activity of the slopes (large and small) during different periods of the year. RADARSAT-2 is providing the high resolution rapid revisit capabilities needed to continuously monitor these active slopes along Canadian strategic energy and transportation corridors. The information produced by our InSAR activity maps on various landslides are used to realign the pipeline route in sensitive permafrost areas, and to install slope stability measures along the Trans-Canada and Provincial Highways. Using these different satellites we are able to develop guidelines for more reliable uses of these SAR missions Keywords: InSAR, landslides, RADARSAT, ALOS .

  10. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of aloe vera tooth gel and two popular commercial toothpastes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    George, Dilip; Bhat, Sham S; Antony, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) has been suggested for a wide variety of ailments but its use in dentistry is limited. This article reviews the uses of the plant and describes an in vitro investigation that compared the antimicrobial effectiveness of aloe vera tooth gel with two popular, commercially available dentifrices. The preliminary results showed that aloe vera tooth gel and the toothpastes were equally effective against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Aloe vera tooth gel demonstrated enhanced antibacterial effect against S. mitis.

  12. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive oil were mixed with the acetone and then water containing DETA monomer was added to the solution using a magnetic stirrer. Finally, the acetone was removed under vacuum, and nanocapsules were obtained using a freeze drier. This study showed that the size of the nanocapsule depends on a variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil, the concentration of polymers, and the plant extract. The first sample is without surfactant and the size of nanocapsules in the sample is 115 nm. By adding surfactant, nanocapsules size was reduced to 96 nm. Nanocapsules containing A. vera were administered to rats and the effects were compared with a normal control group. The results showed that in the A. vera group, the effect is higher. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential sizer (ZPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  13. Aloe-emodin induces in vitro G2/M arrest and alkaline phosphatase activation in human oral cancer KB cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming; Liu, Donghai; Zhang, Shun

    2007-10-01

    Aloe-emodin is a natural anthraquinone compound from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. In this study, KB cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 microM aloe-emodin for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with aloe-emodin at 10 to 40 microM resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in KB cells increased upon treatment with aloe-emodin when compared to controls. This is one of the first studies to focus on the expression of ALP in human oral carcinomas cells treated with aloe-emodin. These results indicate that aloe-emodin has anti-cancer effect on oral cancer, which may lead to its use in chemotherapy and chemopreventment of oral cancer.

  14. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  15. Phytochemical investigation of Aloe pulcherrima roots and evaluation for its antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Dele; Geleta, Girma; Bacha, Ketema; Abdissa, Negera

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains. Bioassay-guided sequential extraction and column chrom-atographic separation were employed for the isolation of bioactive pure compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectro-scopic techniques. Disk diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds against four bacterial strains specifically (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The malaria SYBR Green I-based in vitro assay technique was used for in vitro antiplasmodial activity evaluation of the compounds against chloroquine resistant (D6) and -sensitive (W2) strains of P. falciparum. Three compounds, chrysophanol, aloesaponarin I and aloesaponarin II were isolated from the acetone extracts of roots of A. pulcherrima. Evaluation of antibacterial activities revealed that aloesaponarin I and aloesaponarin II had significant activities against all the bacterial strains with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 18-27 mm as compared to the reference drug (gentamicin), which displayed inhibition zone diameter ranging between 20 mm (B. subtilis) and 25 mm (P. aeruginosa). The isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against both chloroquine resistant (W2) -sensitive (D6) strains. Isolation of chrysophanol, aloesaponarin I

  16. Phytochemical investigation of Aloe pulcherrima roots and evaluation for its antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdissa, Dele; Geleta, Girma; Abdissa, Negera

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains. Bioassay-guided sequential extraction and column chrom-atographic separation were employed for the isolation of bioactive pure compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectro-scopic techniques. Disk diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds against four bacterial strains specifically (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The malaria SYBR Green I-based in vitro assay technique was used for in vitro antiplasmodial activity evaluation of the compounds against chloroquine resistant (D6) and -sensitive (W2) strains of P. falciparum. Three compounds, chrysophanol, aloesaponarin I and aloesaponarin II were isolated from the acetone extracts of roots of A. pulcherrima. Evaluation of antibacterial activities revealed that aloesaponarin I and aloesaponarin II had significant activities against all the bacterial strains with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 18–27 mm as compared to the reference drug (gentamicin), which displayed inhibition zone diameter ranging between 20 mm (B. subtilis) and 25 mm (P. aeruginosa). The isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against both chloroquine resistant (W2) -sensitive (D6) strains. Isolation of chrysophanol, aloesaponarin

  17. Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra; Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Traditional medicine is a useful guide in medical sciences. In the Islamic Iranian traditional medicine, the medicinal properties of many plants have been mentioned that could be exploited in drug discovery. We aimed to explore the nature and properties of Aloe spp. As described in some major Islamic traditional texts including Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibbe (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure), and assess the conformity of traditional medicine instructions with the findings of modern pharmacological studies. Gastrointestinal activities, hepato-protective properties, beneficial effects against skin problems such as wounds, injuries, and infective diseases are among the most frequently mentioned properties of Aloe spp. Several activities of Aloe spp. described in traditional medicine have been the subject of recent in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. Owing to the positive findings, different preparations of Aloe spp. are now present in pharmaceutical markets such as Aloe cosmetic products. On the other hand, there are many traditional therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. which have not been studied and require confirmatory experimental or clinical investigations. It is hoped that the present study could stimulate further research on the unexplored aspects of the medicinal properties of Aloe spp.

  18. Effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Z; Hsu, S L; Liu, M C; Wu, C H

    2001-11-23

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. The study investigated the effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line CH27. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced CH27 cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation (DNA ladders and sub-G(1) formation). Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 cells involved modulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, such as BclX(L), Bag-1, and Bak, and was associated with the translocation of Bak and Bax from cytosolic to particulate fractions. Aloe-emodin-treated CH27 cells had an increased relative abundance of cytochrome c in the cytosolic fraction. Results demonstrated that the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induces CH27 cell death by the Bax and Fas death pathway.

  19. In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A.

    PubMed

    Wamer, Wayne G; Vath, Peter; Falvey, Daniel E

    2003-01-15

    Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. Since a recent study indicated that topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, we examined the events following photoexcitation of aloin A and aloe emodin. We determined that incubation of human skin fibroblasts with 20 microM aloe emodin for 18 h followed by irradiation with UV or visible light resulted in significant photocytotoxicity. This photocytotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative damage in both cellular DNA and RNA. In contrast, no photocytotoxicity was observed following incubation with up to 500 microM aloin A and irradiation with UVA light. In an attempt to explain the different photobiological properties of aloin A and aloe emodin, laser flash photolysis experiments were performed. We determined that the triplet state of aloe emodin was readily formed following photoexcitation. However, no transient intermediates were formed following photoexcitation of aloin A. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage after irradiation of aloin A is unlikely. Although aloin A was not directly photocytotoxic, we found that human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin.

  20. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1990-05-01

    Full-face dermabrasion provided an ideal opportunity to document the effects of dressings on wound healing management. Following the procedure, the abraded face was divided in half. One side was treated with the standard polyethylene oxide gel wound dressings. The other side was treated with a polyethylene oxide gel dressing saturated with stabilized aloe vera. The polyethylene oxide dressing provided an excellent matrix for the release of aloe vera gel during the initial 5 days of wound healing. By 24-48 hours there was dramatic vasoconstriction and accompanying reduction in edema on the aloe-treated side. By the third to fourth day there was less exudate and crusting at the aloe site, and by the fifth to sixth day the reepithelialization at the aloe site was complete. Overall, wound healing was approximately 72 hours faster at the aloe site. This acceleration in wound healing is important to reduce bacterial contamination, subsequent keloid formation, and/or pigmentary changes. The exact mechanism of acceleration of wound healing by aloe vera is unknown.

