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Sample records for extract aloe ferox

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  2. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill

    PubMed Central

    Wintola, Olubunmi Abosebe; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33), flavonols (35.2), proanthocyanidins (171.06) and alkaloids (60.9) were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05) in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPH* and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study showed high

  3. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD.

  4. Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot.

    PubMed

    Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot.

  5. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action.

  6. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale ferox seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2002-05-31

    Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.

  7. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Aloe

    MedlinePlus

    ... the aloe plant. It is used in many skin care products. Aloe poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... Diarrhea Loss of vision Rash Severe abdominal pain Skin irritation Throat swelling (which may also cause breathing difficulty) Vomiting

  9. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats.

  10. Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Study the Genetic Diversity of Eight Aloe Species.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Shahira M; El Sayed, Abeer M; Salama, Maha M

    2016-10-01

    The genus Aloe comprises over 400 species of flowering succulent plants. Aloe leaves are used in the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal ulcers, cardiovascular disease, tumors, burns, and diabetes. They are rich in anthraquinones, such as aloin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, aloinoside A, and aloinoside B. The various species of Aloe show chemical and morphological similarity and diversity, which depend on the genotype and environmental conditions. In a continuity to our interest in the genus Aloe, this study targets the authentication of eight different Aloe species, Aloe vera (A1), Aloe arborescens (A2), Aloe eru (A3), Aloe grandidentata (A4), Aloe perfoliata (A5), Aloe brevifolia (A6), Aloe saponaria (A7), and Aloe ferox (A8), grown in Egypt by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA. Twelve decamer primers were screened in amplification with genomic DNA extracted from all species, of which five primers yielded species-specific reproducible bands. Out of 156 loci detected, the polymorphic, monomorphic, and unique loci were 107, 26, and 23, respectively. Based on a dendrogram and similarity matrix, the eight Aloe species were differentiated from each other and showed more divergence. Aloe species prevailed similarity coefficients of 54-70 % by which they could be classified into three major groups. Thus, this technique may contribute to the identification of these Aloe species that have great morphological similarity in the Egyptian local markets.

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of triterpenoid-rich extracts from Euryale ferox shell on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaibo; Meng, Shaohua; Wang, Guoze; Gong, Zhaobin; Sun, Wenkai; He, Guoqing

    2014-07-01

    The antioxidant effects of the triterpenoid-rich extracts from Euryale ferox shell (ES) have been confirmed in vitro. This study examined whether the triterpenoid-rich extract from ES eases human hyperglycemia and diabetes caused by metabolic disorders. Normal and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were used as controls for the four groups that received the triterpenoid-rich extracts of ES suspended in distilled water orally at doses of 200, 300, 400, 500±2 mg/L. Body weight, blood glucose and pancreatic tissue morphology were observed after 4 weeks. The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) proteins, which are related to the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo, were also investigated. Compared with the model group (LD50 900±2 mg/L), it was found that the triterpenoid-rich extracts of ES could regulate glucose metabolism (P<0.01) and cause body weight to return to normal levels (P<0.05). Islet morphology recovered well, the expression of the negative regulation protein PTP1B gene was reduced and insulin receptor IRS-1 protein expression was increased. These data prove that the triterpenoid-rich extracts from ES have a therapeutic effect on diabetes by insulin resistance.

  12. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  13. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-04-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent.

  14. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B; Avila, G; Segura, D; Escalante, B

    1996-12-01

    We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind-paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The antiinflammatory agents indomethacin and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type delta 5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have antiinflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.

  15. Identification and discrimination of three common Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Ya Nan; Lee, Min Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-09-15

    Aloe arborescens, Aloe barbadensis and Aloe ferox are the most widely cultivated and used among 500 aloe species due to their potent bioactivity. However, the difference of aloe species is neglected and labeled only one name Aloe in the market without specifying aloe species discrimination in general. Furthermore, differences in bioactivity and side effects from different aloe species have not been well investigated. This study develops an effective method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of three common aloe species using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the three aloe species. The developed HPLC-MS/MS method coupled with multivariate analysis can be applied to discriminate three aloe species successfully.

  16. Extraction optimization, isolation, preliminary structural characterization and antioxidant activities of the cell wall polysaccharides in the petioles and pedicels of Chinese herbal medicine Qian (Euryale ferox Salisb.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Wang, Xinsheng; Wang, Hong; Shen, Bei; He, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2014-03-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides in the petioles and pedicels of Qian (Euryale ferox Salisb.) (EFPP) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted technique. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize extraction parameters for the maximum purity of polysaccharides. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 32 min, ultrasonic power of 270W and liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 mL/g. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental purity of polysaccharides was 62.57% ± 1.68%, which was very close to the predicted. The crude EFPP were isolated using DEAE-52 column and four major fractions (EFPP-1, EFPP-2, EFPP-3 and EFPP-4) were obtained. Typical functional groups of polysaccharides were characteristic for EFPP-1, EFPP-3 and EFPP-4 from FT-IR spectrum. Furthermore, the crude EFPP and three fractions (EFPP-1, EFPP-3 and EFPP-4) possessed appreciable in vitro antioxidant effects on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing powers. Then, the crude EFPP and EFPP-4 could effective against H2O2-induced injury on HUVEC and VSMC through enhancement of T-AOC, SOD and CAT activities and decrease of MDA content.

  17. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  18. A biochemical and cellular approach to explore the antiproliferative and prodifferentiative activity of Aloe arborescens leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Manzo, Nicola; Vivo, Maria; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Crescenzi, Elvira; Pollice, Alessandra; Tudisco, Raffaella; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Viola

    2013-12-01

    Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Liliaceae family), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. Although less characterized than the commonest Aloe vera, Aloe arborescens is known to be richer in beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. It is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. However, very few studies have addressed the biological effects of Aloe at molecular level. The aim of the research is to provide evidences for the antiproliferative properties of Aloe arborescens crude leaf extract using an integrated proteomic and cellular biological approach. We analysed the composition of an Aloe arborescens leaf extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We found it rich in Aloe-emodin, a hydroxylanthraquinone with known antitumoral activity and in several compounds with anti-oxidant properties. Accordingly, we show that the Aloe extract has antiproliferative effects on several human transformed cell lines and exhibits prodifferentiative effects on both primary and immortalized human keratinocyte. Proteomic analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the presence of proteins with a strong antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity specifically induced in human keratinocytes by Aloe treatment supporting its application as a therapeutical agent.

  19. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study.

  20. Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Sivagnanam, Karuran; Subramanian, Sorimuthu

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of antioxidant property in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg to diabetic rats significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and increased hemoglobin. The increased levels of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxides in tissues of diabetic rats were reverted back to near normal levels after the treatment with gel extract. The extract treatment also resulted in a significant increase in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. These results clearly show the antioxidant property of Aloe vera gel extract. The extract was also more effective than glibenclamide in restoring the values of these parameters.

  1. An aqueous extract of the marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox stimulates L-type Ca2+-current by direct interaction with the Cav1.2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Christ, Torsten; Wüst, Melinda; Matthes, Jan; Jänchen, Michael; Jürgens, Susanne; Herzig, Stefan; Wettwer, Erich; Dobrev, Dobromir; Matschke, Klaus; Mebs, Dietrich; Ravens, Ursula

    2004-12-01

    Marine organisms have attracted much attention as a source of pharmacological tools or potential drugs. We have produced and screened a library of sponge extracts in search of biologically active compounds that may contain useful pharmaceutical lead structures. Sponges were collected from various locations and their aqueous extracts were freeze dried. Murine right and left atria were used to screen 75 extracts for putative cardiac effects. Among seven extracts with a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect the extract C47 from Ectyoplasia ferox proved to be the most active and was chosen for further analysis. C47 also produced a beta-adrenoceptor-independent, propranolol-resistant positive inotropic effect in human atrial trabeculae. To elucidate one possible mode of action the effects of C47 on L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) were measured with a standard patch-clamp technique. In isolated human atrial myocytes exposure to C47 increased peak amplitude of I(Ca,L) in a concentration-dependent manner. The threshold concentration was 15 microg/ml. In addition, voltage dependency of activation and steady-state inactivation were shifted to more negative potentials. C47 slowed the initial phase of time-dependent current inactivation and the recovery from inactivation. In cell-attached patches of HEK 293 cells expressing human Ca(v)1.2 addition of C47 to the bath solution did not affect gating properties, whereas inclusion of the extract into the pipette solution strongly increased single-channel activity, suggesting a direct effect on the pore-forming channel subunit. Despite its robust effect on I(Ca,L) C47 enhanced cardiac force of contraction by only a fraction of the maximum increase caused by high extracellular concentrations of Ca(2+) and failed to increase vascular tone. These findings suggest that the effect of C47 is restricted to the Ca(2+) channel.

  2. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and identification of three phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xin Sheng; Shen, Bei; Yue, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2013-09-09

    This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney), GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  3. Antifungal effects of different plant extracts and their major components of selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Shalaby, N M; Elgamal, M H; Mousa, A S

    1999-08-01

    Different extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of Aloe eru A. Berger, A. vera L. Webb & Berth and A. arborescens Mill. were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium moniliforme. The toxicity of the isolated pure components were evaluated on the tested fungi. A comparative chromatographic study was performed to differentiate between natural components existing in various fractions and extracts of Aloe species and specific spray reagents were used for the detection of anthraquinones in the isolated components.

  4. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  5. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  6. Acute inflammation and hematological response in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, G; Ledic-Neto, J; Gonçalves, E L T; Brum, A; Maraschin, M; Martins, M L

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia supplemented with the mixture of natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (1:1) at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in diet during 15 days. Thirty-six fish were distributed into four treatments with three replicates: fish supplemented with 0.5% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 1% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 2% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1), injected with 500 µg carrageenin and unsupplemented fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin. Six hours after injection, samples of blood and exudate from the swim bladder of fish were collected. It was observed an increase in the leukocyte count in the swim bladder exudate of fish supplemented with extracts of propolis and Aloe injected with carrageenin. The most frequent cells were macrophages followed by granular leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. Supplementation with propolis and Aloe to 0.5% caused a significant increase in the number of cells on the inflammatory focus mainly macrophages, cells responsible for the phagocytic activity in tissues, agent of innate fish immune response.

  7. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

  8. Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora leaf extract against Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kaingu, Fredrick; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Lele; Tao, Jianping; Waihenya, Rebecca; Kutima, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora crude leaf extract was tested in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria tenella. Sixty 22-day-old birds were divided into six groups of ten birds each. Three treatment groups A, B, and C were fed with the extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/day, respectively) mixed in feed for 10 days, and three control groups: group D (drug control) administered 300 mg/l of sulfachloropyrazine sodium soluble powder in drinking water for 5 days, group E (infected/non-medicated positive control), and group F (uninfected/non-medicated negative control). Except for group F, all groups were orally inoculated with 75,000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The effects of the extract on E. tenella infection were evaluated by severity of bloody diarrhea, body weight (BW) gain, oocyst output, and lesion score. No bird in the treated groups died of coccidiosis, and severity of bloody diarrhea was milder than in the positive control group. BW gains in the treated groups were significantly higher than in group E (p < 0.05). The lesion scores of the treated groups were significantly lower than that of group E. Oocyst output in groups A, B, and C were 11.23, 8.24, and 6.82 × 10(6), respectively. As compared with the negative control group (12.84 × 10(6)), the reductions in oocyst production were 12.54, 35.83, and 46.88%, respectively. Oocyst output significantly reduced with an increase in Aloe dosage. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe secundiflora extract presents an alternative anticoccidial agent for the control of avian coccidiosis.

  9. Effect of aloe vera leaf gel extract on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in rats with streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sriram, N; Arulselvan, P; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to promote deterioration of membrane function and impair intra cellular metabolism in the organism. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats treated with STZ showed significant alterations in the activities of membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days significantly restored the alterations in enzymes activity to near normalcy. These results were compared with glibenclamide, a reference drug. Thus, the present study confirms that Aloe vera gel extract possesses a significant beneficial effect on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases.

  10. Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on oxidative stress in rats treated with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Subramanian, S

    2005-02-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying diabetes and diabetic-related complications. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging systems. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in the plasma and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as a standard reference drug. Oral administration of ethanolic extract at a concentration of 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and alpha-tocopherol and significant improvement in ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and insulin in the plasma of diabetic rats. Similarly, the treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and significant improvement in reduced glutathione in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract appeared to be more effective than glibenclamide in controlling oxidative stress. Thus, this study confirms the ethnopharmacological use of Aloe vera in ameliorating the oxidative stress found in diabetes.

  11. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  12. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  13. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  14. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  15. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  16. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p < 0.05). Tibial length was significantly increased in the high dose aqueous extract group (15-26%). The differences in growth could not be attributed to circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 as the levels were not significantly different. The caecum was significantly enlarged in the rats that received the high doses of both extracts. Although, there was no significant difference in the non-fasting plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides, the hepatic lipid and glycogen content were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the high dose aqueous extract group. The plasma alanine transaminase was not affected by the treatments, however the high doses of the extracts significantly increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Short term administration of Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  17. Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yolanda Y; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Tortoriello, Jaime; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a widespread pathology associated with the metabolic syndrome, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension. Finding an adequate treatment for this pathology is an important goal in medicine. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of an extract from Aloe vera gel containing a high concentration of polyphenols on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. A polyphenol-rich Aloe vera extract (350 mg/kg) with known concentrations of aloin (181.7 mg/g) and aloe-emodin (3.6 mg/g) was administered orally for a period of 4 weeks to insulin resistant ICR mice. Pioglitazone (50 mg/kg) and bi-distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Body weight, food intake, and plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The insulin resistance value was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Results showed that the polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera was able to decrease significantly both body weight (p < 0.008) and blood glucose levels (p < 0.005) and to protect animals against unfavorable results on HOMA-IR, which was observed in the negative control group. The highest glucose levels during the insulin tolerance curve test were in the negative control group when compared to the Aloe vera extract and pioglitazone treated mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Aloe vera gel could be effective for the control of insulin resistance.

  18. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two Aloe greatheadii var. davyana extracts.

    PubMed

    Botes, Lisa; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Loots, Du Toit

    2008-09-12

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae) is used among rural South African communities to treat arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure and diabetes, despite very little supporting scientific evidence. Due to increased interest by both the scientific community and industry regarding the medicinal uses of this plant species, we identified, quantified and compared the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two extracts of A. greatheadii; a leaf gel extract (LGE) and a 95 % aqueous ethanol leaf gel extract (ELGE), using various modified extraction procedures, GC-MS and spectrophotometry. Apart from extensively characterizing this medicinal plant with regards to its organic acid, polyphenols/phenolic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, alkane, pyrimidine, indole, alkaloid, phytosterol, fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid contents and antioxidant capacities, we describe a modified extraction procedure for the purpose of general phytochemical characterization, and compare this to a 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction technique. From the results it is clear that A. greatheadii contains a variety of compounds with confirmed antioxidant capacity and other putative health benefits (such as blood glucose, cholesterol and cortisol lowering properties) relating to the prevention or treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypertension. The results also indicate that separate ethyl acetate/diethyl ether and hexane extractions of the LGE, better serve for general phytochemical characterization purposes, and 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction for concentrating selective groups of health related compounds, hence justifying its use for biological in vivo efficacy studies.

  19. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  20. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-01-01

    The skin, being a cell-renewal system, is one of the first organs to be affected in total-body irradiation during radiotherapy. An attempt has been made in the present study to explore radiation-induced biochemical alterations caused by whole-body gamma irradiation and their modulation in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera leaf extract (AVE). Mice were selected for this study from an inbreed colony and divided into four different groups: I (double-distilled water-treated group): considered as normal; II (Aloe vera-treated group): the animals were administered 1 g/kg body-wt/day Aloe vera leaf extract; III (radiation-treated group): the animals were exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min; and IV (combination group): animals were administered Aloe vera leaf extract continuously for 15 consecutive days, and on the 15th day they were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma radiation after 30 minutes of extract administration. The animals from the above groups were autopsied after 6 hours, 24 hours, and at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of radiation. Biochemical estimations of DNA, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide-dismutase were made. Total DNA, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the skin, and glutathione (GSH) in the liver and blood significantly decreased compared to normal, but lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver and blood increased in the irradiated control group. In contrast, in experimental animals, DNA, catalase, and SOD in the skin and GSH in the liver and blood increased significantly, whereas LPO in the liver and blood decreased in comparison to irradiated control animals. Thus, Aloe vera leaf extract is found to have damage-resistant properties against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

  1. Antibacterial activities of crude extract of Aloe barbadensis to clinically isolated bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ruchi; Mishra, Avinash

    2010-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of Aloe barbadensis was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens i.e. Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae causing infection in human being. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were used for the antibacterial effect, which was measured by the appearance of zone of inhibition. Relatively higher MIC concentrations were obtained for gram negative bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with ethanol extract; however, no inhibitory effect was noted for aqueous extract. Ethanolic extract possesses great inhibitory activity for gram positive bacteria, E. bovis followed by S. aureus. Among gram negative bacteria, highest inhibitory effect was observed with P. aeruginosa, followed by M. morganii, P. mirabilis, and P. vulgaris, which was significant (p < 0.01) than E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antimicrobial activity tests of crude extract of A. barbadensis were carried out to validate the use of traditional medicinal herbal and results of this study tend to give credence to the common use of A. barbadensis gel and leaf.

  2. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera extract into natural Tragacanth Gum as a novel green wound healing product.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-12-01

    Application of natural materials in wound healing is an interest topic due to effective treatment with no side effects. In this paper, Aloe Vera extract was encapsulated into Tragacanth Gum through a sonochemical microemulsion process to prepare a wound healing product. FESEM/EDX and FT-IR proved the successfully formation of the nanocapsules with spherical shape by cross-linking aluminum ions with Tragacanth Gum. The therapeutic characteristics of the prepared wound healing product were investigated using antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and wound healing assays. Relative high antimicrobial activities with the microbial reduction of 84, 91 and 80% against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, a cell viability of 98% against human fibroblast cells and a good wound healing activity with considerable migration rate of fibroblast cells are the important advantages of the new formed wound healing product.

  3. Acute effect of Aloe vera gel extract on experimental models of pain.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Naveen; Mehta, Ashish K; Sharma, Amit K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    The present study was performed to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on behavioural parameters of pain. Pain assessment was performed by the tail-flick and formalin tests. A. vera (100 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.)) produced an insignificant decrease in the pain response in the tail-flick and formalin tests. Moreover, A. vera (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not have significant effect on the tail-flick test. However, A. vera (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased the second phase of the formalin-induced pain. Thus, these findings suggest that A. vera exerts its effect by a peripheral mechanism of action rather than central.

  4. Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshanakrishna, K R; Chandramohan, G; Ilaiyaraja, N; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, A S

    2010-08-01

    The present work was undertaken with a view to study the effect of oral feeding of 2% Aloe vera gel extract (AGE) for 30 days on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced oxidative stress in rats. It was observed that AOM administration resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, with reduction in hepatic glutathione (GSH), vitamin A and uric acid contents. AOM-induced reduction in hepatic GSH and uric acid was brought back to normal by AGE. There was a significant raise in hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities as a result of feeding of the extract. Ingestion of the extract effected reduction in AOM-induced colonic GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PD and glutathione S-transferase and femur bone marrow micronuclei formation. Hence, it is suggested that Aloe vera gel extract possess the ability to reduce AOM- induced oxidative stress and toxicity in liver.

  5. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  6. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples.

  7. Meeting report: First National Meeting on Aloe, April 20-21, 2013, Isernia, Italy. New perspectives in Aloe research: from basic science to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Laudato, Massimiliano; Borrelli, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Aloe preparations have maintaining their popularity over the of course time. Aloe latex is used for its laxative effects; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments and internally for variety of disturbances; aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer.

  8. Shape- and Size-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Plant Extract and Their Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Logaranjan, Kaliyaperumal; Raiza, Anasdass Jaculin; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Pandian, Kannaiyan

    2016-12-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was performed at room temperature using Aloe vera plant extract in the presence of ammoniacal silver nitrate as a metal salt precursor. The formation of AgNP was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at different time intervals. The shape and size of the synthesized particle were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and further supported by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/Raman scattering (SERS) study. UV-visible spectrum has shown a sharp peak at 420 nm and further evidenced by FTIR peak profile (at 1587.6, 1386.4, and 1076 cm(-1) with corresponding compounds). The main band position with SERS was noticed at 1594 cm(-1) (C-C stretching vibration). When samples were heated under microwave radiation, AgNP with octahedron shapes with 5-50 nm were found and this method can be one of the easier ways to synthesis anisotropic AgNP, in which the plant extract plays a vital role to regulate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Enhanced antibacterial effects (two- to fourfold) were observed in the case of Aloe vera plant protected AgNP than the routinely synthesized antibiotic drugs. Shape and size-controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract.

  9. Antifungal Effect of Malaysian Aloe vera Leaf Extract on Selected Fungal Species of Pathogenic Otomycosis Species in In Vitro Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Saniasiaya, Jeyasakthy; Salim, Rosdan; Mohamad, Irfan; Harun, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Methods This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract (50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL) using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans. The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined. Conclusions The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger (p < 0.001). Malaysian Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger. PMID:28042402

  10. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  11. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Phromviyo, Nutthakritta; Boueroy, Parichart; Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV) with antibacterial activity. Methods AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. Results The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 oC for 6 h and 200 oC for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively utilized in

  13. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:28216559

  14. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-02-14

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  15. Shape- and Size-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Plant Extract and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logaranjan, Kaliyaperumal; Raiza, Anasdass Jaculin; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Pandian, Kannaiyan

    2016-11-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was performed at room temperature using Aloe vera plant extract in the presence of ammoniacal silver nitrate as a metal salt precursor. The formation of AgNP was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at different time intervals. The shape and size of the synthesized particle were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and further supported by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/Raman scattering (SERS) study. UV-visible spectrum has shown a sharp peak at 420 nm and further evidenced by FTIR peak profile (at 1587.6, 1386.4, and 1076 cm-1 with corresponding compounds). The main band position with SERS was noticed at 1594 cm-1 (C-C stretching vibration). When samples were heated under microwave radiation, AgNP with octahedron shapes with 5-50 nm were found and this method can be one of the easier ways to synthesis anisotropic AgNP, in which the plant extract plays a vital role to regulate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Enhanced antibacterial effects (two- to fourfold) were observed in the case of Aloe vera plant protected AgNP than the routinely synthesized antibiotic drugs.

  16. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output. PMID:25050311

  17. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD.

  18. Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol.

  19. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. Objective: The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. Results: While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. Conclusions: This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux. PMID:24143044

  20. Aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Thomas, Chunpen; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(C5H8O2)3) and aloe vera plant-extracted solution. The influences of different reaction temperatures and times on the structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline and have particle sizes of ˜6-30 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the inverse cubic spinel structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. The hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature show superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 samples increases with increasing reaction temperature and time.

  1. Aloe vera

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  2. In vitro drug permeation enhancement potential of aloe gel materials.

    PubMed

    Lebitsa, Tebogo; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lu, Zhilei; Hamman, Josias

    2012-05-01

    Aloe vera gel previously showed the ability to increase the bioavailability of vitamins and to enhance the in vitro transport of a macromolecular drug across intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of other species of aloe to act as drug absorption enhancement agents. The effect of gel materials from three South African aloes; Aloe ferox, A. marlothii and A. speciosa on the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability of atenolol across excised intestinal tissue of the rat as well as the transport of FITC-dextran across Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The aloe gel materials exhibited the ability to statistically significantly reduce the transepithelial electrical resistance of excised rat intestinal tissue but did not significantly increase the transport of atenolol across this in vitro tissue model at the concentrations tested. At least one concentration of each aloe gel material enhanced the transport of FITC-dextran statistically significantly across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The aloe gel materials showed potential to act as drug absorption enhancing agents across intestinal epithelia. The absorption enhancement effect was dependent on the type of in vitro model and type of drug was investigated.

  3. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties.

  4. Liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera leaf gel extract significantly enhance proliferation and collagen synthesis in human skin cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Kitamoto, Dai; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vela leaf gel extract (AGE) are widely used as cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients because of its versatile skin care properties. In order to enhance the bioavailability of AGE, liposomes encapsulating AGE were prepared and examined for their interfacial and biochemical properties. The liposomes prepared from a soybean lecithin (SLP-WHITE, 1.0 wt%) by the Bangham method gave relatively a good trapping efficiency up to the AGE concentration of 0.5 wt%. The stable liposomes were then prepared from 1.0 wt% of SLP-WHITE and different concentrations of AGE by the mechanochemical method using a homogenizer and microfluidizer. The liposomes obtained from 0.25 wt% of AGE were confirmed to be small unilamellar vesicles with a diameter of less than 200 nm, and remained well dispersed for at least two weeks. The obtained liposomes encapsulating AGE were further examined for the effects on proliferation and type I collagen synthesis in normal human neonatal skin fibroblasts, NB1RGB cells. Liposomal AGE clearly showed higher proliferation rate than that of AGE alone. In addition, compared to the control, liposomal AGE significantly increased the collagen synthesis by 23%, while AGE alone showed a small effect. Liposomal AGE was also assayed for the effect on proliferation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, NHEK(F) cells. Interestingly, liposomal AGE fractions containing 4 and 20 microg/mL of the extract considerably increased the proliferation rate by 77% and 101%, respectively. In contrast, AGE alone fractions containing 4 and 20 microg/mL of the extract increased the rate by 41% and 60%, respectively. Accordingly, the bioavailability and skin care properties of AGE will be significantly enhanced by liposome encapsulation, and the present liposomal AGE should have a great potential as an effective skin care formulation.

  5. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.99). NMR was found to be suitable for the automated simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 parameters in A. vera.

  6. Water-soluble egg membrane enhances the immunoactivating properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F; Newman, Robert A; Jensen, Gitte S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a blend of two natural ingredients on immune parameters relevant for their current topical use and potential support of microcirculation in skin tissue. Materials and methods A blend (BL) of Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8i, oleandrin-free) and hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) was applied to human whole-blood cultures for 24 hours, with each separate ingredient serving as a control. Immune-cell subsets were analyzed for expression levels of the activation markers CD69 and CD25. Culture supernatants were analyzed for cytokines, chemokines, and immunoregulating peptides. Results BL increased CD69 expression on lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD3–CD56+ natural killer cells, and CD25 expression on natural killer cells. The number of CD69+CD25+ lymphocytes increased in cultures treated with BL and the separate ingredients. BL triggered production of multiple cytokines and chemokines, where CC chemokines MIP1α and MIP3α, as well as cytokines involved in wound healing – Groα, Groβ, ENA78, and fractalkine – reached levels manyfold above treatment with either NAE-8i or WSEM alone. Conclusion Data on BL showed that WSEM strongly enhanced NAE-8i’s effects on immunoactivation in vitro. This has potential relevance for support of immunity in skin tissue, including antibacterial and antiviral defense mechanisms, wrinkle reduction, and wound care. PMID:27843333

  7. Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Azam, Ameer; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Said, Mansour S; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2016-06-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesised through a simple and efficient biogenic synthesis approach, exploiting the reducing and capping potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera) leaf extract (ALE). ALE-capped ZnO nanoparticles (ALE-ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. XRD analysis provided the average size of ZnONPs as 15 nm. FTIR spectral analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and proteins present in ALE, in nucleation and stability of ZnONPs. Flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) data analyses revealed the surface binding and internalization of ZnONPs in Gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli) cells, respectively. Significant antibacterial activity of ALE-ZnONPs was observed against extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) positive E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates exhibiting the MIC and MBC values of 2200, 2400 μg/ml and 2300, 2700 μg/ml, respectively. Substantial inhibitory effects of ALE-ZnONPs on bacterial growth kinetics, exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation, unequivocally suggested the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential. Overall, the results elucidated a rapid, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and convenient method for ALE-ZnONPs synthesis, for possible applications as nanoantibiotics or drug carriers.

  8. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  9. In vitro anti-proliferative activities of Aloe perryi flowers extract on human liver, colon, breast, lung, prostate and epithelial cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Jassas, Ebtesam; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Farshori, Nida Nayyar

    2016-03-01

    Natural products, especially plant extracts have offered vast opportunities in the field of drug development due to its chemical diversity. The genus Aloe has for long been used for medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemicals and anti-cancer potential of Aloe perryi flowers. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and proteins. While alkaloids and saponins were absent. The percentage inhibition of various extracts (viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous) of A. perryi flowers on seven human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa) has been evaluated using MTT assay. All the extracts significantly inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The petroleum ether extract was most active, where the inhibition was recorded as 92.6%, 93.9%, 92%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 82% and 85.7% for HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A-549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa cells, respectively. The results also revealed that HCT-116 cells were more sensitive among all the cell lines studied.

  10. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  11. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future.

  12. The effect of Euryale ferox (Makhana), an herb of aquatic origin, on myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Das, Samarjit; Der, Peter; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2006-09-01

    Fox nut or gorgon nut (Euryale ferox--Family Nymphaeaceae), popularly known as Makhana, has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to cure a variety of diseases including kidney problems, chronic diarrhea, excessive leucorrhea and hypofunction of the spleen. Based on the recent studies revealing antioxidant activities of Euryale ferox and its glucosides composition, we sought to determine if Euryale ferox seeds (Makhana) could reduce myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Two different models were used: acute model, where isolated rat hearts were preperfused for 15 min with Krebs Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer containing three different doses of makhana (25, 125 or 250 microg/ml) followed by 30 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion; and chronic model, where rats were given two different doses of makhana (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) for 21 days, after which isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. In both cases, the hearts of the Makhana treated rats were resistant to ischemic reperfusion injury as evidenced by their improved post-ischemic ventricular function and reduced myocardial infarct size. Antibody array technique was used to identify the cardioprotective proteins. The Makhana-treated hearts had increased amounts of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and thioredoxin-related protein-32 (TRP32) compared to the control hearts. Western blot analysis confirmed increased expression of TRP32 and thioredoxin proteins. In vitro studies revealed that Makhana extracts had potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activities. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate cardioprotective properties of Makhana and suggest that such cardioprotective properties may be linked with the ability of makhana to induce TRP32 and Trx-1 proteins and to scavenge ROS.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F.; McGaw, Lyndy J.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium–based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90–100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  14. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  15. Wound Healing Activity of Extracts and Formulations of Aloe vera, Henna, Adiantum capillus-veneris, and Myrrh on Mouse Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Samira; Galehdari, Hamid; Kesmati, Mahnaz; Rezaie, Anahita; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among the most important factors in wound healing pathways are transforming growth factor beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Fibroblasts are the main cell in all phases wound closure. In this study, the extracts of plant materials such as Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe vera, and henna and one mixture of them were used to treatment of normal mouse skin fibroblasts. Methods: Cytotoxic effects of each extract and their mixture were assessed on mouse skin fibroblasts cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We performed migration assays to assess migration properties of mouse skin fibroblasts cells in response to the extracts. Changes in the gene expression of the Tgfβ1 and Vegf-A genes were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: A. capillus-veneris, C. molmol and henna extract improved the expression of Tgfβ1 gene. All used extracts upregulated the expression of Vegf-A gene and promoted the migration of mouse fibroblast cells in vitro. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the mentioned herbal extracts might be effective in wound healing, through the improvement in the migration of fibroblast cells and regulating the gene expression of Tgfβ1 and Vegf-A genes in fibroblast cells treated with extracts. PMID:28382194

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  17. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  18. Two new tocopherol polymers from the seeds of Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Two new tocopherol polymers, chroman-type dimer named ferotocodimer A (1) and spiro-type trimer named ferotocotrimer E (2), were isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by CD and ROESY experiments.

  19. Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro production of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

    2004-04-01

    In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of a rhubarb peony decoction and rhubarb extract to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xin; Li, Jun-Song; Peng, Wen-Wen; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li-Hua; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to clarify the rationality of herbaceous compatibility of a rhubarb peony decoction (DaHuang-Mu-Dan-Tang, RPD) by comparing the pharmacokinetics of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats' plasma after oral administration of RPD and rhubarb extract. A rapid, sensitive LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of the plasma concentrations of the three analytes after oral administration RPD and rhubarb extract. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats' plasma after oral administration. Compared with administration of single rhubarb, the C(max) of rhein in RPD was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the T1/2 of aloe-emodin and emodin were increased significantly (p < 0.05) after administration of RPD. In addition, the T(max) of rhein and emodin were also increased significantly (p < 0.05) in RPD. These results indicated that the absorption of rhein in rats was suppressed after oral administration RPD. Moreover, The time for rhein and emodin to reach the peak concentration was delayed and the elimination of aloe-emodin and emodin was also postponed in RPD. This study could provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine in terms of pharmacokinetics.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS.

  2. An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using animal model with diabetic foot ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Daburkar, Mohan; Lohar, Vikram; Rathore, Arvind Singh; Bhutada, Pravin; Tangadpaliwar, Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the preventive effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using diabetic foot ulcer (DFUs) protocol in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into untreated control (Group I), untreated DFUs (Group II), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract (Group III), DFUs treated with topical A. vera gel (Group IV), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract and topical A. vera gel (Group V). The rats in the treatment groups were daily administered the A. vera gel and ethanolic extract for 9 days. Fasting blood glucose levels and percentage of wound ulcer contraction were measured on day 3, 6, and 9. Statistical Analysis used: The results are expressed as a mean ± Standard Error Mean (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) after Newman–Keuls test. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant in all cases. Results: Oral administration of A. vera gel ethanolic extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. Topical application of A. vera gel at a dose 30 mg/kg body weight per day to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in no change in blood glucose and plasma insulin. Oral administration as well as topical application of A. vera gel ethanolic extract and gel significantly reduced the blood glucose, improved the plasma insulin, and significantly increased DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to improve the wound ulcer healing as well as the breaking strength on day 9. Conclusions: Present findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of A. vera gel ethanolic extract, and showed that the gel attenuated the diabetic foot wound in rats. PMID:25035641

  3. Facile one step synthesis of novel TiO2 nanocoral by sol-gel method using Aloe vera plant extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Palani, N. S.; Thirumal, V.; Jose, Sujin P.; Wang, Fu-Ming; Ilangovan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol gel method using Aloe vera plant extract as a biological capping agent and a cauliflower-nanocoral morphology was observed in this technique. The assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder was calcined at a range of temperatures (300-600 °C) for 1 h. The influence of A. vera plant extract on the thermal, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 nanopowder was evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis was employed to study the thermal properties of the assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The crystallinity, phase transformation and the crystallite size of the calcined samples were studied by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD result confirmed the presence of TiO2 with anatase phase. FT Raman spectra showed the Raman active modes pertaining to the TiO2 anatase phase and Raman band shift was also observed with respect to particle size variation. The different functional group vibrations of as dried pure A. vera plant extract were compared with the mixture of TiO2 and A. vera plant extract by FT-IR analysis. The scanning electron microscopy images apparently showed the formation of spherical shaped NPs and also it demonstrated the effect of A. vera plant extract on the reduction of particles size. The surface area of the TiO2 NPs was measured through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Transmission electron microscopy images ascertained that the spherical shaped TiO2 NPs were formed with cauliflower-nanocoral morphology decorated with nanopolyps with the size range between 15 and 30 nm.

  4. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  5. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  6. Influence of precipitation pulses on long-term Prosopis ferox dynamics in the Argentinean intermontane subtropics.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariano S; Villalba, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Biological processes in arid communities are associated with episodic precipitation pulses. We postulate that annual to decadal-scale precipitation pulses modulate the dynamics of the intermontane Prepuna woodlands. To study this hypothesis, we have assessed the influence of precipitation pulses on the rates of growth and survival of Prosopis ferox in the Prepuna woodlands during the past century. Tree ages from several P. ferox stands were used to reconstruct the establishment patterns at each sampling site. Ring-width chronologies provided the basis to assess the influence of annual versus multiannual precipitation pulses on radial growth and establishment over time. Both the radial growth and the stand dynamics of P. ferox at the regional scale were found to be largely modulated by climate, with precipitation the dominant factor influencing interannual variations in P. ferox ring-widths. Our analysis of dendrochronological dating data on 885 individuals of P. ferox revealed a period of abundant establishment from the mid-1970s to beginning of 1990 s, which is coincident with an interval of remarkable above-average precipitation. However, tree-growth and establishment patterns at the local scale in the Prepuna also reflected land-use changes, particularly long-term variations in livestock intensity. The P. ferox dynamics documented here substantiates the hierarchical concept of "resource-pulse" in dry ecosystems, with precipitation pulses of different lengths modulating distinct dynamic processes in the P. ferox woodlands. Interannual variations in precipitation influence year-to-year patterns of P. ferox radial growth, whereas multiannual oscillations in rainfall influence episodic events of tree establishment. The long-term interval considered in this study enabled us to disentangle the roles of natural versus human controls on P. ferox dynamics in the region.

  7. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co1-xNixFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co2+, Ni2+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87-62.50 nm. The VSM results at room temperature indicated the ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples. Superparamagnetic behavior was observed in NiFe2O4 sample. The coercivity (Hc) and remanance (Mr) values were related to the particle sizes of samples. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased by a factor of 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g, whereas the coercivity (Hc) was decreased by a factor of 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe for a sample with x = 0.75. In addition to the cations distribution, the increase of aspect ratio (surface to volume ratio) due to the decrease of particle size could significantly affect the magnetic properties of the materials.

  8. Green route for preparing extra-small TiO2 nanoparticles using aloe extracts and their application in degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Chunfeng; Fu, Yunzhi; Chen, Yongjun; Xue, Xinghua; Mazidi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with high-photocatalysis properties both in ultraviolet and visible-light regions were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method, and an aloe leaf extract (ALE) was used as the cap. When the Ti)∶)CHOH∶ALE volume ratio was equal to 0.5∶8∶40, the reaction time was 6 h, and crystallization occurred at 80°C for 2 h, the TiO2NPs had been synthesized. XRD analysis showed that the structure of TiO2NPs without thermal treatment was anatase. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed their average size, which was around 5 nm. The products showed an excellent photocatalytic property for methyl orange in the presence of UV and sunlight with the characterization of UV-vis. The photocatalytic activity was optimized by adjusting the amount of TiO2, the pH value, and the calcination temperature. Results indicated that ALE acted as a cap and nano-TiO2 could be synthesized without calcination.

  9. Ingestion of plastic marine debris by longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox) in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Lesley A; Morishige, Carey L; Bruland, Gregory L; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2013-04-15

    Plastic marine debris affects species on most trophic levels, including pelagic fish. While plastic debris ingestion has been investigated in planktivorous fish in the North Pacific Ocean, little knowledge exists on piscivorous fish. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of occurrence and the composition of ingested plastic marine debris in longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox), a piscivorous fish species captured in the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery. Nearly a quarter (47 of 192) of A. ferox sampled contained plastic marine debris, primarily in the form of plastic fragments (51.9%). No relationship existed between size (silhouette area) or amount of plastic marine debris ingested and morphometrics of A. ferox. Although A. ferox are not consumed by humans, they are common prey for fish commercially harvested for human consumption. Further research is needed to determine residence time of ingested plastic marine debris and behavior of toxins associated with plastic debris.

  10. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Yoon Taek; Kim, Eun-A; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Kim, Young-Sun; Cho, Jin Hun; Jang, Hyeang-Su; Jeon, You-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications.

  11. Cerebrosides and tocopherol trimers from the seeds of Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Row, Lie-Ching; Ho, Jiau-Ching; Chen, Chiu-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Two new cerebrosides, ferocerebrosides A (1) [(2S,3R,4E,8E,2'R)-1-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N-(2'-hydroxydocosanoyl)-4,8-sphingadienine] and B (2) [(2S,3R,4E,8E,2'R)-1-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N-(2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl)-4,8-sphingadienine], two new tocopherol trimers, ferotocotrimers C (5) and D (6), and two known tocopherol trimers, IVb (3) and IVa (4), were isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, with LC50 values of 0.17 and 0.20 mM, respectively.

  12. Encephalomyelitis by Toxoplasma gondii in a captive fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox).

    PubMed

    Corpa, J M; García-Quirós, A; Casares, M; Gerique, A C; Carbonell, M D; Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Uzal, F A; Ortega, J

    2013-03-31

    Encephalomyelitis due to Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). The animal had ataxia, atrophy of hind limb muscles and progressive wasting before dying 12 months after the onset of clinical signs. Toxoplasmosis was suspected antemortem based on clinical signs and the detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR on EDTA-blood from live animal. Necropsy revealed necrotizing gastritis and severe emaciation. The main histological lesions included non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with dilation of myelin sheaths and swollen axons in the spinal cord, and multifocal gliosis in the brain with intralesional protozoan cysts that stained positive for T. gondii immunohistochemistry. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in a fossa, and a new host record.

  13. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  14. Aloe vera Plant Extracted Green Synthesis, Structural and Opto-Magnetic Characterizations of Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple Aloe vera plant extracted green synthesis route. Powder XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel gahnite structure without other impurities. The lattice parameter increased from 8.089 to 8.125 A with increasing CO²⁺ content. The average crystallite sizes were estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found to be in the range of 15.72 nm to 26.53 nm. FT-IR spectra showed vibrational stretching frequencies corresponding to the spinel structure. HR-SEM and HR-TEM images showed the features of well particle shaped crystals with nano-sized grains. The elemental compositions of Co, Zn, Al and O were quantitatively obtained from EDX analysis. The band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk method by UV-Visible DRS method, and the values are decreased with increasing the Co²⁺ content (4.12 eV to 3.67 eV), due to the formation of sub bands in between the energy gap. PL spectra showed emission bands in UV as well as in the visible regions for ZnAl₂O₄ and Co-doped ZnAl₂O4, due to the defect centers acting as the trap levels. VSM measurements revealed that pure ZnAl₂O₄ has diamagnetic, while Co doped ZnAl₂O₄ samples (x = 0.2 to 0.8) have superparamagnetism, whereas the sample CoAl₂O₄ has ferromagnetic in nature. Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was found that the sample Co₀.₆Zn₀.₄Al₂O₄ showed 93.25% conversion with 99.56% selectivity, whereas for pure ZnAl₂O₄, the conversion was only 86.31% with 92.85% selectivity.

  15. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  16. Aloe Vera in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  17. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  18. The abundance of large, piscivorous Ferox Trout (Salmo trutta) in Loch Rannoch, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Alastair; MacDonald, Alisdair I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferox Trout are large, long-lived piscivorous Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Due to their exceptionally large size, Ferox Trout are highly sought after by anglers while their life-history strategy, which includes delayed maturation, multiphasic growth and extended longevity, is of interest to ecological and evolutionary modelers. However, despite their recreational and theoretical importance, little is known about the typical abundance of Ferox Trout. Methods To rectify this situation a 16 year angling-based mark-recapture study was conducted on Loch Rannoch, which at 19 km2 is one of the largest lakes in the United Kingdom. Results A hierarchical Bayesian Jolly-Seber analysis of the data suggest that if individual differences in catchability are negligible the population of Ferox Trout in Loch Rannoch in 2009 was approximately 71 fish. The results also suggest that a single, often unaccompanied, highly-experienced angler was able to catch roughly 8% of the available fish on an annual basis. Discussion It is recommended that anglers adopt a precautionary approach and release all trout with a fork length ≥400 mm caught by trolling in Loch Rannoch. There is an urgent need to assess the status of Ferox Trout in other lakes. PMID:27833812

  19. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  20. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  1. Phenolic constituents in dried flowers of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and their in vitro antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Keyhanian, Shirin; Stahl-Biskup, Elisabeth

    2007-06-01

    The dried flowers from Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) (Asphodelaceae) were analysed by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS, verifying chlorogenic, caffeic, 5-P-coumaroylquinic, caffeoylshikimic, 5-feruloylquinic, 5-P-CIS-coumaroylquinic, P-coumaric and ferulic acid as well as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, isoorientin, isovitexin and their 7-O-glucosides, saponarin and lutonarin. On searching for anthranoids in the flower extract, aloe-emodin as well as the glycosylchromone aloeresin B could be identified. Aloin A and B, the laxative principle of the drug Curaçao-Aloes, are not accumulated in the dried flowers. The polyphenol content of three different batches was 0.73 - 1.01% (+/- 0.05%) and the flavonoid content 0.24 - 0.34% (+/- 0.01%). The hydrophilic antioxidative capacity amounted to 85.7 - 94.9 (+/- 0.5) micromol TEAC/g dried Aloe vera flower and was directly correlated with the polyphenol and flavonoid contents.

  2. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  4. ALOE VERA: A SHORT REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Surjushe, Amar; Vasani, Resham; Saple, D G

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:19882025

  5. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown.

  6. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  7. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p < 0.05) increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities. Alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction was abrogated by Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  8. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M{sub s} of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac){sub 3}, M(acac){sub 3} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, whereas the

  9. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study).

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.

  10. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  11. Barbaloin in aloe species.

    PubMed

    Groom, Q J; Reynolds, T

    1987-08-01

    Barbaloin levels in the exudates from the leaves of 68 species of ALOE in the Kew collection have been determined by light absorption at 375 nm following separation by HPLC. The exudates from most species contained between 10-20% although a few concentrations of around 30% were found. The level in the leaf was usually around 1% of thedry weight in plants grown in glasshouses at Kew although some species were found to contain up to 5%. The highest concentrations of barbaloin were found in exudates from young mature leaves just below the apex and the level decreased in older leaves towards the base of the plant. Species in the natural groupings of the genus, Section ANGUIALOE and Group 4, all had appreciable concentrations of barbaloin in the leaf exudates. Species containing barbaloinwere distributed throughout the large heterogeneous Sections EUALOE and PACHYDENDRON with no apparent taxonomic significance.

  12. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin. PMID:27736988

  13. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farshad, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm), with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm), each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020). The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value. PMID:26636116

  14. [Low level of allozyme polymorphism in relict aquatic plants of the Far East Nelumbo komarovii Grossh. and Euryale ferox Salisb].

    PubMed

    Koren', O G; Iatsunskaia, M S; Nakonechnaia, O V

    2012-09-01

    Using allozyme analysis, genetic variation of two relict aquatic plants from Primorsky krai, Komarov lotus (Neliumbo komarovii Grossh.) and Gorgon plant (Euryale ferox Salisb.), was examined. The absence of allozyme variation in the Primorye populations of Neliumbo komarovii along with low polymorphism level in the population of Euryale ferox (P95 = 7.69; A = 1.07; Ho = 0.072; He = 0.038) was demonstrated. Since the data for the species examined are reported for the first time ever, the pheonotypes and genetic interpretation of the enzyme systems tested are presented. The izoenzyme profiles of N. komarovii were compared with the data reported for N. nucifera from China. The absence ofallozyme variation in N. komarovii, along with extremely low level of variation revealed for E. ferox, is discussed in association with the evolutionary histories of these species, their dispersal after the Pleistocene-Holocene cooling, and survival on this territory in range boundaries.

  15. Aloe-emodin inhibits proliferation of adult human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Popadic, Dusan; Savic, Emina; Ramic, Zorica; Djordjevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Medenica, Ljiljana; Popadic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE) is a plant-derived hydroxyanthraquinone with several biological activities. It is present in a variety of skin-conditioning agents containing aloe extracts, but its influence on keratinocyte growth was not examined so far. We investigated the influence of AE on human keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. AE significantly inhibited proliferation of cultivated human keratinocytes at 5 μM concentration, as revealed by incorporation of radioactive thymidine. The antiproliferative effect of AE was accompanied with induction of apoptosis, but not necrosis, as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Based on the half maximal inhibitory concentration values, we demonstrated that AE may impair proliferation of keratinocytes at concentrations far below the industry standards for commercial products containing aloe extracts. Therefore, further research of AE effects on the human skin and proper labeling of products are necessary for maximizing benefits from aloe extracts and to avoid undesired responses.

  16. Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjana; Gupta, Ashok K; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Parimal K

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types.

  17. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively.

  18. Isolation and identification of compounds responsible for antioxidant capacity of Euryale ferox seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Wei; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhou, Li-Li; Hou, Fan-Fan; Wang, Kai-Jin; Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Ning; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2011-02-23

    Euryale ferox seed is consumed medicinally or for food in China. The present study revealed it to contain significant antioxidant activity, which may be associated with its medical applications as a proteinuria inhibitor of diabetic nephropathy. This study resulted in the identification of 3 new sesquineolignans, named euryalins A-C (1-3), and 16 known compounds, which were all first isolated from this plant apart from 5,7,4-trihydroxy-flavanone. The antioxidant potential of the partial isolates was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and mesangial cellular assay. Compounds 2, rel-(2α,3β)-7-O-methylcedrusin (4), syringylglycerol-8-O-4-(sinapyl alcohol) ether (5), and (+)-syringaresinol (7) were found to be most active on DPPH assay, whereas compounds 2, 4, 7, (1R,2R,5R,6S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, and buddlenol E could significantly inhibit high glucose-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in mesangial cells. The results suggested that E. ferox seed could be considered as an excellent source of natural antioxidants and is useful in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Labial cartilages in the smalltooth sandtiger shark, Odontaspis ferox (lamniformes: odontaspididae) and their significance to the phylogeny of lamniform sharks.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenshu; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Kim, Sun H

    2009-06-01

    Using computed tomography, we discovered labial cartilages (splanchnocranial components) in an enigmatic lamniform shark, Odontaspis ferox (smalltooth sandtiger). We demonstrate that the presence of labial cartilages is plesiomorphic in Lamniformes, affirming that their "reduction" cannot be used as a synapomorphy for the order. Rather, their loss occurred through lamniform phylogeny.

  20. Aloe-Vera: A Nature’s Gift to Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Devi, Prabha; Girish

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1Aloe-Barbadensis Mill (Liliaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and other countries for anti-inflammatory and cosmetic purposes (Diez-Martinez 1981, Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). Two components are obtained from the fresh leaves of Aloe-Barbadensis, a bitter yellow juice (exudate), which drains from the transversally cut leaves used as a laxative (Ishii et al 1990) and a mucilaginous gel from leaf parenchyma, which has been used as a remedy for a variety of pathological states such as arthritis, gout, acne, dermatitis, burns and peptic ulcers induced by epithelial alterations (Cap-passo and Ganginella 1997, Reynolds and Dweek 1999). The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of Aloe-Vera gel as a healing agent in an endodontic procedure called pulpotomy. Fifteen primary molars were treated for pulpotomy using ‘Aloe-Vera gel’. Patients were recalled after 1 month to check for any clinical symptoms. None of the patients reported with clinical symptoms of pain, mobility, abscess and histopathological evaluation done following extraction after 2 months showed positive signs of healing. PMID:27507917

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of an actin gene in aloe.

    PubMed

    Wen, S S; He, D W; Liao, C M; Li, J; Wen, G Q; Liu, X H

    2014-07-04

    Aloe (Aloe spp), containing abundant polysaccharides and numerous bioactive ingredients, has remarkable medical, ornamental, calleidic, and edible values. In the present study, the total RNA was extracted from aloe leaf tissue. The isolated high-quality RNA was further used to clone actin gene by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result of sequence analysis for the amplified fragment revealed that the cloned actin gene was 1012 bp in length (GenBank accession No. KC751541.1) and contained a 924-bp coding region and encoded a protein consisting of 307 amino acids. Homologous alignment showed that it shared over 80 and 96% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of actin from other plants, respectively. In addition, the cloned gene was used for phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences, and the results suggested that the actin gene is highly conserved in evolution. The findings of this study will be useful for investigating the expression patterns of other genes in Aloe.

  2. A novel angiogenic factor derived from Aloe vera gel: beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol.

    PubMed

    Moon, E J; Lee, Y M; Lee, O H; Lee, M J; Lee, S K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Sung, C K; Choi, J S; Kim, K W

    1999-01-01

    Aloe vera gel has a beneficial effect on wound healing. Because angiogenesis is an essential process in wound healing, we hypothesized that Aloe vera gel might contain potent angiogenic compounds. Here we demonstrate that Aloe vera gel and its extracts are angiogenic on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryo. Out of the three compounds purified from the final fraction of Aloe vera gel, beta-sitosterol showed a potent angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. In the presence of heparin, beta-sitosterol stimulated neovascularization in the mouse Matrigel plug assay and the motility of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in an in vitro wound migration assay. Thus beta-sitosterol is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds.

  3. Larvicidal activity of selected aloe species against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culiciade).

    PubMed

    Chore, Judith K; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Mireji, Paul O

    2014-01-01

    Management of mosquito vectors by current classes of mosquitocides is relatively ineffective and necessitates prospecting for novel insecticides with different modes of action. Larvicidal activities of 15 crude extracts from three geographically isolated Aloe ngongensis (Christian), Aloe turkanensis (Christian), and Aloe fibrosa (Lavranos & L.E.Newton) (Xanthorrhoeaceae) species (five each) were evaluated against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in Hasselquist) (Diptera: Culiciade L.) yellow fever mosquito. Freshly collected leaves were separately shade-dried to constant weight at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) and powdered. Each powder was macerated in solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) for 72 h and subsequently filtered. Third-instar larvae (n = 25) of the mosquito were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations for 24 h to establish dose response relationships. All the fractions of A. ngongensis were active below 1 mg/ml except A. fibrosa and A. turkanensis. The highest activity (LC50) mg/ml was obtained with extracts of A. fibrosa hexane (0.05 [0.04-0.06]), followed by A. ngongensis hexane (0.11 [0.08-0.15]) and A. turkanensis ethyl acetate (0.11 [0.09-0.12]). The activities are apparently Aloe species specific and extraction solvent dependent. These findings suggest that extracts from selected Aloe species have mosquitocidal principles that can be exploited in development of new insecticides.

  4. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE.

  5. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mangaiyarkarasi, S. P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Kaur, Roopam Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family. The name Aloe derives from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning shining bitter substance while “vera” in Latin means true. It contains various minerals and vitamins. It has got various properties such as immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiinflammatory in nature. A. vera can play a significant role in dentistry in treatment of lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, alveolar osteitis, periodontitis, etc. PMID:26015726

  6. [Mechanisms of therapeutic action of aloe].

    PubMed

    Anuszewska, Elżbieta L

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aloe was traditionally applied for the medicinal practice over thousands of years and used for treatment of wide range of medical indication from stomach disorders to cancer. Fresh leaves of aloe contain various groups of chemical compounds such as: glycoproteins, polysaccharides, anthraquinone derivatives, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids and many others, which show multidirectional therapeutic action. These active components are responsible for immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects of aloe Recent data confirmed that aloe possess a unique therapeutic profile and has positive potential for medical application.

  7. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  8. An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (miller), Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Beland, Frederick A

    2006-04-01

    Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera, has a long history of use as a topical and oral therapeutic. The plant is the source of two products, gel and latex, which are obtained from its fleshy leaves. Aloe vera products contain multiple constituents with potential biological and toxicological activities, yet the active components elude definition. Ingestion of Aloe vera is associated with diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance, kidney dysfunction, and conventional drug interactions; episodes of contact dermatitis, erythema, and phototoxicity have been reported from topical applications. This review examines the botany, physical and chemical properties, and biological activities of the Aloe vera plant.

  9. A Case of Chaunocephalosis by Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an Oriental White Stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-10-01

    We intended to describe a case of chaunocephalosis and morphological characteristics of its causative agent, Chaunocephalus ferox, recovered from an oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in the Republic of Korea. An oriental white stork was referred to the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk in Korea in February 2014 for severe depression with cachexia and it died the next day. At necropsy, the stomach was severely expanded and 7 thick-walled nodules were observed in the upper part of the intestine. Although the stomach was filled with full of foreign materials, the intestine was almost empty. The nodules were globular and total 9 flukes were recovered. They were 8,030-8,091 μm in length and 3,318-3,333 μm in maximum width. Because the flukes had bulbous forebody with short narrow subcylindrical hindbody, 27 collar spines, and vitelline follicles not reaching to the posterior end, the specimens were identified as being C. ferox. The cyst formation induced thickening of the intestinal wall with narrowing of the lumen that could have contributed to the gastric impaction to the death of the host. This is the first described case of chaunocephalosis and its causative agent C. ferox found from an oriental white stork in Korea.

  10. A Case of Chaunocephalosis by Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an Oriental White Stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2016-01-01

    We intended to describe a case of chaunocephalosis and morphological characteristics of its causative agent, Chaunocephalus ferox, recovered from an oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in the Republic of Korea. An oriental white stork was referred to the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk in Korea in February 2014 for severe depression with cachexia and it died the next day. At necropsy, the stomach was severely expanded and 7 thick-walled nodules were observed in the upper part of the intestine. Although the stomach was filled with full of foreign materials, the intestine was almost empty. The nodules were globular and total 9 flukes were recovered. They were 8,030–8,091 μm in length and 3,318–3,333 μm in maximum width. Because the flukes had bulbous forebody with short narrow subcylindrical hindbody, 27 collar spines, and vitelline follicles not reaching to the posterior end, the specimens were identified as being C. ferox. The cyst formation induced thickening of the intestinal wall with narrowing of the lumen that could have contributed to the gastric impaction to the death of the host. This is the first described case of chaunocephalosis and its causative agent C. ferox found from an oriental white stork in Korea. PMID:27853124

  11. Candelabra aloe (Aloe arborescens) in the therapy and prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections: traditional use and recent research results.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Petra; Fal, Andrzej M; Jambor, Jerzy; Michalak, Anna; Noster, Britta; Sievers, Hartwig; Steuber, Anke; Walas-Marcinek, Natalia

    2013-02-01

    Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European countries for many decades. Originally introduced to support the healing and recovery in cornea transplant patients, aqueous A. arborescens extracts soon became popular in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with a focus on toddlers and children. Recent preclinical and clinical data show that immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, and antiviral effects contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. Based on its well documented, longstanding traditional use and its excellent safety and tolerability, A. arborescens may be considered a valuable addition to the spectrum of herbal medicinal products for the treatment and prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections, in particular common cold, in adults and children.

  12. Photochemistry and phototoxicity of aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Vath, Peter; Wamer, Wayne G; Falvey, Daniel E

    2002-04-01

    Photochemical pathways leading to the phototoxicity of the aloe vera constituent aloe emodin were studied. The results indicate a photochemical mechanism involving singlet oxygen to be the most likely pathway responsible for the observed phototoxicity. Aloe emodin was found to efficiently generate singlet oxygen when irradiated with UV light (phidelta = 0.56 in acetonitrile). The survival of human skin fibroblast cells in the presence of aloe emodin was found to decrease upon irradiation with UV light. A further decrease in cell survival was observed in D2O compared with H2O, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen as the primary pathway. Laser flash photolysis experiments were also carried out on aloe emodin alone and in the presence of various biological substrates. Aloe emodin proved to be relatively photostable (phi = 1 x 10(-4)) and a poor photo-oxidant (E*red = +1.02 V). Only absorption bands caused by the triplet state of aloe emodin (lambdamax = 480 nm) and the aloe emodin conjugate base (lambdamax = 520 nm) were observed in the transient spectra.

  13. Chemical Components from Aloe and their Inhibition of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Lin Ying; Li, Wei; Kang, Jong Seong; Hwang, Inkyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Korea, Aloe is routinely ingested as a traditional medicine or as a component of health beverages. Objective: To research the inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities of components from Aloe. Materials and Methods: the compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC Rp-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS). All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO, which actively suppresses immune functions by catalyzing the rate limiting reaction in the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Results: In this phytochemical study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1-7) isolated from the Aloe extract; the IC50 values of these compounds ranged from 39.41 to 53.93 µM. Enzyme kinetic studies of their modes of inhibition indicated that all of the compounds were uncompetitive inhibitors. Conclusion: The aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate can be used as a source of novel natural IDO inhibitors and merit testing as therapeutic agents in the treatments of cancer and immunopathologic diseases, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. SUMMARY In this study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1−7) isolated from the Aloe extract. Abbreviation used: IDO: inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, TMS: tetramethylsilane, HMQC: heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, HMBC: heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, COSY: 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide PMID:28216884

  14. RAPD and ISSR Marker-Based Comparative Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Among Indian Germplasms of Euryale ferox: an Aquatic Food Plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Priya, Priti; Singh, Nena; Kumar, Mukesh; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Lokendra; Singh, Indu Shekhar; Kumar, Nitish

    2016-12-01

    Euryale ferox Salisbury is an important aquatic food plant cultivated largely in eastern India. E. ferox is a monotypic genus, and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability present in the primary gene pool. Knowledge of the genetic structure of the population is limited, and there are very few reports available on the genetic diversity of E. ferox. In this study, comprehensive research on the genetic diversity of 16 germplasms of E. ferox was carried out using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 320 RAPD and 95 ISSR primers screened initially, 61 primers (40 RAPD and 21 ISSR) gave reproducible bands and were selected for further work. Amplification of the 40 RAPD primers gave 533 polymorphic bands with an average of 13.32 polymorphic bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 37.5 to 100, with an average of 88.3 %. The 21 ISSR primers produced 259 bands, of which 214 were polymorphic, with an average of 10.19 polymorphic bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphism using ISSR primers ranged from 50 to 100, with a mean of 82.6 %. Jaccard's coefficient ranged from 0.45 to 0.69 (RAPD), 0.50 to 0.77 (ISSR) and 0.48 to 0.71 (RAPD and ISSR). Molecular characterization of different germplasms of E. ferox not only is essential for its conservation but also can be used in further breeding programmes.

  15. Antimutagenicity and antigenotoxicity of Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller in Aspergillus nidulans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Berti, A P; Palioto, G F; Rocha, C L M S C

    2016-09-02

    Medicinal plants such as Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller are used by the general population to treat various diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimutagenicity of these two species using a methG1 system in Aspergillus nidulans and the comet assay in rats. The animals were treated with the plants at concentrations of 360 and 720 mg/kg body weight (1 and 2, respectively) by gavage for 14 days, followed by the administration of etoposide on treatment day 8. Blood samples were prepared for analysis of DNA damage. For the test in A. nidulans, the biA1methG1 lineage conidia were treated for 4 h with both plant species at concentrations of 4 and 8% (w/v). Then, they were washed and plated on a selective medium for frequency analysis of survival and mutation. The results of the comet assay showed that both plants were antigenotoxic compared to etoposide, which was not a typical response of methG1 systems, where only the highest concentration of plant extracts usually exhibit beneficial effects. This study demonstrates the potential antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of the Aloe plants tested and, therefore, supports their use as a form of preventive therapy and for health maintenance by the population.

  16. A severe case of cutaneous myiasis in São Gonçalo, Brazil, and a simple technique to extract New World screw-worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Batista-da-Silva, J A; Borja, G E M; Queiroz, M M C

    2012-08-01

    This work describes a severe case of myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in a 59-year-old patient living in an urban area of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. The patient had an open wound on the right shoulder parasitized by 287 larvae. In order to remove the larvae, the wound was washed with NaCl and solid vaseline was applied onto the wound and covered with gauze and adhesive tape. After 90 min, the larvae were killed by asphyxiation and were removed using sterile forceps and NaCl. This procedure left the wound completely clean.

  17. Molecular evolution of plant haemoglobin: two haemoglobin genes in Nymphaeaceae Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Guldner, E; Desmarais, E; Galtier, N; Godelle, B

    2004-01-01

    We isolated and sequenced two haemoglobin genes from the early-branching angiosperm Euryale ferox (Nymphaeaceae). The two genes belong to the two known classes of plant haemoglobin. Their existence in Nymphaeaceae supports the theory that class 1 haemoglobin was ancestrally present in all angiosperms, and is evidence for class 2 haemoglobin being widely distributed. These sequences allowed us to unambiguously root the angiosperm haemoglobin phylogeny, and to corroborate the hypothesis that the class 1/class 2 duplication event occurred before the divergence between monocots and eudicots. We addressed the molecular evolution of plant haemoglobin by comparing the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates in various groups of genes. Class 2 haemoglobin genes of legumes (functionally involved in a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria) show a higher nonsynonymous substitution rate than class 1 (nonsymbiotic) haemoglobin genes. This suggests that a change in the selective forces applying to plant haemoglobins has occurred during the evolutionary history of this gene family, potentially in relation with the evolution of symbiosis.

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Ravi, K; Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of hypoglycemic activity in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera gel. Effects of oral administration of A. vera extract at a concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight on (a) normal fasted rats, (b) oral glucose-loaded rats, and (c) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been studied. A. vera extract maintain the glucose homeostasis by controlling the carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

  19. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  1. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  2. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  3. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    PubMed Central

    Colorado-Ríos, Jhonny; Muñoz, Diana; Montoya, Guillermo; Márquez, Diana; Márquez, Maria-Elena; López, Juan; Martínez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile. PMID:24317472

  4. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  5. A multi-analytical approach for the identification of aloe as a colorant in oil-resin varnishes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Adriana; Shibayama, Nobuko; Kirby, Daniel P

    2011-03-01

    Aloe plants have been widely documented in artists' treatises dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century as a source of colorant to achieve lustrous golden glazes on tin- and silver-foiled objects and warm-toned finishes on musical instruments, such as violins. Aloe extracts contain characteristic anthraquinone and phenolic components which impart a distinctive orange tone and fluorescence to mixtures containing them. Because of the low concentration of colorant in the coatings and its probable degradation by high temperature during manufacture, the identification of aloe in heated oil-resin mixtures represents an analytical challenge. For this reason, the possible presence of aloe in glazes and coatings has been largely overlooked. This paper describes various analytical approaches to the identification of aloe in historic samples, from comparison with results obtained from reference standards and mock-up samples. Complementary analytical techniques including thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, laser desorption-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry and surface-enhanced Raman scattering were used. Different chemical markers were identified by the individual methods and the advantages and limitations of each technique for the identification of aloe in oil-resin varnishes are discussed.

  6. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  7. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants.

  8. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lowther, William; Lorick, Kevin; Lawrence, Susan D; Yeow, Wen-Shuz

    2012-12-01

    Methods necessary for the successful transformation and regeneration of Aloe vera were developed and used to express the human protein, interferon alpha 2 (IFNα2). IFNα2 is a secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the cellular response to viral infection. Transgenic plants were regenerated from callus cultures initiated from zygotic embryos. Expression of the IFNA2 transgene in transformed plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and IFNα2 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human A549 cells treated with transgenic aloe extracts for 6 h induced expression of the interferon stimulated gene 54, indicating activation of the IFN signaling pathway. The biological activity of the aloe produced IFNα2 was assessed using an antiviral assay with A549 cells treated with extracts from both the rind and pulp fractions of the shoot and subsequently infected with the lytic encephalomyocarditis virus. The highest level of activity attributable to recombinant IFNα2 was determined to be 625 IU/mg of total soluble protein (TSP) in the rind and 2,108 IU/mg TSP in the pulp. Two daughter plants that vegetatively budded during the course of this study were also confirmed to express IFNα2. These results confirm that Aloe vera is capable of expressing a human protein with biological activity, and that a secreted protein targeting the apoplast can be detected in the pulp fraction of the plant.

  9. ALOS-2 launch and initial checkout result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Saruwatari, Hideki; Hatooka, Yasushi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 has an enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for interferometry SAR (INSAR) data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. ALOS-2 was launched on 24th May 2014, and has been completed the initial functional verifications of onboard components and systems. This paper describes the initial operation and checkout results including the comparison with the previous SAR satellite image and the disaster monitoring. Some key features of orbit control and determination to improve the coherency of the repeat-pass INSAR observation are evaluated.

  10. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  11. Clinical Effectiveness of Aloe Vera in the Management of Oral Mucosal Diseases- A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587

  12. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

    PubMed

    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations.

  13. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  14. Study of silicone vehicles for Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, V; Montoya, R; Ruiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of different surfactants on the synthesis of a silicone latex is studied. Distinct formulations were mixed and then tested with regard to stability as a function of time and temperature. The ones with the best characteristics for acting as a vehicle for the active cosmetic ingredient Aloe vera are indicated.

  15. Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera Supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

    PubMed

    Shirali, Saeed; Barari, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Khodadi, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy) and 4 cancer groups: control (cancer only), training, Aloe Vera and Aloe Vera + training. Breast cancer tumors were generated in mice by implantind. The training program comprised six weeks of swimming training accomplished in three sessions per week. Training time started with 10 minutes on the first day and increased to 60 minutes in the second week and the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute at a constant rate. Aloe Vera extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg BW was administrated to rats by intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the study period, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Significant differences were concluded at p<0.05 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Tukey tests to analyze the data. The results showed significant increase in levels of serum. COX-2 and VEGF levels in the cancer group compared with the healthy group. Administration of Aloe Vera extract caused significant decrease in the COX-2 level in the cancer group. Also, in the training (swimming exercise) and Aloe Vera + training cancer groups, we observed significant decrease in the VEGF level as compared to controls. Our results suggest that Aloe Vera and training inhibit the COX pathway and cause decrease production of prostaglandin E2. Hence administration of Aloe Vera in combination with endurance training might synergistically improve the host milieu in mice bearing breast cancers.

  16. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations.

  17. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kenneth R; Jones, Anthony E; Belmont, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min(-1). Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min(-1). These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe.

  18. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anthony E.; Belmont, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min−1. Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min−1. These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe. PMID:27284273

  19. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  20. Optimization of the preparation of pectin from Aloe using a Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lijing; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Xingyuan; Chen, Weijie; Li, Yingchang; Liu, Chang; Sun, Jing; Yu, Xiaolei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijie

    2014-05-25

    The extraction condition of pectin from Aloe vera barbadensis Mill was optimized by a Box-Behnken design. The effect of parameters of extraction water proportion (EWP), extraction pH (EpH), extraction temperature (ETe), extraction time (ETi), alcohol precipitation pH (APpH)and alcohol precipitation temperature (APTe) on the extraction yield of pectin was investigated by a software of Design Export 8.0.5b. The maximum extraction yield was obtained with the EWP of 20:1, EpH of 1.5, ETe of 90°C, ETi of 120min, APpH of 3.0 and APTe of 50°C, which was consistent with the experimental value. We also found out that the pectin content decreased gradually during storage and sucrose concentration had a significant impact on the viscosity of pectin.

  1. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  2. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  3. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. PMID:23870710

  4. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-11-01

    High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl2/Fox nutshell) ratios (1-2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500-700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at -196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m2/g, 2124 m2/g, 1.96 cm3/g, and 1.68 cm3/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  5. Functional morphology of digestion in the stomachless, piscivorous needlefishes Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox (Teleostei: Beloniformes).