  1. Comparative efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine on periodontal health: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Bhashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Background With introduction of many herbal medicines, dentistry has recently evidenced shift of approach for treating many inflammatory oral diseases by using such modalities. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research recently. Aim To compare the efficacy of Aloevera and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on Periodontal Health. Material and Methods Thirty days randomized controlled trial was conducted among 390 dental students. The students were randomized into two intervention groups namely Aloe Vera (AV) chlorhexidine group (CHX) and one control (placebo) group. Plaque index and gingival index was recorded for each participant at baseline, 15 days and 30 days. The findings were than statistically analyzed, ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. Results There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters with Aloe Vera (AV) and chlorhexidine group. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean plaque and gingival index scores of aloe Vera and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between AloeVera and chlorhexidine group. Conclusions Being an herbal product AloeVera has shown equal effectiveness as Chlorhexidine. Hence can be used as an alternative product for curing and preventing gingivitis. Key words:Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, dental plaque, gingivitis. PMID:27703614

  2. Binding of the bioactive component Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Aloe dihydroisocoumarin, one of new components isolated from Aloe vera, can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. An isoemissive point at 414 nm is seen, indicating that the quenching of HSA fluorescence depends on the formation of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin-HSA complex, which is further confirmed by fluorescence dynamic result. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the gain of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil stability and the loss of β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FTIR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydroisocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  3. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Tropical forest mapping and change detection using ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenmei; Feng, Qi; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan

    2011-10-01

    Tropical forests represent a significant carbon store in the global carbon balance. Over recent years, substantial forests have been cut or burned. To investigate the changes of deforestation in tropical forests, ALOS PALSAR 50 m Orthorectified mosaic product (FBD) in Borneo from 2007 to 2009 was used, as SAR data can overcome the shortcoming of optical images. Pixel based unsupervised classification and object-oriented classification methods were applied to choose better method for classification. The comparison showed the object-oriented classification got the better result and its accuracy was higher. In the following step, object-oriented classification method was employed to monitor the changes of deforestation in Borneo during two years. The results indicated the deforestation increased sharply, especially the areas in the coastal and next to non-forest land cover/use. The change law of land cover/use in Borneo is forest to shrub, grassland and bare soil. There are also inverse changes from non-forest to forest by reforestation around settlement and water areas. Overall, forest decreases gradually and non-forest areas increases simultaneously in Borneo. This research indicates clearly that ALOS PALSAR Ortho-rectified FBD product can be used to classify land cover/use and two different time images could be employed in change detection without in situ data.

  5. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent.

  6. First Results of the ALOS PALSAR Verification Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, P.; Monti Guarnieri, A.; D'Aria, D.; Costa, L.; Small, D.; Jehle, M.; Rosich, B.

    2007-03-01

    Among the several applications that will take advantage of the newly available data from the ALOS PALSAR instrument, considerable interest is in the peculiar features that derive from the penetration and polarimetric capabilities of the system. These capabilities, new for a single spaceborne sensor, need specific software tools for the processing of the different acquisition modes. This paper presents a verification processor, developed under ESA contract, for the generation of polarimetric, interferometric and polarimetric-interferometric geocoded products derived from ALOS PALSAR data. The processor, developed with a modular approach, contains the following main elements: - Phase-preserving fine resolution processor; - Phase-preserving ScanSAR processor; - Interference removal tools; - Polarimetric calibration tools; - Polarimetric analysis tools; - Fine resolution interferometric processor; - ScanSAR interferometric processor; - Polarimetric-interferometric processor; - Geocoding; - Atmospheric modelling tools. The processor architecture is presented; highlights are given on specific modules and algorithms. Early results are shown, in particular of the processing of polarimetric and polarimetric-interferometric data over different test sites.

  7. Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Ito, Yousuke; Habara, Noriko; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Takase, Mitunori; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuuichi

    2006-07-01

    The genus Aloe in the family Liliaceae is a group of plants including Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis MILLER) and Aloe arborescens (Aloe arborescens MILLER var. natalensis BERGER) that are empirically known to have various medical efficacies. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel and isolated a number of compounds from the gel. On the basis of spectroscopic data, these compounds were identified as lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene-cycloartanol. These five phytosterols were evaluated for their anti-hyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic BKS.Cg-m(+/+)Lepr(db/J) (db/db) mice. In comparison with the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of vehicle-treated mice, statistically significant decreases of 15 to 18% in HbA1c levels were observed in mice treated with 1 mug of the five phytosterols. Considering the ability to reduce blood glucose in vivo, there were no differences between the five phytosterols. Administration of beta-sitosterol did not reduce the blood glucose levels in db/db mice. After administration of the five phytosterols for 28 d, fasting blood glucose levels decreased to approximately 64%, 28%, 47%, 51%, and 55% of control levels, respectively. Severe diabetic mice treated with phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel did not suffer weight reduction due to glucose loss in the urine. These findings suggest that Aloe vera gel and phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel have a long-term blood glucose level control effect and would be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-05

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans.

  9. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27840496

  10. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27516663

  11. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  12. Quantitative 1H-NMR spectrometry method for quality control of Aloe vera products.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Jia, Qi; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd; Weaver, Stacy; Milligan, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    An 1H-NMR spectrometry method was developed and validated to quantify acetylated polysaccharides, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid in Aloe vera products. Nicotinamide was selected as an internal standard (IS) in this quantification method. The quantity of marker compounds was calculated by the relative ratio of the integrals of each compound to the IS. The method validation included specificity, linearity, accuracy, robustness, reproducibility, LOD, and LOQ on two samples--A. vera inner leaf standard and decolorized aloe whole leaf Standard from the International Aloe Science Council. Eighteen A. vera commercial products were analyzed with this NMR spectrometry method.

  13. Aloe emodin, an anthroquinone from Aloe vera acts as an anti aggregatory agent to the thermally aggregated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Furkan, Mohammad; Alam, Md Tauqir; Rizvi, Asim; Khan, Kashan; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2017-05-15

    Aggregation of proteins is a physiological process which contributes to the pathophysiology of several maladies including diabetes mellitus, Huntington's and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we have reported that aloe emodin (AE), an anthroquinone, which is one of the active components of the Aloe vera plant, acts as an inhibitor of hemoglobin (Hb) aggregation. Hb was thermally aggregated at 60°C for four days as evident by increased thioflavin T and ANS fluorescence, shifted congo red absorbance, appearance of β sheet structure, increase in turbidity and presence of oligomeric aggregates. Increasing concentration of AE partially reverses the aggregation of the model heme protein (hemoglobin). The maximum effect of AE was observed at 100μM followed by saturation at 125μM. The results were confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry, intrinsic fluorescence, ThT, ANS, congo red assay as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were also supported by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which shows the disappearance of β sheet structure and appearance of α helices. This study will serve as baseline for translatory research and the development of AE based therapeutics for diseases attributed to protein aggregation.

  14. Aloe emodin, an anthroquinone from Aloe vera acts as an anti aggregatory agent to the thermally aggregated hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furkan, Mohammad; Alam, Md Tauqir; Rizvi, Asim; Khan, Kashan; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2017-05-01

    Aggregation of proteins is a physiological process which contributes to the pathophysiology of several maladies including diabetes mellitus, Huntington's and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we have reported that aloe emodin (AE), an anthroquinone, which is one of the active components of the Aloe vera plant, acts as an inhibitor of hemoglobin (Hb) aggregation. Hb was thermally aggregated at 60 °C for four days as evident by increased thioflavin T and ANS fluorescence, shifted congo red absorbance, appearance of β sheet structure, increase in turbidity and presence of oligomeric aggregates. Increasing concentration of AE partially reverses the aggregation of the model heme protein (hemoglobin). The maximum effect of AE was observed at 100 μM followed by saturation at 125 μM. The results were confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry, intrinsic fluorescence, ThT, ANS, congo red assay as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were also supported by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which shows the disappearance of β sheet structure and appearance of α helices. This study will serve as baseline for translatory research and the development of AE based therapeutics for diseases attributed to protein aggregation.