    PubMed

    Manjakasy, Jennifer M; Day, Ryan D; Kemp, Anne; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2009-10-01

    Belonidae are unusual in that they are carnivorous but lack a stomach and have a straight, short gut. To develop a functional morphological model for this unusual system the gut contents and alimentary tract morphology of Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox were investigated. The posterior orientation of the majority of the pharyngeal teeth supports the swallowing of whole large prey, but not their mastication. Mucogenic cells are abundant in the mucosa lining, particularly the esophagus, and their secretions are likely to protect the gut lining from damage while lubricating passage of the prey. Esophagus, anterior intestine, posterior intestine, and rectum all have highly reticulate mucosae. The anterior three gut sections are distensible to accommodate the passage of prey. However, following ingestion large prey are passed to the highly distensible posterior intestine where they rest head first against the ileorectal valve. Alimentary pH ranges from neutral to weakly acidic. Fish prey is digested head first with the head being largely digested while the remainder of the body is still intact. The nondistensibility of the rectum and the small aperture provided by the ileorectal valve suggest the products of intestinal digestion are either small particulates or fluids that pass into rectum where they are absorbed.

  6. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper.

  7. Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE): Design Test Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, J. Steven; And Others

    The Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE) system of evaluating teaching is presented. ALOE was developed from Arizona adaptations of the Georgia Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments and, with G. Taylor's "Functional Elements Analysis of Teaching Skills" (FEATS), forms an integrated observation package which allows…

  8. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation.

  9. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.

  10. Evaluation of aloin and aloe-emodin as anti-inflammatory agents in aloe by using murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2009-04-23

    The aloe ingredients responsible for physiological effects and the concentrations required to exert their biological activities are not fully understood. This study compares the anti-inflammatory effects of aloin and aloe-emodin with other polyphenols. Our results demonstrated that aloe-emodin dose-dependently inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and nitric oxide (NO) production at 5-40 microM. In addition, the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were suppressed by 40 microM aloe-emodin. Aloin also suppressed the production of NO at 5-40 microM, although it did not suppress PGE2 production. The present results indicate that aloin and aloe-emodin possibly suppress the inflammatory responses by blocking iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of aloe-emodin was comparable to that of kaempferol and quercetin, indicating aloe-emodin as a possible key constituent responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of aloe.

  11. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported.

  12. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  13. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  14. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  15. The Relation between Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Leaf Slices of Aloe arborescens Mill.

    PubMed

    Denius, H R; Homann, P H

    1972-06-01

    Leaves and leaf slices from Aloe arborescens Mill. were used to study the interrelations between Crassulacean acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and respiration. Oxygen exchange of leaf slices was measured polarographically. It was found that the photosynthetic utilization of stored malic acid resulted in a net evolution of oxygen. This oxygen production, and the decrease in acid content of the leaf tissue, were completely inhibited by amytal, although the rate of respiratory oxygen uptake was hardly affected by the presence of this inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Other poisons of respiration (cyanide) and of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (trifluoroacetate, 2-diethyl malonate) also were effective in preventing acid-dependent oxygen evolution. It is concluded that the mobilization of stored acids during light-dependent deacidification of the leaves depends on the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and of the electron transport of the mitochondria.A comparison of enzyme activities in extracts from Aloe leaves and from other plants and studies of leaf anatomy and chloroplast morphology revealed typical characteristics of C(3)-, as well as C(4)-, plants in Aloe.

  16. The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

  17. Precise Global DEM Generation by ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) generated the global digital elevation/surface model (DEM/DSM) and orthorectified image (ORI) using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was operated from 2006 to 2011. PRISM consisted of three panchromatic radiometers that acquired along-track stereo images. It had a spatial resolution of 2.5 m in the nadir-looking radiometer and achieved global coverage, making it a suitable potential candidate for precise global DSM and ORI generation. In the past 10 years or so, JAXA has conducted the calibration of the system corrected standard products of PRISM in order to improve absolute accuracies as well as to validate the high-level products such as DSM and ORI. In this paper, we introduce an overview of the global DEM/DSM dataset generation project, including a summary of ALOS and PRISM, in addition to the global data archive status. It is also necessary to consider data processing strategies, since the processing capabilities of the level 1 standard product and the high-level products must be developed in terms of both hardware and software to achieve the project aims. The automatic DSM/ORI processing software and its test processing results are also described.

  18. Aloe emodin inhibits the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Harhaji, Ljubica; Mijatovic, Sanja; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Popadic, Dusan; Isakovic, Aleksandra; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2007-07-30

    We demonstrate the capacity of an herbal anthraquinone aloe emodin to reduce the cytotoxicity of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) towards L929 mouse fibrosarcoma and U251 human glioma cell lines. Aloe emodin inhibited both TNF-induced cell necrosis and apoptosis, but it did not reduce cell death induced by UV radiation or hydrogen peroxide. Aloe emodin inhibited both basal and TNF-triggered activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and a selective blockade of ERK activation mimicked the cytoprotective action of the drug. On the other hand, aloe emodin did not affect TNF-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or generation of reactive oxygen species. The combination of aloe emodin and TNF caused an intracellular appearance of acidified autophagic vesicles, and the inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin or 3-methyladenine efficiently blocked the cytoprotective action of aloe emodin. These data indicate that aloe emodin could prevent TNF-triggered cell death through mechanisms involving induction of autophagy and blockade of ERK activation.

  19. Two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds in the gel of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Hart, L A; van Enckevort, P H; van Dijk, H; Zaat, R; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

    1988-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel was analyzed guided by modulatory activity with regard to the in vitro activation of human complement and of human polymorphnuclear leucocytes (PMN). Upon ultrafiltration a high (h-Mr) and a low (l-Mr) molecular mass fraction were obtained. Pre-incubation of human pooled serum with the h-Mr fraction resulted in a depletion of classical and alternative pathway complement activity. In contrast, only the l-Mr fraction could inhibit the production of free oxygen radicals by activated PMNs. The latter activity cannot be attributed to non-specific effects like toxicity, interference with stimulant binding or scavenger activity.

  20. Of hemorrhagic shock, spherical cows and Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fuller, Stephanie P

    2004-12-01

    The central question explored in this commentary is whether the beneficial effects of an Aloe vera derived drag-reducing polymer during hemorrhagic shock is due to its O2 radical scavenging properties or to changes in blood rheology.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. PMID:27656056

  2. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two distinct human gastric carcinoma cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. We demonstrate that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Noteworthy is that the AGS cells were generally more sensitive than the NCI-N87 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by the activation of caspase-3, leading to nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These preclinical studies suggest that aloe-emodin represents a suitable and novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human gastric carcinoma.

  3. Identification of linear features at geothermal field based on Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) of the ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeruddin; Saepuloh, A.; Heriawan, M. N.; Kubo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has about 40% of geothermal energy resources in the world. An area with the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Wayang Windu located at West Java Province. The comprehensive understanding about the geothermal system in this area is indispensable for continuing the development. A geothermal system generally associated with joints or fractures and served as the paths for the geothermal fluid migrating to the surface. The fluid paths are identified by the existence of surface manifestations such as fumaroles, solfatara and the presence of alteration minerals. Therefore the analyses of the liner features to geological structures are crucial for identifying geothermal potential. Fractures or joints in the form of geological structures are associated with the linear features in the satellite images. The Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) was used for the basis to determine the linear features. In this study, we used satellite images of ALOS PALSAR in Ascending and Descending orbit modes. The linear features obtained by satellite images could be validated by field observations. Based on the application of STA to the ALOS PALSAR data, the general direction of extracted linear features were detected in WNW-ESE, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The directions are consistent with the general direction of faults system in the field. The linear features extracted from ALOS PALSAR data based on STA were very useful to identify the fractured zones at geothermal field.

  4. Aloe spp.--plants with vertebrate-like telomeric sequences.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hanna; Scherthan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome termini of most eukaryotes end in tracks of short tandemly repeated GC-rich sequences, the composition of which varies among different groups of organisms. Plant species predominantly contain (TTTAGGG)n repeats at their telomeres. However, a few plant species, including members of Alliaceae and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae) were found to lack such Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3)n telomeric repeats. Recently, it has been proposed that the lack of T3AG3 telomeric repeat sequences extends to all species forming the Asparagales clade. Here, we analysed the composition of Aloe telomeres by single-primer PCR and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with directly labelled Arabidopsis-type (TTTAGGG)28-43 DNA probe, and with vertebrate-type (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA and a (C3TA2)3 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. It was found that Nicotiana tabacum contained Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats, while Aloe telomeres lacked the corresponding FISH signals. Surprisingly, FISH with the highly specific vertebrate-type (C3TA2)3 PNA probe resulted in strong T2AG3-specific FISH signals at the ends of chromosomes of both Aloe and Nicotiana tabacum, suggesting the presence of T2AG3 telomeric repeats in these species. FISH with a long (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA probe also highlighted Aloe chromosome ends, while this probe failed to reveal FISH signals on tobacco chromosomes. These results indicate the presence of vertebrate-like telomeric sequences at the telomeres of Aloe spp. chromosomes. However, single-primer PCR with (TAG3)5 primers failed to amplify such sequences in Aloe, which could indicate a low copy number of T2AG3 repeats at the chromosome ends and/or their co-orientation and interspersion with other repeat types. Our results suggest that telomeres of plant species, which were thought to lack GC-rich repeats, may in fact contain variant repeat types.

  5. ALOS-2 development status and draft acquisition strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) will succeed to the radar mission of the ALOS "Daichi" which had contributed to cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring, and earth resources surveys for more than 5 years until its termination of operation in May 2011. The state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution (1m * 3m at finest in the Spotlight mode) and wide swath (up to 490km in the ScanSAR wide mode), compared to ALOS/PALSAR. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The SAR antenna consists of 5 panels with total 1,080 radiation elements which are driven by 180 Transmit-Receive-Modules in order to steer and form a beam in both range and azimuth direction. In order to reduce range ambiguities,PALSAR-2 is capable to transmit up or down chirp signal alternatively and has phase modulation with zero or pi as well. The Proto Flight Model of ALOS-2 including PALSAR-2 is under integration and testing at JAXA's Tsukuba Space Center. From experiences of the ALOS operation, a systematic observation strategy to achieve consistent data acquisitions in time and space was crucial. Since more observation modes of PALSAR-2 than those of PALSAR may trigger more conflicts among user requests, a basic observation scenario must be prepared to fulfill the mission requirements. This paper describes the current development status of ALOS-2 and a draft acquisition strategy for PALSAR-2.

  6. Photodynamic activity of aloe-emodin induces resensitization of lung cancer cells to anoikis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Yang, Wen-Hui; Hour, Mann-Jen; Wu, Chi-Yu; Peng, Wen-Huang; Bao, Bo-Ying; Han, Ping-Hsiu; Bau, Da-Tian

    2010-12-01

    Aloe-emodin was found to be a photosensitizer and possess anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin remains unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of photocytotoxicity induced by aloe-emodin in lung cancer H460 cells. According to the results of the photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced disruption of cytoskeleton, we verify that aloe-emodin with irradiation induces anoikis of H460 cells. Photosensitized aloe-emodin-induced anoikis is associated with the protein expression of α-actinin and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase members. In this study, a rapid opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the change in apoptosis-related protein expression were involved in photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced cell death. We also demonstrated that anoikis induced by aloe-emodin with irradiation is mediated through the intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways in a caspase-dependent manner in H460 cells.

  7. Continental Scale Vegetation Structure Mapping Using Field Calibrated Landsat, ALOS Palsar And GLAS ICESat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Armston, J.; Lucas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical plant profiles are important descriptors of canopy structure and are used to inform models of biomass, biodiversity and fire risk. In Australia, an approach has been developed to produce large area maps of vertical plant profiles by extrapolating waveform lidar estimates of vertical plant profiles from ICESat/GLAS using large area segmentation of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat satellite image products. The main assumption of this approach is that the vegetation height profiles are consistent across the segments defined from ALOS PALSAR and Landsat image products. More than 1500 field sites were used to develop an index of fractional cover using Landsat data. A time series of the green fraction was used to calculate the persistent green fraction continuously across the landscape. This was fused with ALOS PALSAR L-band Fine Beam Dual polarisation 25m data and used to segment the Australian landscapes. K-means clustering then grouped the segments with similar cover and backscatter into approximately 1000 clusters. Where GLAS-ICESat footprints intersected these clusters, canopy profiles were extracted and aggregated to produce a mean vertical vegetation profile for each cluster that was used to derive mean canopy and understorey height, depth and density. Due to the large number of returns, these retrievals are near continuous across the landscape, enabling them to be used for inventory and modelling applications. To validate this product, a radiative transfer model was adapted to map directional gap probability from airborne waveform lidar datasets to retrieve vertical plant profiles Comparison over several test sites show excellent agreement and work is underway to extend the analysis to improve national biomass mapping. The integration of the three datasets provide options for future operational monitoring of structure and AGB across large areas for quantifying carbon dynamics, structural change and biodiversity.

  8. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies.

  9. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base.

  10. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  11. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Jinwan; Jin, Yoojeong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-11-14

    Metabolite profiling of four different-sized Aloe vera plants was performed using gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Amino acids, sugars, and organic acids related to growth and development were identified by sizes. In particular, the relative contents of glucose, fructose, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid increased gradually as the size of the aloe increased. Anthraquinone derivatives such as 7-hydroxy-8-O-methylaloin, 7-hydroxyaloin A, and 6'-malonylnataloins A and B increased gradually, whereas chromone derivatives decreased continuously as the size of the aloe increased. The A30 aloe (size = 20-30 cm) with relatively high contents of aloins A and B, was suggested to have antioxidant components showing the highest antioxidant activity among the four different sizes of aloe. These data suggested that MS-based metabolomic approaches can illuminate metabolite changes associated with growth and development and can explain their change of antioxidant activity.

  12. Nephroprotective Effect of the Leaves of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) against Toxicity Induced by Diclofenac Sodium in Albino Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, A; Hasan, IJ; Sarfraz, M; Jafri, L; Ashraf, MA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis against toxicity induced by diclofenac sodium in albino rabbits. Subjects and Method: Thirty-six healthy albino rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 served as the untreated control, group 2 was treated only with diclofenac sodium, group 3 with the nephroprotective drug silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with different doses of Aloe barbadensis, ie 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively after being treated with diclofenac sodium. Blood samples were collected after every five days up to fifteen days. Haematological and histopathological parameters were determined by using diagnostic kits. Results: Results of haematological studies showed that use of the powder of Aloe barbadensis normalized the level of different factors eg, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values. Histopathological studies showed that Aloe barbadensis ameliorated pyknotic nuclei in the renal epithelial cells and reduced oxidative stress by increasing the level of catalase and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Conclusion: These results have shown that Aloe barbadensis can normalize oxidative stress and can be used as an effective nephroprotective agent against drug-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27398602

  13. Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations.

  14. A novel sensitive detection platform for antitumor herbal drug aloe-emodin based on the graphene modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Chen, Jinghua; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Lu, Chun-Hua; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2010-12-15

    This paper has presented a novel strategy to carry out direct and sensitive determination of antitumor herbal drug aloe-emodin in complex matrices based on the graphene-Nafion modified glassy carbon (GN/GC) electrode. This proposed modified electrode showed good electrochemical response towards aloe-emodin (AE). Compared with the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified electrode, the GN/GC electrode has the advantages of higher sensitivity and lower cost. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve for AE concentration was linear in the range from 5 nmol/L to 1 μmol/L with the detection limit of 2 nmol/L. In addition, the practical analytical performance of the GN/GC electrode was examined by evaluating the selective detection of AE in natural aloe extracts and human urine samples with satisfied recovery. Therefore, the GN/GC electrode may hold great promise for fast, simple and sensitive detection and biomedical analysis of AE in complex matrices.

  15. The Relation between Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Leaf Slices of Aloe arborescens Mill 1

    PubMed Central

    Denius, Homer R.; Homann, Peter H.

    1972-01-01

    Leaves and leaf slices from Aloe arborescens Mill. were used to study the interrelations between Crassulacean acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and respiration. Oxygen exchange of leaf slices was measured polarographically. It was found that the photosynthetic utilization of stored malic acid resulted in a net evolution of oxygen. This oxygen production, and the decrease in acid content of the leaf tissue, were completely inhibited by amytal, although the rate of respiratory oxygen uptake was hardly affected by the presence of this inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Other poisons of respiration (cyanide) and of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (trifluoroacetate, 2-diethyl malonate) also were effective in preventing acid-dependent oxygen evolution. It is concluded that the mobilization of stored acids during light-dependent deacidification of the leaves depends on the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and of the electron transport of the mitochondria. A comparison of enzyme activities in extracts from Aloe leaves and from other plants and studies of leaf anatomy and chloroplast morphology revealed typical characteristics of C3−, as well as C4−, plants in Aloe. Images PMID:16658075

  16. In vitro angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel on calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Lee, O H; Yoon, S H; Lee, S K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Sung, C K; Choi, J S; Kim, K W

    1998-06-01

    Angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel was investigated by in vitro assay. We obtained the most active fraction from dichloromethane extract of Aloe vera gel by partitioning between hexane and 90% aqueous methanol. The most active fraction (F3) increased the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. In addition, F3 fraction induced CPAE cells to invade type 1 collagen gel and form capillary-like tube through in vitro angiogenesis assay, and increased the invasion of CPAE cells into matrigel through in vitro invasion assay. Furthermore, the effect on the mRNA expression of proteolytic enzymes which are key participants in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation was investigated by northern blot analysis. F3 fraction enhanced mRNA expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) in CPAE cells whereas the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA was not changed.

  17. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  18. ALOS PALSAR and UAVSAR Soil Moisture in Field Campaigns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our ongoing analysis of L-band radar mapping of soil moisture we are evaluating the role that ALOS PALSAR data can play in the development of radar retrieval algorithms for the future NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Differences in configurations must be assessed to det...

  19. Ribosomal DNA evolution and phylogeny in Aloe (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Leitch, I J; Bennett, M D; Chase, M W; Leitch, A R

    2000-11-01

    All Aloe taxa (∼400 species) share a conserved bimodal karyotype with a basic genome of four large and three small submetacentric/acrocentric chromosomes. We investigated the physical organization of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to 13 Aloe species. The organization was compared with a phylogenetic tree of 28 species (including the 13 used for FISH) constructed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA. The phylogeny showed little divergence within Aloe, although distinct, well-supported clades were found. FISH analysis of 5S rDNA distribution showed a similar interstitial location on a large chromosome in all species examined. In contrast, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA was variable, with differences in number, location, and size of loci found between species. Nevertheless, within well-supported clades, all species had the same organizational patterns. Thus, despite the striking stability of karyotype structure and location of 5S rDNA, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA is not so constrained and has clearly changed during Aloe speciation.

  20. Osmo-air drying of aloe vera gel cubes.

    PubMed

    Pisalkar, P S; Jain, N K; Jain, S K

    2011-04-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) cubes of 12.5 × 12.5 × 12.5 mm thick were osmosed for 4 h in sugar syrup of 30, 40 and 50°Brix concentration and temperatures of 30 and 50°C at constant syrup to fruit ratio of 5:1. Osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples were hot air dried at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C with constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The water loss, solid gain and convective drying behaviour were recorded during experiments. It was observed that water loss and solid gain ranged from 39.2 to 71.3 and 2.7 to 6.3%, respectively during osmo-drying. The moisture diffusivity varied from 2.9 to 8.0 × 10(-9) m²/s and 2.7 to 4.6 × 10(-9) m²/s during air drying of osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples, respectively. Drying air temperature and osmosis as pre-treatment affected the water loss, solid gain, diffusivity at -p ≤ 0.01.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Singh, Prashant; Bhatia, Daksh

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

  2. ALOS-PALSAR Performances on a Multiple Sensor DInSAR Scenario for Deformation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Pablo; Arbiol, Roman; Pala, Vicenc

    2008-11-01

    The Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya (ICC) has developed its own DInSAR processing chain during the past years. Initial topographic interferometry applications have evolved into Multi Image Differential Interferometry (MI DInSAR) for terrain deformation monitoring purposes. The appearance of the JAXA's L-band sensor ALOS-PALSAR opens new possibilities to increase the amount of useful information which serve as input to these techniques and brings complementarity to the already successful C-band missions as ESA's ERS and ENVISAT. In the frame of deformation monitoring, PALSAR benefits and L-C band combination strategies are here investigated. L-band coherence enhancement in rural areas is addressed, allowing information retrieval on areas that would be inaccessible at C-band. Furthermore, PALSAR polarimetric channels combination is investigated in order to increase the number of pixels from whom deformation values can be extracted. Deformation results employing PALSAR and ENVISAT data are presented.

  3. Aloe barbadensis Miller mediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunalan, Sangeetha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.

  4. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity.

  5. Pan-Tropical Forest Cover from Alos-Palsar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Bishop, J. B.; Cormier, T.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Holecz, F.

    2010-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Forest carbon monitoring is a crucial component for the scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle as well as the success of crediting developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Now, tropical and subtropical nations are challenged to establish Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification systems using remote sensing technology. We report on progress using ALOS-PALSAR data in such endeavors. 2. PAN-TROPICAL ALOS PALSAR DATA A database of ~ 17,000 ALOS-PALSAR FBD scenes has been compiled to generate a 2007 pan-tropical dataset to produce forest cover (forest/non-forest) estimates. All scenes are radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed using based on a pre-compiled SRTM global digital elevation data sets. Ancillary data like layover, shadow and local incidence angle are computed and stored for each scene. After pre-processing, data are available in 8-bit filtered (Gamma-MAP) and dB-scaled three-band composites of L-hh/L-hv/Ratio hh-hv (Figure 1), as well as unfiltered power data. More than 95 % of the data are from the FBD acquisition cycles in 2007 with missing tracks filled with data from 2008 and 2009 cycles. 3. FOREST COVER CLASSIFICATION Using ancillary satellite data a pan-tropical network of calibrated reference data was generated. These data are used to classify swath data to be combined to continental forest/non-forest cover classification mosaics. The pan-tropical map is validated with withheld training data for testing, as well as through independent operator verification with very high-resolution image data from optical sensors. A pilot study region in the Xingu Watershed in Mato Grosse, Brazil (300,000 km2) showed map agreements between ALOS-PALSAR and Landsat-TM derived classifications of greater than 99 percent [1]. 4. RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL FOREST MONITORING Global estimates of forest cover are currently produced from various sources at various spatial and temporal

  6. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Affects Seedling Emergence, DNA Integrity, Plant Morphology, Growth Rate, and Attractiveness to Herbivore Insects in Datura ferox.

    PubMed Central

    Ballare, C. L.; Scopel, A. L.; Stapleton, A. E.; Yanovsky, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    To study functional relationships between the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on different aspects of the physiology of a wild plant, we carried out exclusion experiments in the field with the summer annual Datura ferox L. Solar UV-B incident over Buenos Aires reduced daytime seedling emergence, inhibited stem elongation and leaf expansion, and tended to reduce biomass accumulation during early growth. However, UV-B had no effect on calculated net assimilation rate. Using a monoclonal antibody specific to the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD), we found that plants receiving full sunlight had more CPDs per unit of DNA than plants shielded from solar UV-B, but the positive correlation between UV-B and CPD burden tended to level off at high (near solar) UV-B levels. At our field site, Datura plants were consumed by leaf beetles (Coleoptera), and the proportion of plants attacked by insects declined with the amount of UV-B received during growth. Field experiments showed that plant exposure to solar UV-B reduced the likelihood of leaf beetle attack by one-half. Our results highlight the complexities associated with scaling plant responses to solar UV-B, because they show: (a) a lack of correspondence between UV-B effects on net assimilation rate and whole-plant growth rate, (b) nonlinear UV-B dose-response curves, and (c) UV-B effects of plant attractiveness to natural herbivores. PMID:12226382

  7. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  8. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  9. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K(+) channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  10. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  11. Analysis of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Murphy, Timothy P

    2004-12-20

    A procedure was developed for the determination of low levels of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin A (barbalin) in aloe products based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives of these analytes in the presence of Chrysophanol used as internal standard. The method was used to analyze several aloe based commercial products (liquids, gels and solids). Wide variation in the level of these anthraquinones was observed among the different products. The method had a sensitivity of 0.005 ppm of aloe-emodin and 0.05 ppm of aloin.

  12. Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Russell, Christopher; Patel, Sapna; Patel, Rekha

    2004-12-20

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroy-3-[hydroxymethyl]-anthraquione) purified from Aloe vera leaves has been reported to have antitumor activity. The objectives of our research were to determine how aloe-emodin regulates the cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein kinase C (PKC) during glioma growth and development. To establish the cell cycle effects of aloe-emodin on brain cells [transformed glia cell line (SVG) and human glioma U-373MG cell line (U-373MG)], cells were treated with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control) or aloe-emodin (40 microM). Results from flow cytometry demonstrated that aloe-emodin delayed the number of cells entering and exiting DNA synthesis (S) phase in both SVG and U-373MG cells indicating that aloe-emodin may inhibit S phase progression. Assessment of cell viability demonstrated that SVG and U-373MG glioma cell were highly sensitive to aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-induced decreased proliferation was sustained at 48-96 h. A PKC activity assay was quantified to establish the role of PKC in aloe-emodin's mode of action. Exposure of SVG and U-373MG glioma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed PKC activity and reduced the protein content of most of the PKC isozymes. We determined that cancer growth inhibition by aloe-emodin was due to apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death). Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that aloe-emodin represents a novel antitumor chemotherapeutic drug.

  13. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin following intravenous and oral administrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Aloe-emodin, a natural polyphenolic anthraquinone, has shown various beneficial bioactivities in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin. Aloe-emodin was intravenously and orally administered to rats. The concentrations of aloe-emodin and rhein, a metabolite of aloe-emodin, were determined by HPLC method prior to and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase/β-glucuronidase. The results showed that the systemic exposures of aloe-emodin and its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin glucuronides (G) > rhein sulfates (S) > aloe-emodin > rhein and rhein G when aloe-emodin was given intravenously. In contrast, when aloe-emodin was administered orally, the parent form of aloe-emodin was not absorbed per se, and the systemic exposures of its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin G > rhein G > rhein. In conclusion, the metabolites of aloe-emodin are more important than the parent form for the bioactivities in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Aloins and Aloin-Emodin in Aloe Vera Raw Materials and Finished Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.09.

    PubMed

    Kline, David; Ritruthai, Vicha; Babajanian, Silva; Gao, Quanyin; Ingle, Prashant; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary

    2017-02-28

    A single-laboratory validation study is described for a method of quantitative analysis of aloins (aloins A and B) andaloe-emodin in aloe vera raw materials and finished products. This method used HPLC coupled with UV detection at 380 nm for the aloins and 430 nm for aloe-emodin. The advantage of this test method is that the target analytes are concentrated from the sample matrix (either liquid or solid form) using stepwise liquid-liquid extraction (water-ethyl acetate-methanol), followed by solvent evaporation and reconstitution. This sample preparation process is suitable for different forms of products. The concentrating step for aloins and aloe-emodin has enhanced the method quantitation level to 20 parts per billion (ppb). Reversed-phase chromatography using a 250 × 4.6 mm column under gradient elution conditions was used. Mobile phase A is 0.1% acetic acid in water and mobile phase B is 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile. The HPLC run starts with a 20% mobile phase B that reaches 35% at 13 min. From 13 to 30 min, mobile phase B is increased from 35 to 100%. From 30 to 40 min, mobile phase B is changed from 100% back to the initial condition of 20% forre-equilibration. The flow rate is 1 mL/min, with a 100 μL injection volume. Baseline separation (Rs > 2.0) for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin was observed under this chromatographic condition. This test method was validated with raw materials of aloe vera 5× (liquid) and aloe vera 200× (powder) and finished products of aloe concentrate (liquid) and aloe (powder). The linearity of the method was studied from 10 to 500 ppb for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin, with correlation coefficients of 0.999964, 0.999957, and 0.999980, respectively. The test method was proven to be specific, precise, accurate, rugged, and suitable for the intended quantitative analysis of aloins and aloe-emodin in raw materials and finished products. The S/N for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin at 10 ppb level were 12, 10, and 8

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of anthraquinone components from Aloe.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Jang Hoon; Li, Wei; Jo, A Reum; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-15

    Aloe is a short-stemmed succulent herb widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and as raw material in cosmetics and heath foods. In this study, we isolated and identified two new anthraquinone derivatives, aloinoside C (6) and aloinoside D (7), together with six known compounds from an aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were evaluated. Compounds 1-8 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 4.1±0.6 to 41.1±4.2 μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-8 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 6 and 8 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2-5 and 7 were the mixed-type. Molecular docking increases our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of all compounds. These results demonstrate that compounds 1-8 from Aloe are potential sEH inhibitors.

  16. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at <0.1 parts per million. In the present study there was a complete absence of any histological alteration in samples from the cecum, colon (proximal, mid and distal regions). Similar concentrations of non-decolorized (unpurified, high anthraquinone) Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon.

  17. Assessment of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel on haematology, plasma biochemistry, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iji, O T; Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-11-28

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract on markers of hepatic damage, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic fragility using the Wistar rats. Forty male Wistar rats divided into four groups of ten rats per group were used in the study. Group I which served as the control received 0.9% physiological saline while those in groups II, III and IV received Aloe vera gel (100, 250 and 500mg/kg), respectively, for four weeks. There was significant increase in the haemoglobin concentration while the PCV, RBC count, MCH and MCHC though showed some marginal increases but the increases were not significant in all the treated rats. No significant change was also observed in the erythrocyte osmotic fragility. However, there were significant reductions in plasma ALT, AST and ALP levels in animals that received the gel compared with the control while the plasma albumin and total protein values were higher than those of the control. All the animals that received the gel also showed significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol ratio compared with the control. In a similar manner, those animals that were administered with 500mg/kg gel had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol ratio than those of the control. This study showed that, chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract had no significant effects on the haematological parameters of the rats and did not affect erythrocyte osmotic resistance. It however showed some cholesterol lowering action.

  18. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management.

  19. Protective role of Aloe vera against X-ray induced testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bala, S; Chugh, N A; Bansal, S C; Garg, M L; Koul, A

    2016-09-13

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the possible radioprotective potential of an Aloe vera extract against whole-body X-ray irradiation-induced testicular alterations in mice. Male balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control, A. vera, X-ray and A. vera pre-treated + X-ray irradiated. Histopathological examination revealed significant structural alterations in testes after X-ray exposure, which was also associated with the presence of apoptotic cells as assessed by TUNEL assay. X-ray irradiation resulted in elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, a reduction in glutathione concentration and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Sperm count/motility and testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the irradiated group. Irradiated animals pre-treated with A. vera extract revealed an improvement in antioxidant status, inhibition of lipid peroxides, apoptotic cell formation and enhanced testicular parameters when compared to the X-ray-exposed group. These findings suggest that A. vera extract could ameliorate X-ray-induced damage due to its free radical scavenging properties and its potential to boost cellular antioxidant defence machinery.

  20. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.

  1. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ERα Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ERα protein levels, thereby suppressing ERα transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ERα and increased ERα ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ERα dissociation and ERα ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ERα degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ERα degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ERα distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ERα protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

  2. Analysis of the effect of ionosphere in L-band ALOS interferograms of the Gulf of Corinth in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, P.; Briole, P.; Herekakis, T.; Belehaki, A.

    2009-04-01

    A series of L-band PALSAR/ALOS single (HH) and dual (HH-VV) polarisation data over the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, have been acquired. Differential interferograms were calculated from these data. The Gulf of Coring seismic area is also monitored with 6 permanent GPS receivers. For the epochs of PALSAR observations, we extracted from the dual-frequency GPS data the ionospheric delay in the line of sight of each satellite. At some stations equipped with receivers collecting P1 and P2, the absolute delay can be estimated. At all stations, relative delays from L1 and L2 were extracted from the data. We analyze our results and discuss the possible influence of the ionosphere in the differential interferograms as well as in singles (of dual polarisation) images and its weight compared to the tropospheric noise.

  3. Signaling pathway for aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human H460 lung nonsmall carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Feng-Tsgh; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2003-08-10

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects through an unknown mechanism. Our study investigated the mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in the human lung nonsmall cell carcinoma cell line H460. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced apoptosis of H460 cells involves modulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p38 protein expression. The relationship of various signals involved in cell death, such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p38, has been investigated in the regulation of apoptotic cell death of aloe-emodin. We demonstrated that the expression of p38 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin.

  4. Aloe QDM complex enhances specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing in vivo in metabolic disease mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Jiyeon; An, Jinho; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2017-03-01

    We developed spontaneous diet-induced metabolic disease in mice by feeding them a high-fat diet for 23 weeks and administered Aloe QDM complex for 16 weeks to examine its restorative effect on immune disorders and metabolic syndrome. A series of immune functional assays indicated Aloe QDM complex enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and antigen-specific immunity as determined by the restored functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and IgG production. The elevated serum TNF-α level was also regulated by Aloe QDM complex treatment, which suggested its complex therapeutic potential. As for metabolic phenotypes, oral administration of Aloe QDM complex significantly improved diabetic symptoms, including high fasting glucose levels and glucose tolerance, and distinctly alleviated lipid accumulation in adipose and hepatic tissue. The simultaneous restoration of Aloe QDM complex on metabolic syndrome and host immune dysfunction, especially on the specific CTL killing was first elucidated in our study.

  5. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Visuthikosol, V; Chowchuen, B; Sukwanarat, Y; Sriurairatana, S; Boonpucknavig, V

    1995-08-01

    In a study of twenty-seven patients with partial thickness burn wound, they were treated with aloe vera gel compared with vaseline gauze. It revealed the aloe vera gel treated lesion healed faster than the vaseline gauze area. The average time of healing in the aloe gel area was 11.89 days and 18.19 days for the vaseline gauze treated wound. Statistical analysis by using t-test and the value of P < 0.002 was statistically significant. In histologic study, it showed early epithelialization in the treated aloe vera gel area. Only some minor adverse effects, such as discomfort and pain were encountered in the 27 cases. This study showed the effectiveness of aloe vera gel on a partial thickness burn wound, and it might be beneficial to do further trials on burn wounds.

  6. Inhibitory activity of Aloe vera gel on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2012-03-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and immune-boosting properties. In the present study we investigated the inhibitory activities of Aloe vera gel on some cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans), periodontopathic (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis) and an opportunistic periodontopathogen (Bacteroides fragilis) isolated from patients with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Twenty isolates of each of these bacteria were investigated for their sensitivity to Aloe vera gel using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. S. mutans was the species most sensitive to Aloe vera gel with a MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, while A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and B. fragilis were less sensitive, with a MIC of 25-50 µg/ml (P < 0.01). Based on our present findings it is concluded that Aloe vera gel at optimum concentration could be used as an antiseptic for prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  7. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants.

  8. InSAR Monitoring of Landslides using RADARSAT and Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Pierre-Jean, A.; Pavlic, G.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of InSAR monitoring of several landslides using RADARDAT, and ALOS satellites. InSAR techniques are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment. Our research has shown that differential InSAR and coherent target monitoring techniques using field corner reflectors are useful to monitor landslide activity along strategic transportation and energy corridors. The Mackenzie Valley in northern Canada is experiencing one of the highest rates on mean annual air temperature for any region in Canada, thereby triggering melting in the permafrost, which results in active layer detachment slides. There are approximately 2000 landslides along the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline route. In addition, the Trans Canada Highway in the Canadian Rockies are affected by several rock avalanches and slow retrogressive slides. The ALOS PALSAR InSAR results show that we can observe deformation on both vegetated and exposed rock areas on the Little Smokey slide and the Frank Slide. RADARSAT-1 InSAR images indicate the different level of activity of the slopes (large and small) during different periods of the year. RADARSAT-2 is providing the high resolution rapid revisit capabilities needed to continuously monitor these active slopes along Canadian strategic energy and transportation corridors. The information produced by our InSAR activity maps on various landslides are used to realign the pipeline route in sensitive permafrost areas, and to install slope stability measures along the Trans-Canada and Provincial Highways. Using these different satellites we are able to develop guidelines for more reliable uses of these SAR missions Keywords: InSAR, landslides, RADARSAT, ALOS .

  9. Simultaneous Determination of 16 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electro Spray Ionization Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Qinan; Wu, Chengying; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, efficient analytical method was established for the qualification and quantification of 16 nucleosides and nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ideal separation of 16 target compounds was achieved on Xbridge Amide HILIC column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient elution in 11 min by optimized conditions. Variations of nucleosides and nucleobase in samples from different cultivation regions ranging from 190.50 to 1594.30 μg/g were obvious. The total nucleoside contents were higher than total nucleobases, especially in the compositions of guanosine, cytidine and 2'-deoxyguanosine. Samples 1-18 with dense thorns were better characters than samples 19-26 without thorns in terms of nucleosides and nucleobases concentrations in general. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for 16 analytical substances were investigated to be 0.11-6.33 ng/mL and 0.35-21.1 ng/mL, respectively. And the method was first applied to large aquatic plants with good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. All present information provided a scientific and rational reference for quality assessment and control of Euryale ferox Salisb.

  10. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  11. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive oil were mixed with the acetone and then water containing DETA monomer was added to the solution using a magnetic stirrer. Finally, the acetone was removed under vacuum, and nanocapsules were obtained using a freeze drier. This study showed that the size of the nanocapsule depends on a variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil, the concentration of polymers, and the plant extract. The first sample is without surfactant and the size of nanocapsules in the sample is 115 nm. By adding surfactant, nanocapsules size was reduced to 96 nm. Nanocapsules containing A. vera were administered to rats and the effects were compared with a normal control group. The results showed that in the A. vera group, the effect is higher. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential sizer (ZPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  12. Aloe-emodin induces in vitro G2/M arrest and alkaline phosphatase activation in human oral cancer KB cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming; Liu, Donghai; Zhang, Shun

    2007-10-01

    Aloe-emodin is a natural anthraquinone compound from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. In this study, KB cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 microM aloe-emodin for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with aloe-emodin at 10 to 40 microM resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in KB cells increased upon treatment with aloe-emodin when compared to controls. This is one of the first studies to focus on the expression of ALP in human oral carcinomas cells treated with aloe-emodin. These results indicate that aloe-emodin has anti-cancer effect on oral cancer, which may lead to its use in chemotherapy and chemopreventment of oral cancer.

  13. Phytochemical investigation of Aloe pulcherrima roots and evaluation for its antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdissa, Dele; Geleta, Girma; Abdissa, Negera

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains. Bioassay-guided sequential extraction and column chrom-atographic separation were employed for the isolation of bioactive pure compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectro-scopic techniques. Disk diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds against four bacterial strains specifically (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The malaria SYBR Green I-based in vitro assay technique was used for in vitro antiplasmodial activity evaluation of the compounds against chloroquine resistant (D6) and -sensitive (W2) strains of P. falciparum. Three compounds, chrysophanol, aloesaponarin I and aloesaponarin II were isolated from the acetone extracts of roots of A. pulcherrima. Evaluation of antibacterial activities revealed that aloesaponarin I and aloesaponarin II had significant activities against all the bacterial strains with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 18–27 mm as compared to the reference drug (gentamicin), which displayed inhibition zone diameter ranging between 20 mm (B. subtilis) and 25 mm (P. aeruginosa). The isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against both chloroquine resistant (W2) -sensitive (D6) strains. Isolation of chrysophanol, aloesaponarin

  14. First Results of the ALOS PALSAR Verification Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, P.; Monti Guarnieri, A.; D'Aria, D.; Costa, L.; Small, D.; Jehle, M.; Rosich, B.

    2007-03-01

    Among the several applications that will take advantage of the newly available data from the ALOS PALSAR instrument, considerable interest is in the peculiar features that derive from the penetration and polarimetric capabilities of the system. These capabilities, new for a single spaceborne sensor, need specific software tools for the processing of the different acquisition modes. This paper presents a verification processor, developed under ESA contract, for the generation of polarimetric, interferometric and polarimetric-interferometric geocoded products derived from ALOS PALSAR data. The processor, developed with a modular approach, contains the following main elements: - Phase-preserving fine resolution processor; - Phase-preserving ScanSAR processor; - Interference removal tools; - Polarimetric calibration tools; - Polarimetric analysis tools; - Fine resolution interferometric processor; - ScanSAR interferometric processor; - Polarimetric-interferometric processor; - Geocoding; - Atmospheric modelling tools. The processor architecture is presented; highlights are given on specific modules and algorithms. Early results are shown, in particular of the processing of polarimetric and polarimetric-interferometric data over different test sites.

  15. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent.

  16. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1990-05-01

    Full-face dermabrasion provided an ideal opportunity to document the effects of dressings on wound healing management. Following the procedure, the abraded face was divided in half. One side was treated with the standard polyethylene oxide gel wound dressings. The other side was treated with a polyethylene oxide gel dressing saturated with stabilized aloe vera. The polyethylene oxide dressing provided an excellent matrix for the release of aloe vera gel during the initial 5 days of wound healing. By 24-48 hours there was dramatic vasoconstriction and accompanying reduction in edema on the aloe-treated side. By the third to fourth day there was less exudate and crusting at the aloe site, and by the fifth to sixth day the reepithelialization at the aloe site was complete. Overall, wound healing was approximately 72 hours faster at the aloe site. This acceleration in wound healing is important to reduce bacterial contamination, subsequent keloid formation, and/or pigmentary changes. The exact mechanism of acceleration of wound healing by aloe vera is unknown.

  17. Comparative efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine on periodontal health: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Bhashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Background With introduction of many herbal medicines, dentistry has recently evidenced shift of approach for treating many inflammatory oral diseases by using such modalities. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research recently. Aim To compare the efficacy of Aloevera and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on Periodontal Health. Material and Methods Thirty days randomized controlled trial was conducted among 390 dental students. The students were randomized into two intervention groups namely Aloe Vera (AV) chlorhexidine group (CHX) and one control (placebo) group. Plaque index and gingival index was recorded for each participant at baseline, 15 days and 30 days. The findings were than statistically analyzed, ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. Results There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters with Aloe Vera (AV) and chlorhexidine group. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean plaque and gingival index scores of aloe Vera and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between AloeVera and chlorhexidine group. Conclusions Being an herbal product AloeVera has shown equal effectiveness as Chlorhexidine. Hence can be used as an alternative product for curing and preventing gingivitis. Key words:Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, dental plaque, gingivitis. PMID:27703614

  18. Effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Z; Hsu, S L; Liu, M C; Wu, C H

    2001-11-23

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. The study investigated the effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line CH27. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced CH27 cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation (DNA ladders and sub-G(1) formation). Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 cells involved modulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, such as BclX(L), Bag-1, and Bak, and was associated with the translocation of Bak and Bax from cytosolic to particulate fractions. Aloe-emodin-treated CH27 cells had an increased relative abundance of cytochrome c in the cytosolic fraction. Results demonstrated that the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induces CH27 cell death by the Bax and Fas death pathway.

  19. In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A.

    PubMed

    Wamer, Wayne G; Vath, Peter; Falvey, Daniel E

    2003-01-15

    Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. Since a recent study indicated that topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, we examined the events following photoexcitation of aloin A and aloe emodin. We determined that incubation of human skin fibroblasts with 20 microM aloe emodin for 18 h followed by irradiation with UV or visible light resulted in significant photocytotoxicity. This photocytotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative damage in both cellular DNA and RNA. In contrast, no photocytotoxicity was observed following incubation with up to 500 microM aloin A and irradiation with UVA light. In an attempt to explain the different photobiological properties of aloin A and aloe emodin, laser flash photolysis experiments were performed. We determined that the triplet state of aloe emodin was readily formed following photoexcitation. However, no transient intermediates were formed following photoexcitation of aloin A. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage after irradiation of aloin A is unlikely. Although aloin A was not directly photocytotoxic, we found that human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin.

  20. Binding of the bioactive component Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Aloe dihydroisocoumarin, one of new components isolated from Aloe vera, can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. An isoemissive point at 414 nm is seen, indicating that the quenching of HSA fluorescence depends on the formation of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin-HSA complex, which is further confirmed by fluorescence dynamic result. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the gain of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil stability and the loss of β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FTIR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydroisocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  1. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples.

  2. Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra; Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Traditional medicine is a useful guide in medical sciences. In the Islamic Iranian traditional medicine, the medicinal properties of many plants have been mentioned that could be exploited in drug discovery. We aimed to explore the nature and properties of Aloe spp. As described in some major Islamic traditional texts including Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibbe (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure), and assess the conformity of traditional medicine instructions with the findings of modern pharmacological studies. Gastrointestinal activities, hepato-protective properties, beneficial effects against skin problems such as wounds, injuries, and infective diseases are among the most frequently mentioned properties of Aloe spp. Several activities of Aloe spp. described in traditional medicine have been the subject of recent in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. Owing to the positive findings, different preparations of Aloe spp. are now present in pharmaceutical markets such as Aloe cosmetic products. On the other hand, there are many traditional therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. which have not been studied and require confirmatory experimental or clinical investigations. It is hoped that the present study could stimulate further research on the unexplored aspects of the medicinal properties of Aloe spp.

  3. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-05

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans.

  4. Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Ito, Yousuke; Habara, Noriko; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Takase, Mitunori; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuuichi

    2006-07-01

    The genus Aloe in the family Liliaceae is a group of plants including Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis MILLER) and Aloe arborescens (Aloe arborescens MILLER var. natalensis BERGER) that are empirically known to have various medical efficacies. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel and isolated a number of compounds from the gel. On the basis of spectroscopic data, these compounds were identified as lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene-cycloartanol. These five phytosterols were evaluated for their anti-hyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic BKS.Cg-m(+/+)Lepr(db/J) (db/db) mice. In comparison with the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of vehicle-treated mice, statistically significant decreases of 15 to 18% in HbA1c levels were observed in mice treated with 1 mug of the five phytosterols. Considering the ability to reduce blood glucose in vivo, there were no differences between the five phytosterols. Administration of beta-sitosterol did not reduce the blood glucose levels in db/db mice. After administration of the five phytosterols for 28 d, fasting blood glucose levels decreased to approximately 64%, 28%, 47%, 51%, and 55% of control levels, respectively. Severe diabetic mice treated with phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel did not suffer weight reduction due to glucose loss in the urine. These findings suggest that Aloe vera gel and phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel have a long-term blood glucose level control effect and would be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  6. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27840496

  7. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27516663

  8. Aloe emodin, an anthroquinone from Aloe vera acts as an anti aggregatory agent to the thermally aggregated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Furkan, Mohammad; Alam, Md Tauqir; Rizvi, Asim; Khan, Kashan; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2017-05-15

    Aggregation of proteins is a physiological process which contributes to the pathophysiology of several maladies including diabetes mellitus, Huntington's and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we have reported that aloe emodin (AE), an anthroquinone, which is one of the active components of the Aloe vera plant, acts as an inhibitor of hemoglobin (Hb) aggregation. Hb was thermally aggregated at 60°C for four days as evident by increased thioflavin T and ANS fluorescence, shifted congo red absorbance, appearance of β sheet structure, increase in turbidity and presence of oligomeric aggregates. Increasing concentration of AE partially reverses the aggregation of the model heme protein (hemoglobin). The maximum effect of AE was observed at 100μM followed by saturation at 125μM. The results were confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry, intrinsic fluorescence, ThT, ANS, congo red assay as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were also supported by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which shows the disappearance of β sheet structure and appearance of α helices. This study will serve as baseline for translatory research and the development of AE based therapeutics for diseases attributed to protein aggregation.

  9. Release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus: Involvement in aloe-emodin-induced human lung non small carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Shen-Peng

    2005-03-01

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is one of the active constituents from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. Our previous study has demonstrated that aloe-emodin induced a significant change in the expression of lung cancer cell apoptosis-related proteins compared to those of control cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin still remain unknown. Based on these reasons, we were interested in the change of aloe-emodin-induced total protein expression by the proteomics technique during aloe-emodin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. Our study applied 2D electrophoresis to analyze the proteins involved in aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in H460 cells. We found that the release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus to the cytosol and the degradation of nucleophosmin were associated with aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis. Our study also demonstrated that the gene expression of nucleophosmin remained unchanged after treatment with aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-caused increase in the amount of proform and fragment of nucleophosmin in cytoplasm may be one of the important events for aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis.

  10. Investigation on automatic change detection using pixel-changes and DSM-changes with ALOS-PRISM triplet images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, A.; Baltsavias, E.; Kocaman Aksakal, S.; Wegner, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    A new algorithm for automatic change detection is presented. It detects a pixel-change and DSM-change from two orthoimages and two DSMs, then it extracts the polygons in elevation-changed areas. Pixel-change is detected by using least squares fitting technique. This method can extract the visible changed areas between two orthoimages, while DSM-change is detected by difference DSM. From these two changes, polygons in elevation-changed areas are extracted using the longest matched line selection techniques. This method can automatically detect not only visible changed areas such as vegetated areas, new road construction areas and so on, but also elevation-changed areas such as new building construction, land improvement areas and so on with footprint polygon extraction. We have tested our method using the two sets of ALOS-PRISM triplet images observed over a testfield in Tsukuba, Japan. We confirmed that this method has an effect finding changed areas. Also we compared the number of extracted polygons between manual operation and our automatic method.

  11. Electron spin resonance g tensors for complexes of Ne and Ar with AlO: Theoretical studies related to the large matrix effect observed for AlO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, Friedrich

    2005-03-01

    For Nen-AlO (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10) and Arn-AlO clusters (n=2, 4, 6, 8), the perpendicular (relative to AlO) component of the g tensor was calculated by second-order perturbation theory, using multireference configuration-interaction wave functions. The rare-gas (Rg) atoms were placed axially and/or off axially (one or two rings of four Rg atoms each), and the distance of the Rg atoms from the Al and O atoms, or from the AlO axis, was varied from 4 to 12 bohrs. Rg atoms placed axially mostly increase g⊥, whereas off-axially placed ones lower it below the gas-phase value of AlO. The largest deviations from g⊥ of isolated AlO occur at Ne-Al,O distances of 5-6 bohrs, and Ar-Al,O distances of 6-9 bohrs, with maximal lowerings of about 1600 ppm for Ne and about 2200 ppm (estimated) for Ar in the case of two axial and eight off-axial Rg atoms. Electron spin resonance studies by Knight and Weltner found large matrix effects for AlO, with downshifts of g⊥ observed to be about 450 and 1150 ppm in Ne and Ar matrices, respectively.

  12. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms.

  13. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  14. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  15. An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Popa, E G; Gomes, M E; Cerqueira, M; Marques, A P; Caridade, S G; Teixeira, P; Sousa, C; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-06-01

    A significant number of therapeutics derived from natural polymers and plants have been developed to replace or to be used in conjunction with existing dressing products. The use of the therapeutic properties of aloe vera could be very useful in the creation of active wound dressing materials. The present work was undertaken to examine issues concerning structural features, topography, enzymatic degradation behavior, antibacterial activity and cellular response of chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes that were developed displayed satisfactory degradation, roughness, wettability and mechanical properties. A higher antibacterial potency was displayed by the blended membranes. Moreover, in vitro assays demonstrated that these blended membranes have good cell compatibility with primary human dermal fibroblasts. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes might be promising wound dressing materials.

  16. Theoretical investigation of the long-lived metastable AlO2+ dication in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Jaidane, Nejm Eddine; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of a detailed theoretical study of the electronic ground and excited states of the gas-phase doubly charged ion AlO2+ using high-level ab initio computer calculations. Both standard and explicitly correlated methods were used to calculate their potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters. These computations show that the ground state of AlO2+ is X2Π. The internuclear equilibrium distance of AlO2+(X2Π) is computed 1.725 Å. We also deduced the adiabatic double ionization and charge stripping energies of AlO to be about 27.45 eV and 17.80 eV, respectively.

  17. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review.

    PubMed

    Eshun, Kojo; He, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of Aloe--"nature's gift." Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of Aloe vera have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of A. vera. Appropriate processing techniques should be employed during the stabilization of the gel in order to affect and extend its field of utilization.

  18. Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-01-01

    The positive influence of Aloe vera, a tropical cactus, on the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic rats is reported. Full-thickness excision/incision wounds were created on the back of rats, and treated either by topical application on the wound surface or by oral administration of the Aloe vera gel to the rat. Wound granulation tissues were removed on various days and the collagen, hexosamine, total protein and DNA contents were determined, in addition to the rates of wound contraction and period of epithelialization. Measurements of tensile strength were made on treated/untreated incision wounds. The results indicated that Aloe vera treatment of wounds in diabetic rats may enhance the process of wound healing by influencing phases such as inflammation, fibroplasia, collagen synthesis and maturation, and wound contraction. These effects may be due to the reported hypoglycemic effects of the aloe gel.

  19. Increasing productivity by reducing average length of stay (ALOS) in Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujoy; Basu, Rupali

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of ALOS in the hospital through streamlined processes with validation for standardized work such as clinical pathways. The implementation of barcoding and streamlining laboratories with interface solutions has reduced the cycle time for the diagnostic areas. The long standing cases over seven days provided a trigger for the Medical Board, which helped in multidisciplinary care of these patients. Cohort of patients in respective wards according to discipline for almost 80% of patients have improved nursing and other paramedical services and had a definite impact on ALOS and other outcomes. Finally, the organization had a benefit of nearly USD 0.9 million for a period of nine months during this study. The organization has carried on with the benefits of the ALOS reduction and currently has reduced ALOS to 4.5 days.

  20. Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Oliveira, M B; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2014-11-04

    Chemical composition and biological properties of Aloe vera (AV), a tropical plant, explain its potential use for cosmetic, nutritional and biomedical applications. AV gel present in AV leaves is rich in several compounds, nutrients and polysaccharides. This work proposes using AV gel complex structure and chemical composition, associated with freeze-drying, to produce sponges. To increase the structures stability in aqueous media, a thin coating of gellan gum (GG), was applied onto AV gel. AV-based sponges showed a heterogeneous porous formation, interconnected pores and good porosity (72-77%). The coating with a GG layer onto AV influenced the stability, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the resulting sponges. Moreover, sponges provided the sustained release of BSA-FTIC, used as a model protein, over 3 weeks. Also, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that sponges are not cytotoxic for a mouse fibroblast-like cell line. Therefore, developed AV-based sponges have potential use in biomedical applications.

  1. Tyrosinase inhibitory components from Aloe vera and their antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Yang, Seo Young; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kwon, Sun Jung; Cho, In Sook; Jeong, Min Hee; Ho Kim, Young; Choi, Gug Seoun

    2017-12-01

    A new compound, 9-dihydroxyl-2'-O-(Z)-cinnamoyl-7-methoxy-aloesin (1), and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from Aloe vera. Their structures were elucidated using 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra. Compound 9 exhibited reversible competitive inhibitory activity against the enzyme tyrosinase, with an IC50 value of 9.8 ± 0.9 µM. A molecular simulation revealed that compound 9 interacts via hydrogen bonding with residues His244, Thr261, and Val283 of tyrosinase. Additionally, compounds 3 and 7 were shown by half-leaf assays to exhibit inhibitory activity towards Pepper mild mottle virus.

  2. Gri testing of SulFerox (trade name) for the direct treatment of high-pressure natural gas at NGPL`s Kermit, Texas site. Final report, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McIntush, K.E.; Petrinec, B.J.

    1995-04-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from sour gas is vital to the natural gas industry. About 14% of gas reserves are sour, and 15% of gas produced requires sulfur removal. Direct treatment of high-pressure sour gas with liquid redox processes has potential to reduce sulfur emissions and costs compared to conventional amine/Claus/SCOT technologies. However, these potential benefits and operability have not been commercially proven. For these reasons, GRI funded a pilot unit project with Radian Corporation and with the assistance of Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America. SulFerox was the first of a series of technologies to be evaluated. ARI-LO-CAT II will be evaluated next.

  3. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  4. Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Zamani, Peyman; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2010-01-01

    The management of burn injury remains a problem and it is the major cause of death and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of thermal burn wounds and to compare these results with silver sulfadiazine in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Animals were administered topical cream (Aloe vera powdered gel 0.5% and silver sulfadiazine) at 24 h of burn injury induced by hot water. On special days, according to study protocol, wound size was determined and skin sample histopathology performed in animal groups administered topical therapies. On day 25, the mean wound size was 5.5, 4, 0.78 and 4.1 cm2 in control, base, aloe and silver group, respectively. The wound size was significantly smaller in aloe group as compared with other groups. Histologic comparison showed aloe to increase reepithelialization in burn wounds significantly as compared with other cream-treated wounds. The results of this study showed aloe cream to significantly increase reepithelialization in burn wounds as compared with silver sulfadiazine.

  5. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Li, Shengqing; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2.

  6. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity evaluation of rhein-aloe emodin hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye-Fei; Hu, Xiang-Yu; He, Ying; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2012-02-01

    To improve the anti-tumor effects of rhein and aloe-emodin, a rhein-aloe-emodin hybrid molecule (RH-AE) was synthesized from rhein and aloe-emodin in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). Chemical and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESIMS were used for the structure identification of RH-AE. Using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the in vitro anti-tumor effects were compared between RH-AE, rhein and aloe-emodin on human hepatoma HepG2, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE, human lung cancer NCI-H460, human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3, and human cervical cancer Hela cells. The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RH-AE on HepG2, CNE, NCI-H460, SK-OV-3, and Hela cells were significantly lower than those of rhein and aloe-emodin. This showed that RH-AE has a better in vitro anti-tumor effect than rhein and aloe-emodin.

  7. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  8. Aloe-emodin induced DNA damage through generation of reactive oxygen species in human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Lin, Ching-Ju; Yang, Wen-Hui; Leung, Wing-Cheung; Chang, Shen-Pen

    2006-07-28

    The DNA aggregation was found in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis in this study. Aloe-emodin (40microM)-induced DNA single strand breaks were observed by comet assay. Aloe-emodin induced decreases in the mRNA of DNA repair enzymes such as hMTH1, hOGG1 and APE. Although the activity of the radical-scavenging enzyme SOD was enhanced by aloe-emodin, the effects of aloe-emodin on H460 cell apoptosis were suspected to result from the prooxidant. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induced DNA damage through generation of reactive oxygen species in human lung carcinoma cells.

  9. Suppression of C-myc expression associates with anti-proliferation of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junming; Xiao, Bingxiu; Liu, Qiong; Gong, Zhaohui; Le, Yanping

    2008-05-01

    Aloe-emodin is a hydroxyanthraquinone found in Aloe vera, as well as in leaves and roots of other plants. The mechanisms of its anticancer effect are largely unknown. The present study investigated its molecular mechanisms. Crystal violet assay showed that aloe-emodin had a long-term anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells. Scratch wound-healing motility assays indicated its anti-migration effect. Aloe-emodin arrested SGC-7901 cells at G2/M phase. More importantly, aloe-emodin inhibited the expressions of protein kinase C and c-myc. In conclusion, the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells involves suppression of c-myc expression.

  10. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on functional properties and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Aranda, Mario; Henriquez, Karem; Vergara, Judith; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500Mpa) on the functional and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel including vitamin C and E, aloin, minerals, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The results show that HHP exerted a clear influence on minerals content, vitamin C and E content, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and aloin content. After 35days of storage all treated samples presented a decrease in mineral content, except for phosphorus. Total phenolic content and vitamin C and E content decreased at high pressures (500MPa), while all pressurised samples showed a higher antioxidant activity and aloin content than untreated sample after 35days of storage. The maximum values of antioxidant activity and aloin were 6.55±1.26μg/ml at 300MPa and 24.23±2.27mg/100g d.m. at 400MPa.

  11. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders.

  12. Aloe-emodin induced in vitro G2/M arrest of cell cycle in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Hsieh, W T; Chang, W C; Chung, J G

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the chemopreventive role of aloe-emodin in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro by studying the regulation of proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Investigation of the levels of cyclins B1, E and A by immunoblot analysis showed that cyclin E level was unaffected, whereas cyclin B1 and A levels increased with aloe-emodin in HL-60 cells. Investigation of the levels of cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk1 and 2, showed increased levels of Cdk1 but the levels of Cdk2 were not effected with aloe-emodin in HL-60 cells. The levels of p27 were increased after HL-60 cells were cotreated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin. The increase of the levels of p27 may be the major factor for aloe-emodin to cause G2/M arrest in these examined cells. Flow cytometric assays and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis also confirmed aloe-emodin induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The levels of caspase-3 were increased after HL-60 cells were cotreated with 10 microM aloe-emodin for 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Taken together, aloe-emodin therefore appears to exert its anticarcinogenesis properties by inhibiting proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis underwent activation of caspase-3 in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

  13. In vivo safety evaluation of UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone aloesin formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Safety profiles of the aloe chromone aloesin or Aloe vera inner leaf fillet (Qmatrix) as a well tolerated entity have been reported separately. UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet, has shown a significant beneficial effect in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin resistance in human. Here we evaluate the safety of UP780 after a repeated 14 and 90-day oral administration in CD-1 mice. UP780 was given at doses of 100mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 1000mg/kg/day to groups of 10 male and 10 female for 90days or administered by oral gavage at a dose of 2g/kg/day to groups of 5 male and 5 female for 14days. Body weight, feed consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathologic evaluation were performed. UP780 at a dose of 1000mg/kg/day or at 2000mg/kg/day produced no treatment-related toxicity or mortality. Body weight gain or feed consumption was similar between groups. There was no test article-related microscopic change. Spontaneously occurring minor changes in clinical chemistry and hematology were observed. However, these changes were limited to one sex or were not dose correlated. UP780 was well tolerated in this strain. A dose of 2000mg/kg/day was identified as the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level).

  14. Ice Velocity Map of Antarctica measured with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice velocity is fundamental characteristic of the dynamics of ice sheet and is essential to know for measuring the mass budget of ice sheet and for controlling ice sheet numerical models with realistic boundary conditions. Until recently, data were mostly available on a discrete basis over small areas with variable precision. Here, we report on our results of processing ice velocity from he interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired by ALOS PALSAR in 2007, 2008 and 2009 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and distributed by NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF). The goal of our project is to produce a new set of Earth Science Data Record (ESDR): high-resolution digital maps of ice velocity of the Antarctic ice sheet. This new ESDR will be based on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from multiple missions. It will be distributed to the scientific community via institutional links already in place at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The EDSR will benefit glaciologists and ice sheet modelers, but also climate modelers interested in how ice sheets are evolving, physical oceanographers studying sea level change and changes in oceanic circulation, solid earth scientists interested in post-glacial rebound, atmospheric scientists interested in surface mass balance in Antarctica. This effort will establish a long-term legacy for quantitative measurements of the dynamics of polar ice sheets. Areas north of 78 degrees south were first covered by RADARSAT-1 during the RAMP campaign. ALOS PALSAR and ENVISAT ASAR were tasked to cover the area in 2007, 2008 and 2009. PALSAR 46-day speckle tracking works well even in areas where C-band sensors lose signal coherence, which helps us to complete a full coverage of Antarctica's coastal regions. One challenge for L-band data is the sensitivity to ionosphere disturbances and another is to lower data noise in vast interior where flow velocities drop to below a few meters per year. We

  15. Landslide Monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR data in Mountain Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Qi, H.; Yu, B.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is a relatively new technique with a high potential in earth observation, which has made great success in monitoring urban areas deformation. At present, although there are a considerable number of applications in the complicated mountain areas, it is hard to obtain sufficiently high-density stable point targets in these regions. So scientists have been trying to solve this bottleneck problem and improve accuracy in mountain areas. In this work, we present the landslide measurement result in complicated topographic region using ALOS/PALSAR data. The test area is selected around highlands of the boundary between China and India. We choose 13 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR images from May 2007 to February 2011. The main landforms in this experimental region are bare rock and soil, ice and snow, the vegetation in the alpine area. Due to the lithology of the strata and the undulations extent of the terrain, it is prone to cause landslides in the event of rainfall, earthquakes, snow melt or human activities. The traditional PS algorithm has a higher requirement for a long time series data collection, especially in low-coherence area of vegetation cover. As the collected data and stable points are relatively less in this experimental area, we plan to study the time series InSAR analysis coherence model and error model, and extend its application to the extra-urban regions. The approach has been carried out to increase the density of stable points, which are mainly distributed on the top of mountain and ridge areas. And using the 13 images we find several subsidence areas by this technique. The result shows that the top of mountain is relatively stable and the suspected landslide areas are mainly along the ridge, which is in accordance with the actual situation. Then the mechanism and stability analysis of landslide is discussed. Meanwhile, some other measurement data in experimental area is available for cross validation, such as optical data and TerraSAR-X data. And a

  16. Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun Wook; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Eun-Jeon; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2002-04-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of aloe emodin on hepatic stellate cells activation and proliferation, as these cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Rat hepatic stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes, resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. Primary hepatic stellate cells were exposed to aloe emodin (1-10 microg/ml). Possible cytotoxic effects were measured on stellate cells and hepatocytes using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of aloe emodin on production of type I collagen and smooth muscle cell alpha-actin were examined at the same concentration, by quantitative immunoprecipitation. Antiproliferative effects were examined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Aloe emodin at 10 microg/ml restored the morphological changes characteristic of activated primary stellate cells, reduced DNA synthesis to 95% of control hepatic stellate cells at 10 microg/ml without affecting cell viability, and inhibited type I collagen production and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by 86.77% and 99%, respectively, which suggest that aloe emodin is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation.

  17. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy.

  18. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  19. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Heidari, A H

    2012-04-01

    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects.

  1. Investigations on Forestry Applications in Sweden Using ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Maurizio; Fransson, Johan E. S.; Eriksson, Leif E. B.; Magnusson, Mattias; Ulander, Lars M. H.; Olsson, Hakan; Krantz, Anders

    2008-11-01

    An extensive dataset of ALOS PALSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter images is investigated for clear-cut detection and stem volume retrieval in Swedish forest. Data are available for local test sites (Remningstorp and Krycklan) and for the counties of Västerbotten and Västra Götaland. Thanks to the strong forest/non-forest contrast and the temporal consistency of HV-polarized backscatter in summer/fall, a simple thresholding algorithm seems to be sufficient for clear-cut detection (threshold: 3 dB). First results for the period summer 2007/fall 2008 appear promising. The relationship between SAR backscatter and stem volume was investigated for the HH-polarized data in Fine Beam mode. Significant differences occur for frozen and unfrozen environmental conditions. The behaviour is however opposite at the two local test sites. Multi-temporal combination of images acquired under frozen conditions in Remningstorp performed best with RMSE equal to 97 m3/ha (relative RMSE: 29%). In Krycklan the highest accuracy was achieved when six images acquired under unfrozen conditions were combined resulting in a RMSE of 44 m3/ha (relative RMSE: 41%).

  2. [ALOS PALSAR estimation of vegetation biomass in Daxing' anling region].

    PubMed

    Song, Qian; Fan, Wen-Yi

    2011-02-01

    Based on field survey data, the correlations between the ALOS PALSAR L-band HH (L-HH) polarization data and the parameters of forest components in Daxing' anling region were systematically analyzed, and by adopting forest biomass estimation models, including simple linear model, exponential model, and model with terrain factors, optimal inversion was conducted. The results showed that backscattering coefficient had the greatest correlation with total forest biomass, and secondly, with trunk biomass, suggesting that the L-HH data could be used to estimate the total forest aboveground biomass. Among the three models adopted, the model with terrain factors could greatly reduce the biomass estimation error, with the accuracy reached 0.851, and the inversion result coincided best with the actual situation. It was forecasted that under the 41.5 degrees incidence angle L-HH polarization, the vegetation biomass saturation point within the Tahe and Amuer forest bureaus of Daxing' anling was at about 15.4 kg x m(-2).

  3. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  4. Generation of High Resolution Global DSM from ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, J.; Tadono, T.; Tsutsui, K.

    2014-04-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. The sensor consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers for viewing forward, nadir, and backward in 2.5 m ground resolution producing a triplet stereoscopic image along its track. The sensor had observed huge amount of stereo images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. We have semi-automatically processed Digital Surface Model (DSM) data with the image archives in some limited areas. The height accuracy of the dataset was estimated at less than 5 m (rms) from the evaluation with ground control points (GCPs) or reference DSMs derived from the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Then, we decided to process the global DSM datasets from all available archives of PRISM stereo images by the end of March 2016. This paper briefly reports on the latest processing algorithms for the global DSM datasets as well as their preliminary results on some test sites. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed and discussed on various fields by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, as well as the GCPs and the reference airborne LiDAR/DSM.

  5. Processed Aloe vera gel ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-10-24

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer's patch cells. Peyer's patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer's patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer's patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects.

  6. Processed Aloe vera Gel Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer’s patch cells. Peyer’s patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer’s patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer’s patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects. PMID:25347273

  7. Kinematic Slip Model for 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric; Sladen, Anthony; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Li, Zhenhong; Ryder, Isabelle; Burgmann, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The presentations explores kinematics of the Wenchaun-Beichuan earthquake using data from ALOS, Envisat, and teleseismic recordings. Topics include geomorphic mapping, ALOS PALSAR range offsets, ALOS PALSAR interferometry, Envisat IM interferometry, Envisat ScanSAR, Joint GPS-InSAR inversion, and joint GPS-teleseismic inversion (static and kinematic).

  8. Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chia-Fang; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Ching-Yao; Li, Shih-Wein; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong

    2008-10-01

    In this study, aloe-emodin was identified as a potential interferon (IFN)-inducer by screening compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Aloe-emodin showed low cytotoxicity to human HL-CZ promonocyte cells and TE-671 medulloblastoma cells and significantly activated interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS)-driven cis-reporting systems. Moreover, aloe-emodin upregulated expression of IFN-stimulated genes such as dsRNA-activated protein kinase and 2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthase. Aloe-emodin resulted in significant activation of nitric oxide production. The antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was evaluated using dose- and time-dependent plaque reduction assays in HL-CZ cells and TE-671 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aloe-emodin ranged from 0.50microg/mL to 1.51microg/mL for JEV and from 0.14microg/mL to 0.52microg/mL for EV71. Aloe-emodin showed clearly potent virus inhibitory abilities and achieved high therapeutic indices, in particular for HL-CZ cells. Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses.

  9. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  10. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  11. Comparison and Evaluation of Ship Detection and Identification Algorithms Using Small Boats and ALOS-PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-In; Wang, Haipeng; Ouchi, Kazuo

    The final goal of the present project is to develop a ship detection and identification system by integrating spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground-based maritime radar and automatic identification system (AIS); and this article presents the results of the first phase experiments and current status toward achieving this goal. The data acquired by the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) on board of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) were used as SAR data, and X-band maritime radar including AIS were used as a ground-based system. The work is divided into two experimental phases. The first phase is to examine the ability of PALSAR to detect ships whose sizes are comparable with the SAR resolution cells, and the second is to incorporate the PALSAR data with those acquired by the ground-based radar with AIS. For the experiments in the first phase, we deployed three small fishing boats whose lengths ranged from approximately 8 m to 15m in the Tosa Bay in Kochi, Japan in 2006. The experiments were carried out for four observation PALSAR modes: FBS (Fine Beam Single) 34.3, FBS 21.5, FBD (Fine Beam Double) 41.5, and PLR (PoLaRimetric) 20.5, where the numbers in each modes represent the off-nadir angles. For extracting the boats from the PALSAR images, five algorithms were considered, including amplitude-based, CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate), MLCC (Multi-Look Cross-Correlation), CCF (Cross-Correlation Function) of HH- and HV-polarization amplitudes, and polarimetric analyses. This paper summarizes the results of the first phase experiments; the summary of the integrated system in the second phase will be reported in the near future.