  15. Release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus: Involvement in aloe-emodin-induced human lung non small carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Shen-Peng

    2005-03-01

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is one of the active constituents from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. Our previous study has demonstrated that aloe-emodin induced a significant change in the expression of lung cancer cell apoptosis-related proteins compared to those of control cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin still remain unknown. Based on these reasons, we were interested in the change of aloe-emodin-induced total protein expression by the proteomics technique during aloe-emodin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. Our study applied 2D electrophoresis to analyze the proteins involved in aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in H460 cells. We found that the release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus to the cytosol and the degradation of nucleophosmin were associated with aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis. Our study also demonstrated that the gene expression of nucleophosmin remained unchanged after treatment with aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-caused increase in the amount of proform and fragment of nucleophosmin in cytoplasm may be one of the important events for aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis.

  16. Electron spin resonance g tensors for complexes of Ne and Ar with AlO: Theoretical studies related to the large matrix effect observed for AlO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, Friedrich

    2005-03-01

    For Nen-AlO (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10) and Arn-AlO clusters (n=2, 4, 6, 8), the perpendicular (relative to AlO) component of the g tensor was calculated by second-order perturbation theory, using multireference configuration-interaction wave functions. The rare-gas (Rg) atoms were placed axially and/or off axially (one or two rings of four Rg atoms each), and the distance of the Rg atoms from the Al and O atoms, or from the AlO axis, was varied from 4 to 12 bohrs. Rg atoms placed axially mostly increase g⊥, whereas off-axially placed ones lower it below the gas-phase value of AlO. The largest deviations from g⊥ of isolated AlO occur at Ne-Al,O distances of 5-6 bohrs, and Ar-Al,O distances of 6-9 bohrs, with maximal lowerings of about 1600 ppm for Ne and about 2200 ppm (estimated) for Ar in the case of two axial and eight off-axial Rg atoms. Electron spin resonance studies by Knight and Weltner found large matrix effects for AlO, with downshifts of g⊥ observed to be about 450 and 1150 ppm in Ne and Ar matrices, respectively.

  17. Investigation on automatic change detection using pixel-changes and DSM-changes with ALOS-PRISM triplet images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, A.; Baltsavias, E.; Kocaman Aksakal, S.; Wegner, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    A new algorithm for automatic change detection is presented. It detects a pixel-change and DSM-change from two orthoimages and two DSMs, then it extracts the polygons in elevation-changed areas. Pixel-change is detected by using least squares fitting technique. This method can extract the visible changed areas between two orthoimages, while DSM-change is detected by difference DSM. From these two changes, polygons in elevation-changed areas are extracted using the longest matched line selection techniques. This method can automatically detect not only visible changed areas such as vegetated areas, new road construction areas and so on, but also elevation-changed areas such as new building construction, land improvement areas and so on with footprint polygon extraction. We have tested our method using the two sets of ALOS-PRISM triplet images observed over a testfield in Tsukuba, Japan. We confirmed that this method has an effect finding changed areas. Also we compared the number of extracted polygons between manual operation and our automatic method.

  18. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Changes in Serum Electrolytes, Urea, and Creatinine in Aloe Vera-treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saka, WA; Akhigbe, RE; Popoola, OT; Oyekunle, OS

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Aloe vera extract (AvE) on serum electrolytes, urea, and creatinine as indices of renal function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 80 and 130 g were used. Rats were divided into two groups: The control and the test groups (n=6). The test group received 1 ml of AvE daily for 28 days. Both the groups fed on standard rat chow and water ad libitum. The results showed a decrease in serum levels of sodium, and potassium, but an increase in the serum levels of bicarbonate, urea, and creatinine in the test group. The changes seen were, however, statistically insignificant, except for the serum levels of sodium and creatinine (P<0.05). It is thus concluded that AvE impairs renal handling of electrolytes with consequent hyponatremia and hypercreatinemia. However, this might be of therapeutic value in conditions associated with hypernatremia. PMID:22754258

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe vera polysaccharides against chronic alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Ye, Qing; Wang, Heya; Li, Yingchao; Yao, Weirong; Qian, He

    2014-07-01

    Aloe vera polysaccharides are reported to exhibit multiple biological effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and immune enhancement. However, their influence on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the protective effect of extracted A. vera polysaccharides (AVGP) against ALD in a chronic alcohol-feeding mouse model and investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Supplementation of AVGP significantly attenuated the levels of serum aminotransferases, lipids and hepatic TG and ameliorated histopathological alterations in the model of ALD. Interestingly, AVGP markedly up-regulated hepatic expression of lipolytic genes (AMPK-α2 and PPAR-α) but had no effect on lipogenic gene expression. AVGP diminished alcohol-dependent oxidative stress partly through a decrease in MDA and increase in GSH and SOD. Alcohol-induced inflammation was also mitigated by AVGP treatment via significant reduction in LPS and TNF-α, down-regulation of TLR-4 and MyD88 and up-regulation of IκB-α. This study clearly showed that AVGP exerts a potent protective effect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. Its hepatoprotective effect appears to be associated with its antioxidant capacity and its ability to accelerate lipolysis and inhibit inflammatory response. The results indicate that AVGP could be considered as a potent food supplement in the prevention of ALD. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  2. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  3. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  4. Increasing productivity by reducing average length of stay (ALOS) in Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujoy; Basu, Rupali

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of ALOS in the hospital through streamlined processes with validation for standardized work such as clinical pathways. The implementation of barcoding and streamlining laboratories with interface solutions has reduced the cycle time for the diagnostic areas. The long standing cases over seven days provided a trigger for the Medical Board, which helped in multidisciplinary care of these patients. Cohort of patients in respective wards according to discipline for almost 80% of patients have improved nursing and other paramedical services and had a definite impact on ALOS and other outcomes. Finally, the organization had a benefit of nearly USD 0.9 million for a period of nine months during this study. The organization has carried on with the benefits of the ALOS reduction and currently has reduced ALOS to 4.5 days.

  5. [Determination of trace elements in Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Chang-Hai; Liu, Zhao-Pu

    2008-03-01

    The dry leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater were dissolved in nitric acid and then oxygenated by perchloric acid. Nine kinds of trace elements in the samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper and lead, with added lanthanum chloride as releaser to eliminate the interference of co-existent ions. The recoveries were 96.58%-104.31%, and the relative standard deviations of sample determination (10 times) were less than 2%. This method is simple, sensitive and rapid with satisfactory results and good reproducibility. The results indicated that there were rich Ca, Mg, K and Na, and moderate Mn, Zn and Fe elements in the Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater. However, the concentrations of Cu and Pb were low. Therefore, Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater has officinal and economic values. These results provide data for further research on Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the long-lived metastable AlO2+ dication in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Jaidane, Nejm Eddine; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of a detailed theoretical study of the electronic ground and excited states of the gas-phase doubly charged ion AlO2+ using high-level ab initio computer calculations. Both standard and explicitly correlated methods were used to calculate their potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters. These computations show that the ground state of AlO2+ is X2Π. The internuclear equilibrium distance of AlO2+(X2Π) is computed 1.725 Å. We also deduced the adiabatic double ionization and charge stripping energies of AlO to be about 27.45 eV and 17.80 eV, respectively.

  7. An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Popa, E G; Gomes, M E; Cerqueira, M; Marques, A P; Caridade, S G; Teixeira, P; Sousa, C; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-06-01

    A significant number of therapeutics derived from natural polymers and plants have been developed to replace or to be used in conjunction with existing dressing products. The use of the therapeutic properties of aloe vera could be very useful in the creation of active wound dressing materials. The present work was undertaken to examine issues concerning structural features, topography, enzymatic degradation behavior, antibacterial activity and cellular response of chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes that were developed displayed satisfactory degradation, roughness, wettability and mechanical properties. A higher antibacterial potency was displayed by the blended membranes. Moreover, in vitro assays demonstrated that these blended membranes have good cell compatibility with primary human dermal fibroblasts. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes might be promising wound dressing materials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review.

    PubMed

    Eshun, Kojo; He, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of Aloe--"nature's gift." Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of Aloe vera have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of A. vera. Appropriate processing techniques should be employed during the stabilization of the gel in order to affect and extend its field of utilization.