  12. Screening for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis in ten plants used as mosquito repellent in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, adverse effects to human health, non-target organisms and the environment, there is an urgent need to develop new insecticides, which are effective, safe, biodegrable and target-specific. This study was undertaken to evaluate the adulticidal activity of 10 plants used traditionally as mosquito repellents in South Africa. Methods The dried plant materials were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol (EtOH). The extracts were evaluated for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes, a potent malaria vector in South Africa. Adult mortality was observed after 24 hours of exposure. Results All the extracts showed adulticidal activity. The highest activity was observed in both DCM and EtOH extracts of Aloe ferox leaves with 98 and 86% mosquito mortality, respectively. The DCM extract of A. ferox leaves was then subjected to a dose-dependent bioassay to determine the EC50 value. The extract exhibited an EC50 value of 4.92 mg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study showed that the DCM extract of A. ferox leaves may have the potential to be used as an insecticide against An. arabiensis. Further studies to isolate and identify active compounds are in progress. PMID:24884500

  13. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  14. Daily Ingestion of Aloe Vera Gel Powder Containing Aloe Sterols Prevents Skin Photoaging in OVX Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-10-12

    Estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause accelerate spontaneous skin aging and stimulate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photoaging of skin. However, food compositions with the potential to ameliorate the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging with menopause have not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the ability of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel to prevent the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging in ovariectomized mice. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was significantly higher in the ovariectomy group than in the sham operation group following UVB irradiation, whereas skin elasticity was significantly lower. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced greater reductions in skin hyaluronic acid levels and more severe collagen fiber damage in the derims in the ovariectomy group than in the sham group. The intake of AVGP significantly ameliorated this acceleration in skin aging by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and increasing that of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) in the skin. These results indicate that AVGP supplementation prevents skin damage induced by UVB irradiation and ovariectomy in part by inhibiting damage to the extracellular matrix.

  15. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on quality parameters and structural properties of aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Nuñez-Mancilla, Yissleen; Garcia-Segovia, Purificación; Ah-Hen, Kong; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on colour, dietary fibre, vitamin C content, polysaccharides content, physico-chemical and structural properties of aloe vera gel at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 3 min) after 35 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The results showed that HHP exerted a clear influence on most of the quality parameters studied. Moisture, protein and fat contents did not show changes with an increasing pressure. Ash, crude fibre and carbohydrates content increased with increasing pressure. Vitamin C content did not show significant differences after 35 days of storage. The variation of colour in the samples increased at 500 MPa. Total dietary fibre, water holding capacity and firmness increased with pressure. However, all HHP-treated samples presented a decrease in hydration ratio and polysaccharides content; and also minor alterations in the structural properties were produced at HHP of 300-500 MPa, resulting in a high quality gel.

  16. Influence of Aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-04-01

    Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury that results in restoration of tissue integrity. This end is achieved mainly by the synthesis of the connective tissue matrix. Collagen is the major protein of the extracellular matrix, and is the component which ultimately contributes to wound strength. In this work, we report the influence of Aloe vera on the collagen content and its characteristics in a healing wound. It was observed that Aloe vera increased the collagen content of the granulation tissue as well as its degree of crosslinking as seen by increased aldehyde content and decreased acid solubility. The type I/type III collagen ratio of treated groups were lower than that of the untreated controls, indicating enhanced levels of type III collagen. Wounds were treated either by topical application or oral administration of Aloe vera to rats and both treatments were found to result in similar effects.

  17. Effect of crosslinking in chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-10-15

    The positive interaction between polysaccharides with active phytochemicals found in medicinal plants may represent a strategy to create active wound dressing materials useful for skin repair. In the present work, blended membranes composed of chitosan (Cht) and aloe vera gel were prepared through the solvent casting, and were crosslinked with genipin to improve their properties. Topography, swelling, wettability, mechanical properties and in vitro cellular response of the membranes were investigated. With the incorporation of aloe vera gel into chitosan solution, the developed chitosan/aloe-based membranes displayed increased roughness and wettability; while the genipin crosslinking promoted the formation of stiffer membranes in comparison to those of the non-modified membranes. Moreover, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that the L929 cells have high cell viability, confirmed by MTS test and calcein-AM staining. The findings suggested that both blend compositions and crosslinking affected the physico-chemical properties and cellular behavior of the developed membranes.

  18. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  19. In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Lee, Young-Ran; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Myung-Koo; Park, Young In; Lee, Sungwon; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2010-03-01

    The gels of Aloe species contain immunomodulatory components such as aloctin A and acemannan. Most studies on these gels were performed in in vitro cell culture systems. Although several studies examined their immunomodulatory activity in vivo, the route of administration was intraperitoneal or intramuscular. Here, we evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) in mice. Oral administration of PAG significantly reduced the growth of C. albicans in the spleen and kidney following intravenous injection of C. albicans in normal mice. PAG administration also reduced the growth of C. albicans in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PAG administration did not increase ovalbumin (OVA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in normal mice, but did increase it in high-fat-diet induced diabetic mice. These findings provide the first clear evidence for the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

  20. Use of Aloe vera gel coating preserves the functional properties of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Guillén, Fabian; Castillo, Salvador; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Valero, Daniel

    2006-05-31

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Crimson Seedless) were coated with Aloe vera gel according to our developed patent (SP Patent P200302937) and then stored for 35 days at 1 degrees C, and the subsequent shelf life (SL) was monitored at 20 degrees C. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid loss of functional compounds, such as total phenolics and ascorbic acid. These changes were accompanied by reduction of the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and increases in total anthocyanins, showing an accelerated ripening process. On the contrary, table grapes coated with Aloe vera gel significantly delayed the above changes, such as the retention of ascorbic acid during cold storage or SL. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating, a simple and noncontaminating treatment, maintained the functional properties during postharvest storage of table grapes.

  1. Spectroscopic Constants of the X1Σ+ and 13Π states of AlO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Linguerri, Roberto; Mogren, Muneerah Mogren Al; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-08-01

    Using both standard and explicitly correlated ab initio methods in conjunction with several atomic basis sets, the ground state of AlO(X2Σ+) and the two lowest electronic states of AlO+ (1Σ+ and 3Π) are investigated. Potential energy curves for these species are mapped, which are incorporated later to solve the nuclear motion problem. Benchmark computations on AlO(X2Σ+) are used to determine the reliability of the theoretical methods and basis sets used for an accurate description of aluminum oxide compounds. The electronic ground state of AlO+ is X1Σ+, followed by the low-lying 13Π state. For both cationic electronic states, a set of spectroscopic parameters are recommended that may help in the identification of this ion in laboratory and astrophysical media. An accurate estimation of the adiabatic ionization energy of AlO, AIE = 9.70 eV, is also reported.

  2. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-09

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  3. Modification of emodin and aloe-emodin by glycosylation in engineered Escherihia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Koirala, Niranjan; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Jung, Hye Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (YjiC) was used for enzymatic modification of emodin and aloe-emodin in vitro and in vivo. In order to increase the availability of UDP-glucose, three genes involved in the production of precursors of NDP-sugar in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) viz. D-glucose phosphate isomerase (pgi), D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), and UDP-sugar hydrolase (ushA) were deleted and glucose-1-phosphate urididyltransferase (galU) gene was over expressed. To improve the yield of the products; substrate, time and media parameters were optimized, and the production was scaled up using a 3 L fermentor. The maximum yield of glycosylated products of emodin (emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) and aloe-emodin (aloe-emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) were approximately 144 µM (38 mg/L) and 168 µM (45 mg/L) respectively, representing almost 72 % and 84 % bioconversion of emodin and aloe-emodin when 200 µM of emodin and aloe-emodin were supplemented in the culture. Additionally, the emodin and aloe emodin major glycosylated products exhibited the highest stability at pH 8.0 and the stability of products was up to 70 °C and 60 °C respectively. Furthermore, the biological activities of emodin and its major glucoside (P1) were compared and their anti-cancer activities were assayed in several cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that YjiC has the capacity to catalyze the glycosylation of these aromatic compounds and that glycosylation of anthraquinones enhances their aqueous solubility while retaining their biological activities.

  4. A Phase III study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Sue; Bryant, Guy P; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Rose, Pauline; Glendenning, Mary; Heath, Jenny

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to see if topical aloe vera gel would be beneficial in reducing the identified skin side-effects of radiation therapy, including erythema, pain, itching, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation, when compared with aqueous cream. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of other factors known to predict severity of radiation skin reaction, ie, breast size, smoking habit, and one or more drainages of lymphocele after surgery, on other skin side effects. A Phase III study was conducted involving 225 patients with breast cancer after lumpectomy or partial mastectomy, who required a course of radiation therapy using tangential fields. Patients were randomized to either topical aloe vera gel or topical aqueous cream to be applied 3 times per day throughout and for 2 weeks after completion of radiation treatment. Weekly skin assessments were performed by nursing staff. Aqueous cream was significantly better than aloe vera gel in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to treatment. Subjects with D cup or larger size breasts experienced significantly more erythema, regardless of treatment arm. For subjects who had undergone lymphocele drainage, the aloe vera group experienced significantly more pain than the aqueous cream group. Within the aqueous cream arm, smokers were significantly more likely to experience itching within the treatment field than were nonsmokers. Within the aloe vera arm, subjects who had undergone one or more lymphocele drainages after surgery were significantly more likely to experience erythema and itching within the treatment field than those who did not have drainage. In this study, aloe vera gel did not significantly reduce radiation-induced skin side effects. Aqueous cream was useful in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to radiation therapy.

  5. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  6. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  7. Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa.

  8. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  9. Regional extent of permafrost and boreal forest degradations in the central Yakutia by ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Yoshihiro; Fedorov, Alexander; Abe, Konomi; Ise, Hajime; Masuzawa, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    Wet climate with largely increased in precipitation during summer and snow accumulation during winter had continued 4 years since 2004 winter in eastern Siberia. Soil moisture in the active layer had been significantly increased corresponding with thawing of permafrost near the surface during following years. The perennially water-logged active layer furthermore exacerbated the boreal forest habitat, namely withered and dead forests widely extended in this region. In the present study, we have attempted to extract the region of degraded boreal forest based on the analysis of satellite data in the left and right banks of Lena River near Yakutsk, along with expansion of the water surface area in relation to permafrost degradation. We utilized ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images taken during 2006 through 2009. After geocoding and noise reduction of PALSAR images, classification of water surface area including water-logged ground was performed with supervised classification using the threshold of a microwave backscattering coefficient. Then, we compared the distribution of the water-logged area between multi-years. In addition, during the same period, supervised classification of grassland and boreal forest was conducted using AVNIR2 images. Then, both classifications were overlaid and the multi-years change in degraded boreal forest due to water-logged conditions was extracted as well. Boreal forest in the left bank of the Lena River distributes on river terrace where density of alas lakes is quite low due to consisting of sandy loam soil with underlying permafrost with less ground ice content. In this area, water surface area expanded in concaved terrain and along the valley year by year in conjunction with change from forest to grassland. On the other hand, forest in the right bank of the Lena River distributed in the region with very high density of alas lakes due to underlying ice rich permafrost. During the same period, alas lakes expanded and boreal forest on the

  10. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes

    2016-10-01

    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  11. Aloe emodin-induced apoptosis in t-HSC/Cl-6 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Lian, Li-Hua; Park, Eun-Jeon; Piao, Hui-Shan; Zhao, Yu-Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2005-06-01

    The aim of our study was to clarify the apoptosis pathway induced by aloe emodin, an hydroxyanthraquinone present in aloe vera leaves, in rat hepatic stellate cells transformed by simian virus 40 (t-HSC/Cl-6), which retain the features of activated rat stellate cells. Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation, caspase activity assay and western blotting analysis. Treatment of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells with 12.5, 25, or 50 microM aloe emodin inhibited t-HSC/Cl-6 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis by aloe emodin was confirmed by typical DNA ladder formation and annexin v-propidium iodide flow-cytometric analysis. Aloe emodin treatment of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells caused activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, detected with a caspase activity assay, although no change was observed in caspase-8 activity. Western blotting showed caspase-3 and caspase-9 active forms and the subsequent proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Aloe emodin induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Our data also show that cytochrome c increased in the cytosol but decreased in the mitochondria in a time-dependent manner. Increased Bax and unchanged Bcl-2 levels resulted in an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Thus, our research provides evidence that aloe emodin-induced apoptosis involves a mitochondria-associated apoptosis pathway.

  12. Protein kinase C involvement in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Z

    2001-11-01

    1. This study demonstrated aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell lines CH27 (human lung squamous carcinoma cell) and H460 (human lung non-small cell carcinoma cell). Aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis was characterized by nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. 2. During apoptosis, an increase in cytochrome c of cytosolic fraction and activation of caspase-3, identified by the cleavage of its proform, were observed. 3. To elucidate whether the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are involved in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis, this study examined the changes of PKC isozymes by Western blotting techniques during aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis. 4. The expression of PKC isozymes involved in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 and H460 cells. In this study, aloe-emodin and emodin induced the changes of each of PKC isozymes in CH27 and H460 cells. 5. The decrease in the expression of PKC delta and epsilon may play a critical role in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in CH27 and H460 cells. 6. The present study also demonstrated that PKC stimulation occurs at a site downstream of caspase-3 in the emodin-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  13. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones.

  14. Chaperones are the target in aloe-emodin-induced human lung nonsmall carcinoma H460 cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Miao-Ying; Hour, Mann-Jen; Wing-Cheung Leung, Henry; Yang, Wen-Hui; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2007-11-14

    Our previous study has demonstrated that aloe-emodin induced a significant change in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in H460 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin still remain unknown. The present study applied 2D electrophoresis (pH range 4-7) to the proteins involved in aloe-emodin (40 muM)-induced H460 cell apoptosis. Eleven proteins were found to markedly change. These altered proteins were identified as ATP synthase, vimentin, HSP60, HSP70 and protein disulfide isomerase. Aloe-emodin caused a time-dependent decrease in intracellular ATP levels, which might be related to direct inhibition of ATP synthase. We also observed that the activity of mitochondria was injured by aloe-emodin. These data clearly demonstrated that mitochondria may play a critical role in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell death. Many reports emphasize that chaperones have a complex role in apoptosis. The present study suggested that the increasing protein expression of HSP60, HSP70, 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein and protein disulfide isomerase is involved in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis. HSP70, 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein and protein disulfide isomerase are endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. Therefore, we hypothesized that the increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress serves to promote H460 cell apoptosis after treatment with aloe-emodin. We also demonstrated aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell death through caspase-3 apoptotic pathway, but not apoptosis-inducing factor apoptotic pathway.

  15. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. PMID:24089615

  16. Novel bioactive maloyl glucans from aloe vera gel: isolation, structure elucidation and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Esua, Macniell F; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm

    2006-02-27

    In this study, three novel maloyl glucans were isolated at temperatures below 15 degrees C from aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller). These compounds were characterized using NMR spectroscopy, ESIMS, MALDITOF-MS and capillary electrophoresis. The compounds were characterized as 6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha-,beta-D-Glcp (veracylglucan A), alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha,-beta,-D-Glcp (veracylglucan B) and alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-tetra-[6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)]-6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha,-beta-D-Glcp (veracylglucan C). These unusual malic acid acylated carbohydrates were then tested in vitro for effects on cell proliferation and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8 and ICAM-1, using RT-PCR. Veracylglucan B demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects, while Veracylglucan C, on the other hand, exhibited significant cell proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Veracylglucan A could only be isolated in smaller quantities, and it proved to be very unstable. Thus no biological effects could be observed in this respect. The in vitro bioassays also indicated that Veracylglucan B and C are antagonistic and competitive in their effects on cell proliferation. The results of this work represent a major step forward in the research on aloe vera gel. This is the first time that two fully chemically characterized compounds are shown to be responsible for known biological activities of aloe vera gel.

  17. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  18. Validation of burst overlapping for ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsuaki, Ryo; Motohka, Takeshi; Ohki, Masato; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite- 2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2") is the latest L-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). PALSAR-2 observes the world mainly with 10 m resolution / 70 km swath Stripmap mode and 25 m resolution / 350 km swath ScanSAR mode. The 3-m resolution Stripmap mode is mainly used upon Japan. 350 km ScanSAR observation could detect large scale deformation e.g., the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its aftershocks in 2015. ALOS-2 ScanSAR is the first one that supports ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry in L-band spaceborne SAR. However, because of the parameter setting error for the orbit estimation, ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR could achieve little number of interferometric pair until the software modification on February 8, 2015. That is, the burst overlap timing required for the interferometric analysis was insufficient and it depends on the observation date. In this paper, we report the investigation results of this case and discuss the current status of the ALOS-2 ScanSAR InSAR. Some archives achieved before February 8, 2015 can be used for interferometric analysis with after Feb. 8. However, most of them have no interferometric pair. We also report that the archives acquired after February 8, have enough burst overlapping.

  19. Radio sensitizing effect of aloe polysaccharide on pancreatic cancer bxpc-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunjin; Xu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The roles of autophagy in pancreatic cancers are complex and may differ depending on tumor type or context. This study aimed to investigate if aloe polysaccharide can be used as a radio-sensitizing chemical to induce autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3 cells were divided into four groups: A control group, an aloe polysaccharide only group, a radiation only group and a radiation combined with aloe polysaccharide group (combination group). Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultra structural changes of autophagosomes in each cell group. The mRNA expressions of ULK1, GABARAPL1, BECN1, and BCL-2 were detected by real-time PCR. Autophagosomes or autophagolysosomes were observed in all experimental groups except the control group. Compared with the control group, ULK1 mRNA expression was up-regulated and BECN1 and BCL-2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in all groups (P<0.05); changes in expression were most obvious in the combination group (P<0.05). GABARAPL1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the combination group (P<0.05), but had no significant changes among other groups. In brief, aloe polysaccharide induces autophagy in pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3 cells both alone and in concert with radiation. Autophagic cell death may be one of the mechanisms producing a radiosensitizing effect.

  20. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant.

  1. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  2. Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose.

    PubMed

    López Angulo, Daniel Enrique; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-11-01

    Biologically active scaffolds used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been generating promising results in skin replacement. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of Aloe vera and snail mucus into scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan could improve their structure, composition and biodegradability, with a potential effect on bioactivity. Homogeneous pore diameter as well as pore walls in the composite scaffold could be seen in the SEM image. The pores in the scaffolds were interconnected and their sizes ranged from 93 to 296μm. The addition of Aloe vera and snail mucus enlarged the mean pore size with increased porosity and caused changes in the pore architecture. The FTIR analysis has shown good affinity and interaction between the matrix and the Aloe, which may decrease water-binding sites, so this fact hindered the water absorption capacity of the material. The mechanical properties could explain the highest swelling capacity of the snail scaffold, because the high percentage of elongation could facilitate the entry of liquid in it, generating a matrix with plenty of fluid retention. The real innovation in the present work could be the use of these substances (Aloe and snail mucus) for tissue engineering.

  3. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  4. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  5. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.

  6. Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Atri, Mansi; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  7. Extraction of Subsurface Features from InSAR-Derived Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Siting; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-05-01

    Microwave remote sensing has the potential to be a beneficial tool to detect and analyse subsurface features in desert areas due to its penetration ability over hyperarid regions with extremely low loss and low bulk humidity. Global Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of resolution up to 30 m are now publicly available, some of which show subsurface features over these hyperarid areas. This study compares different elevations detected by different EO microwave and lidar profilers and demonstrates their effectiveness in terms of extraction of subsurface features compared with that delineated in ALOS/PALSAR polarisation map. Results show that SRTM-C DEM agrees closely with ICESat elevations and that SRTM-C DEM clearly show paleoriver features, some of which can’t be observed in ALOS/PALSAR images affected by background backscatter. However, craterlike features are more recognisable in ALOS/PALSAR images compared with SRTM-C DEM.

  8. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  9. [Intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin using single-passintestinal perfusion method in rat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yongmao; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yan

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in S/D rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated segment of the intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the different concentrations inhibitor group of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) with the concentrations of aloe-emodin (0.238 mg x L(-1)) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL x min(-1). The effective absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent absorption coefficient (Papp) of aloe-emodin for each segment were determined before and after treated with different concentrations of inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 respectively. Aloe-emodin exhibits a high intestinal permeability except the the ileum, indicative that the compounds are well absorbed. Decreases of Ka and Papp values in the duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum, furthermore, the duodenum has significant increased compared with the ileum, there are have no significant difference in other isolated region of the intestine. Compared with the group which have no inhibitor of P-gp, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of P-gp groups. Compared with the group of no inhibitor of MRP2, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of MRP2 groups with the highest and the middle concentration. The results suggested that the inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 all can promote the intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin.

  10. Diffusion of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide and Aloe vera pastes.

    PubMed

    Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Olian, Douglas Dáquila; Mori, Graziela Garrido

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diffusion through the dentinal tubules of hydroxyl ions from different calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes containing Aloe vera. Sixty single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, the root canals were instrumented and the specimens were assigned to 4 groups (n=15) according to the intracanal medication: Group CH/S - CH powder and saline paste; Group CH/P - CH powder and propylene glycol paste; Group CH/A - calcium hydroxide powder and Aloe vera gel paste; Group CH/A/P - CH powder, Aloe vera powder and propylene glycol paste. After placement of the root canal dressings, the teeth were sealed coronally and apically with a two-step epoxy adhesive. The teeth were placed in identified flasks containing deionized water and stored in an oven with 100% humidity at 37 °C. After 3 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 15 days and 30 days, the deionized water in the flasks was collected and its pH was measured by a pH meter. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis at a significance level of 5%. The results demonstrated that all pastes provided diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules. The combination of Aloe vera and CH (group CH/A) provided a constant release of calcium ions. Group CH/A/P showed the highest pH at 24 and 72 h. In conclusion, the experimental pastes containing Aloe vera were able to enable the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules.

  11. In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K R; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R; Sundaresan, C R; Sriramaneni, Raghava N; Vadlamudi, Harini C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate 'nimesulide - Aloe vera transemulgel' (NAE) and to carryout in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04 %) was observed compared to CNG (44.72 %) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4 % inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6 %). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4 % drug content) compared to CNG (70.5 % drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. Mitigation of Faraday rotation in ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full polarimetric SAR imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Shradha; Singh, Gulab

    2016-05-01

    The ionosphere, which extends from 50-450 kms in earth's atmosphere, is a particularly important region with regards electromagnetic wave propagation and radio communications in the L-band and lower frequencies. These ions interact with the traversing electromagnetic wave and cause rotation of polarization of the radar signal. In this paper, a potentially computable method for quantifying Faraday rotation (FR), is discussed with the knowledge of full polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data. For a well calibrated monostatic, full-pol ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data, the reciprocal symmetry of the received scattering matrix is violated due to FR. Apart from FR, other system parameters like residual system noise, channel amplitude, phase imbalance and cross-talk, also account for the non-symmetry. To correct for the FR effect, firstly the noise correction was performed. PALSAR/PALSAR-2 data was converted into 4×4 covariance matrix to calculate the coherence between cross-polarized elements. Covariance matrix was modified by the coherence factor. For FR corrections, the covariance matrix was converted into 4×4 coherency matrix. The elements of coherency matrix were used to estimate FR angle and correct for FR. Higher mean FR values during ALOS-PALSAR measurements can be seen in regions nearer to the equator and the values gradually decrease with increase in latitude. Moreover, temporal variations in FR can also be noticed over different years (2006-2010), with varying sunspot activities for the Niigata, Japan test site. With increasing sunspot activities expected during ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 observations, more striping effects were observed over Mumbai, India. This data has also been FR corrected, with mean FR values of about 8°, using the above mentioned technique.

  13. Aloe Vera Gel and Cesarean Wound Healing; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Molazem, Zahra; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Younesi, Masoumeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Failure in complete healing of the wound is one of the probable complications of cesarean. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of dressing with aloe vera gel in healing of cesarean wound. Methods: This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 women who had undergone cesarean operation in Amir-al-Momenin hospital (Gerash, Iran). The participants were randomly divided into two groups each containing 45 patients. In one group, the wound was dressed with aloe vera gel, while simple dressing was used in the control group. Wound healing was assessed 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean operation using REEDA scale. The data were analyzed through Chi-square and t-test. Results: The participants’ mean age was 27.56±4.20 in the aloe vera group and 26.62±4.88 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning body mass index, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the wound healing score 24 hours after the operation (P=0.003). After 8 days, however, the difference in the wound healing score was not significant (P=0.283). Overall, 45 participants in the aloe vera group and 35 ones in the control group had obtained a zero score 24 hours after the operation. These measures were respectively obtained as 42 and 41eight days after the operation. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the women are recommended to be informed regarding the positive effects of dressing with aloe vera gel. PMID:25560349

  14. Effect of maternal fluoride exposure on developing CNS of rats: protective role of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, N; Basha, P Mahaboob; Rai, Puja; Ahmed, Fiyaz; Prasad, G Ravi

    2010-08-01

    Fluoride is toxic to neuronal development and its excessive intake during pregnancy cause adverse effects on neonatal development. The present study examined the presence of oxidative stress during maternal exposure of fluoride and the therapeutic strategy of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum extracts in functional prevention of fluoride led oxidative stress. The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water and pups born to them were supplemented with phytoextracts daily. On 21st postpartum day, the pups were sacrificed to analyse fluoride and oxidative stress markers. Fluoride exposure significantly increased its accumulation, lipid peroxidation and decreased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of pups indicating oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant defense. The results implied the vulnerability of developing CNS to fluoride toxicity. On phytoextract supplementation, the oxidant devastation was suppressed by regaining antioxidant homeostasis near normal level proving efficacy and therapeutic strategy. Among the phytoextracts supplemented the Ocimum sanctum is found to be more effective.

  15. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.

  16. Prevention of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis by processed Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ji-Wan; Kim, Hee-Suk; Park, Chan-Su; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2016-11-01

    The preventive effect of a processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on colon carcinogenesis was examined using an azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted mouse colon carcinogenesis model. Oral administration of PAG (200, or 400mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the multiplicity of colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas compared with the AOM/DSS only-treated mice. In the mice treated with 400mg/kg of PAG, adenoma and adenocarcinoma development was reduced to 80% and 60%, respectively, compared to 100% in the PAG-untreated AOM/DSS-treated mice. Western blot analysis using colon extracts showed that PAG reduced the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. PAG appeared to inhibit the NF-κB activation through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. PAG also inhibited the expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is known to connect inflammation and cancer. In addition, PAG inhibited cell cycle progression-inducing cellular factors, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and cyclin D1. On the other hand, PAG increased the expression of Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2, which is known to be a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. These findings show that PAG suppresses colitis-related colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting both chronic inflammation and cell cycle progression in the colon.

  17. Aloe-emodin affects the levels of cytokines and functions of leukocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Shu; Yu, Fu-Shun; Chan, Jack Kai-Sheng; Li, Te-Mao; Lin, Song-Shei; Chen, Ssu-Ching; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2006-01-01

    Aloe-emodin has shown anti-neoplastic activity against some human cancer cell lines. This study aimed to explore the effects of aloe-emodin on the phagocytosis of macrophages, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and the expression of cytokines in leukocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats. Leukocytes were collected, placed into culture plates and the functions of macrophages and NK cells and the percentage of viable cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Incubation of leukocytes with various concentrations of aloe-emodin caused a dose-dependent decrease of viable cells, a decrease of phagocytosis by macrophages, and a decrease of the activity of NK cells. Evaluation of cytokines in leukocytes by ELISA indicated that aloe-emodin increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The results were also confirmed by PCR assay for the mRNA expression of the examined cytokines.

  18. Large-area Mapping of Forest Cover and Biomass using ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartus, O.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Bishop, J.; Cormier, T.; Baccini, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the frame of a Pantropical mapping project, we aim at producing high-resolution forest cover maps from ALOS PALSAR. The ALOS data was obtained through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) at ASF. For the forest cover classification, a pan-tropical network of calibrated reference data was generated from ancillary satellite data (ICESAT GLAS). These data are used to classify PALSAR swath data to be combined to continental forest probability maps. The maps are validated with withheld training data for testing, as well as through independent operator verification with very high-resolution image. In addition, we aim at developing robust algorithms for the mapping of forest biophysical parameters like stem volume or biomass using synergy of PALSAR, optical and Lidar data. Currently we are testing different approaches for the mapping of forest biophysical parameters. 1) For the showcase scenario of Mexico, where we have access to ~1400 PALSAR FBD images as well as the 30 m Landsat Vegetation Continuous Field product, VCF, we test a traditional ground-data based approach. The PALSAR HH/HV intensity data and VCF are used as predictor layers in RandomForest for predicting aboveground forest biomass. A network of 40000 in situ biomass plots is used for model development (for each PALSAR swath) as well as for validation. With this approach a first 30 m biomass map for entire Mexico was produced. An initial validation of the map resulted in an RMSE of 41 t/ha and an R2 of 0.42. Pronounced differences between different ecozones were observed. In some areas the retrieval reached an R2 of 0.6 (e.g. pine-oak forests) whereas, for instance, in dry woodlands, the retrieval accuracy was much lower (R2 of 0.1). A major limitation of the approach was also represented by the fact that for the development of models for each ALOS swath, in some cases too few sample plots were available. 2) Chile: At a forest site in Central Chile, dominated by plantations of pinus radiata, synergy of ALOS

  19. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of aloe-emodin on Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Delavari, Mahdi; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sadraei, Javid

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease that is endemic in some parts of Iran. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are associated with a risk of recurrence and serious adverse effects. Therefore, finding a safe and effective treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the effect of aloe-emodin on the growth of Leishmania major amastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. In addition, the efficacy of a topical of aloe-emodin ointment was investigated in BALB/c mice with cutaneous leishmanial ulcers. Different concentrations (40 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL, 120 μg/mL, and 160 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin were tested on Leishmania amastigotes twice: 24 hours and 48 hours. The induced apoptosis and necrotic effects of two concentrations (40 μg/mL and 120 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin on promastigotes were investigated by flow cytometry. Under the in vivo condition, aloe-emodin ointment efficacy was evaluated at two concentrations (i.e., 0.1% and 1%). Serum indicator factors of the test and control groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of this compound on the liver and kidney. Results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth of Leishmania amastigotes and induced apoptosis in promastigotes. Topical application of aloe-emodin ointment likewise reduced the ulcer size. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. In conclusion, aloe-emodin showed antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical trials.

  20. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone, in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Yuan; Uen, Yih-Huei

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and WiDr. Colon carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin for different durations. Cell viability was measured by sodium 3'-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate assay. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nuclear shrinkage was visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blotting was used to indicate the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria and the phosphorylation of Bid. Caspase-3 and casein kinase II activities were measured by the respective assays. Cell viability analyses showed that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the WiDr cells were more sensitive to aloe-emodin than the DLD-1 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by activation of caspase-3 leading to DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure of colon carcinoma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These findings showed that the inhibition of casein kinase II activity, the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c, and the caspase-3 activation are involved in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells.

  1. A novel method for air drying aloe leaf slices by covering with filter papers as a shrink-proof layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Baek, J H; Lee, S J; Choi, S Y; Hur, W; Lee, S Y

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the shrinkage of aloe vera slices during air drying, a method utilizing a shrink-proof layer was developed. The sample was configured of whole leaf aloe slices, where 1 side or both sides were covered with filter papers as shrink-proof layers. After air drying by varying the air temperature and the slice thickness, the drying characteristics, as well as several quality factors of the dried aloe vera leaf slices, were analyzed. In the simulation of the drying curves, the modified Page model showed the best fitness, representing a diffusion-controlled drying mechanism. Nonetheless, there was a trace of a constant-rate drying period in the samples dried by the method. Shrinkage was greatly reduced, and the rehydration ratios increased by approximately 50%. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the surface structure of original fibrous form was well sustained. FT-IR characteristics showed that the dried samples could sustain aloe polysaccharide acetylation. Furthermore, the functional properties of the dried slices including water holding capacity, swelling, and fat absorption capability were improved, and polysaccharide retention levels increased by 20% to 30%. Therefore, we concluded that application of shrink-proof layers on aloe slices provides a novel way to overcome the shrinkage problems commonly found in air drying, thereby improving their functional properties with less cost. Practical Application: This research article demonstrates a novel air drying method using shrink-proof layers to prevent the shrinkage of aloe slices. We analyzed extensively the characteristics of shrinkage mechanism and physical properties of aloe flesh gels in this drying system. We concluded that this method can be a beneficial means to retain the functional properties of dried aloe, and a potential alternative to freeze drying, which is still costly.

  2. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone, in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LIN, KAI-YUAN; UEN, YIH-HUEI

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and WiDr. Colon carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin for different durations. Cell viability was measured by sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate assay. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nuclear shrinkage was visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blotting was used to indicate the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria and the phosphorylation of Bid. Caspase-3 and casein kinase II activities were measured by the respective assays. Cell viability analyses showed that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the WiDr cells were more sensitive to aloe-emodin than the DLD-1 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by activation of caspase-3 leading to DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure of colon carcinoma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These findings showed that the inhibition of casein kinase II activity, the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c, and the caspase-3 activation are involved in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. PMID:22966340

  3. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of aloe-emodin on Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Delavari, Mahdi; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sadraei, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease that is endemic in some parts of Iran. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are associated with a risk of recurrence and serious adverse effects. Therefore, finding a safe and effective treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the effect of aloe-emodin on the growth of Leishmania major amastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. In addition, the efficacy of a topical of aloe-emodin ointment was investigated in BALB/c mice with cutaneous leishmanial ulcers. Different concentrations (40 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL, 120 μg/mL, and 160 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin were tested on Leishmania amastigotes twice: 24 hours and 48 hours. The induced apoptosis and necrotic effects of two concentrations (40 μg/mL and 120 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin on promastigotes were investigated by flow cytometry. Under the in vivo condition, aloe-emodin ointment efficacy was evaluated at two concentrations (i.e., 0.1% and 1%). Serum indicator factors of the test and control groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of this compound on the liver and kidney. Results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth of Leishmania amastigotes and induced apoptosis in promastigotes. Topical application of aloe-emodin ointment likewise reduced the ulcer size. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. In conclusion, aloe-emodin showed antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical trials. PMID:26151018

  4. Intestinal absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin; A comparative study using two in vitro absorption models.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Aloe products are one of the top selling health-functional foods in Korea, however the adequate level of intake to achieve desirable effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal uptake and metabolism of physiologically active aloe components using in vitro intestinal absorption model. The Caco-2 cell monolayer and the everted gut sac were incubated with 5-50 microM of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin. The basolateral appearance of test compounds and their glucuronosyl or sulfated forms were quantified using HPLC. The % absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin was ranged from 5.51% to 6.60%, 6.60% to 11.32%, and 7.61% to 13.64%, respectively. Up to 18.15%, 18.18%, and 38.86% of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin, respectively, was absorbed as glucuronidated or sulfated form. These results suggest that a significant amount is transformed during absorption. The absorption rate of test compounds except aloesin was similar in two models; more aloesin was absorbed in the everted gut sac than in the Caco-2 monolayer. These results provide information to establish adequate intake level of aloe supplements to maintain effective plasma level.

  5. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel components.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Han, S S; Mo, Y K; Kim, R S; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

    1997-10-01

    The active components of Aloe vera gel that can prevent ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells (LC) were purified by activity-guided sequential fractionation followed by in vitro functional assay. The functional assay was based on the fact that exposure of freshly isolated murine epidermal cells (EC) to UVB radiation resulted in impairment of accessory cell function of LC, as measured by their ability to support anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-primed T-cell mitogenesis. This UVB-suppressed LC accessory cell function was prevented by addition of partially purified Aloe gel components to cultures of UVB-irradiated EC. The Aloe gel components appeared to prevent events occurring within the first 24 h after UVB irradiation that lead to the impairment of accessory cell function. The Aloe gel components did not cause proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-primed T-cells, nor did induce proliferation of normal EC. The activity-guided final purification of Aloe gel components resulted in the isolation of two components. Both of the components were small molecular weight (MW) substances with an apparent MW of less than 1,000 Da but different from each other in net charge characteristics at pH 7.4. These results suggest that Aloe vera gel contains at least two small molecular weight immunomodulators that may prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin.

  6. Novel synthetic cyclic integrin αvβ3 binding peptide ALOS4: antitumor activity in mouse melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Yacobovich, Shiri; Tuchinsky, Lena; Kirby, Michael; Kardash, Tetiana; Agranyoni, Oryan; Nesher, Elimelech; Redko, Boris; Gellerman, Gary; Tobi, Dror; Gurova, Katerina; Koman, Igor; Fabian, Osnat Ashur; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    ALOS4, a unique synthetic cyclic peptide without resemblance to known integrin ligand sequences, was discovered through repeated biopanning with pIII phage expressing a disulfide-constrained nonapeptide library. Binding assays using a FITC-labeled analogue demonstrated selective binding to immobilized αvβ3 and a lack of significant binding to other common proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and collagen. In B16F10 cell cultures, ALOS4 treatment at 72 h inhibited cell migration (30%) and adhesion (up to 67%). Immunofluorescent imaging an ALOS4-FITC analogue with B16F10 cells demonstrated rapid cell surface binding, and uptake and localization in the cytoplasm. Daily injections of ALOS4 (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) to mice inoculated with B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in two different cancer models, metastatic and subcutaneous tumor, resulted in reduction of lung tumor count (metastatic) and tumor mass (subcutaneous) and increased survival of animals monitored to 45 and 60 days, respectively. Examination of cellular activity indicated that ALOS4 produces inhibition of cell migration and adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that ALOS4 is a structurally-unique selective αvβ3 integrin ligand with potential anti-metastatic activity. PMID:27556860

  7. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  8. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  9. Sea Oil Slick Observation by Means of Fully-Polarimetric ALOS PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Shimada, M.; Isoguchi, O.

    2009-04-01

    A study on sea oil slick observation by means of L- band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is accomplished. It is based on the different sea surface scattering mechanism expected with and without surface slicks. Polarimetric measurements are processed by means of a simple and very effective filtering technique which is electromagnetically based on the Mueller scattering matrix. Moreover, some polarimetric features, evaluated on both the slick-free and slick-covered sea surface, are analyzed for confirming the filter output. Experiments are accomplished on polarimetric SAR data acquired by the PALSAR sensor, mounted on board of the ALOS satellite, and are relevant to an oil slick, due to a tank accident, and a look-alike. Results demonstrate, for the first time, that L-band polarimetric SAR measurements are useful for oil slick observation purposes and witness the capability of ALOS PALSAR data for such application.

  10. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-28

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140–260nm.

  11. Lipid lowering activity of hydrosoluble chitosan and association with Aloe vera L. and Brassica olearaceae L.

    PubMed

    Geremias, R; Pedrosa, R C; Locatelli, C; de Fávere, V T; Coury-Pedrosa, R; Laranjeira, M C M

    2006-04-01

    The lipid lowering activity of chitosan associated with Aloe vera L. or hydrosoluble chitosan with Brassica olearaceae L. has been studied in rats. In this study, rats were submitted to different treatments with hydrosoluble chitosan alone (4% diet), hydrosoluble chitosan associated with Aloe vera L. or hydrosoluble chitosan with Brassica olearaceae L. (1:4, 4% diet) for 35 days, to identify the formula with the highest hypolipaemic potential. The results showed that all treatments reduced blood lipid levels but that hydrosoluble chitosan associated with Brassica olearaceae L. proved most efficient, because it decreased the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in blood serum. The overall results suggest that the hydrosoluble chitosan/Brassica olearaceae L. association is a therapeutic alternative for hyperlipidaemia, and in this way may contribute to the prevention of atherogenic processes.

  12. Evaluation of the anti-angiogenic effect of aloe-emodin.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, C; Quesada, A R; Medina, M A

    2006-12-01

    The present study identified aloe-emodin (AE, a hydroxyanthraquinone from Aloe vera and other plants) as a new anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects in an in vivo angiogenesis assay and evaluates its effects on specific key steps of the angiogenic process. AE inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, but this effect is not cell specific, since AE also inhibits tumor cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion are not remarkably affected by AE. On the other hand, AE has different effects on endothelial and tumor cell gelatinases. Two main targets of the pharmacological action of AE as an anti-angiogenic compound seem to be urokinase secretion and tubule formation of endothelial cells. Finally, AE produces a remarkable photocytotoxic effect on tumor cells. Taken together, our data indicate that AE can behave both as an anti-tumor and an anti-angiogenic compound and suggest that AE could be a candidate drug for photodynamic therapy.

  13. Design, synthesis and molecular modeling of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Huang, Wei; Li, Chao; Liu, Yu-Wei; Wang, Shi-Fan

    2014-03-21

    A series of aloe-emodin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Among them, four aloe-emodin derivatives showed significant inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase. The compound 4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde (A1) possessed the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 2.79 μM. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that A1 acted as a mixed-type inhibitor for xanthine oxidase. The docking study revealed that the molecule A1 had strong interactions with the active site of xanthine oxidase and this result was in agreement with kinetic study. Consequently, compound A1 is a new-type candidate for further development for the treatment of gout.

  14. Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W

    2006-07-01

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types of pollen. Collection and storage by the bees resulted in increased water (13-21% wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61% dry weight), with a resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28% dry weight) and lipid content (10-8% dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than the required minimum levels for honeybee development, with the exception of tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by honeybees.

  15. Phytochemical constituents and in vitro radical scavenging activity of different Aloe species.

    PubMed

    Lucini, Luigi; Pellizzoni, Marco; Pellegrino, Roberto; Molinari, Gian Pietro; Colla, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The phytochemical profile of Aloe barbadensis Mill. and Aloe arborescens Mill. was investigated using colorimetric assays, triple quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometry, focusing on phenolic secondary metabolites in the different leaf portions. Hydroxycinnamic acids, several characteristic anthrones and chromones, the phenolic dimer feralolide and flavonoids such as flavones and isoflavones were identified. The stable radical DPPH test and the ORAC assay were then used to determine the in vitro radical scavenging. The outer green rind was the most active, while the inner parenchyma was much less effective. The 5-methylchromones aloesin, aloeresin A and aloesone were the most active among the pure secondary metabolites tested. The results suggest that several compounds are likely to contribute to the overall radical scavenging activity, and indicate that leaf portion must be taken into account when the plant is used for its antioxidant properties.

  16. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-01

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140-260nm.

  17. Aloe L.--a second plant family without (TTTAGGG)n telomeres.

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Leitch, I J; Bennett, M D; Leitch, A R

    2000-06-01

    The physical ends of chromosomes are protected and stabilised by telomeres. The sequence of telomeric DNA normally consists of a simple repeating unit that is conserved in many organisms. Most plants examined have been shown to possess Arabidopsis-type telomeres consisting of many repeat copies of the sequence 5'-TTTAGGG-3'. Using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, slot blotting and the asymmetric polymerase chain reaction we demonstrate an absence of Arabidopsis-type telomeres in the genus Aloe (family Asphodelaceae). The only other plant genera so far reported without such telomeres are Allium, Nothoscordum, and Tulbaghia (family Alliaceae). As these genera and Aloe are petaloid monocots in the Asparagales, it is suggested that an absence of Arabidopsis-type telomeres may be characteristic of this related group of plants.

  18. Modified Aloe Polysaccharide Restores Chronic Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjoo; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Sungwon; Kwon, Junghak; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress generally experienced in our daily lives; is known to augment disease vulnerability by suppressing the host immune system. In the present study; the effect of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) on chronic stress-induced immunosuppression was studied; this Aloe compound was characterized in our earlier study. Mice were orally administered with MAP for 24 days and exposed to electric foot shock (EFS; duration; 3 min; interval; 10 s; intensity; 2 mA) for 17 days. The stress-related immunosuppression and restorative effect of MAP were then analyzed by measuring various immunological parameters. MAP treatment alleviated lymphoid atrophy and body weight loss. The numbers of lymphocyte subsets were significantly normalized in MAP-treated mice. Oral administration of MAP also restored the proliferative activities of lymphocytes; ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell proliferation; antibody production; and the cell killing activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In summary; oral administration of MAP ameliorated chronic EFS stress-induced immunosuppression. PMID:27706024

  19. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  20. A Preliminary Study of Biomass Estimation of Boreal Forest in Alaska Using ALOS PALSAR Polarimetric Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Wurtz, T.; Gens, R.

    2007-12-01

    A reliable forest biomass determination is essential for understanding and modeling ecosystem dynamics, regional and global Carbon-fluxes, and their implications in global climate and environmental changes. The full- (HH+HV+VV+VH) and 2-polarization (HH+HV) information available from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the newly launched Japanese satellite, Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS), offers a great opportunity for estimating forest biomass from Space. We investigate ALOS PALSAR application in forest biomass estimation through two approaches. The first involves SAR polarimetry. Multiple scattering within forest, especially within forest canopy causes change of vibration direction in return radar signals, resulting in increase of the proportion of cross-polarization (i.e., HV and VH) components. Consequently, the degree of polarization (the ratio of co-polarized received power-HH+VV-over the total received power) thus decreases with increasing biomass. The second approach involves with polarization phase difference (PPD) and its standard deviation. These two parameters increase with increase in multiple scattering. Therefore, they are also indicators of higher biomass. ALOS PALSAR data sets at test sites at Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska, were acquired through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) at Alaska Satellite Facility. Interferometric tools are used in data processing to relate complex images in different polarizations. The resulting interferometric phase images are used for PPD and coherence images for deviations in PPD. Analysis is made through comparison of the interferometric-based patterns of PPD and its standard deviation with ground truth gathered through previous field campaigns.

  1. Detection of seagrass beds in Khunk Graben Bay, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Teruhisa; Noiraksar, Thidarat; Sakamoto, Shingo X.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Phauk, Sophany; Thongdee, Pornthep; Jualaong, Suthep; Nishida, Shuhei

    2012-11-01

    Coastal habitats having high productivity provide numerous ecological services such as foods, protection from strong waves through buffering effect, fixation of CO2 through photosynthesis, fostering biodiversity etc. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade coastal habitats. ASEAN region is developing most rapidly in the world. In the developing region, it is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of habitats as a baseline data with standardized mapping methods. Remote sensing is one of the most effective methods for mapping. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides non-commercial satellite images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2, similar to LANDSAT TM. Using ALOS AVNIR2 images it may be possible to make habitat map in the region. In Thailand, shrimp ponds cause degradation of coastal ecosystem through cutting mangroves and eutrophicated discharge from ponds. We examined capability of remote sesing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map seagrass beds in Khung Kraben Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, surrounded by shrimp ponds. We analyzed ALOS AVNIR2 taken on 25 January 2008. Ground truth survey was conducted in October 2010 using side scan sonar and scuba diving. The survey revealed that there were broad seagrass beds consisting of Enhalus acroides. We used a decision tree to detect seagrass beds in the bay with quite turbid seawater coupled with Depth-Invariant Index proposed by Lyzenga (1985) and bottom reflectances. We could succeed to detect seagrass beds. Thus it is concluded that ALOS AVNIR2 is practical to map seagrass beds in this region.

  2. Mapping land subsidence in Jakarta, Indonesia using persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Alex Hay-Man; Ge, Linlin; Li, Xiaojing; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Zhang, Kui

    2012-08-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia. It is one of the largest cities with an around 10 million population as for 2010, covering an area of about 661 square kilometers. The land subsidence phenomena in several areas of Jakarta are well known for many years. Land subsidence does damage infrastructures in the city; therefore, it has to be closely monitored and analysed. In this paper, the authors have demonstrated the capability of the PALSAR sensor aboard the Japanese ALOS satellite for large-scale mapping of land subsidence in Jakarta. Mapping results were produced from 17 ALOS PALSAR L-band radar images using persistent scatterer radar interferometry (PSI). The GEOS-PSI software, developed by the Geodesy and Earth Observing Systems group at UNSW for PSI analysis, was used to detect and map those land subsidence. The results showed that the land in the area of Jakarta was deforming at different rates across several zones. The land subsidence measured from ALOS PALSAR imagery were cross-examined with the subsidence values obtained from 4 GPS campaign surveys by the authors at 19 stations between 2007 and 2010. The magnitudes and trends of the deformation obtained from both techniques agreed well in general for those pinpoints of GPS. After the removal of 2 suspected outliers in GPS measurements, the subsidence rate difference between the two techniques range from -29 to 6 mm/year, with a standard deviation of 9 mm/year and an average absolute difference of 8 mm/year. This research has suggested that PSI with L-band ALOS PALSAR data can be a promising technique to complement the GPS surveying for monitoring land subsidence in super large cities like Jakarta.

  3. Expression profile of genes modulated by Aloe emodin in human U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Haris, Khalilah; Ismail, Samhani; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Yusoff, Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, approaches have been intensively investigated to targeti specific molecular pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Aloe emodin is believed to modulate the expression of several genes in cancer cells. We aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Aloe emodin on gene expression profiles in the human U87 glioblastoma cell line utilizing microarray technology. The gene expression analysis revealed that a total of 8,226 gene alterations out of 28,869 genes were detected after treatment with 58.6 μg/ml for 24 hours. Out of this total, 34 genes demonstrated statistically significant change (p<0.05) ranging from 1.07 to 1.87 fold. The results revealed that 22 genes were up-regulated and 12 genes were down-regulated in response to Aloe emodin treatment. These genes were then grouped into several clusters based on their biological functions, revealing induction of expression of genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and tissue remodelling in U87 cells (p<0.01). Several genes with significant changes of the expression level e.g. SHARPIN, BCAP31, FIS1, RAC1 and TGM2 from the apoptotic cluster were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results could serve as guidance for further studies in order to discover molecular targets for the cancer therapy based on Aloe emodin treatment.

  4. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  5. Deformation Survey of Volcanoes in Central America Using Japanese L-Band SAR Satellite ALOS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.; Lebowitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese L-Band SAR satellite ALOS-1 has proven intself to be a useful tool for deformation monitoring of active volcanoes. Here we present a systematic deformation survey of volcanoes in Central America for the 2007-2011 time frame using the Small Baseline InSAR time-series approach. We present results for deforming volcanoes and non-deforming volcanoes, including simple elastic source models for the volcanoes that show surface deformation.

  6. Preparation and characterization of aloe vera blended collagen-chitosan composite scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Jithendra, Panneerselvam; Rajam, Abraham Merlin; Kalaivani, Thambiran; Mandal, Asit Baran; Rose, Chellan

    2013-08-14

    Collagen-Chitosan (COL-CS) scaffolds supplemented with different concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of aloe vera (AV) were prepared and tested in vitro for their possible application in tissue engineering. After studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of all the composite preparations, a 0.2% AV blended COL-CS scaffold was chosen for further studies. Scaffolds were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) to understand the intermolecular interactions and their influence on the thermal property of the complex composite. Swelling property in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and in vitro biodegradability by collagenase digestion method were monitored to assess the stability of the scaffold in a physiological medium in a hydrated condition, and to assay its resistance against enzymatic forces. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the scaffold samples showed porous architecture with gradual change in their morphology and reduced tensile properties with increasing aloe vera concentration. The FTIR spectrum revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of COL-CS. The inclusion of AV to COL-CS increased the thermal stability as well as hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. Cell culture studies on the scaffold showed enhanced growth and proliferation of fibroblasts (3T3L1) without exhibiting any toxicity. Also, normal cell morphology and proliferation were observed by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The rate of cell growth in the presence/absence of aloe vera in the scaffolds was in the order: COL-CS-AV > COL-CS > TCP (tissue culture polystyrene plate). These results suggested that the aloe vera gel-blended COL-CS scaffolds could be a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications.

  7. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  8. Spectral reflectance of Kelantan Estuary with ALOS data to estimate transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahreza, S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2012-09-01

    The Kelantan estuary, located in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia, is characterized by high levels of suspended sediments. Kuala Besar is the estuary of the river directly opposite South China Sea. Spectral reflectance (Rr) and transparency measurements were carried out in the Kelantan estuary. The objective in this study is to establish empirical relationships between spectral remote sensing reflectance in ALOS satellite imagery and water column transparency, i.e. nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) and Secchi disc depth (SDD) through these numerous in situ measurements. We detected that remote sensing reflectance are linear and power regression functions against NTU and SDD. The results of this sampling show that the wavelengths range from 500-620 nm is the most suitable band for measuring water column transparency. The calibrated reflectance of ALOS AVNIR-2 bands was also regressed against NTU and SDD field data to derive two empirical equations for water transparency estimation. These equations were calculated using ALOS images data on June 12, 2010. The result obtained indicated that reliable estimates of turbidity and transparency values for the Kelantan Estuary, Malaysia, could be retrieved using this method.

  9. Acitretin and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogel for the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Divya, G; Panonnummal, Rajitha; Gupta, Swati; Jayakumar, R; Sabitha, M

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the development of an effective topical nanogel formulation of two anti-psoriatic drugs; Acitretin (Act) and Aloe-emodin (AE) using natural polymer chitin. Simple regeneration chemistry was used to prepare Chitin Nanogel Systems (CNGs). The developed control chitin (CNGs) nanogels, acitretin loaded chitin nanogels (ActCNGs) and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogels (AECNGs) were characterized by DLS, SEM, FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. The systems were found to be spherical in shape with a size range of 98±10, 138±8 and 238±6nm having zeta potential values of +28±3, +27±3 and +25±6mV for CNGs, ActCNGs and AECNGs respectively. The in vitro haemolysis assay revealed that all the nanogel systems are blood compatible. The systems exhibited higher swelling and release at acidic pH. The ex vivo skin permeation studies using porcine skin confirmed the higher deposition of the systems at epidermal and dermal layers, which was confirmed further by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo anti-psoriatic activity study using Perry's mouse tail model and skin safety studies confirmed the potential benefit of the system for topical delivery of acitretin and aloe-emodin in psoriasis.

  10. Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel

    SciTech Connect

    Grindlay, D.; Reynolds, T.

    1986-06-01

    The mucilaginous gel from the parenchymatous cells in the leaf pulp of Aloe vera has been used since early times for a host of curative purposes. This gel should be distinguished clearly from the bitter yellow exudate originating from the bundle sheath cells, which is used for its purgative effects. Aloe vera gel has come to play a prominent role as a contemporary folk remedy, and numerous optimistic, and in some cases extravagant, claims have been made for its medicinal properties. Modern clinical use of the gel began in the 1930s, with reports of successful treatment of X-ray and radium burns, which led to further experimental studies using laboratory animals in the following decades. The reports of these experiments and the numerous favourable case histories did not give conclusive evidence, since although positive results were usually described, much of the work suffered from poor experimental design and insufficiently large test samples. In addition some conflicting or inconsistent results were obtained. With the recent resurgence of interest in Aloe vera gel, however, new experimental work has indicated the possibility of distinct physiological effects. Chemical analysis has shown the gel to contain various carbohydrate polymers, notably either glucomannans or pectic acid, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of the gel have been described, there is no certain correlation between these and the identified gel components. 154 references.

  11. Preliminary results of calibration for ALOS optical sensors and validation of generated PRISM DSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mukaida, Akira; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was successfully launched on January 24 th, 2006. This paper introduces the preliminary results of calibration and validation for two optical sensors of ALOS i.e., the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers, and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution, which is also an objective of the ALOS mission. So, the geometric calibration is important in generating a highly accurate DSM by stereo pair image of PRISM. The radiometric calibration is also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. The relative radiometric calibration is carrying out using acquired images over homogeneous targets such as ocean, deserts, ice and snow areas and the nighttime observation. The absolute radiometric calibration is applied the cross calibration method using calibrated satellite images i.e., MODIS onboard Terra/Aqua satellites, ASTER, SPOT-5 etc. In this paper, results of the first images acquisition and preliminary analysis for calibration and validation are described.

  12. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  13. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Backgound and Aim Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Conclusion Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy. PMID:26501001

  14. Circadian variations in biologically closed electrochemical circuits in Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Baker, Kara; Foster, Justin C; Clemmons, Jacqueline; Jovanov, Emil; Markin, Vladislav S

    2011-04-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. This paper presents, for the first time, the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. Here we show circadian variation of the plant responses to electrical stimulation. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. The electrostimulation was provided with different timing and different voltages. Resistance between Ag/AgCl electrodes in the leaf of Aloe vera was higher during the day than at night. Discharge of the capacitor in Aloe vera at night was faster than during the day. Discharge of the capacitor in a pulvinus of Mimosa pudica was faster during the day. The biologically closed electrical circuits with voltage gated ion channels in Mimosa pudica are also activated the next day, even in the darkness. These results show that the circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. We present the equivalent electrical circuits in both plants and their circadian variation to explain the experimental data.

  15. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses.

  16. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

  17. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  18. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe

  19. Aloe-emodin suppressed NMDA-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ju; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Huang, Shiuan-Yi; Wan, Lai; Wu, Chen-Ju; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-11-01

    A high concentration of glutamate in the vitreous body and optic nerves of the eyes activates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is toxic to retina ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucomatous patients. Aloe-emodin sulfates/glucuronides (s/g), the major metabolites of aloe-emodin, was found to be effective in decreasing NMDA-induced apoptosis in RGCs. In order to elucidate the mechanisms, an in vitro optic neuropathy model adding NMDA to N18 RGCs was used in this study. The phosphorylation level of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (cytokines-suppressive antiinflammatory drug binding protein kinase) were measured by western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that aloe-emodin metabolites significantly decreased the activation of three major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways and the activation of downstream genes in nucleus induced by NMDA, which were verified by the addition of the respective inhibitors. Comparing the effect of the inhibitors of the three MAP kinase pathways, the ERK pathway was found to be the major route of aloe-emodin metabolites in decreasing the apoptosis of NMDA-treated RGCs. Besides, cfos rather then cjun was the target downstream gene. Aloe-emodin emodin metabolites could regulate the phosphorylation of ERK kinases and it was a promising candidate for NMDA-induced apoptosis of RGCs.

  20. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation in cutaneous wounds after topical application of aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh; Zolbin, Masoumeh Majidi

    2016-12-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant used to treat various skin diseases. The effects of using aloe vera gel on the healing process were investigated by microscopic methods, cell counting, and TGF-β gene expression in the wound bed. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were placed under anesthesia in sterile conditions. A square 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm wound was made on the back of the neck. The rats were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. Additionally, the control and experimental groups were separated into 3 subgroups corresponding to 4, 7, and 14 days of study. In the first experimental group, aloe vera was used twice on the wound. The second experimental group received aloe vera overtreatment once on the wound. The positive control group received daily application of 1% phenytoein cream following surgical wound creation. The control group did not receive any treatment. This tissue was examined using histological staining (H&E) and Masson's Trichrome. Wound surface and wound healing were evaluated separately. TGF-β gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results showed that fibroblasts in both experimental groups were significantly increased, thereby acceleration wound healing. Application of aloe vera gel will increase TGF-β gene expression, ultimately accelerating the wound healing process.

  1. Aloe-emodin induces cell death through S-phase arrest and caspase-dependent pathways in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Lai, Wan-Wen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Wu, Ping-Ping; Ma, Chia-Yu; Yeh, Chin-Chung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-11-01

    Aloe-emodin, one of the anthraquinones, has been shown to have anticancer activity in different kinds of human cancer cell lines. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of aloe-emodin on human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The results indicated that aloe-emodin induced cell death through S-phase arrest and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with 30 microM of aloe-emodin led to S-phase arrest through promoted p53, p21 and p27, but inhibited cyclin A, E, thymidylate synthase and Cdc25A levels. Aloe-emodin promoted the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome c from the mitochondria via a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) which was associated with a increase in the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax)/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and activation of caspase-9 and -3. The free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and caspase inhibitors markedly blocked aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis. Aloe-emodin thus induced apoptosis in the SCC-4 cells through the Fas/death-receptor, mitochondria and caspase cascade. Aloe-emodin could be a novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human tongue squamous cancer in the future.

  2. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Asgharzade, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Amin; Reiisi, Somaye; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-1; group A, 300 mg.kg-1; group B, and only normal saline; group C (control group). They were mated with untreated females and the reproductive and chemical parameters were assessed for each group, including semen quality, serum testosterone, sperm fertility, gonad and body weight, serum NO concentration (by the Griess method), and iNOS gene expression (using RT-PCR). Results: The testes weight, serum testosterone, as well as sperm count and fertility of the AVG treated groups were significantly reduced when compared to the control (P<0.001). Concentration of serum NO was significantly increased (37.1±4.63 µM) in the administrated group with higher AVG concentration, compared to the control group (P<0.001; 10.19±0.87 µM); however, iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the treated animals (P<0.001). Conclusion: iNOS may play a functional role in spermatogenesis via apoptosis, reducing sperm count, but further studies are needed to illustrate the mechanisms by which AVG exerts its negative effects on spermatogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:26730330

  3. New Approaches for Soil Moisture Analysis over Complex Arctic Environments with PALSAR/ALOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longépé, N.; Necsoiu, M.; Tadono, T.; Shimada, M.

    2010-12-01

    Frozen ground is a sensitive indicator of how our home planet is changing. In this study, the relevance of L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for extracting information on frozen ground is presented. Specifically, the study focused on the characterization of a permafrost active layer using polarimetric ALOS PALSAR imagery in two locations in Alaska: the Kobuk river valley and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The adequacy between polarimetric EM model and radar data has been studied for a long time, especially over bare agricultural fields (Oh et al., 1992). The assessment of residual liquid water can be realized by means of a bare soil EM backscattering model. Over natural wild land areas such as the Arctic tundra, new approaches have to be proposed in order to tackle the effect of the vegetation and other irrelevant effects (sensor calibration, multiple scattering terms, etc.). As a result, traditional soil moisture retrieval has shown limited accuracy for operational use, even though promising methods have been recently investigated (Mattia et al., 2006; Verhoest et al., 2007). Two methodologies based on multi-temporal acquisitions are proposed in this study. In regards to the uncertainties of the vegetation effect or other irrelevant mechanisms, a first methodology is proposed in this study. An optimization on the Oh’s weights (Oh, 2004) and full-polarimetric PALSAR data is carried out by using priori information provided by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) onboard the Aqua satellite. By tuning PALSAR data and Oh’s weights, the effects of vegetation are counterbalanced. This method was tested over the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The optimization results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical aspects: vegetation induces an increase of cross-polarized channel (anisotropic effect) and a decrease of co-polarized channels (attenuation mechanism). The soil moisture variation can be then retrieved in a

  4. The very-low-fluence and high-irradiance responses of the phytochromes have antagonistic effects on germination, mannan-degrading activities, and DfGA3ox transcript levels in Datura ferox seeds.

    PubMed

    Arana, María Verónica; Burgin, María José; de Miguel, Lucila C; Sánchez, Rodolfo A

    2007-01-01

    Seed germination can be promoted by the modes of action of two of the phytochromes: the low-fluence response (LFR), which is the classical red (R)-far-red (FR) reversible response and the very-low-fluence response (VLFR) that can be saturated by extremely low levels of Pfr, which can be elicited by a saturating FR pulse. The Datura ferox seed population used in this work had acquired the capacity to germinate through a VLFR after pretreatment in a water-saturated atmosphere (WSA) at constant 25 degrees C. After 12 d in WSA germination after a FR pulse was 82%, while it was less than 10% in darkness. It was found that the VLFR of germination is associated with increments in the embryo growth potential (EGP) and in the activity of two enzymes related to the weakening of the micropylar region of the endosperm (ME); endo-beta-mannanase and beta-mannosidase. The FR pulse also significantly stimulated the expression of DfGA3ox, a GA 3beta-hydroxylase, suggesting that the promotion of germination by the VLFR is associated with an increase in the synthesis of active gibberellins. The promotive action of the VLFR on germination is reduced when the FR pulse is immediately followed by a continuous FR treatment for 24 h (FRc). The effect of FRc cannot be reproduced by hourly FR pulses during the same period, showing that the antagonistic effect of FRc is a high-irradiance response (HIR). The action of the HIR in germination is associated with a decrease of both the mannan-degrading enzyme activity and the expression of DfMan in the ME, whereas no changes in the EGP were observed. The HIR also inhibits the accumulation of DfGA3ox in embryos, indicating that its action on germination is mediated, at least in part, through the modulation of active GA contents in seeds. This is the first report of a gene that participates in the VLFR-HIR antagonism in seeds.

  5. Determination of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2007-01-01

    Methods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC with diode array detection (DAD) in the UV range (LC/UV) were developed for the determination of low levels of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A (barbaloin) in aloe-based products. The methods were used to analyze several commercial products (liquids, semisolids, and solids) for the 2 anthraquinones. The wavelengths used for quantification of aloin-A, aloe-emodin, and emodin (internal standard) by DAD were 357, 257, and 289 nm, respectively. The on-column sensitivities were 0.25 and 0.05 ng by LC/UV and 0.01 and 0.025 ng by LC/MS for aloin-A and aloe-emodin, respectively. The methods are simple and sensitive and provide reproducible results; therefore, they are suitable for the determination of these anthraquinones in various aloe-based products.

  6. EFFECT OF A DENTIFRICE CONTAINING ALOE VERA ON PLAQUE AND GINGIVITIS CONTROL. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sílvia Morgana Araújo; Torres, Ticiana Carneiro; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima; Carlos, Márlio Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the test group (n=15) – dentifrice containing Aloe vera - or the control group (n=15) – fluoridated dentifrice. Plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were assessed at days 0 and 30. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with the control or test dentifrice, three times a day, during a 30-day period. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01). The dentifrice containing Aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice. PMID:19089263

  7. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  8. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Ishizaki, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol) to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing 40 μg Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ≥40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25759593

  9. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate

  10. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for nutraceutical application based upon toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Gwak, Hyo-Min; Park, Hyun Jong; Roh, Taehyun; Shin, Min Kyung; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Aloe has been used in versatile herbal medications and nutraceuticals throughout history. Aloe is widely considered to be generally safe for humans and used globally. The effectiveness and pharmacological properties of aloe are dependent upon when the plant is collected. However, little is known about the toxicology of whole-body aloe collected within less than 1 yr. Based upon widespread exposure to aloe, it is important to determine a daily intake level of this chemical to ensure its safety for humans. To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for clinical application, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally for 4 wk with 4 different concentrations: 0, 0.125, 0.5, and 2 g/kg body weight (bw). In this study, no significant or dose-dependent toxicological effects of BAP were observed in biochemical or hematological parameters, urinalysis, clinical signs, body weight, and food and water consumption. There were changes in some biomarkers in certain treated groups compared to controls; however, all values were within their reference ranges and not dose-dependent. Based on these results, the NOAEL of BAP was estimated to be greater than 2 g/kg bw in male and 2 g/kg bw in female SD rats. Collectively, these data suggest that BAP used in this study did not produce any marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 2 g/kg bw, and thus use in nutraceuticals and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications at a concentration of >2 g/kg is warranted.

  11. Crustal deformation in Australia measured by satellite radar interferometry using ALOS/PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Linlin; Ng, Alex Hay-Man; Wang, Hua; Rizos, Chris

    2009-03-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), launched on 24 January 2006, is a Japanese satellite carrying an L-band SAR sensor, namely the PALSAR, which is expected to demonstrate good performance in applications such as crustal deformation measurement, subsidence detection and landslide monitoring. This paper describes a case study of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) using ALOS/PALSAR data to detect crustal deformation caused by a recent small earthquake in Western Australia. Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired by the ALOS/PALSAR sensor were used to measure the co-seismic deformation of the 9 October 2007 earthquake that occurred south of the town of Katanning, in the state of Western Australia. Three images with dual polarizations (HH & HV) were used in this study; two acquired before the earthquake event and one after. The two-pass DInSAR processing method was applied to generate differential interferograms. The peak-to-peak surface displacement is up to 32 centimetres in the radar line-of-sight direction. The interferograms were used to constrain the fault modelling. The co-seismic displacements were modelled using a two-segment uniform slip model in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. A genetic algorithm was used to determine the optimal source parameters for the nonlinear inversion. The resultant maximum slip is about 0.4 metres on an almost pure reverse fault striking ~NE55° and dipping at ~40°S. The scalar moment was estimated to be 1:84 × 1016 Nm (Mw4.8), which is in good agreement with the seismological results. The root-mean-square difference between the DInSAR observed and modelled displacements is 1.6 cm.

  12. On-orbit performance of the Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) onboard ALOS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Nakau, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) is a technology demonstration instrument equipped with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. Microbolometers have an advantage of not requiring cooling system such as a mechanical cooler and are suitable for resource-limited sensor systems. Another characteristic of the CIRC is its use of an athermal optical system and a shutterless system. The CIRC is small in size (approximately 200 mm), is light weight (approximately 3 kg), and has low electrical power consumption (<20 W) owing to these characteristics. The main objective of CIRC is to detect wildfires, which are major and chronic disasters affecting various countries of Southeast Asia, particularly considering the effects of global warming and climate change. One of the CIRCs was launched in May 24, 2014 as a technology demonstration payload of the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS- 2). Since the initial functional verification phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC has demonstrated functions according to its intended design. We also confirmed that the noise equivalent differential temperature of the CIRC observation data is less than 0.2 K, the temperature accuracy is within ±4 K, and the spatial resolution is less than 210 m in the calibration validation phase after the initial functional verification phase. The CIRC also detects wildfires in various areas and observes volcano activities and urban heat islands in the operational phase. The other CIRC will be launched in 2015 onboard the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station. Installation of the CIRCs on the ALOS-2 and on the JEM/CALET is expected to increase the observation frequency. In this study, we present the on-orbit performance including observational results of the CIRC onboard the ALOS-2 and the current status of the CIRC onboard the JEM/CALET.