  9. Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-01-01

    The positive influence of Aloe vera, a tropical cactus, on the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic rats is reported. Full-thickness excision/incision wounds were created on the back of rats, and treated either by topical application on the wound surface or by oral administration of the Aloe vera gel to the rat. Wound granulation tissues were removed on various days and the collagen, hexosamine, total protein and DNA contents were determined, in addition to the rates of wound contraction and period of epithelialization. Measurements of tensile strength were made on treated/untreated incision wounds. The results indicated that Aloe vera treatment of wounds in diabetic rats may enhance the process of wound healing by influencing phases such as inflammation, fibroplasia, collagen synthesis and maturation, and wound contraction. These effects may be due to the reported hypoglycemic effects of the aloe gel.

  10. Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel.

    PubMed

    Hamman, Josias H

    2008-08-08

    Many of the health benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. These biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic or antidiabetic effects antiinflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory and gastroprotective properties. While the known biological activities of A. vera will be briefly discussed, it is the aim of this review to further highlight recently discovered effects and applications of the leaf gel. These effects include the potential of whole leaf or inner fillet gel liquid preparations of A. vera to enhance the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of co-administered compounds as well as enhancement of skin permeation. In addition, important pharmaceutical applications such as the use of the dried A. vera gel powder as an excipient in sustained release pharmaceutical dosage forms will be outlined.

  11. Tyrosinase inhibitory components from Aloe vera and their antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Yang, Seo Young; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kwon, Sun Jung; Cho, In Sook; Jeong, Min Hee; Ho Kim, Young; Choi, Gug Seoun

    2017-12-01

    A new compound, 9-dihydroxyl-2'-O-(Z)-cinnamoyl-7-methoxy-aloesin (1), and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from Aloe vera. Their structures were elucidated using 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra. Compound 9 exhibited reversible competitive inhibitory activity against the enzyme tyrosinase, with an IC50 value of 9.8 ± 0.9 µM. A molecular simulation revealed that compound 9 interacts via hydrogen bonding with residues His244, Thr261, and Val283 of tyrosinase. Additionally, compounds 3 and 7 were shown by half-leaf assays to exhibit inhibitory activity towards Pepper mild mottle virus.

  12. Aloe vera-induced acute liver injury: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Parlati, Lucia; Voican, Cosmin Sebastian; Perlemuter, Katy; Perlemuter, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Recent data suggest that herbal and dietary supplements are the second most common cause of liver injury. We herein report a case of acute liver injury in a 68-year old female caused by ingestion of Aloe vera. Upon discontinuation of the oral Aloe vera, liver function tests (LFT) returned to normal levels. Thus, it is crucial to consider the use of herbal products as causative agents of acute liver injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Aloe vera: an in vitro study of effects on corneal wound closure and collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Curto, Elizabeth M; Labelle, Amber; Chandler, Heather L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of an aloe vera solution on (i) the viability and wound healing response of corneal cells and (ii) the ability to alter collagenase and gelatinase activities. Primary cultures of corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts were prepared from grossly normal enucleated canine globes and treated with an aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-2 mg/mL). Cellular viability was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A corneal wound healing model was used to quantify cellular ingrowth across a defect made on the confluent surface. Anticollagenase and antigelatinase activities were evaluated by incubating a bacterial collagenase/gelatinase with aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-500 μg/mL) and comparing outcome measures to a general metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1, 10-phenanthroline, and canine serum (doses ranging from 0.0-100%). None of the concentrations of aloe solution tested significantly affected the viability of corneal epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Concentrations ≤175 μg/mL slightly accelerated corneal epithelial cell wound closure; this change was not significant. Concentrations ≥175 μg/mL significantly (P ≤ 0.001) slowed the rate of corneal fibroblast wound closure, while aloe concentrations <175 μg/mL did not significantly alter fibroblast wound closure. Aloe solution did not alter the ability for collagenase to degrade gelatin or collagen Type I but increased the ability for collagenase to degrade Type IV collagen. Although additional experiments are required, lower concentrations of aloe solution may be beneficial in healing of superficial corneal wounds to help decrease fibrosis and speed epithelialization. An increase in collagenase activity with aloe vera warrants further testing before considering in vivo studies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Li, Shengqing; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2.

  15. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity evaluation of rhein-aloe emodin hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye-Fei; Hu, Xiang-Yu; He, Ying; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2012-02-01

    To improve the anti-tumor effects of rhein and aloe-emodin, a rhein-aloe-emodin hybrid molecule (RH-AE) was synthesized from rhein and aloe-emodin in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). Chemical and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESIMS were used for the structure identification of RH-AE. Using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the in vitro anti-tumor effects were compared between RH-AE, rhein and aloe-emodin on human hepatoma HepG2, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE, human lung cancer NCI-H460, human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3, and human cervical cancer Hela cells. The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RH-AE on HepG2, CNE, NCI-H460, SK-OV-3, and Hela cells were significantly lower than those of rhein and aloe-emodin. This showed that RH-AE has a better in vitro anti-tumor effect than rhein and aloe-emodin.

  16. Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Zamani, Peyman; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2010-01-01

    The management of burn injury remains a problem and it is the major cause of death and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of thermal burn wounds and to compare these results with silver sulfadiazine in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Animals were administered topical cream (Aloe vera powdered gel 0.5% and silver sulfadiazine) at 24 h of burn injury induced by hot water. On special days, according to study protocol, wound size was determined and skin sample histopathology performed in animal groups administered topical therapies. On day 25, the mean wound size was 5.5, 4, 0.78 and 4.1 cm2 in control, base, aloe and silver group, respectively. The wound size was significantly smaller in aloe group as compared with other groups. Histologic comparison showed aloe to increase reepithelialization in burn wounds significantly as compared with other cream-treated wounds. The results of this study showed aloe cream to significantly increase reepithelialization in burn wounds as compared with silver sulfadiazine.

  17. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  18. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2. PMID:22532249

  19. Effects of massage treatment combined with topical cactus and aloe on puerperal milk stasis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shan; Deng, Qingchun; Feng, Chunyu; Pan, Yinglian; Chang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Puerperal milk stasis is one of the most common puerperal complication that directly affects breastfeeding. Massage treatment with topical cactus and aloe for puerperal milk stasis might be a superior treatment, and it does not affect breastfeeding. The intervention group was treated with massages with cactus and aloe cold compresses, and the control group was treated with massage treatment or cactus and aloe cold compresses alone. We evaluated the efficacies of the treatments through comparisons of the feeding patterns, hardness, and pain after treatment between the three groups. We found that breastfeeding rates were significantly increased in the massage combine with combined with cactus and aloe cold compress group (P < 0.05 for both). Breast hardness and pain were reduced to greater extents in massage combine with combined with cactus and aloe cold compress group than in the massage or cold compress group (P < 0.05). Massage treatment with topical cactus and aloe topical effectively improved the pain status, hard lump of puerperal milk stasis and increase breastfeeding rate.

  20. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  1. Aloe-emodin induced DNA damage through generation of reactive oxygen species in human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Lin, Ching-Ju; Yang, Wen-Hui; Leung, Wing-Cheung; Chang, Shen-Pen

    2006-07-28

    The DNA aggregation was found in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis in this study. Aloe-emodin (40microM)-induced DNA single strand breaks were observed by comet assay. Aloe-emodin induced decreases in the mRNA of DNA repair enzymes such as hMTH1, hOGG1 and APE. Although the activity of the radical-scavenging enzyme SOD was enhanced by aloe-emodin, the effects of aloe-emodin on H460 cell apoptosis were suspected to result from the prooxidant. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induced DNA damage through generation of reactive oxygen species in human lung carcinoma cells.

  2. Suppression of C-myc expression associates with anti-proliferation of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junming; Xiao, Bingxiu; Liu, Qiong; Gong, Zhaohui; Le, Yanping

    2008-05-01

    Aloe-emodin is a hydroxyanthraquinone found in Aloe vera, as well as in leaves and roots of other plants. The mechanisms of its anticancer effect are largely unknown. The present study investigated its molecular mechanisms. Crystal violet assay showed that aloe-emodin had a long-term anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells. Scratch wound-healing motility assays indicated its anti-migration effect. Aloe-emodin arrested SGC-7901 cells at G2/M phase. More importantly, aloe-emodin inhibited the expressions of protein kinase C and c-myc. In conclusion, the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells involves suppression of c-myc expression.

  3. From the Cover: Aloin, a Component of the Aloe Vera Plant Leaf, Induces Pathological Changes and Modulates the Composition of Microbiota in the Large Intestines of F344/N Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Olson, Greg R; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Bryant, Matthew S; Felton, Robert P; Beland, Frederick A

    2017-08-01

    In a previous study, the oral administration of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract induced dose-related mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia in the rat colon after 13 weeks and colon cancer after 2 years. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether or not the administration of aloin, a component of the Aloe vera plant leaf, would replicate the pathophysiological effects that were observed in rats in the previous study with an Aloe vera whole leaf extract. Groups of 10 male F344/N rats were administered aloin at 0, 6.95, 13.9, 27.8, 55.7, 111, 223, and 446 mg/kg drinking water for 13 weeks. At the end of study, rat feces were collected, and the composition of fecal bacteria was investigated by next generation sequencing of the PCR-amplified V3/V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. At necropsy, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs and sections of the large intestine were collected for histopathology. Aloin induced dose-related increased incidences and severities of mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia that extended from the cecum to the rectum, with increased incidences and severities detected at aloin doses ≥55.7 mg/kg drinking water. Analysis of the 16S rRNA metagenomics sequencing data revealed marked shifts in the structure of the gut microbiota in aloin-treated rats at each taxonomic rank. This study highlights the similarities in effects observed for aloin and the Aloe vera whole leaf extract, and points to a potential mechanism of action to explain the observed pathological changes via modulation of the gut microbiota composition. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on functional properties and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Aranda, Mario; Henriquez, Karem; Vergara, Judith; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500Mpa) on the functional and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel including vitamin C and E, aloin, minerals, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The results show that HHP exerted a clear influence on minerals content, vitamin C and E content, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and aloin content. After 35days of storage all treated samples presented a decrease in mineral content, except for phosphorus. Total phenolic content and vitamin C and E content decreased at high pressures (500MPa), while all pressurised samples showed a higher antioxidant activity and aloin content than untreated sample after 35days of storage. The maximum values of antioxidant activity and aloin were 6.55±1.26μg/ml at 300MPa and 24.23±2.27mg/100g d.m. at 400MPa.

  5. Structural and biochemical alterations during the healing process of tendons treated with Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Nishan, U; Perez, M O; Rodrigues, R A; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E; Gomes, L; Vidal, B C; Pimentel, E R

    2012-10-29

    The tendon is composed of highly organized collagen fibers that form a complex supramolecular structure. After lesions, the organization and composition of the tendon are not completely restored. Our purpose was to evaluate if the application of Aloe vera improves tendon healing, considering the effectiveness in the stimulus of collagen synthesis. The calcaneal tendon of male Wistar rats was partially transected with subsequent topical application of A. vera ointment at the injury. The animals were separated into groups with tendons treated with the A. vera extract for 7days and excised on the 7th, 14th and 21st days after surgery; control rats received only ointment base without plant extract. Morphological analysis using polarization microscopy showed that the entire tendon undergoes a remodeling process, with disorganized collagen fibers by days 7 and 14 in plant-treated and non-treated groups and with a higher birefringence in tendons of the plant-treated group on the 21st day. A higher concentration of hydroxyproline was found in plant-treated tendons on days 7 and 14 compared with their controls. Western blots showed lower amounts of type I collagen in the plant-treated group on day 14 compared with the control. MMP-9 diminished 14days after lesion and the active isoform of MMP-2 increased on day 21 in plant-treated groups. The present study indicates a beneficial effect of A. vera in the tissue reorganization in the transected region of the tendon 21days after injury and is supported by an increase of active MMP-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders.

  7. Aloe-emodin induced in vitro G2/M arrest of cell cycle in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Hsieh, W T; Chang, W C; Chung, J G

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the chemopreventive role of aloe-emodin in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro by studying the regulation of proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Investigation of the levels of cyclins B1, E and A by immunoblot analysis showed that cyclin E level was unaffected, whereas cyclin B1 and A levels increased with aloe-emodin in HL-60 cells. Investigation of the levels of cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk1 and 2, showed increased levels of Cdk1 but the levels of Cdk2 were not effected with aloe-emodin in HL-60 cells. The levels of p27 were increased after HL-60 cells were cotreated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin. The increase of the levels of p27 may be the major factor for aloe-emodin to cause G2/M arrest in these examined cells. Flow cytometric assays and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis also confirmed aloe-emodin induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The levels of caspase-3 were increased after HL-60 cells were cotreated with 10 microM aloe-emodin for 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Taken together, aloe-emodin therefore appears to exert its anticarcinogenesis properties by inhibiting proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis underwent activation of caspase-3 in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

  8. Anti-leukaemic and anti-mutagenic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Kim, J H; Lim, D S; Kim, C H

    2000-05-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera Linne have been found to exhibit cytotoxicity against human tumour cell lines. This study examines the anti-tumour effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) isolated from Aloe vera Linne, in human and animal cell lines. Its anti-mutagenic effects were examined using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. Growth inhibition was specifically exerted by DEHP against three leukaemic cell lines at concentrations below 100 microg mL(-1). At 100 microg mL(-1) DEHP, K562, HL60 and U937 leukaemic cell lines showed growth inhibition of 95, 97 and 95%, respectively. DEHP exhibited an inhibitory activity of 74, 83 and 81%, respectively, in K562, HL60 and U937 cell lines at a concentration of 10 microg mL(-1). At a concentration of 1 microg mL(-1), DEHP exerted an inhibitory activity of 50, 51 and 52%, respectively, in K562, HL60 and U937. In a normal cell line, MDBK, DEHP exerted 30% growth inhibition at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), and showed no inhibitory activity at concentrations below 50 microg mL(-1). It was found that DEHP exerted anti-mutagenic activity in the Salmonella mutation assay. The number of mutant colonies of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 upon exposure to AF-2 (0.2 microg/plate) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of different DEHP concentrations (decreasing to 90.4, 83.9, 75.4, 69.6 and 46.9%, respectively, for DEHP concentrations of 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 microg/plate). In the case of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, DEHP reduced AF-2-induced mutagenicity at 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 microg/plate to 57.4, 77.5, 80.0, 89.0 and 91.5%, respectively. The isolated compound from Aloe vera Linne, DEHP, was considered to be the active principle responsible for anti-leukaemic and anti-mutagenic effects in-vitro.

  9. UP780, a chromone-enriched aloe composition improves insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Zhao, Jifu; Corneliusen, Brandon; Pantier, Mandee; Brownell, Lidia Alfaro; Jia, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic individuals experience elevated fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and plasma insulin and impaired glucose tolerance. Adiponectin is a hormone inversely correlated with insulin resistance. Here we describe the activity of aloesin, an aloe chromone that increases adiponectin production and, when formulated with an aloe polysaccharide composition, improves the insulin sensitivity in db/db and diet-induced obese-diabetic mice. Two aloe chromones, aloesin and aloesinol, were tested in vitro for adiponectin production. Following confirmation of glucose-lowering activity in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model, aloesin was formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder polysaccharide preparation to yield a composition designated UP780. Efficacy of UP780 was evaluated in HDF-induced and db/db mouse models. GW1929, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist, was used as a positive control. After 3 weeks of treatment of HDF-induced mice, plasma insulin levels were decreased 37.9% and 46.7% by aloesin and aloesinol, respectively. In db/db mice, the chromone- (2% chromone:98% aloe polysaccharide) enriched UP780 aloe composition showed a 33.7% and 46.0% decrease in fasting triglyceride and plasma glucose levels after 10 weeks of oral treatment, respectively. Diabetic mice gavaged with 200 mg/kg of UP780 for 10 weeks showed a 30.3% decrease in fasting blood glucose levels and a 32.2% reduction in plasma insulin. In both animal models, UP780 showed a statistically significant improvement in blood glucose clearance. These findings indicate that UP780, a chromone-standardized, aloe-based composition, could potentially be used as a natural product option to facilitate the maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels.

  10. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    PubMed

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  11. Structural characterization and solution properties of a galacturonate polysaccharide derived from Aloe vera capable of in situ gelation.

    PubMed

    McConaughy, Shawn D; Stroud, Paul A; Boudreaux, Brent; Hester, Roger D; McCormick, Charles L

    2008-02-01

    A series of highly purified galacturonate polysaccharides have been extracted from the Aloe vera plant and analyzed in terms of chemical composition and molecular weight. This Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been found to exist as a high molecular weight species and possess a unique chemical composition, including a high galacturonic acid (GalA) content and low degree of methyl ester substitution. These factors facilitate gel formation upon exposure to low concentrations of calcium ions, leading to potential application in formulations designed for in situ nasal or subcutaneous protein delivery. Thorough examination of classic dilute solution properties, the [eta]-M(w), and R(g)-M(w) relationships, persistence length (L(p)), and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter), indicate an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C(e), was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity (eta(o)) and fluorescence emission of the probe molecule 1,8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS) as a function of polymer concentration. Examination of zeta potential and C(e) as a function of ionic strength indicates that the shift in C(e) from 0.60 to 0.30 wt % is related to an increased occurrence of intermolecular interactions at high salt concentrations. Additionally, dynamic rheology data are presented highlighting the ability of AvP to form gels at low polymer and calcium ion concentrations, exemplifying the technological potential of this polysaccharide for in situ drug delivery.

  12. Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on survivability, extent of proteolysis and ACE inhibition of potential probiotic cultures in fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Basannavar, Santosh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of Aloe vera gel powder on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, extent of proteolysis during fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 during storage of fermented milk was studied. Among the different cultures screened for ACE inhibitory activity, Lactobacillus casei NCDC 19 exhibited the highest ACE inhibition (approx. 40%) as well as extent of proteolysis (0.37, Abs₃₄₀). In the presence of Aloe vera (0.5% and 1% w/v) an increase in extent of proteolysis (0.460 ± 0.047 and 0.480 ± 0.027) and percent ACE inhibitory activity (44.32 ± 2.83 and 47.52 ± 1.83) was observed in comparison to control. Aloe vera powder addition also led to an increase in viable counts (>11 log cfu mL⁻¹) of L. casei NCDC 19 in fermented milk during storage for 7 days and the counts were maintained in sufficiently higher numbers. The study suggests Aloe vera to be a good functional ingredient which can be further explored for different health attributes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. In vivo safety evaluation of UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone aloesin formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Safety profiles of the aloe chromone aloesin or Aloe vera inner leaf fillet (Qmatrix) as a well tolerated entity have been reported separately. UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet, has shown a significant beneficial effect in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin resistance in human. Here we evaluate the safety of UP780 after a repeated 14 and 90-day oral administration in CD-1 mice. UP780 was given at doses of 100mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 1000mg/kg/day to groups of 10 male and 10 female for 90days or administered by oral gavage at a dose of 2g/kg/day to groups of 5 male and 5 female for 14days. Body weight, feed consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathologic evaluation were performed. UP780 at a dose of 1000mg/kg/day or at 2000mg/kg/day produced no treatment-related toxicity or mortality. Body weight gain or feed consumption was similar between groups. There was no test article-related microscopic change. Spontaneously occurring minor changes in clinical chemistry and hematology were observed. However, these changes were limited to one sex or were not dose correlated. UP780 was well tolerated in this strain. A dose of 2000mg/kg/day was identified as the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Landslide Monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR data in Mountain Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Qi, H.; Yu, B.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is a relatively new technique with a high potential in earth observation, which has made great success in monitoring urban areas deformation. At present, although there are a considerable number of applications in the complicated mountain areas, it is hard to obtain sufficiently high-density stable point targets in these regions. So scientists have been trying to solve this bottleneck problem and improve accuracy in mountain areas. In this work, we present the landslide measurement result in complicated topographic region using ALOS/PALSAR data. The test area is selected around highlands of the boundary between China and India. We choose 13 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR images from May 2007 to February 2011. The main landforms in this experimental region are bare rock and soil, ice and snow, the vegetation in the alpine area. Due to the lithology of the strata and the undulations extent of the terrain, it is prone to cause landslides in the event of rainfall, earthquakes, snow melt or human activities. The traditional PS algorithm has a higher requirement for a long time series data collection, especially in low-coherence area of vegetation cover. As the collected data and stable points are relatively less in this experimental area, we plan to study the time series InSAR analysis coherence model and error model, and extend its application to the extra-urban regions. The approach has been carried out to increase the density of stable points, which are mainly distributed on the top of mountain and ridge areas. And using the 13 images we find several subsidence areas by this technique. The result shows that the top of mountain is relatively stable and the suspected landslide areas are mainly along the ridge, which is in accordance with the actual situation. Then the mechanism and stability analysis of landslide is discussed. Meanwhile, some other measurement data in experimental area is available for cross validation, such as optical data and TerraSAR-X data. And a

  15. Ice Velocity Map of Antarctica measured with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice velocity is fundamental characteristic of the dynamics of ice sheet and is essential to know for measuring the mass budget of ice sheet and for controlling ice sheet numerical models with realistic boundary conditions. Until recently, data were mostly available on a discrete basis over small areas with variable precision. Here, we report on our results of processing ice velocity from he interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired by ALOS PALSAR in 2007, 2008 and 2009 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and distributed by NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF). The goal of our project is to produce a new set of Earth Science Data Record (ESDR): high-resolution digital maps of ice velocity of the Antarctic ice sheet. This new ESDR will be based on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from multiple missions. It will be distributed to the scientific community via institutional links already in place at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The EDSR will benefit glaciologists and ice sheet modelers, but also climate modelers interested in how ice sheets are evolving, physical oceanographers studying sea level change and changes in oceanic circulation, solid earth scientists interested in post-glacial rebound, atmospheric scientists interested in surface mass balance in Antarctica. This effort will establish a long-term legacy for quantitative measurements of the dynamics of polar ice sheets. Areas north of 78 degrees south were first covered by RADARSAT-1 during the RAMP campaign. ALOS PALSAR and ENVISAT ASAR were tasked to cover the area in 2007, 2008 and 2009. PALSAR 46-day speckle tracking works well even in areas where C-band sensors lose signal coherence, which helps us to complete a full coverage of Antarctica's coastal regions. One challenge for L-band data is the sensitivity to ionosphere disturbances and another is to lower data noise in vast interior where flow velocities drop to below a few meters per year. We

  16. Detection of glacier lake using ALOS PALSAR data at Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanokuchi, T.; Tadono, T.; Tomiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    The retreat of mountain glaciers and expansion of glacial lakes are the common issue related to global warming and it sometimes causes a sudden flood, which is called as Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). GLOF event occurs frequently in 1960s at Himalayan glaciers. Satellite data is a sophisticated tool for this research because it is difficult to operate frequent field survey due to severe weather condition and hard accessibility. However, the optical sensor equipped on satellite has one serious problem, which is weather condition of target area. It is very difficult to acquire cloud-free data at Himalayan region on a regular schedule. Therefore, it is necessary to find another way to avoid this problem. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one possible way because SAR can observe under all weather condition and SAR image is able to distinguish water surface and other landcovers because water surface is smoother than the other landcovers, especially in the case of L-band wavelength scale. On the other hand, SAR image has geometric and radiometric distortion due to its observation mechanism and topographic feature. Geometric distortion is able to correct by applying systematic orthorectification using DEM data. However, radiometric distortion is still remained. Recently, several radiometric terrain correction (RTC) methods are proposed. This method corrects the radiometric distortion due to local topographic slope. After RTC, radiometric distortion due to topographic relief is suppressed and backscatter brightness of the image after RTC almost depend on landcovers. In this study, we used L-band ALOS/PALSAR (SAR) data after applying RTC, ALOS/AVNIR-2 (Optical Sensor) data and SRTM-3 (DEM) data. PALSAR data is used for detection of glacier lake to set threshold of radar brightness. AVNIR-2 data is used for making glacier mask area because radar brightness of smooth glacier or icecap area is as dark as water surface on the PALSAR image. To avoid this misdetection, we

  17. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  18. Aloe vera herbal dentifrices for plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, K

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of aloe vera containing herbal dentifrices in improving plaque control and gingival health. A manual and electronic literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) search was performed up to July 2012, for randomized controlled trials presenting clinical, microbiological, immunological, and patient-centered data for the efficacy of aloe vera herbal dentifrices for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. From 79 titles and abstracts, eight full-text articles were screened and finally two randomized controlled trials were selected. These randomized controlled trials reported that aloe vera dentifrices were similar in efficacy to control dentifrices in effectively reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients based on the assessment of clinical, microbiological, and patient-centered treatment outcomes. However, many important details (composition and characteristics of aloe vera and control dentifrices along with appropriate randomization, blinding, and outcomes assessed) were lacking in these trials, and therefore, the quality of reporting and methods was generally flawed with high risk of bias. Even though there are some promising results, the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera herbal dentifrices is not sufficiently defined at present and warrants further investigations based on reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun Wook; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Eun-Jeon; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2002-04-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of aloe emodin on hepatic stellate cells activation and proliferation, as these cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Rat hepatic stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes, resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. Primary hepatic stellate cells were exposed to aloe emodin (1-10 microg/ml). Possible cytotoxic effects were measured on stellate cells and hepatocytes using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of aloe emodin on production of type I collagen and smooth muscle cell alpha-actin were examined at the same concentration, by quantitative immunoprecipitation. Antiproliferative effects were examined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Aloe emodin at 10 microg/ml restored the morphological changes characteristic of activated primary stellate cells, reduced DNA synthesis to 95% of control hepatic stellate cells at 10 microg/ml without affecting cell viability, and inhibited type I collagen production and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by 86.77% and 99%, respectively, which suggest that aloe emodin is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation.

  20. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Heidari, A H

    2012-04-01

    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, V.; Ghannadi, A.; Heidari, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects. PMID:23181083

  3. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lack of Prophylactic Effects of Aloe Vera Gel on Radiation Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Kadkhodaei, Behnam; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ansari, Mansour; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Sayed Hasan; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy induced dermatitis is a common and sometimes serious side effect. We conducted a randomized study to understand whether the adjunctive use of aloe vera gel might reduce the prevalence and/or severity of radiotherapy induced dermatitis. Methods: One hundred patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were randomized to receive aloe vera gel or nothing during adjuvant radiotherapy consisting of conventional external beam radiation using 6 MV mega voltage linear accelerator photons. The radiation portals were composed of breast fields in all patients and supraclavicular and posterior axillary fields in node positive cases. The total dose was 50 Gy with a daily fraction of 2 Gy, five fractions per week. Results: Dermatitis was first found among patients of both groups after week 2. In the aloe vera and control groups, 2/8 patients and 5/12 patients had dermatitis grade 1 after weeks 2 (P value = 0.240) and 3 (P value = 0.317). After the 4th week, the numbers were 18 and, 23 fordermatitis grade 1 and only 1 for grade 3 dermatitis (P value = 0.328). After the 5th week, 31, 12 and 2 patients in the aloe vera group and 36, 6 and 5 of the controls had grades 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis, respectively (P value = 0.488). Conclusion: Aloe vera exerted no positive effect on prevalence orseverity of radiation dermatitis in this study. PMID:28547955

  5. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera and Antioxidant along with Physiotherapy in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Hebbale, Manjula; Mhapuskar, Amit; Ul Nisa, Shams; Thopte, Shameeka; Singh, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well-established precancerous condition affecting the oral mucosa. It is a disease that causes significant morbidity (in terms of loss of mouth function as tissues become rigid and mouth opening becomes difficult) and mortality (when transformation into squamous cell carcinoma occurs). The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Aloe vera with antioxidant when given along with physiotherapy in the management of OSMF. Forty patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of OSMF were included for the study after informed consent. Group A included 20 patients who received Aloe vera gel (forever living gel) along with physiotherapy. Group B included 20 patients who received antioxidant capsules twice daily for 3 months along with physiotherapy exercises four times in a day. The following parameters, that is, burning sensation, mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility were recorded at each visit. Majority of the participant enrolled were in the age range of 30 to 35 years. Improvement in all the parameters was seen with the individuals receiving Aloe vera gel in comparison to antioxidants. So, Aloe vera being a soothing, simple and safe mode of treatment along with proper habit restriction can be considered to be an effectual protocol in the management of OSMF. The analgesic effects of Aloe vera with the physiotherapy exercises provide better results in reducing burning sensation and improving mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility in comparison to antioxidants.

  6. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Hidehiko; Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tamai, Ikuko; Yamaji, Sachiyo; Ozaki, Sayaka; Kuzuya, Hiroshi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2006-02-20

    We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi aloe leaf skin juice by ultra filtration) significantly suppressed the elevation of blood sugar as compared to a control group receiving basal diet. In contrast, there was no significant effect with Aloe vera leaf pulp powder. Insulitis emerged at the rate of 87% in the basal diet group. On the contrary, the whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction groups significantly decreased the incidence of insulitis and incidence rates of whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction powder were 51 and 38%, respectively. While insulin levels in the basal diet group averaged at 0.05 ng, more than four times the insulin level was observed in the 10 KDa group relative to the basal diet group. Secondary, the inhibitory effects of test materials on intestinal glucose absorption were observed using the jejunum of rats. A strong inhibitory action on intestinal glucose absorption was observed in the 10 KDa fraction powder group. Thirdly, phenol compounds derived from aloe in the blood serum and organs were quantitatively measured by a HPLC following forced administration of aloe components to rats to determine absorption kinetics of aloe components inside the body. The primary component of aloe phenol compounds is the same component of the 10 KDa

  7. Kinematic Slip Model for 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric; Sladen, Anthony; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Li, Zhenhong; Ryder, Isabelle; Burgmann, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The presentations explores kinematics of the Wenchaun-Beichuan earthquake using data from ALOS, Envisat, and teleseismic recordings. Topics include geomorphic mapping, ALOS PALSAR range offsets, ALOS PALSAR interferometry, Envisat IM interferometry, Envisat ScanSAR, Joint GPS-InSAR inversion, and joint GPS-teleseismic inversion (static and kinematic).

  8. Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Oliveira, M B; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2014-11-04

    Chemical composition and biological properties of Aloe vera (AV), a tropical plant, explain its potential use for cosmetic, nutritional and biomedical applications. AV gel present in AV leaves is rich in several compounds, nutrients and polysaccharides. This work proposes using AV gel complex structure and chemical composition, associated with freeze-drying, to produce sponges. To increase the structures stability in aqueous media, a thin coating of gellan gum (GG), was applied onto AV gel. AV-based sponges showed a heterogeneous porous formation, interconnected pores and good porosity (72-77%). The coating with a GG layer onto AV influenced the stability, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the resulting sponges. Moreover, sponges provided the sustained release of BSA-FTIC, used as a model protein, over 3 weeks. Also, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that sponges are not cytotoxic for a mouse fibroblast-like cell line. Therefore, developed AV-based sponges have potential use in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations on Forestry Applications in Sweden Using ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Maurizio; Fransson, Johan E. S.; Eriksson, Leif E. B.; Magnusson, Mattias; Ulander, Lars M. H.; Olsson, Hakan; Krantz, Anders

    2008-11-01

    An extensive dataset of ALOS PALSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter images is investigated for clear-cut detection and stem volume retrieval in Swedish forest. Data are available for local test sites (Remningstorp and Krycklan) and for the counties of Västerbotten and Västra Götaland. Thanks to the strong forest/non-forest contrast and the temporal consistency of HV-polarized backscatter in summer/fall, a simple thresholding algorithm seems to be sufficient for clear-cut detection (threshold: 3 dB). First results for the period summer 2007/fall 2008 appear promising. The relationship between SAR backscatter and stem volume was investigated for the HH-polarized data in Fine Beam mode. Significant differences occur for frozen and unfrozen environmental conditions. The behaviour is however opposite at the two local test sites. Multi-temporal combination of images acquired under frozen conditions in Remningstorp performed best with RMSE equal to 97 m3/ha (relative RMSE: 29%). In Krycklan the highest accuracy was achieved when six images acquired under unfrozen conditions were combined resulting in a RMSE of 44 m3/ha (relative RMSE: 41%).

  10. [ALOS PALSAR estimation of vegetation biomass in Daxing' anling region].

    PubMed

    Song, Qian; Fan, Wen-Yi

    2011-02-01

    Based on field survey data, the correlations between the ALOS PALSAR L-band HH (L-HH) polarization data and the parameters of forest components in Daxing' anling region were systematically analyzed, and by adopting forest biomass estimation models, including simple linear model, exponential model, and model with terrain factors, optimal inversion was conducted. The results showed that backscattering coefficient had the greatest correlation with total forest biomass, and secondly, with trunk biomass, suggesting that the L-HH data could be used to estimate the total forest aboveground biomass. Among the three models adopted, the model with terrain factors could greatly reduce the biomass estimation error, with the accuracy reached 0.851, and the inversion result coincided best with the actual situation. It was forecasted that under the 41.5 degrees incidence angle L-HH polarization, the vegetation biomass saturation point within the Tahe and Amuer forest bureaus of Daxing' anling was at about 15.4 kg x m(-2).

  11. Processed Aloe vera gel ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-10-24

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer's patch cells. Peyer's patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer's patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer's patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects.

  12. Processed Aloe vera Gel Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer’s patch cells. Peyer’s patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer’s patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer’s patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects. PMID:25347273

  13. Estimation of vegetation fraction in arid areas using ALOS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Hosseiniasl, A.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fraction of vegetation (Fv) plays an important role in ecosystems. Estimation of Fv is essential for drought monitoring, natural resources studies, estimation of soil erosion volume etc. The aim of this study is to estimate Fv in an arid area in Iran using ALOS Imagery (June 2008). In order to find the best index for estimation of Fv, Seventeen vegetation indices (ARVI, DVI, EVI, GEMI, IPVI, MSAVI1, MSAVI2, NDVI, PVI, SAVI, SARVI, SARVI2, SR, TSAVI, WDVI) were used. The canopy cover percentage of 52 sample plots (50m by 50m) was measured in the field in June 2009. Regression models were used to assess the relationships between the field data and the calculated Fv. The 52 sample plots were randomly divided two times to 30 calibrations and 22 validations, and to 35 and 17 samples. Results revealed that selecting the calibration and validation data randomly leads to different results. Therefore, cross-validation method was used to reduce random division effect. Results indicated that, among all indices, vegetation indices such as MSAVI1, PVI, WDVI and TSAVI which are based on soil line have higher R2 and lower RMSE (R2 > 0.63, RMSE ~ 3%). The results confirm the dominant effect of soil reflectance in arid areas.

  14. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  15. Generation of High Resolution Global DSM from ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, J.; Tadono, T.; Tsutsui, K.

    2014-04-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. The sensor consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers for viewing forward, nadir, and backward in 2.5 m ground resolution producing a triplet stereoscopic image along its track. The sensor had observed huge amount of stereo images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. We have semi-automatically processed Digital Surface Model (DSM) data with the image archives in some limited areas. The height accuracy of the dataset was estimated at less than 5 m (rms) from the evaluation with ground control points (GCPs) or reference DSMs derived from the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Then, we decided to process the global DSM datasets from all available archives of PRISM stereo images by the end of March 2016. This paper briefly reports on the latest processing algorithms for the global DSM datasets as well as their preliminary results on some test sites. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed and discussed on various fields by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, as well as the GCPs and the reference airborne LiDAR/DSM.

  16. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  17. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days’ tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content. PMID:26155093

  18. Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chia-Fang; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Ching-Yao; Li, Shih-Wein; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong

    2008-10-01

    In this study, aloe-emodin was identified as a potential interferon (IFN)-inducer by screening compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Aloe-emodin showed low cytotoxicity to human HL-CZ promonocyte cells and TE-671 medulloblastoma cells and significantly activated interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS)-driven cis-reporting systems. Moreover, aloe-emodin upregulated expression of IFN-stimulated genes such as dsRNA-activated protein kinase and 2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthase. Aloe-emodin resulted in significant activation of nitric oxide production. The antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was evaluated using dose- and time-dependent plaque reduction assays in HL-CZ cells and TE-671 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aloe-emodin ranged from 0.50microg/mL to 1.51microg/mL for JEV and from 0.14microg/mL to 0.52microg/mL for EV71. Aloe-emodin showed clearly potent virus inhibitory abilities and achieved high therapeutic indices, in particular for HL-CZ cells. Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses.

  19. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  20. Performance of nickel-based oxygen carrier produced using renewable fuel aloe vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afandi, NF; Devaraj, D.; Manap, A.; Ibrahim, N.

    2017-04-01

    Consuming and burning of fuel mainly fossil fuel has gradually increased in this upcoming era due to high-energy demand and causes the global warming. One of the most effective ways to reduce the greenhouse gases is by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) during the combustion process. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most effective methods to capture the CO2 without the need of an energy intensive air separation unit. This method uses oxygen carrier to provide O2 that can react with fuel to form CO2 and H2O. This research focuses on synthesizing NiO/NiAl2O4 as an oxygen carrier due to its properties that can withstand high temperature during CLC application. The NiO/NiAl2O4 powder was synthesized using solution combustion method with plant extract renewable fuel, aloe vera as the fuel. In order to optimize the performance of the particles that can be used in CLC application, various calcination temperatures were varied at 600°C, 800°C, 1050°C and 1300°C. The phase and morphology of obtained powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Microscopy (FESEM) respectively together with the powder elements. In CLC application, high reactivity can be achieved by using smaller particle size of oxygen carrier. This research succeeded in producing nano-structured powder with high crystalline structure at temperature 1050°C which is suitable to be used in CLC application.

  1. Comparison and Evaluation of Ship Detection and Identification Algorithms Using Small Boats and ALOS-PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-In; Wang, Haipeng; Ouchi, Kazuo

    The final goal of the present project is to develop a ship detection and identification system by integrating spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground-based maritime radar and automatic identification system (AIS); and this article presents the results of the first phase experiments and current status toward achieving this goal. The data acquired by the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) on board of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) were used as SAR data, and X-band maritime radar including AIS were used as a ground-based system. The work is divided into two experimental phases. The first phase is to examine the ability of PALSAR to detect ships whose sizes are comparable with the SAR resolution cells, and the second is to incorporate the PALSAR data with those acquired by the ground-based radar with AIS. For the experiments in the first phase, we deployed three small fishing boats whose lengths ranged from approximately 8 m to 15m in the Tosa Bay in Kochi, Japan in 2006. The experiments were carried out for four observation PALSAR modes: FBS (Fine Beam Single) 34.3, FBS 21.5, FBD (Fine Beam Double) 41.5, and PLR (PoLaRimetric) 20.5, where the numbers in each modes represent the off-nadir angles. For extracting the boats from the PALSAR images, five algorithms were considered, including amplitude-based, CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate), MLCC (Multi-Look Cross-Correlation), CCF (Cross-Correlation Function) of HH- and HV-polarization amplitudes, and polarimetric analyses. This paper summarizes the results of the first phase experiments; the summary of the integrated system in the second phase will be reported in the near future.

  2. Screening for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis in ten plants used as mosquito repellent in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, adverse effects to human health, non-target organisms and the environment, there is an urgent need to develop new insecticides, which are effective, safe, biodegrable and target-specific. This study was undertaken to evaluate the adulticidal activity of 10 plants used traditionally as mosquito repellents in South Africa. Methods The dried plant materials were extracted with dich