  13. Exploiting ALOS observations as a guide to what will be possible with DESDynI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.; Philibosian, B.; Lin, Y. N.; Hetland, E. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several years, L-band radar observations from the Japanese ALOS satellite has allowed a variety of crustal deformation studies that give us a taste of what will be possible with a dedicated L-band InSAR mission such as that currently being planned by NASA. Here we illustrate the success (and sometimes failure) of ALOS PALSAR data to measure ground deformation associated with large earthquakes (2010 Mw 8.8, Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan), volcano deformation in forested or jungled areas (Java), small earthquakes (aftershocks of the Tohoku-oki earthquake), interseismic deformation (the San Andreas and Hayward faults in California), and glacier flow on a temperate ice cap (Hofsjokull, Iceland). In several of these cases, we use time series methods, primarily the MInTS approach, to detect smaller amplitude signals and to separate out the effects of seasonal and tectonic deformation while also mitigating the effects of propagation delays accrued in the atmosphere. All data for these studies were made available through USGRC acquired through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) located at the ASF. In addition to deformation analysis, we look at the behavior of interferometric correlation at L-band as a function of orbital and temporal baselines. In vegetated areas such as Java, we find that observations need to be consistently made at shortest time intervals possible (45-90 days) if correlation is to be reliably maintained. Short time intervals are also required to increase sensitivity to small amplitude signals, minimize trade-offs between the estimates of coseismic, post-seismic and seasonal processes, and to reduce the potential impact of transient decorrelation events (e.g., rainfall). We also highlight the importance of short repeat times to enable the use of decorrelation for rapid damage assessment after catastrophic events.

  14. Generation of the 30 M-Mesh Global Digital Surface Model by Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2016-06-01

    Topographical information is fundamental to many geo-spatial related information and applications on Earth. Remote sensing satellites have the advantage in such fields because they are capable of global observation and repeatedly. Several satellite-based digital elevation datasets were provided to examine global terrains with medium resolutions e.g. the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the global digital elevation model by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER GDEM). A new global digital surface model (DSM) dataset using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi") has been completed on March 2016 by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborating with NTT DATA Corp. and Remote Sensing Technology Center, Japan. This project is called "ALOS World 3D" (AW3D), and its dataset consists of the global DSM dataset with 0.15 arcsec. pixel spacing (approx. 5 m mesh) and ortho-rectified PRISM image with 2.5 m resolution. JAXA is also processing the global DSM with 1 arcsec. spacing (approx. 30 m mesh) based on the AW3D DSM dataset, and partially releasing it free of charge, which calls "ALOS World 3D 30 m mesh" (AW3D30). The global AW3D30 dataset will be released on May 2016. This paper describes the processing status, a preliminary validation result of the AW3D30 DSM dataset, and its public release status. As a summary of the preliminary validation of AW3D30 DSM, 4.40 m (RMSE) of the height accuracy of the dataset was confirmed using 5,121 independent check points distributed in the world.

  15. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  16. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

  17. Floral traits mediate the vulnerability of aloes to pollen theft and inefficient pollination by bees

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Pollen-collecting bees are among the most important pollinators globally, but are also the most common pollen thieves and can significantly reduce plant reproduction. The pollination efficiency of pollen collectors depends on the frequency of their visits to female(-phase) flowers, contact with stigmas and deposition of pollen of sufficient quantity and quality to fertilize ovules. Here we investigate the relative importance of these components, and the hypothesis that floral and inflorescence characteristics mediate the pollination role of pollen collection by bees. Methods For ten Aloe species that differ extensively in floral and inflorescence traits, we experimentally excluded potential bird pollinators to quantify the contributions of insect visitors to pollen removal, pollen deposition and seed production. We measured corolla width and depth to determine nectar accessibility, and the phenology of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity to quantify herkogamy and dichogamy. Further, we compiled all published bird-exclusion studies of aloes, and compared insect pollination success with floral morphology. Key Results Species varied from exclusively insect pollinated, to exclusively bird pollinated but subject to extensive pollen theft by insects. Nectar inaccessibility and strong dichogamy inhibited pollination by pollen-collecting bees by discouraging visits to female-phase (i.e. pollenless) flowers. For species with large inflorescences of pollen-rich flowers, pollen collectors successfully deposited pollen, but of such low quality (probably self-pollen) that they made almost no contribution to seed set. Indeed, considering all published bird-exclusion studies (17 species in total), insect pollination efficiency varied significantly with floral shape. Conclusions Species-specific floral and inflorescence characteristics, especially nectar accessibility and dichogamy, control the efficiency of pollen-collecting bees as pollinators of aloes

  18. Transparent oxygen impermeable AlO x thin films on polycarbonate deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Jin-Wook; Kim, Sang-Mun; Choi, Daiwon; Yoon, K. H.

    2005-08-01

    The AlO x thin films were deposited on the polycarbonate by reactive ion beam sputtering (RIBS) at different oxygen partial pressures where the AlO x thin film with O/Al ratio of 1.5 was formed when oxygen partial pressure increased from 4 × 10 -5 to 2 × 10 -4 Torr. As a result, oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the barrier significantly decreased from 24 cm 3/m 2 day to around 2 cm 3/m 2 day with increase in oxygen partial pressure. Optical transmittances of the films were in the 86-88% range at 550 nm versus 89% for the pure polycarbonate film.

  19. Recent Evolution of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay as seen by ALOS AVNIR-2 Data (ADEN AO 3643)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Bilaudeau, Clelia; Deffontaines, Benoit

    2008-11-01

    The ALOS AVNIR-2 scene acquired on October 24, 2007 has been used for drawing a new map of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay. This area is characterised by a large dry-fallen tidal flat, one of the largest in the world. The tidal records indicate that the ALOS datatake was acquired in favorable conditions, the elevation of the sea at 2.56 m being very close to the theoretical minimum value (about 2.30 m). In these conditions, the largest tidal flat observed by a sun-synchronous satellite on the Mont Saint-Michel Bay is exposed.

  20. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of aloe-emodin derivatives as new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Huang, Wei; Li, Chao; Wang, Ling-Ting; Wang, Shi-Fan

    2013-03-01

    A series of aloe-emodin derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Most of the new prepared compounds showed remarkable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Among them, the compound 1-((4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-2-yl) methyl) pyridin-1-ium chloride (C3) which has a pyridinium substituent possessed the best inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (IC(50)=0.09 μM). The docking study performed with AUTODOCK demonstrated that C3 could interact with the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of acetylcholinesterase.

  1. A HPTLC densitometric method for the determination of aloeverose in Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Richard; Prabhu, Kirti S; Shirwaikar, Arun; Ballal, Mamatha; Balachandran, C; Shirwaikar, Annie

    2010-06-01

    Aloe vera gel is a familiar ingredient in a range of widely available and advertisement healthcare and cosmetic products. As to date there are no documented reports on the standardization of A. vera gel and the following study is an attempt in this direction. A. vera gel was evaluated for its aloeverose content for the first time. Aloeverose, was separated on a thin-layer of silica gel by isocratic gradient elution technique was determined by using HPTLC-photodensitometry. The proposed method is simple and sensitive and can be used for the routine assay of aloeverose in phytomedicines containing A. vera gel.

  2. Observation of the Gorkha, Nepal earthquake of April 25, 2015 with ALOS-2/PALSAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gorkha, Nepal earthquake (Mw7.8) of April 25, 2015 is the first event in the Himalaya region that occurred after the development of modern space geodetic technology. Since the epicenter of this earthquake is located in a mountainous and rural area where few continuous GNSS observation is made, satellite remote sensing is required to reveal crustal deformation and damage. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conducted emergent observations of ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 that has been in operation since summer in 2014. We analyzed acquired images including ScanSAR images whose swath width is about 350 km using Gamma software with a digital ellipsoidal height model based on SRTM DEM. Coherence of all interferograms is very high. However, we found two spots of low coherence in Kathmandu, including the Durbar Square. These spots indicate structural damages or liquefaction. ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferograms contain large phase ramp, possibly due to ionospheric disturbance or inaccurate orbit. We corrected phase ramp using quadratic function of latitude, longitude and altitude. Corrected interferograms show an elliptic zone of LOS decrease extending from the epicenter ESE-ward with a peak of > 1 m. North of the uplift zone, we found LOS increase of ~0.8 m. This result is consistent with thrust motion on a low-angled fault plane. We inverted corrected interferogram to estimate slip distribution and dip angle of fault. Preliminary results imply that the thrust motion is concentrated at depth between 10 and 20 km and the maximum slip is ~ 4.4 m. Geodetic moment is estimated to be 1.47 x 10^21 Nm (Mw8.0). We also processed a postseismic pair and detected coseismic deformation of the May 12 aftershock (Mw7.3). Area of uplift with a diameter of 30 km is found and that of subsidence on its north. It also is consistent with low-angled thrust. It is hard to recognize postseismic deformation of the mainshock possibly due to the correction of phase ramp. ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 images were provided

  3. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K.; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; Chauhan, P.; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  4. Integrating ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data for systematic volcano deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Biggs, Juliet; Ebmeier, Susanna; Parker, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The recent launches of the Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 satellites provide a wealth of new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data for Earth observation purposes. We exploit these data for volcano deformation monitoring with a particular focus on Latin America, which is nominated as a priority target area under the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites volcano pilot program. By conducting an integrated survey that employs both Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 we are able to achieve previously unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal resolution and combat decorrelation arising from vegetation cover. Latin America is an ideal target region as it has a diversity of geographic volcano locations (e.g., dense rainforest to high-altitude deserts), as well as abundant and varied volcanic activity. The numerous local volcano observatories can also directly benefit from this additional InSAR data when integrating it alongside ground-based observations. To further facilitate this impact we are directing our data outputs to a global volcano deformation database in near-real-time to provide a first-order access point for observatory staff and research scientists in need of satellite-derived ground-deformation results. We will draw upon a selection of case studies within Latin America to demonstrate our approach and how it can enhance volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting efforts.

  5. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research.

  6. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  7. Influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and enzymatic in vitro degradation of alginate hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rúben F; Carvalho, Anabela; Gil, M H; Mendes, Ausenda; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates the influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of Aloe vera-Ca-alginate hydrogel films, for wound healing and drug delivery applications. The influence of A. vera content (5%, 15% and 25%, v/v) on water absorption was evaluated by the incubation of the films into a 0.1 M HCl solution (pH 1.0), acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and simulated body fluid solution (pH 7.4) during 24h. Results show that the water absorption is significantly higher for films containing high A. vera contents (15% and 25%), while no significant differences are observed between the alginate neat film and the film with 5% of A. vera. The in vitro enzymatic degradation tests indicate that an increase in the A. vera content significantly enhances the degradation rate of the films. Control films, incubated in a simulated body fluid solution without enzymes, are resistant to the hydrolytic degradation, exhibiting reduced weight loss and maintaining its structural integrity. Results also show that the water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of the films can be tailored by changing the A. vera content.

  8. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. PMID:27529080

  9. Investigating the capabilities of new microwave ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data for biomass estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, L. V.; Paull, D. J.; Griffin, A. L.

    2016-10-01

    Most studies indicate that L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has a great capacity to estimate biomass due to its ability to penetrate deeply through canopy layers. Many applications using L-band space-borne data have showcased their own significant contribution in biomass estimation but some limitations still exist. New data have been released recently that are designed to overcome limitations and drawbacks of previous sensor generations. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the new sensor ALOS-2 to improve wide and high-resolution observation technologies in order to further meet social and environmental objectives. In the list of priority tasks addressed by JAXA there are experiments utilizing these new data for vegetation biomass distribution measurement. This study, therefore, focused on investigating the capabilities of these new microwave data in above ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The data mode used in this study was a full polarimetric ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 (L-band) scene. The experiment was conducted on a portion of a tropical forest in a Central Highland province in Vietnam.

  10. Using ERS-2 and ALOS PALSAR images for soil moisture and inundation mapping in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Retalis, Adrianos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-08-01

    Floods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human and economic loss and are considered to be a weather-related natural disaster. This study strives to highlight the potential of active remote sensing imagery in flood inundation monitoring and mapping in a catchment area in Cyprus (Yialias river). GeoEye-1 and ASTER images were employed to create updated Land use /Land cover maps of the study area. Following, the application of fully polarimetric (ALOS PALSAR) and dual polarimetric (ERS - 2) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for soil moisture and inundation mapping is presented. For this purpose 2 ALOS PALSAR images and 3 ERS-2 images were acquired. This study offers an integrated methodology by the use of multi-angle radar images to estimate roughness and soil moisture without the use of ancillary field data such as field measurements. The relationship between soil moisture and backscattering coefficient was thoroughly studied and linear regression models were developed to predict future flood inundation events. Multi-temporal FCC images, classification, image fusion, moisture indices, texture and PCA analysis were employed to assist soil moisture mapping. Certain land cover classes were characterized as flood prone areas according to statistics of their signal response. The results will be incorporated in an integrated flood risk assessment model of Yialias catchment area.

  11. Photocatalytic Activity of LaSr2 AlO5 :Eu Ceramic Powders.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos R; Oliva, Jorge; Díaz-Torres, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity, of undoped and Europium-doped LaSr2 AlO5 powders, has been investigated by degrading methylene blue dye in water solutions. Those powders were fabricated by a combustion method and an annealing treatment in air. All samples showed a tetragonal single phase according to by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular semi-oval grains with sizes in the range of 3.5-4.27 μm. Photoluminescence spectrum showed sharp emission peaks at 588 nm and at 617 nm which are associated with (7) F1 ,(7) F2 → (5) D0 Eu(3+) ion forbidden transitions, respectively, under UV light excitation of 322 nm. The methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV light (254 nm) was studied by monitoring changes in the absorbance peak of MB at 665 nm. Finally, LaSr2 AlO5 :Eu powders were used three times and the efficiency for the degradation of MB decreased from 100 to 61% after the third cycle of use.

  12. A simple and simultaneous identification method for aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-01-05

    An effective and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous identification of aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Identification of three maker compounds presented in three medicinal materials was performed on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Under the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions, sixty-two samples were processed on an Optimapak C18 column using a solvent system of acetonitrile (from 10% to 35%) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (from 90% to 65%) at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 270 nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9992). The relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 1% and 2%, respectively. The recoveries of three analytes ranged from 99.48 to 100.97% with low RSDs (<2%). For the first time, this study demonstrates that the processed aloe, catechu and gambir are sold in local material markets in China and Korea without their correct identification. It indicates the existent of high potential medicinal risk by misuse of three medicinal materials. The developed HPLC method can be applied to prevent unexpected biological activity due to misapplication of medicinal materials.

  13. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9.

  14. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Han, S S; Shin, Y K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

    1999-05-01

    We have recently reported that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators, G1C2F1, that restore ultraviolet B (UVB)-suppressed accessory cell function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the UVB-protective activity of G1C2F1 in vivo. Exposure of the shaved abdominal skin of mice to 2.4 KJ/m2 of UVB radiation resulted in suppression of contact sensitization through the skin to 41.1%, compared to normal unirradiated skin. Topical application of G1C2F1 immediately after irradiation reduced this suppression significantly. The percentage recovery of UVB-suppressed contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was 52.3, 77.3, and 86.6% when the irradiated skin was treated once with 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/ml of G1C2F1-containing cream, respectively. G1C2F1 did not show nonspecific stimulatory activity on CHS response. The present study, together with the previous observation, show that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators that prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin by restoration of UVB-induced damages on epidermal LC.

  15. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-05-07

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.

  16. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  17. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-06-01

    Pollen is unique among floral rewards in functioning as both a carrier of gametes and an attractant and nutritious resource for floral visitors. Animals that collect pollen without pollinating (pollen thieves) could reduce siring success of thieved plants and cause pollen limitation of seed set at the population level; however, such impacts on plant reproduction have not been demonstrated experimentally. To test these effects we added hives of native honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to populations of a primarily bird-pollinated plant, Aloe maculata, in eastern South Africa. In field and aviary trials, bee addition increased pollen removal from anthers but decreased pollen deposition on stigmas, and so reduced both male and female pollination components. Further, total seed production decreased with hive addition in the aviary experiment and in three of four field populations, indicating that population-level pollen theft can also compromise reproductive success. In the field, naturally occurring allodapine bees also seemed to act as pollen thieves, outweighing the effect of honey bee hive addition at one of the four aloe populations. Our results highlight the importance of social bees as pollen thieves, even of plants that have evolved in their presence, and the role of dichogamy in promoting pollen theft. Given the commonness of both social bees and dichogamy, pollen theft is likely a much more common influence on floral ecology and evolution than suggested by the sparse literature.

  18. Observations and Mitigation of RFI in ALOS PALSAR SAR Data; Implications for the Desdyni Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Le, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Initial examination of ALOS PALSAR synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has indicated significant radio frequency interference (RFI) in several geographic locations around the world. RFI causes significant reduction in image contrast, introduces periodic and quasi-periodic image artifacts, and introduces significant phase noise in repeat pass interferometric data reduction. The US National Research Council Decadal Survey of Earth Science has recommended DESDynI, a Deformation, Ecosystems, and Dynamics of Ice satellite mission comprising an L-band polarimetric radar configured for repeat pass interferometry. There is considerable interest internationally in other future L-band and lower frequency systems as well. Therefore the issues of prevalence and possibilities of mitigation of RFI in these crowded frequency bands is of considerable interest. RFI is observed in ALOS PALSAR in California, USA, and in southern Egypt in data examined to date. Application of several techniques for removing it from the data prior to SAR image formation, ranging from straightforward spectral normalization to time-domain, multi-phase filtering techniques are considered. Considerable experience has been gained from the removal of RFI from P-band acquired by the GeoSAR system. These techniques applied to the PALSAR data are most successful when the bandwidth of any particular spectral component of the RFI is narrow. Performance impacts for SAR imagery and interferograms are considered in the context of DESDynI measurement requirements.

  19. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic studies of aloe emodin and chrysophanol in rats after oral administration of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Fu; Yu, Qin; Wan, Mei-Hua; Qin, Feng; Wang, Yong-Gang; Chen, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Zhi; Huang, Xi

    2007-07-01

    A validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of aloe emodin and chrysophanol in rats. It was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column and a mobile phase made up of methanol and 0.2% acetic acid (83:17, v/v). The ultraviolet detection was 254 nm. 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone was used as the internal standard. The assay was linear over the range 28-2800 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9993) for aloe emodin and 25.6-2560 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9991) for chrysophanol. The average percentage recoveries of three spiked plasmas were 98.8-104.8% and 97.7-103.2% for aloe emodin and chrysophanol, respectively. Their RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision at concentrations of 56, 280 and 1400 ng/mL for aloe emodin and 51.6, 258 and 1290 ng/mL for chrysophanol were less than 3.5%. This method was applied for the first time to simultaneously determinate aloe emodin and chrysophanol in rats following oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that chrysophanol was better absorbed with higher concentrations in plasma than aloe emodin did. They both eliminated slowly in male rats. The assay is suitable for identifying the plasma and tissue levels of aloe emodin and chrysophanol in preclinical investigations.

  20. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53-dependent and p21-dependent apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Lin; Lin, Ta-Chen; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-09-06

    The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin in two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and Hep 3B. We observed that aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both examined cell lines, but with different the antiproliferative mechanisms. In Hep G2 cells, aloe-emodin induced p53 expression and was accompanied by induction of p21 expression that was associated with a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In addition, aloe-emodin had a marked increase in Fas/APO1 receptor and Bax expression. In contrast, with p53-deficient Hep 3B cells, the inhibition of cell proliferation of aloe-emodin was mediated through a p21-dependent manner that did not cause cell cycle arrest or increase the level of Fas/APO1 receptor, but rather promoted aloe-emodin induced apoptosis by enhancing expression of Bax. These findings suggest that aloe-emodin may be useful in liver cancer prevention.

  1. Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Weng, Shu-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-05-01

    Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein are major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), used in Chinese herbal medicine, and found to have antitumor properties including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous studies also showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. However, the detail regarding emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein affecting migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibited migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells. Herein, we demonstrate that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit the protein levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) but did not affect gene expression of MMP-2, however, they inhibited the gene expression of MMP-9 and all also inhibited the migration and invasion of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. MMP-9 (gelatinase-B) plays an important role and is the most associated with tumor migration, invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Results from zymography and Western blotting showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein treatment decrease the levels of MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of inhibition of associated protein levels and gene expression of migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are emodin >aloe-emodin >rhein. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit tongue cancers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that molecular targeting of MMP-9 mRNA expression by emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein might be a useful strategy for chemo-prevention and/or chemo-therapeutics of tongue cancers.

  2. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Rats that had been administered aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  3. [The molecular structure of iso-aloesin isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berge].

    PubMed

    Yuan, A X

    1993-10-01

    A new constituent iso-aloesin was isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera var. chinensis found in the Province of Guangxi. The molecular formula of iso-aloesin is C19H22O9, which is 2-acetonyl-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-chromone.

  4. Evaluation of Isolated Fractions of Aloe vera Gel Materials on Indinavir Pharmacokinetics: In vitro and in vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lonette; Malan, Maides; Gouws, Chrisna; Steyn, Dewald; Ellis, Suria; Abay, Efrem; Wiesner, Lubbe; Otto, Daniel P; Hamman, Josias

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is a plant with a long history of traditional medicinal use and is consumed in different products, sometimes in conjunction with prescribed medicines. A. vera gel has shown the ability to modulate drug absorption in vitro. The aim of this study was to fractionate the precipitated polysaccharide component of A. vera gel based on molecular weight and to compare their interactions with indinavir pharmacokinetics. Crude polysaccharides were precipitated from a solution of A. vera gel and was fractionated by means of centrifugal filtration through membranes with different molecular weight cut-off values (i.e. 300 KDa, 100 KDa and 30 KDa). Marker molecules were quantified in the aloe leaf materials by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the average molecular weight was determined by means of gel filtration chromatography linked to multi-angle-laser-light scattering and refractive index detection. The effect of the aloe leaf materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayers as well as indinavir metabolism in LS180 cells was measured. The bioavailability of indinavir in the presence and absence of the aloe leaf materials was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats. All the aloe leaf materials investigated in this study reduced the TEER of Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibited indinavir metabolism in LS 180 cells to different extents and changed the bioavailability parameters of indinavir in rats compared to that of indinavir alone. These indinavir pharmacokinetic modulation effects were not dependent on the presence of aloverose and also not on the average molecular weight of the isolated fractions.

  5. Effect of packaging methods and crude aloe vera gel (Aloe vera barbadensis miller) on the storage quality of enrobed goat meat bites.

    PubMed

    Jairath, Gauri; Chatli, Manish K; Sahoo, Jhari; Biswas, Ashim K

    2015-06-01

    The storage stability of enrobed goat meat bites (EGMB) incorporated with 3 % crude aloe vera (AV) gel was evaluated under aerobic (T-1; unenrobed control product, T-2; enrobed AV treated product) and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP, 50:50, CO2 and N2) (T-3; unenrobed control product, T-4; enrobed AV treated product) at 4 ± 1 °C for 42 days on the basis of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The pH value was higher, whereas water activity (aW) was lower in enrobed and MAP product. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) values were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MAP packaged (T-3) and AV treated products (T-2 and T-4) products than aerobic packaged (T-1), however it followed an increasing trend in all the products throughout storage. Instrumental colour and textural profile attributes were better maintained in MAP products than others. The sensory panellists graded T-4 'good to very good' even on Day 42, whereas T-1 was acceptable only up to 28 days. Standard Plate Count (SPC) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MAP products than aerobic packaged products. Results concluded that EGMB treated with AV gel can be successfully stored more than 42 days under MAP conditions without affecting its physico-chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  6. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    Differences in vegetation growth and in soil moisture content generate ground anomalies which can be linked to the presence of subsurface anthropic structures. Such evidences have been studied and observed for a long time by means of aerial photographs, thanks to planned campaigns or through the observation of historical II World War acquisitions first, and thanks to the very high spatial resolution of optical satellites later. The present research constitutes a contribution to the non-invasive archaeological investigation methodology carried out in the last years by several institutions and cultural organizations. The work aims to exploit the technique of SAR Polarimetry for the detection of surface and subsurface archaeological structures, comparing ALOS PALSAR L-band, with a central frequency of 1.27 GHz, with RADARSAT-2 C-band sensor, whose central frequency is 5.405 GHz. The choice to analyze satellite radar sensors capabilities is based on their 24-hour observations, as they are independent from Sun illumination and meteorological conditions. Moreover, they could provide additional information concerning electromagnetic properties of the target, qualities not derivable from optical images. A multi frequency comparison between the two SAR sensors has been performed over the Napatan (900-270 BC) Meroitic (270 BC-350 AD) area of Djebel Barkal, located in Sudan and inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 2003. It constitutes one of the five Napatan and Meroitic archaeological sites stretching over more than 60 km in the Nile valley, in an arid area part of Nubia. The area, not completely excavated, presents thombs, pyramids and sacred palaces. The dataset we disposed of is composed of two archived ALOS PALSAR polarimetric images and four RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data specifically acquired in the same year (2012). All the products have been then processed and integrated with the available optical data and the cartographic documentation derivable from

  7. Aloe-emodin inhibits HER-2 expression through the downregulation of Y-box binding protein-1 in HER-2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jui-Wen; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kao, Jung-Yie; Way, Tzong-Der

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)-positive breast cancer tends to be aggressive, highly metastatic, and drug resistant and spreads rapidly. Studies have indicated that emodin inhibits HER-2 expression. This study compared the HER-2-inhibitory effects of two compounds extracted from rhubarb roots: aloe-emodin (AE) and rhein. Our results indicated that AE exerted the most potent inhibitory effect on HER-2 expression. Treatment of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells with AE reduced tumor initiation, cell migration, and cell invasion. AE was able to suppress YB-1 expression, further suppressing downstream HER-2 expression. AE suppressed YB-1 expression through the inhibition of Twist in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our data also found that AE inhibited cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells through the inhibition of EMT. Interestingly, AE suppressed YB-1 expression through the downregulation of the intracellular integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mTOR signaling pathway in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. In vivo study showed the positive result of antitumor activity of AE in nude mice injected with human HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. These findings suggest the possible application of AE in the treatment of HER-2-positive breast cancer. PMID:27391337

  8. Aloe-emodin inhibits HER-2 expression through the downregulation of Y-box binding protein-1 in HER-2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jui-Wen; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kao, Jung-Yie; Way, Tzong-Der

    2016-09-13

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)-positive breast cancer tends to be aggressive, highly metastatic, and drug resistant and spreads rapidly. Studies have indicated that emodin inhibits HER-2 expression. This study compared the HER-2-inhibitory effects of two compounds extracted from rhubarb roots: aloe-emodin (AE) and rhein. Our results indicated that AE exerted the most potent inhibitory effect on HER-2 expression. Treatment of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells with AE reduced tumor initiation, cell migration, and cell invasion. AE was able to suppress YB-1 expression, further suppressing downstream HER-2 expression. AE suppressed YB-1 expression through the inhibition of Twist in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our data also found that AE inhibited cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells through the inhibition of EMT. Interestingly, AE suppressed YB-1 expression through the downregulation of the intracellular integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mTOR signaling pathway in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. In vivo study showed the positive result of antitumor activity of AE in nude mice injected with human HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. These findings suggest the possible application of AE in the treatment of HER-2-positive breast cancer.

  9. Detection of Area Changes in River Mouthbars at the Mekong River Delta using ALOS/PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Uehara, K.; Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Projected sea-level rise by the year 2100 would be ~1m recently and its negative impact on the coastal zone has been pointed out, particularly for mega-deltas in Asia by the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). The relative sea-level rise varies with specific conditions and processes over broad spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, long-term monitoring of geomorphological changes in coastal areas over wide areas is of highly interest and importance for coastal management. However, due to limited data availability and accessibility in developing countries, there is not enough systematic coastal monitoring. The Mekong River Delta is one of typical mega-deltas in Asia, which has a low-lying wide delta-plain located in Cambodia to South Vietnam. Sediment and water discharges of the Mekong River are controlled by the monsoon with high and low discharge in summer (wet season) and winter (dry season), respectively. Therefore, technologies such as SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. In this study, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired over a period from December 2006 to January 2011 are analyzed to investigate the relation between the sea level and the shape of mouthbars in the Mekong River. Level-1.0 PALSAR data were processed, coregistered, and geocoded to make SAR backscatter intensity images. River mouthbars with strong backscatter, which is surrounded by the water with weak backscatter, are successfully extracted using a histogram thresholding algorithm. Estimated areas of river mouthbars, which are located at the central part of the delta and openly faced to the South China Sea, gradually increase on an annual time scale. These river mouthbars are growing to the seaward. Besides this overall increasing trend, seasonal variations of areas are observed; these correlate with

  10. Helmand river hydrologic studies using ALOS PALSAR InSAR and ENVISAT altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Kim, J.-W.; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Duan, J.; Ibaraki, M.; Akyilmaz, O.; Read, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The Helmand River wetland represents the only fresh-water resource in southern Afghanistan and one of the least mapped water basins in the world. The relatively narrow wetland consists of mostly marshes surrounded by dry lands. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) Interferometric SAR (InSAR) to detect the changes of the Helmand River wetland water level. InSAR images are combined with the geocentric water level measurements from the retracked high-rate (18-Hz) Environmental Satellite (Envisat) radar altimetry to construct absolute water level changes over the marshes. It is demonstrated that the integration of the altimeter and InSAR can provide spatio-temporal measurements of water level variation over the Helmand River marshes where in situ measurements are absent. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Volcano deformation survey over the Northern and Central Andes with ALOS InSAR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, Anieri M.; Amelung, Falk; Mothes, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    We use ALOS-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data spanning the period of 2007-2011 to obtain time-dependent ground deformation data over all of the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. We detect deformation on or near the proximity of Galeras, Reventador, Tungurahua, Guagua Pichincha, Sangay, and Cerro Auquihuato volcanoes, uncovering previously undocumented deformation in the latter three. Deformation is attributed to changes in pressurization of the volcanic systems (Galeras, Tungurahua, Guagua Pichincha, and Cerro Auquihuato), subsidence associated with flow deposits (Reventador), and flank creep (Sangay). Our models suggest that the pressure sources are located at depths of ˜1-6 km from the surface, indicating that the measurable deformation within our data is restricted to shallow magma chambers and hydrothermal systems.

  12. Source Model from ALOS-2 ScanSAR of the 2015 Nepal Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Youtian; Ge, Linlin; Ng, Alex Hay-Man

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake sequence started with a magnitude Mw 7.8 main shock and continued with several large aftershocks, particularly the second major shock of Mw 7.3. Both earthquake events were captured using ALOS-2 ScanSAR images to determine the coseismic surface deformation and the source models. In this paper, the displacement maps were produced and the corresponding modelling results were discussed. The single fault model of the main shock suggests that there was nearly 6 m of right-lateral oblique slip motion with fault struck of 292° and dipped gently Northeast at 7°, indicating that the main shock was on a thrust fault. Moreover, a single fault model for the Mw 7.3 quake with striking of 312° and dipping of 11° was derived from observed result. Both results showed the fault planes struck generally to South and dipped northeast, which depicted the risks since the main shock occurred.

  13. Mapping Central Amazon Wetlands Dynamics with Seasonal ALOS PALSAR SCANSAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. D.; Hess, L. L.; Durieux, L.; Arraut, E.; Marshall, B.; McDonald, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    The extent of wetland areas, and the spatial and temporal variability of wetland inundation, are important components of global biogeochemical and hydrological cycles. Satellite-measured continental water storage variations suggest the importance of the surface waters component in seasonal dynamics of the hydrologic cycle of large tropical river basins. Wetlands play a significant role in climate change as the primary contributor to interannual variations in the growth rate of atmospheric methane, and are projected to be strongly impacted by climate change through alterations in hydrologic regimes. Such alterations can be expected to affect the functioning of wetlands with regard to carbon and nutrient cycling, water quality, flood control, fisheries, and aquatic biodiversity. Despite their importance, current knowledge of the extent of global wetlands and the seasonal variability of surface waters is poor. Global land cover datasets derived from moderate-resolution optical sensors generally include few or no wetland classes other than open water, and do not capture the high temporal variability of surface waters. Coarse-resolution global mapping of seasonal inundation allows consistent multi-year comparison of inundated areas; however, the spatial resolution is not sufficient for some applications and validation of coarse-resolution results is difficult without finer-resolution datasets for comparison. The need for improved wetland characterization has motivated the creation of an Inundated Wetlands Earth System Data Record (IW-ESDR) as part of NASA’s Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program. The IW-ESDR is generating maps of wetland extent and inundation dynamics at two scales: 100-m, using ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam and ScanSAR imagery, and 25-km, using multiple satellite datasets. Here we describe prototype ScanSAR-based 100-m image mosaic results and products for the central Amazon region, and the associated IW

  14. The Impact of Precipitation Events on Forest Classification Using Multitemporal ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenberg, Veraldo; Gloaguen, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Multitemporal ALOS/PALSAR scenes were evaluated for the classification of seven land use classes in the Eastern Amazon (Brazil). A clear-sky Landsat-5/TM image acquired during the dry season was used as additional ground reference and as ancillary input data in the classification scheme. We evaluated backscattering intensity and texture parameters for classification purposes using support vector machines (SVM). Results showed that the overall classification accuracy remain low for the SAR scenes and were strongly affected by precipitation events on the date and prior SAR date acquisition. At extreme precipitation events, quad polarization acquired during the rainy season performed worse than dual polarization acquired at the dry season. Therefore, the acquisition period for the experimental quad-polarization mode should be reviewed. Joint analysis of L-band is suggested with higher frequencies (i.e. C- or X-band) as well as with optical data under the recent Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) protocols.

  15. Preliminary Results of Estimating Soil Moisture Over Bare Soil Using Full-Polarimetric ALOS-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekertekin, A.; Marangoz, A. M.; Abdikan, S.; Esetlili, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging system is one of the most effective way for Earth observation. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results about estimating soil moisture using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Full-polarimetric (HH, HV, VV, VH) ALOS-2 data, acquired on 22.04.2016 with the incidence angle of 30.4o, were used in the study. Simultaneously with the SAR acquisition, in-situ soil moisture samples over bare agricultural lands were collected and evaluated using gravimetric method. Backscattering coefficients for all polarizations were obtained and linear regression analysis was carried out with in situ moisture measurements. The best correlation coefficient was observed with VV polarization. Cross-polarized backscattering coefficients were not so sensitive to soil moisture content. In the study, it was observed that soil moisture maps can be retrieved with the accuracy about 14% (RMSE).

  16. Targeting anthracycline-resistant tumor cells with synthetic aloe-emodin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Breiner-Goldstein, Elinor; Evron, Zoharia; Frenkel, Michael; Cohen, Keren; Meiron, Keren Nir; Peer, Dan; Roichman, Yael; Flescher, Eliezer; Fridman, Micha

    2011-07-14

    The cytotoxic activity of aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthranoid that readily permeates anthracycline-resistant tumor cells, was improved by the attachment of an amino-sugar unit to its anthraquinone core. The new class of AE glycosides (AEGs) showed a significant improvement in cytotoxicity-up to more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of AE and the clinically used anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX)-against several cancer cell lines with different levels of DOX resistance. Incubation with the synthetic AEGs induced cell death in less than one cell cycle, indicating that these compounds do not directly target the cell division mechanism. Confocal microscopy provided evidence that unlike DOX, AEGs accumulated in anthracycline-resistant tumor cells in which resistance is conferred by P-glycoprotein efflux pumps. The results of this study demonstrate that AEGs may serve as a promising scaffold for the development of cytotoxic agents capable of overcoming anthracycline resistance in tumor cells.

  17. [Use of collagen and Aloe vera in ischemic wound treatment: study case].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos; Soares, Maria Julia Guimarães Oliveira; Rocha, Pascalle de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    The present study is a clinical case report of a patient with diabetes and hypertension, with an ischemic wound, treated with a non-conventional Aloe vera and collagen plastering. This study is part of an experimental research project, coordinated by professors and nurses that work together to discover new ways for wound treatment. This case was chosen among many patients. Data was collected through anamneses and physical examination of the patient's condition, the wound, and pictures were taken. The plastering was applied every day, and by the end of ten weeks, total healing was obtained. There was no discomfort or any other implication as a result of using the compound. In conclusion, the compound was well accepted and efficient in this particular case.

  18. Radical scavenging glycoprotein inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane A2 synthase from aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Yagi, A; Kabash, A; Mizuno, K; Moustafa, S M; Khalifa, T I; Tsuji, H

    2003-03-01

    An active glycoprotein fraction containing 58 % protein was isolated from Aloe vera gel by precipitation with 55 % ammonium sulfate followed by gel permeation using DEAE-Sephacel A-25, Sepharose 6B and Sephadex G-50 columns in a yield of 3 x 10 -3 %. The glycoprotein fraction showed a single band corresponding to a subunit of verectin at the same position when stained with both Coomassie brilliant blue and periodic acid-Schiff reagents on 18 % SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight (14 kDa) was confirmed by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The glycoprotein fraction showed a radical scavenging activity against superoxide anion generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system as well as inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and reduction of thromboxane A 2 synthase level in vitro.

  19. Anisotropy and nonlinear properties of electrochemical circuits in leaves of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Jovanov, Emil; Markin, Vladislav S

    2011-04-01

    Plant tissue has biologically closed electrical circuits and electric fields that regulate its physiology. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of Aloe vera were analyzed using the charge stimulation method with Ag/AgCl electrodes inserted along a leaf at 1-2 cm distance. The electrostimulation was provided with different timing and different voltages. Strong electrical anisotropy of the leaves was found. In the direction across the leaf the electrical circuits remained passive and linear, while along the leaf the response remained linear only at small voltages not exceeding 1 V. At higher potentials the circuits became strongly non-linear pointing to the opening of voltage gated ion channels in the plant tissues. Changing the polarity of electrodes located along conductive bundles led to a strong rectification effect and to different kinetics of capacitor discharge. Equivalent electrical circuit models of the leaf were proposed to explain the experimental data.

  20. Aloe-emodin inhibited N-acetylation and DNA adduct of 2-aminofluorene and arylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression in mouse leukemia L 1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jing-Gung; Li, Yu-Ching; Lee, Yi-Min; Lin, Jing-Pin; Cheng, Kwork-Chui; Chang, Weng-Cheng

    2003-09-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NATs) plays an important role in the first step of arylamine compounds metabolism. Polymorphic NAT is coded for rapid or slow acetylatoion phenotypes, which are recognized to affect cancer risk related to environmental exposure. Aloe-emodin has been shown to exit anticancer activity. The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not aloe-emodin could affect arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and gene expression (NAT mRNA) and DNA-2-aminofluorene (DNA-AF) adduct formation in mouse leukemia cells (L 1210). By using high performance liquid chromatography, N-acetylation and non-N-acetylation of AF were determined and quantitated. By using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR, NAT mRNA was determined and quantitated. Aloe-emodin displayed a dose-dependent inhibition to cytosolic NAT activity and intact mice leukemia cells. Time-course experiments indicated that N-acetylation of AF measured from intact mice leukemia cells were inhibited by aloe-emodin for up to 24h. Using standard steady-state kinetic analysis, it was demonstrated that aloe-emodin was a possible uncompetitive inhibitor to NAT activity in cytosols. The DNA-AF adduct formation in mouse leukemia cells were inhibited by aloe-emodin. The NAT1 mRNA in mouse leukemia cells were also inhibited by aloe-emodin. This report is the first demonstration which showed aloe-emodin affect mice leukemia cells NAT activity, gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) and DNA-AF on adduct formation.

  1. Co-expression of NCED and ALO improves vitamin C level and tolerance to drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Gegen; Zhuo, Chunliu; Qian, Chunmei; Xiao, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses, while L-ascorbic acid (AsA) that is also named vitamin C is an important antioxidant and involves in plant stress tolerance and the immune system in domestic animals. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and stylo [Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Swartz], a forage legume, plants co-expressing stylo 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SgNCED1) and yeast D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) genes were generated in this study, and tolerance to drought and chilling was analysed in comparison with transgenic tobacco overexpressing SgNCED1 or ALO and the wild-type plants. Compared to the SgNCED1 or ALO transgenic plants, in which only ABA or AsA levels were increased, both ABA and AsA levels were increased in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants co-expressing SgNCED1 and ALO genes. Compared to the wild type, an enhanced drought tolerance was observed in SgNCED1 transgenic tobacco plants with induced expression of drought-responsive genes, but not in ALO plants, while an enhanced chilling tolerance was observed in ALO transgenic tobaccos with induced expression of cold-responsive genes, but not in SgNCED1 plants. Co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes resulted in elevated tolerance to both drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants with induced expression of both drought and cold-responsive genes. Our result suggests that co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes is an effective way for use in forage plant improvement for increased tolerance to drought and chilling and nutrition quality.

  2. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Misawa, Eriko; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Saito, Marie; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    Background/objective Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol) significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years). The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7) levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively). There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion Aloe sterol ingestion increased skin elasticity in the photodamaged skin of men aged <46 years. PMID:27877061

  3. The Oasis impact structure, Libya: geological characteristics from ALOS PALSAR-2 data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Kim, Jung Rack; Choi, Yun-Soo; Kim, Jaemyeong

    2017-02-01

    Optical and infrared remote sensing may provide first-order clues for the identification of potential impact structures on the Earth. Despite the free availability of at least optical image data at highest resolution, research has shown that remote sensing analysis always remains inconclusive and extensive groundwork is needed for the confirmation of the impact origin of such structures. Commonly, optical image data and digital terrain models have been employed mainly for such remote sensing studies of impact structures. With the advent of imaging radar data, a few excursions have been made to also employ radar datasets. Despite its long use, capabilities of imaging radar for studying surface and subsurface structures have not been exploited quantitatively when applied for the identification and description of such features due to the inherent complexity of backscatter processes. In this work, we make use of higher-level derived radar datasets in order to gain clearer qualitative insights that help to describe and identify potential impact structures. We make use of high-resolution data products from the ALOS PALSAR-1 and ALOS PALSAR-2 L-band sensors to describe the heavily eroded Oasis impact structure located in the Libyan Desert. While amplitude radar data with single polarization have usually been utilized to accompany the suite of remote sensing datasets when interpreting impact structures in the past, we conclude that the integration of amplitude data with HH/HV/HH-HV polarization modes in standard and, in particular, in Ultra-Fine mode, as well as entropy-alpha decomposition data, significantly helps to identify and discriminate surface units based on their consolidation. Based on the overarching structural pattern, we determined the diameter of the eroded Oasis structure at 15.6 ± 0.5 km.

  4. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping.

    PubMed

    Kzar, Ahmed Asal; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Mutter, Kussay N; Syahreza, Saumi

    2015-12-30

    Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS). The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data), classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977) and lower RMSE (2.887). In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis). Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the adopted

  5. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kzar, Ahmed Asal; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Mutter, Kussay N.; Syahreza, Saumi

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS). The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data), classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977) and lower RMSE (2.887). In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis). Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the adopted

  6. Characterization of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR in Hai Phong city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat Pham, Tien; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Hai Phong city is located in the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed between zone I and zone II among the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. In the past, mangrove forests in this city have decreased markedly because of over expansion of shrimp farming. Thus, identification of mangrove forests is important to monitor and support mangrove conservation and management in the coastal zone. The objectives of this research were to identify the locations of mangrove and characterize mangrove species in Hai Phong using HH and HV backscatters of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Image segmentation was used to identify the locations of mangrove forests. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to update current status of mangrove species in 2015. The results showed that the means of HH and HV backscatter coefficients of K. obovata are lower than S. caseolaris. K. obovata has HH value around -13.9 dB until -10.3 dB and HV value around -20.6 dB until -16.2 dB. Higher HH values between about -14.9 dB and -6.8 dB and HV values between roughly -20.6 dB and -14.3 dB have observed by S. caseolaris. The total area of mangrove forest in Hai Phong in the year 2015 was around 4084 hectares, of which S. caseolaris occupied over 68% and mixed mangrove species was approximately 25.6%. This research indicates the potential for the use of L-band ALOS-2 PALSAR in characterizing mangrove forest species in the coastal zone.

  7. Aloe Vera

    MedlinePlus

    63053 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/aloevera ... us ... 63053 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/aloevera ... Burns ... Burns/NON-DISPLAY (Supplements page) ... us ... 63053 ... https://nccih.nih. ...

  8. Growth inhibitory effects of gastric cancer cells with an increase in S phase and alkaline phosphatase activity repression by aloe-emodin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junming; Xiao, Bingxiu; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Donghai; Liao, Yiping; Sun, Qian

    2007-01-01

    Aloe-emodin is a novel active compound found in the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on human gastric cancer, MGC-803 cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 microM aloe-emodin for 1-5 d. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with an increase in S phase and in the proportion of cells cycling at a higher ploidy level (>G2/M). Moreover, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an indicator of cell differentiation, was found decreased. This is one of the first to focus on the effect of ALP activity in human gastric carcinomas cells treated by aloe-emodin. These results indicate that aloe-emodin has a potential value for the treatment of gastric cancer and its mechanisms are by means of cell cycle interruption and induce differentiation.

  9. Protein kinase C delta-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling is involved in aloe-emodin-induced photokilling of human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Te; You, Bang-Jau; Yang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chi-Yu; Bau, Da-Tian; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2012-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy is becoming a widely accepted form of cancer treatment using a photosensitizing agent and light. Our previous study has demonstrated that photoactivated aloe-emodin induced anoikis and changes in cell morphology, which were in part mediated through its effect on cytoskeleton in lung carcinoma H460 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of these photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced changes remain unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) was triggered by aloe-emodin and irradiation in H460 cells. Furthermore, the photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced cell death and translocation of PKCδ from the cytosol to the nucleus was found to be significantly inhibited by rottlerin, a PKCδ-selective inhibitor. Western blot analysis demonstrated that rottlerin also reversed the decrease in protein expression of cytoskeleton-related proteins, such as rat sarcoma (RAS), ras homolog gene family member A (RHO), p38, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), α-actinin and tubulin, induced by photoactivated aloe-emodin. Our findings suggest that the regulation of cytoskeleton-related proteins mediated by PKCδ may be the mechanisms for the protective effects of rottlerin against the photoactivated aloe-emodin induced H460 cell death.

  10. Photoconductivity of Graphene in Proximity to La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 Heterostructures: Phenomenon and Photosensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Fan, Xiaodong; Wei, Laiming; Lu, Juanjuan; Liang, Haixing; Qi, Ji; Zeng, Changgan

    2016-07-01

    The proximal coupling between graphene and transition-metal-oxide heterostructures may integrate their unique features and further generate emergent states. Using the photoconductivity of graphene as an effective probe, we demonstrate the existence of a built-in polar field within the La AlO3 layer of the La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 heterostructures for both conducting and insulating La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 interfaces. Such a polar field is a prerequisite for the validity of the electronic reconstruction mechanism for the interfacial conductivity. The built-in polar field is reflected by the hole doping in the graphene in proximity to the La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 induced by pulsed deep-ultraviolet illumination regardless of the graphene's carrier type. These photoresponse characteristics also render the graphene /La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 hybrid system a convenient deep-ultraviolet sensor. Moreover, we design an efficient broad-spectrum photodetector benefiting from the large in-plane electric field in graphene across the boundary between the graphene/La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 and graphene/Sr TiO3 . Our findings may provide clues to the design of photosensors based on the hybrid structures of graphene and oxide heterostructures.

  11. The Online System for Lidar Data Handling and Real Time Monitoring of Lidar Operations at ALO-USU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Luis A.; Wickwar, Vincent B.; Gamboa, Jose; Milla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    It is no longer sufficient to use lidar, such as the Rayleigh lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU), to observe the middle atmosphere and reduce the data to geophysical parameters. Extended operations, with inevitable equipment, data reduction, and analysis improvements, require us to keep careful track of all these changes and how they affect the scientific products. Furthermore, many of the funding agencies and the journals now require us to do, at least, some of this. We have built three interconnected data structures to organize and manage the different hardware and software setups from the Internet as well as to keep track of the products generated by these. These structures were implemented as a database, which is particularly important for groups with a large volume of information like the Rayleigh Group at ALO-USU.

  12. Design and synthesis of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbing; Wu, Fengyan; Chen, Changhong

    2015-11-15

    Twenty aloe-emodin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. Some compounds displayed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activities, especially, compounds with thiosemicarbazide moiety showed more potent inhibitory effects than the other compounds. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) were preliminarily discussed. The inhibition mechanism of selected compounds 1 and 13 were investigated. The results showed compound 1 was reversible inhibitor, however, compound 13 was irreversible. Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 1 was competitive tyrosinase inhibitor. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities and anti-inflammatory activities of some selected compounds were also screened. The results showed that compound 3 exhibited more potent antibacterial activity than the aloe-emodin, compounds 5 and 6 possessed more potent anti-inflammatory activities than the diacerein.

  13. The addition of rosehip oil to Aloe gels improves their properties as postharvest coatings for maintaining quality in plum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Zapata, Pedro J; Guillén, Fabián; Paladines, Diego; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María

    2017-02-15

    The effect of Aloe vera gel (AV) and Aloe arborescens gel (AA) alone or in combination with rosehip oil (RO) at 2% on ethylene production, respiration rate, quality parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during plum postharvest storage was studied. Coated plums showed a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate at 20°C and during cold storage and subsequent shelf life, the main effect being observed for those fruits coated with AA+RO. Quality parameters such as softening, colour and maturity index was also delayed during storage by the use of the coatings, which led to a 2-fold increase in plum storability. Accumulation of bioactive compounds was also delayed although at the end of the experiment the content of bioactive compounds was higher than those found for control fruits at the estimated shelf life. The most effective coating for maintaining plum quality and bioactive compounds was AA+RO.

  14. Observation of AlO x material in electrical resistive switching for nonvolatile random access memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyun-Ho; Song, Seung-Gon; Park, Kyoung-Wan; Sok, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kyong-Min; Park, Yun-Sun

    2017-03-01

    We fabricated an Al / AlO x / Al device by using a RF magnetron sputter system. The device showed a unipolar resistive switching process. In this study, the switching mechanism of the device followed the conductive filament model. The conduction mechanisms for the conductive filament model were explained by using Ohmic conduction for the low resistance state (LRS) and Schottky emission for the high resistance state (HRS). The average value of the resistance ratio between the HRS and the LRS was about 3.48 × 107 when the reading voltage (0.1 V) was achieved. The electrical property of the endurance was achieved under 50 switching cycles. A low switching voltage could be obtained for a low power consuming device. These results proved that the AlO x material has various possibilities for use in nonvolatile random access memory applications.

  15. Aloe-emodin metabolites protected N-methyl-d-aspartate-treated retinal ganglion cells by Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ju; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Fan, Seng-Sheen; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Shiuan-Yi; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-04-01

    A high concentration of glutamate in the eyes not only activates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but also is toxic to the retina ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucomatous patients. Our previous study had found that aloe-emodin sulfates/glucuronides metabolites, an anthraquinone polyphenol, exerted a neuroprotective activity upon RGCs. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in this neuroprotective effect, this study aimed to determine the expressions of RNAs and proteins in various treatments. The proteins expressed in the control group, NMDA-treated group, and aloe-emodin metabolites-cotreated group were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein spots were excised from 2-DE and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS (nano-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry; tandem MS). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to investigate the RNA related to these proteins. There were 84 spots with significant differences in various treatments. Among the 84 spots, we identified 9 spots whose functions were closely related to regulate the apoptosis of cells. The results of Q-PCR were not completely unanimous with those of 2-DE. Our results suggested that aloe-emodin metabolites decreased NMDA-induced apoptosis of RGCs by preserving, and inducing, some proteins related to the antioxidation and regulation of cells' energy. Both the level of RNA and protein of superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn) were significantly elevated after aloe-emodin metabolites were added. The mechanisms of neuroprotection are complicated, and involve not only the transcription and stability of mRNA, but also post-translation protein modifications, degradation, and protein-protein interaction.

  16. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, D; Reynolds, T

    1986-06-01

    The mucilaginous gel from the parenchymatous cells in the leaf pulp of Aloe vera has been used since early times for a host of curative purposes. This gel should be distinguished clearly from the bitter yellow exudate originating from the bundle sheath cells, which is used for its purgative effects. Aloe vera gel has come to play a prominent role as a contemporary folk remedy, and numerous optimistic, and in some cases extravagant, claims have been made for its medicinal properties. Modern clinical use of the gel began in the 1930s, with reports of successful treatment of X-ray and radium burns, which led to further experimental studies using laboratory animals in the following decades. The reports of these experiments and the numerous favourable case histories did not give conclusive evidence, since although positive results were usually described, much of the work suffered from poor experimental design and insufficiently large test samples. In addition some conflicting or inconsistent results were obtained. With the recent resurgence of interest in Aloe vera gel, however, new experimental work has indicated the possibility of distinct physiological effects. Chemical analysis has shown the gel to contain various carbohydrate polymers, notably either glucomannans or pectic acid, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of the gel have been described, there is no certain correlation between these and the identified gel components.

  17. An investigation of age and yield of fresh fruit bunches of oil palm based on ALOS PALSAR 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Haryati, A.; M, R. Najib A.; Na'aim, M.

    2016-06-01

    The objective on this study is to investigate age and yield of FFB of oil palms based on ALOS PALSAR 2. Study areas in oil palm plantations areas of Jerantut, Pahang Malaysia. Methodology consists collecting of ALOS PALSAR 2 and tabular data on the study area, processing of ALOS PALSAR 2 including of converting digital numbers to normalize radar cross sections (NRCS), topography correction and filtering, making of regions of interest according to areas of age and yield of FFB of oil palms and making of relationship analysis between backscatter value of HH, HV and age and yield of FFB of oil palm. The results have showed relationship between HH, HV and age of oil palm which R2 of 0.63 for HH and 0.42 for HV that indicated increasing of age of oil palm as increasing of HH and HV value. Also relationship between HH, HV and yield of FFB of oil palm which R2 of 0.26 for HH and 0.15 for HV, that indicated increasing of yield of FFB as decreasing of HH and HV value.

  18. Antimicrobial capacity of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans strains in toothbrushes: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    BERTOLINI, Patrícia Fernanda Roesler; BIONDI FILHO, Oswaldo; POMILIO, Arnaldo; PINHEIRO, Sérgio Luiz; de CARVALHO, Meghi Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated in vitro the efficiency of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice on reducing the contamination of toothbrush bristles by a standard strain of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175; SM), after toothbrushing. Material and Methods Fifteen sterile toothbrushes were randomly divided into 5 toothbrushing groups: I (negative control): without dentifrice; II: with fluoridated dentifrice; III: with triclosan and gantrez dentifrice; IV (positive control): without dentifrice and irrigation with 10 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; V: with Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice. In each group, 1 sterile bovine tooth was brushed for 1 min, where the toothbrush bristles were contaminated with 25 µL of SM. After toothbrushing, the bristles were stored in individual test tubes with 3 mL of BHI under anaerobiosis of 37ºC for 48 h. Then, they were seeded with sterile swab in triplicate in the Mitis salivarius - Bacitracin culture medium. The samples were kept under anaerobiosis of 37ºC for 48 h. Scores were used to count the number of colony forming units (cfu). The results were submitted to the Mann-Whitney statistical test at 5% significance level. Results There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for the reduction of bristle contamination comparing groups II, III, IV and V to group I. Conclusions It may be stated that after toothbrushing, the Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice reduced the contamination of toothbrush bristles by SM, without differentiation from the other chemical agents used. PMID:22437675

  19. Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat.

    PubMed

    Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Ahmad; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Polysaccharides are the main macromolecules of Aloe vera gel but no data about their effect on extracellular matrix (ECM) elements are available. Here, mannose rich Aloe vera polysaccharides (AVP) with molecular weight between 50 and 250 kDa were isolated and characterized. Open cutaneous wounds on the back of 45 rats (control and treated) were daily treated with 25mg (n=15) and 50 mg (n=15) AVP for 30 days. The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression were analyzed using real time PCR. The levels of n-acetyl glucosamine (NAGA), n-acetyl galactosamine (NAGLA) and collagen contents were also measured using standard biochemical methods. Faster wound closure was observed at day 15 post wounding in AVP treated animals in comparison with untreated group. At day 10 post wounding, AVP inhibited MMP-3 gene expression, while afterwards MMP-3 gene expression was upregulated. AVP enhanced TIMP-2 gene expression, collagen, NAGLA and NAGA synthesis in relation to untreated wounds. Our results suggest that AVP has positive effects on the regulation of ECM factor synthesis, which open up new perspectives for the wound repair activity of Aloe vera polysaccharide at molecular level.

  20. Polymeric films loaded with vitamin E and aloe vera for topical application in the treatment of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns.

  1. Polymeric Films Loaded with Vitamin E and Aloe vera for Topical Application in the Treatment of Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  2. Integration of ALOS/PALSAR backscatter with a LiDAR-derived canopy height map to quantify forest fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Dubayah, R.; Simard, M.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Habitat loss is the main predictor of species extinctions and must be characterized in high-biodiversity ecosystems where land cover change is pervasive. Forests' ability to support viable animal populations is typically modeled as a function of the presence of linkages or corridors, and quantified with fragmentation metrics. In this scenario, small forest patches and linear (e.g. riparian) zones can act as keystone structures. Fine-resolution, all-weather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from ALOS/PALSAR is well-suited to resolve forest fragments in tropical sites. This study summarizes a technique for integrating fragmentation metrics from ALOS/PALSAR with vertical structure data from ICESat/GLAS to produce fine-resolution (30 m) forest habitat metrics that capture both local quality (canopy height) as well as spatial context and multi-scale connectivity. We illustrate our approach with backscatter images acquired over the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. ALOS/PALSAR 1.1 images acquired over the dry season were calibrated to calculate gamma naught and map forest cover via tresholding. We employ network algorithms to locate dispersal bottlenecks between conservation units. The location of keystone structures is compared against a model that uses coarse (500m) percent tree cover as an input.

  3. Shelf-life and colour change kinetics of Aloe vera gel powder under accelerated storage in three different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, C T; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2013-08-01

    Aloe vera gel powder was produced through dehumidified air drying of Aloe vere gel at optimized conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity of 64 °C, 18% and 0.8 m.s(-1), respectively. The powder was packed in three different packaging materials viz., laminated aluminum foil (AF), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polypropylene (PP). The shelf-life of the powder was predicted on the basis of free flowness of product under accelerated storage condition (38 ± 1 °C, 90 ± 1% relative humidity) and was calculated to be 33.87, 42.58 and 51.05 days in BOPP, PP and AF, respectively. The storage stability of powder in terms of colour change was studied. The magnitude of colour change of Aloe vera gel powder during storage suggests that AF was better than BOPP and PP. The colour change of powder during storage followed first order reaction kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0444 per day for AF, 0.075 per day for BOPP and 0.0498 per day for PP.

  4. Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yeturu, Sravan Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Urala, Arun Sreenivas; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 85 participants completed the study; among them, 40 were male and 45 were female. There was significant reduction in mean plaque and gingival scores in all the 3 groups at follow-up when compared to baseline. A significantly higher reduction (plaque and gingival scores) was found in chlorhexidine when compared with the Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:26937371

  5. Land coverage classification using EO-1/Hyperion and ALOS/PALSAR: Possibility of combined analysis with different type of sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, E.; Furuta, R.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-12-01

    Hyper-spectral has huge advantage in determining the land surface coverage due to its spectral resolution and large number of bands, however, its swath is comparatively narrow, and there is cloud problem. In contrast, radar sensor can observe under almost all weather condition, and has wide observation swath. Therefore, if radar data can be used for the detection of land surface with hyper-spectral data, it will be useful tool for the monitoring in any field. However, there are not so many reports about the land-cover detection with combination use of both hyper-spectral data and SAR data so far. In our previous study, we detected wet area around Sendai Airport where suffered Tsunami by 2011 great earthquake in the northern Japan by combined analysis of satellite hyper-spectral and SAR data. In that study, the possible wet regions were successfully detected objectively in wide area. In this study, we adopted similar method on soil surface to investigate the relationship between land coverage classification by hyper-spectral data (EO-1/Hyperion) and physical values from L-band SAR (ALOS/PALSAR), and to study how to apply the combined analysis of hyper-spectral and SAR data to land coverage monitoring (e.g. landslides). Mauna Kea, Hawaii was selected as the test site of this study because whose land coverage shows variety; various volcanic soils, mixture of soil and vegetation, and lava flow from Mauna Loa from top to hillside. The Hyperion equipment has 242 channels but some of them include full noise or have no data. We selected channels by checking each channel, and select 105 channels. Before analysis, the atmospheric correction was applied by ENVI/FLAASH for the selected channels. The corrected data were analyzed by both unsupervised and supervised classification (based on the result from field work). Each classified results were extracted as vector data. For SAR data analysis, Dual Polarization data (FBD) is selected. SAR data were converted to backscattered

  6. Applications of ALOS PALSAR for monitoring biophysical parameters of a degraded black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Flores-Verdugo, F.; Zhang, C.; Flores de Santiago, F.; Jiao, X.

    2013-08-01

    Within the last few decades mangrove forests worldwide have been experiencing high annual rates of loss and many of those that remain have undergone considerable degradation. To understand the condition of these forests, various optical remote sensing platforms have been used to map and monitor these wetlands, including the use of these data for biophysical parameter mapping. For many mangrove forests a reliable source of optical imagery is not possible given their location in quasi-permanent cloud cover or smoke covered regions. In such cases it is recommended that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) be considered. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between various ALOS-PALSAR modes, acquired from eight images, and mangrove biophysical parameter data collected from a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest that has experienced considerable degradation. In total, structural data were collected from 61 plots representing the four common stand types found in this degraded forest of the Mexican Pacific: tall healthy mangrove (n = 17), dwarf healthy mangrove (n = 15), poor condition mangrove (n = 13), and predominantly dead mangrove (n = 16). Based on backscatter coefficients, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed between filtered single polarization ALOS PALSAR (6.25 m) HH backscatter and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When the dead stands were excluded (n = 45) the strength of these relationships increased. Moreover, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed with stand height, Basal Area (BA) and to a lesser degree with stem density and mean DBH. With the coarser spatial resolution dual-polarization and quad polarization data (12.5 m) only a few, and weaker, correlation coefficients were calculated between the mangrove parameters and the filtered HH backscatter. However, significant negative values were once again calculated for the HH when the 16 dead mangrove stands were removed from the

  7. Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Tang, Nou-Ying; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-03-01

    In our primary studies, we have shown that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced cytotoxic effects, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells. However, details regarding their effects on DNA damage and repair gene expression in SCC-4 cells are not clear. We investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 cells. Comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) indicated that incubation of SCC-4 cells with 0, 20, 30 and 40 microM of emodin, 0, 25, 50 and 100 microM of aloe-emodin or rhein led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail). This means that all examined agents induced DNA damage in SCC-4 cells and these effects are dose-dependent but emodin is stronger than that of aloe-emodin or rhein. The results from real-time PCR assay demonstrated that 30 microM of emodin or aloe-emodin used for 24 and 48 h treatment in SCC-4 cells significantly inhibited expression of genes associated with DNA damage and repair [ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR); 14-3-3sigma (14-3-3sigma); breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1); and DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNA-PK)]; only rhein suppressed the expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA with 48 h treatment, but had no effect on ATM expression. On 24 h treatment, only aloe-emodin significantly affected ATM expression. These effects may be the vital factors for emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induction of DNA damage in vitro. In conclusion, these agents induced DNA damage followed by the inhibition of DNA repair-associated gene expressions, including ATM, ATR, 14-3-3sigma, BRCA1, DNA-PK and MGMT in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.

  8. [Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

    PubMed

    Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-06-01

    Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions.

  9. Properties of L-band interferograms derived from ALOS/PALSAR radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P. A.; Hager, B.

    2007-12-01

    We present here L-band radar interferograms derived from ALOS/PALSAR satellite observations over several different Earth surface terrains. These InSAR images are representative of data that would be collected by the proposed DESDynI radar mission. We have examined interferograms over Hawaii, Greenland, Egypt, and California, which present surfaces covered by light vegetation, dense tropical forests, vegetation-free desert, and many ice facies. The interferograms exhibit very high correlation when compared to the C-band radar data commonly available from other existing satellites, yielding improved spatial coverage and reliable temporal sampling. In many cases the acquisitions are fully polarimetric, so that we can compare how the polarization state affects the statistics of the interferometric echoes. Specific results to date show that the use of L-band data rather than C-band permits much more comprehensive deformation modeling of rift events in Hawaii and of creep along faults, with little difference between interferograms formed from co- and cross-polarized returns. Ice from the wet snow, percolation, and dry snow zones in Greenland often correlates well (>50%) even with the PALSAR six-week repeat interval. Observable fringe patterns are seen in the Hawaiian rain forest in many locations over this same orbit interval. Interferograms derived from HH and VV data over ice and vegetation are very similar, and HV InSAR data are similarly correlated when allowance is made for the lower signal to noise ratio, even though considerable volume scatter occurs. Cross-interferograms show that the HH return is rather uncorrelated with the VV return, but that a small shift in the mean phase is present in HH-HV difference interferograms. This could be due to a real several cm shift in the phase center of the echo, but we are currently considering whether this apparent phase shift results from cross-polarized contamination of the radar return. With more frequent repeat

  10. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Sahar K; El-Bedewy, Mohamed; Yagi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic effects of aloe vera in patients with liver fibrosis. METHODS: Aloe vera high molecular weight fractions (AHM) were processed by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with microwave and far infrared-ray radiation. Fifteen healthy volunteers as the control group and 40 patients were included. The patients were randomly subdivided into two equal groups: the conventional group was treated with placebo (starch), and AHM group was treated with 0.15 gm/d AHM, both for 12 consecutive weeks. The patients were investigated before and after treatment. Serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver were assayed and the expression of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: At the start of the study, the hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed fibro-proliferated bile ductules, thick fibrous septa and dense inflammatory cellular infiltration in the patients before treatment. The use of AHM for 12 wk significantly ameliorated the fibrosis, inhibited the inflammation, and resulted in minimal infiltration and minimal fibrosis compared to the conventional group. The enzyme activities of the liver (ALT, AST and ALP) were attenuated after treatment in both groups, and the decrease in the AHM group was more significant as compared with the conventional group. Similar to the AST, the MDA levels were significantly higher before treatment, and were attenuated after treatment in both groups. In contrast, the hepatic glutathione content in the patients were decreased significantly in the AHM group compared to the controls. The serum levels of the fibrosis markers (HA, TGF-β and MMP-2) were also reduced

  11. Measuring Mangrove Type, Structure And Carbon Storage With UAVSAR And ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Cornforth, W.; Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Pettorelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a great number of ecosystem services ranging from shoreline protection (e.g. against erosion, tsunamis and storms), nutrient cycling, fisheries production, building materials and habitat. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. But as a result of their location and economic value, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the World. Mangrove extent is limited 1) in total extent to tidally influenced coastal areas and 2) to tropical and subtropical regions. This can lead to difficulties mapping mangrove type (such as degraded vs non degraded, scrub vs tall, dense vs sparse) because of cloud cover and limited access to high-resolution optical data. To accurately quantify the effect of land use and climate change on tropical wetland ecosystems, we must develop effective mapping methodologies that take into account not only extent, but also the structure and health of the ecosystem. This must be done by including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this research, we used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the ALOS/PALSAR and UAVSAR instruments over selected sites in the Americas (Sierpe, Costa Rica and Everglades, Florida)and Asia (Sundarbans). In particular, we used the SAR data in combination with other remotely sensed data and field data to 1) map mangrove extent 2) determine mangrove type, health and adjascent land use, and 3) estimate aboveground biomass and carbon storage for entire mangrove systems. We used different classification methodologies such as polarimetric decomposition, unsupervised classification and image segmentation to map mangrove type. Because of the high resolution of the radar data, and its ability to interact with forest volume, we are able to identify mangrove zones and differentiate between mangroves and other forests/land uses. We also integrated InSAR data (SRTM

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Aloe Vera Gel against Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Supreet; Rathod, Nirav; Sur, Jaideep; Laheji, Afshan; Gupta, Naveen; Agrawal, Priyanka; Prasad, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Natural herbal remedies have shown promising anti-microbial property and fewer side effects compared to synthetic anti-microbial therapy. Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant used for management of various infections since ancient times as it has anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and immune-boosting properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-microbial and inhibitory activities of various concentration of Aloe Vera Gel (AVG) against oral pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Subgingival calculus and aspiration of periapical abscess and periodontal abscess was done in 20 patients and the sample transferred to thioglycolate broth, which was incubated in Mutans Sanguis agar, blood agar and cultured in anaerobic gas chamber. The colonies formed were identified further by gram staining methods and biochemical fermentation tests (IMViC). Each isolated colony of identified bacteria were cultured separately in Muller-Hilton broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Anti-microbial activity of the AVG was tested by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by broth micro-dilution method. Result Various staining and biochemical tests confirmed that the sample contained Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Clostridium bacilli (C. bacilli), Streptcoccus mutans (S. mutans) and Staphlococcus aureus (Staph. aureus). AVG showed anti-bacterial property at 100% and 50% concentration (‘t’ value = 7.504, p-value <0.001). At lower concentration there was no effect against the bacteria. At 100% AVG concentration, zone of inhibition measured was 6.9mm in A. actinomycetemcomitans, 6.3mm in C. bacilli, 6.8mm in S. mutans and 6.6mm in Staph. aureus. The standard drugs were also used to compare anti-bacterial property of AVG. Result showed that higher concentration (100%, 50%) of AVG has comparable zone of inhibition with Ofloxacin (5mcg) and Ciprofloxacin (30mcg). Conclusion AVG at

  13. Influence of drinking water containing Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel on growth performance, intestinal microflora, and humoral immune responses of broilers

    PubMed Central

    Shokraneh, Meisam; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Toghyani, Majid; Landy, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The risk of bacteria resistance to specific antibiotics possibly by continuous subtherapeutical administration of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry feed led to a ban on the use of AGP in poultry production. As a result of this ban, alternative substances for poultry growth promotion and disease prevention are being investigated, among which phytogenic and herbal products have received increased attention as natural additives because they have been accepted by consumers as natural additives. The effect of water supplementation of Aloe vera (AV) as an AGP substitute on performance, intestinal microflora, and immune responses of broilers. Materials and Methods: The five experimental treatments were allocated to four replicates. The following treatments were applied (1) a basal broiler diet (C) and normal drinking water, (2) 0.5% AV gel in drinking water, (3) 0.75% AV gel in drinking water, (4) 1% AV gel in drinking water, and (5) diet C supplemented with flavophospholipol at 4.5 mg/kg and drinking normal water. Vaccines against influenza disease and sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were administrated to immunological stimuli. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and coliforms were enumerated in ileum. Results: Body weight of broilers supplemented with different levels of AV increased compared with control group (p<0.05). Birds supplemented with antibiotic had the best feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) in different periods. Supplementation of 0.5% and 0.75% AV improved F: G entire experimental period compared with control group (p<0.05). Coliform bacteria were reduced in broilers supplemented with different levels of AV or antibiotic (p<0.05). The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with 0.75%, 1% AV or antibiotic significantly was higher than other groups (p<0.05). Supplementation with 1% AV led to greater antibody titers against SRBC compared with other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a possibility of supplementing broiler

  14. A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-03-01

    Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats.