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Sample records for extract prevents intestinal

  1. Lack of prevention of large intestinal cancer by VPS, an extract of Coriolus versicolor mushroom.

    PubMed

    Coles, Melissa; Toth, Bela

    2005-01-01

    Cancer prevention studies were conducted with VPS, a hot water extract of the Coriolus versicolor (CV) mushroom, in female Swiss mice. The extract was administered in the diet for life to the animals. Three groups of mice received the following treatments: a). 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) was administered as 10 weekly subcutaneous injections of 20 microg/g body weight, starting at 9 weeks of age; b). VPS was given at a 2% dose level starting at 7 weeks of age followed by 1,2-DMH, as described in group a; c). 1,2-DMH was administered as described in group a followed by VPS at a 2% dose level starting at 21 weeks of age. The number of animals with large intestinal tumors and the total number of these tumors were: a). 30,321; b). 29,359; and c). 28,415. These differences are not statistically significant. Because extracts of the CV mushroom are used by cancer patients as nutritional supplements in the U.S., and particularly in the Orient, the present negative result should caution its users.

  2. Dietary Feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Balaiya; Singh, Rana P; Kaul, Nidhi; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2010-01-01

    Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE) against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. Female APCmin/+ mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt) mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51%) and distal (49%) portions compared with the proximal one. GSE also decreased polyp growth where the number of polyps of 1 to 2 mm in size decreased by 42% and greater than 2 mm in size by 71%, without any significant change in polyps less than 1 mm in size. Immunohistochemical analyses of small intestinal tissue samples revealed a decrease (80%–86%) in cell proliferation and an increase (four- to eight-fold) in apoptosis. GSE feeding also showed decreased protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (56%–64%), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (58%–60%), and β-catenin (43%–59%) but an increased Cip1/p21-positive cells (1.9- to 2.6-fold). GSE also decreased cyclin D1 and c-Myc protein levels in small intestine. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive potential of GSE against intestinal polyp formation and growth in APCmin/+ mice, which was accompanied with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis together with down-regulation in COX-2, iNOS, β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression, but increased Cip1/p21. In conclusion, the present study suggests potential usefulness of GSE for the chemoprevention of human intestinal/colorectal cancer. PMID:20072658

  3. Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Bryant, Taylor; Lightfoot, Stan; Collin, Peter D; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-04-01

    Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice. APC(Min/+) mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APC(Min/+) mice. In female APC(Min/+) mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:25657017

  4. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pooja; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract) showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71%) mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:25878465

  5. Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol® A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Naveena B.; Mohammed, Altaf; Bryant, Taylor; Lightfoot, Stan; Collin, Peter D.; Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are a source of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol® A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APCMin/+ mice. APCMin/+ mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm Frondanol®A5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol® A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (p<0.02) in males and up to 50% (p<0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol® A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (p<0.007) and 75% (p<0.0001), compared with untreated male APCMin/+ mice. In female APCMin/+ mice, both dose levels of Frondanol® A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (p<0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (Control 24% Vs treated 50%; p<0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in GCSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers was observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol® A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol® A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:25657017

  6. [Intestinal absorption kinetics of Polygonum capitatum extract in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Hou, Jia; Lu, Yuan; Chen, Peng-cheng; Liao, Shang-gao; Huang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was used to determinate the main active fractions gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetrin, hyperoside and quercitrin in Polygonum capitatum extracts by in situ intestinal perfusion models; the absorption rate constants and cumulative penetration rate of absorption were calculated. The effect of different drug concentrations, different intestine segments, bile and P-gp inhibitors on the absorption mechanism of Gallic acid and other compositions in P. capitatum extracts. The experimental results showed that gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetrin and quercitrin were observed saturated at high concentration (P < 0.05). Bile had significant inhibition effect on protocatechuic acid absorption and had promotion effect on myricetrin and hyperoside absorption (P < 0.05). P-gp inhibitor verapamil could significantly enhance the absorption of Protocatechuic acid (P < 0.05). The overall trend for absorption of various compositions was that small intestine > colon. This indicated that the absorption mechanism of P. capitatum extracts in rat intestine was in line with fist-order kinetics characteristics. The composition could be absorbed in all of the different intestinal segments, and the absorption was mainly concentrated in small intestine. The protocatechuic acid may be the substrate of P-gp.

  7. [Intestinal absorption kinetics of Polygonum capitatum extract in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Hou, Jia; Lu, Yuan; Chen, Peng-cheng; Liao, Shang-gao; Huang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was used to determinate the main active fractions gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetrin, hyperoside and quercitrin in Polygonum capitatum extracts by in situ intestinal perfusion models; the absorption rate constants and cumulative penetration rate of absorption were calculated. The effect of different drug concentrations, different intestine segments, bile and P-gp inhibitors on the absorption mechanism of Gallic acid and other compositions in P. capitatum extracts. The experimental results showed that gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetrin and quercitrin were observed saturated at high concentration (P < 0.05). Bile had significant inhibition effect on protocatechuic acid absorption and had promotion effect on myricetrin and hyperoside absorption (P < 0.05). P-gp inhibitor verapamil could significantly enhance the absorption of Protocatechuic acid (P < 0.05). The overall trend for absorption of various compositions was that small intestine > colon. This indicated that the absorption mechanism of P. capitatum extracts in rat intestine was in line with fist-order kinetics characteristics. The composition could be absorbed in all of the different intestinal segments, and the absorption was mainly concentrated in small intestine. The protocatechuic acid may be the substrate of P-gp. PMID:27071271

  8. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII. PMID:27647994

  9. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII. PMID:27647994

  10. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII.

  11. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII.

  12. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Nicole J W; Hulst, Marcel; Govers, Coen; van der Meulen, Jan; van Hoef, Angeline; Stoopen, Geert; Hamers, Astrid; Hoekman, Arjan; de Vos, Ric; Bovee, Toine F H; Smits, Mari; Mes, Jurriaan J; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies.

  13. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models

    PubMed Central

    Govers, Coen; van der Meulen, Jan; van Hoef, Angeline; Stoopen, Geert; Hamers, Astrid; Hoekman, Arjan; de Vos, Ric; Bovee, Toine F. H.; Smits, Mari; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies. PMID:27631494

  14. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Nicole J W; Hulst, Marcel; Govers, Coen; van der Meulen, Jan; van Hoef, Angeline; Stoopen, Geert; Hamers, Astrid; Hoekman, Arjan; de Vos, Ric; Bovee, Toine F H; Smits, Mari; Mes, Jurriaan J; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies. PMID:27631494

  15. Spasmolytic effects of Scrophularia nodosa extract on isolated rabbit intestine.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Obaidullah; Qureshi, Mahmood; Jan, Syed Umar

    2012-01-01

    Scrophularia nodosa (figwort), an indigenous medicinal plant grows in moist and cultivated waste ground. It contains saponins, cardioactive glycosides, flavonoids, resin, sugar and organic acids. It is traditionally used for anti-inflammatory purpose and in skin disorders. It has diuretic and cardiac stimulant properties. The present studies were carried out on crude extract of Scrophularia nodosa and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. During phytochemical studies seven known compounds of flavonoid nature were isolated from the chloroform fraction of crude extract of S. nodosa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, Mass (EIMS, HREIMS) and NMR ((1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, and (1)H-(1)H, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) techniques. Compound 1 was identified as 5, 4`-hydroxy-3, 6, 7-trimethoxyflavone, compound 2 as 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, compound 3 as Centaurein, compound 4 as 5-hydroxy-7,8,2',3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (Serpyllin), compound 5 as Kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, compound 6 as sakuranetin 4'-O (6''-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (Vitexoside) and compound 7 as Spinoside. Crude extract and its fractions were tested on isolated rabbit intestine (in vitro) for their effects. The results of crude extract and its fractions in different doses showed the decrease in normal movement of the smooth muscles of rabbit intestine (jejunum). The chloroform fraction showed maximum relaxant effect (77.37%) at 15mg/ml dose and aqueous fraction showed 38.56% spasmogenic response which was not present in the crude extract. Further study was carried out on different fractions to investigate the possible mechanism of action of S. nodosa extract. For this purpose spasmolytic effect of different fractions were compared with agonist and antagonist activities of standard drugs including adrenaline, atropine andacetylcholine (1x10(-2), 1x10(-4) and 10(-6) M conc.). It is

  16. [Prevention and management of intestinal obstruction after gastrointestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiming

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication after gastrointestinal surgery, and will endanger the patients if not managed properly. The key to the management of intestinal obstruction includes not only the selection of treatment, but also adequate judgment of the cause, location, extent and the probability of reoperation by detailed inquiry of the history, thorough physical examination, and imaging studies, which will guide the treatment. Non-operative therapy is the mainstay of treatment for incomplete obstruction, whilebowel decompression the gut by small intestinal decompression tube, preoperative procedures including restoration of systemic homeostasis should be performed. Efforts should be made to avoid emergency laparotomy without any preparations. Procedures to avoid intestinal obstruction include all the efforts to protect the gut and the intra-abdominal viscera during laparotomy, and to clear all the foreign body and tissues by thorough lavage of the abdominal cavity with saline before closing the abdomen. PMID:27112465

  17. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  18. Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions.

    PubMed

    Denis, Marie-Claude; Desjardins, Yves; Furtos, Alexandra; Marcil, Valérie; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Montoudis, Alain; Garofalo, Carole; Delvin, Edgard; Marette, André; Levy, Emile

    2015-02-01

    Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC®-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor κB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1-α, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID

  19. Prevention of induced atherosclerosis by diversion of bile or blockade of intestinal lymphatics in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, P J; Karipineni, R C; Pertsemlidis, D; Danese, C A

    1976-01-01

    The prevention of induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was studied by means of intestinal lymphatic blockade and of bile diversion in the dog. Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were produced by high cholesterol feeding after induction of hypothyroidism with radio-iodine plus thiouracil. Complete diversion of bile, by shunting all bile into the urinary bladder, effectively prevented hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis; in contrast, blockade of the intestinal lymphatics failed to prevent the consequences of the atherogenic regimen, because of the development of collateral lymphatic channels. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:817679

  20. Propolis aqueous extract preserves functional integrity of murine intestinal mucosa after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Khayyal, Mohamed T; El-Hazek, Rania M; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a specially prepared water propolis extract (PWE) to preserve the functional activity of the intestinal mucosa after radiation exposure was studied. PWE was given orally (650 mg/kg) to rats five days prior to irradiation by 6 Gy and continued for further two days. Rats were sacrificed 24h later, intestinal segments were examined histologically and homogenates were used to assess relevant biochemical parameters reflecting intestinal injury. Irradiation led to a rise in the histological damage score, a rise in tissue TNF-α and TBARS, and a decrease in sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, GSH and cholecystokinin as well as a decrease in plasma citrulline. The findings reflect a decrease in intestinal functional activity. PWE preserved the intestinal integrity and largely protected against the changes induced in the histology damage score and all parameters measured, possibly as a result of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of its caffeic acid content.

  1. Effect of standardized cranberry extract on the activity and expression of selected biotransformation enzymes in rat liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Jedličková, Pavla; Lněničková, Kateřina; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora

    2014-09-18

    The use of dietary supplements containing cranberry extract is a common way to prevent urinary tract infections. As consumption of these supplements containing a mixture of concentrated anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins has increased, interest in their possible interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes has grown. In this in vivo study, rats were treated with a standardized cranberry extract (CystiCran®) obtained from Vaccinium macrocarpon in two dosage schemes (14 days, 0.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day; 1 day, 1.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contained in this extract on the activity and expression of intestinal and hepatic biotransformation enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B and CYP3A), carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT). Administration of cranberry extract led to moderate increases in the activities of hepatic CYP3A (by 34%), CYP1A1 (by 38%), UGT (by 40%), CBR1 (by 17%) and GST (by 13%), while activities of these enzymes in the small intestine were unchanged. No changes in the relative amounts of these proteins were found. Taken together, the interactions of cranberry extract with simultaneously administered drugs seem not to be serious.

  2. Intestinal α-glucosidase and some pancreatic enzymes inhibitory effect of hydroalcholic extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa stenopetala has been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. One of the successful methods to prevent of the onset of diabetes is to control postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in the aggressive delay of the carbohydrate digestion of absorbable monosaccharides. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the extract of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala on α-glucosidase, pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, and, therefore find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar and lipid levels. Methods The dried leaves of Moringa stenopetala were extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent and dried using rotary vapor under reduced pressure. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content and condensed tannins content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent, AlCl3 and vanillin assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis indicated that flavonoid, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents in the extract were 71.73 ± 2.48 mg quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, 79.81 ± 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of crude extract, 8.82 ± 0.77 mg catechin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited intestinal sucrase more than intestinal maltase with IC50 value of 1.47 ± 0.19 mg/ml. It also slightly inhibited pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusion The result demonstrated the beneficial biochemical effects of Moringa stenopetala by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic cholesterol esterase

  3. [Absorption of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by everted intestinal sac method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Xue-lin; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Hong-min; Liu, Xiao-qian; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Zhi-min

    2015-08-01

    To study the absorptive characteristics of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by in vitro rat everted intestinal sac model. Three representative ingredients in aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizome--protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), posmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB), were selected as the study objects. An UPLC method was established to determine and measure their cumulative absorption amount, in order to explain the absorption characteristics of ingredients in different intestinal sections. According to the experimental result, RA and SAB showed the passive absorption in ileum, which conformed to the first-order absorption rate; with low and medium doses, they showed a zero-order absorption rate in jejunum, which was reflected in the coexistence of both positive and passive absorptions; PAL showed a passive absorption manner both in ileum and jejunum. According to the experiment for absorption in different intestinal sections, RA and SAB were mainly absorbed in jejunum, while PAL was absorbed mainly in ileum. All of the three ingredients in aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et rhizome--PAL, RA and SAB could be absorbed in intestines, but with differences in the absorption rate and mechanism, which indicated that the intestinal absorption of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et rhizome was selectivity, instead of a simple semi-permeable membrane penetration process.

  4. Intestinal permeability--a new target for disease prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Stephan C; Barbara, Giovanni; Buurman, Wim; Ockhuizen, Theo; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Serino, Matteo; Tilg, Herbert; Watson, Alastair; Wells, Jerry M

    2014-11-18

    Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In the present review, current knowledge on mucosal barrier and its role in disease prevention and therapy is summarized. First, the relevant terms 'intestinal barrier' and 'intestinal permeability' are defined. Secondly, the key element of the intestinal barrier affecting permeability are described. This barrier represents a huge mucosal surface, where billions of bacteria face the largest immune system of our body. On the one hand, an intact intestinal barrier protects the human organism against invasion of microorganisms and toxins, on the other hand, this barrier must be open to absorb essential fluids and nutrients. Such opposing goals are achieved by a complex anatomical and functional structure the intestinal barrier consists of, the functional status of which is described by 'intestinal permeability'. Third, the regulation of intestinal permeability by diet and bacteria is depicted. In particular, potential barrier disruptors such as hypoperfusion of the gut, infections and toxins, but also selected over-dosed nutrients, drugs, and other lifestyle factors have to be considered. In the fourth part, the means to assess intestinal permeability are presented and critically discussed. The means vary enormously and probably assess different functional components of the barrier. The barrier assessments are further hindered by the natural variability of this functional entity depending on species and genes as well as on diet and other environmental factors. In the final part, we discuss selected diseases associated with increased intestinal permeability such as critically illness, inflammatory bowel diseases, celiac disease, food allergy, irritable bowel syndrome, and--more recently recognized

  5. Nasal IL-12p70 DNA prevents and treats intestinal allergic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hino, Ayako; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Kweon, Mi-Na; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    OVA-induced allergic diarrhea occurs as a consequence of over-expression of Th1 inhibitory IL-12p40 monomers and homodimers in the large intestine, establishing a dominant Th2-type environment. In this study, we demonstrate that intranasally administered murine IL-12p70 naked DNA expression plasmids resulted in the synthesis of corresponding cytokine in the large intestinal CD11c(+) dendritic cells, leading to the inhibition of Ag-specific Th2-type response for the prevention of allergic diarrhea and the suppression of clinical symptoms including OVA-specific IgE Ab synthesis. The nasal IL-12p70 DNA treatment proved effective even after the establishment of allergic diarrhea. These results suggest that the mucosal administration of naked IL-12p70 DNA plasmid should be considered as a possible preventive and therapeutic treatment for Th2 cell-mediated food allergic diseases in the intestinal tract.

  6. Transgenic 6F tomatoes act on the small intestine to prevent systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia caused by Western diet and intestinally derived lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Buga, Georgette M; Su, Feng; Wagner, Alan C; Meriwether, David; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Gao, Feng; Grijalva, Victor; Danciger, Janet S; Van Lenten, Brian J; Org, Elin; Lusis, Aldons J; Pan, Calvin; Anantharamaiah, G M; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Smyth, Susan S; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Fogelman, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    We recently reported that levels of unsaturated lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the small intestine significantly correlated with the extent of aortic atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-null (LDLR⁻/⁻) mice fed a Western diet (WD). Here we demonstrate that WD increases unsaturated (but not saturated) LPA levels in the small intestine of LDLR⁻/⁻ mice and causes changes in small intestine gene expression. Confirmation of microarray analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed that adding transgenic tomatoes expressing the apoA-I mimetic peptide 6F (Tg6F) to WD prevented many WD-mediated small intestine changes in gene expression. If instead of feeding WD, unsaturated LPA was added to chow and fed to the mice: i) levels of LPA in the small intestine were similar to those induced by feeding WD; ii) gene expression changes in the small intestine mimicked WD-mediated changes; and iii) changes in plasma serum amyloid A, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol levels, and the fast-performance liquid chromatography lipoprotein profile mimicked WD-mediated changes. Adding Tg6F (but not control tomatoes) to LPA-supplemented chow prevented the LPA-induced changes. We conclude that: i) WD-mediated systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia may be in part due to WD-induced increases in small intestine LPA levels; and ii) Tg6F reduces WD-mediated systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia by preventing WD-induced increases in LPA levels in the small intestine. PMID:24085744

  7. Prevention of intestinal amebiasis by vaccination with the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNac lectin.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Eric; Barroso, Lisa; Lockhart, Lauren; Wright, Rhonda; Cramer, Carole; Lyerly, David; Petri, William A

    2004-01-26

    Prevention of intestinal infection by Entamoeba histolytica would block both invasive disease and parasite transmission. The amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin mediates parasite adherence to the colonic surface and fecal anti-lectin IgA is associated with protection from intestinal reinfection in children. We tested if vaccination with the E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin could prevent cecal infection in a C3H mouse model of amebic colitis. Two trials using native lectin purified from the parasite and two trials using a 64 kDa recombinant fragment ("LecA") were performed with a combined intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization regimen using cholera toxin and Freund's adjuvants, respectively. Two weeks after immunization mice were challenged intracecally with trophozoites, and 4-12 weeks after challenge mice were sacrificed for histopathologic evaluation of infection. Vaccination prevented intestinal infection with efficacies of 84 and 100% in the two native lectin trials and 91 and 34% in the two LecA trials. Mice with detectable pre-challenge fecal anti-lectin IgA responses were significantly more resistant to infection than mice without fecal anti-lectin IgA responses. These results show for the first time that immunization with the Gal/GalNAc lectin can prevent intestinal amebiasis in mice and suggest a protective role for fecal anti-lectin IgA in vivo.

  8. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

  9. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weidong; Feng, Yongjia; Holst, Jens J.; Hartmann, Bolette; Yang, Hua; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Small intestine luminal nutrient sensing may be crucial for modulating physiological functions. However, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We used a model of enteral nutrient deprivation, or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), resulting in intestinal mucosal atrophy and decreased epithelial barrier function (EBF). We examined how a single amino acid, glutamate (GLM), modulates intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and EBF. Controls were chow-fed mice, T1 receptor-3 (T1R3)-knockout (KO) mice, and treatment with the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-5 antagonist MTEP. TPN significantly changed the amount of T1Rs, GLM receptors, and transporters, and GLM prevented these changes. GLM significantly prevented TPN-associated intestinal atrophy (2.5-fold increase in IEC proliferation) and was dependent on up-regulation of the protein kinase pAkt, but independent of T1R3 and mGluR5 signaling. GLM led to a loss of EBF with TPN (60% increase in FITC-dextran permeability, 40% decline in transepithelial resistance); via T1R3, it protected EBF, whereas mGluR5 was associated with EBF loss. GLM led to a decline in circulating glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during TPN. The decline was regulated by T1R3 and mGluR5, suggesting a novel negative regulator pathway for IEC proliferation not previously described. Loss of luminal nutrients with TPN administration may widely affect intestinal taste sensing. GLM has previously unrecognized actions on IEC growth and EBF. Restoring luminal sensing via GLM could be a strategy for patients on TPN.—Xiao, W., Feng, Y., Holst, J. J., Hartmann, B., Yang, H., Teitelbaum, D. H. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition. PMID:24497581

  10. Cinnamon Extract Improves TNF-a Induced Overproduction of Intestinal ApolipoproteinB-48 Lipoproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TNF-alpha stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoproteins. We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) improved the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether Cinnulin PF® inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced over the secretion of apoB...

  11. Intestinal dysbiosis: novel mechanisms by which gut microbes trigger and prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    New research has identified specific intestinal colonizing microbes that can have significant influence on health and disease. Evidence is reviewed supporting an association between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colon cancer and for a protective role of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in inflammatory bowel disease, of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in acute intestinal inflammation, of Bifidobacterium infantis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, and of Akkermansia muciniphila in obesity and diabetes. These novel bacteria are clinically relevant and present opportunities for more focused diagnosis of colon cancer and prevention of common diseases. PMID:24857830

  12. Intestinal dysbiosis: novel mechanisms by which gut microbes trigger and prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    New research has identified specific intestinal colonizing microbes that can have significant influence on health and disease. Evidence is reviewed supporting an association between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colon cancer and for a protective role of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in inflammatory bowel disease, of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in acute intestinal inflammation, of Bifidobacterium infantis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, and of Akkermansia muciniphila in obesity and diabetes. These novel bacteria are clinically relevant and present opportunities for more focused diagnosis of colon cancer and prevention of common diseases.

  13. Colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Otani, Koji; Watanabe, Toshio; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Itani, Shigehiro; Higashimori, Akira; Nadatani, Yuji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is a large, multiprotein complex that consists of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and pro-caspase-1. Activation of the inflammasome results in cleavage of pro-caspase-1 into cleaved caspase-1, which promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β. We investigated the effects of colchicine on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Colchicine treatment inhibited indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury by 86% (1 mg/kg) and 94% (3 mg/kg) as indicated by the lesion index 24 h after indomethacin administration. Colchicine inhibited the protein expression of cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β, without affecting the mRNA expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β. Although treatment with recombinant IL-1β (0.1 μg/kg) did not change the severity of small intestinal damage, the preventive effects of colchicine were abolished by supplementation with the same dose of recombinant IL-1β. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage was reduced by 77%, as determined by the lesion index in NLRP3(-/-) mice, and colchicine treatment failed to inhibit small intestinal damage in NLRP3(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27585971

  14. Colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Koji; Watanabe, Toshio; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Itani, Shigehiro; Higashimori, Akira; Nadatani, Yuji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is a large, multiprotein complex that consists of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and pro-caspase-1. Activation of the inflammasome results in cleavage of pro-caspase-1 into cleaved caspase-1, which promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β. We investigated the effects of colchicine on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Colchicine treatment inhibited indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury by 86% (1 mg/kg) and 94% (3 mg/kg) as indicated by the lesion index 24 h after indomethacin administration. Colchicine inhibited the protein expression of cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β, without affecting the mRNA expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β. Although treatment with recombinant IL-1β (0.1 μg/kg) did not change the severity of small intestinal damage, the preventive effects of colchicine were abolished by supplementation with the same dose of recombinant IL-1β. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage was reduced by 77%, as determined by the lesion index in NLRP3−/− mice, and colchicine treatment failed to inhibit small intestinal damage in NLRP3−/− mice. These results demonstrate that colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27585971

  15. Glucose induces intestinal human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 to prevent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Naoya; Fujie, Yoshiko; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate calorie intake or starvation has been suggested as a cause of neonatal jaundice, which can further cause permanent brain damage, kernicterus. This study experimentally investigated whether additional glucose treatments induce the bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme--UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1--to prevent the onset of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice physiologically develop jaundice. In this study, UGT1A1 expression levels were determined in the liver and small intestine of neonatal hUGT1 mice that were orally treated with glucose. In the hUGT1 mice, glucose induced UGT1A1 in the small intestine, while it did not affect the expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. UGT1A1 was also induced in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells when the cells were cultured in the presence of glucose. Luciferase assays demonstrated that not only the proximal region (-1300/-7) of the UGT1A1 promoter, but also distal region (-6500/-4050) were responsible for the induction of UGT1A1 in the intestinal cells. Adequate calorie intake would lead to the sufficient expression of UGT1A1 in the small intestine to reduce serum bilirubin levels. Supplemental treatment of newborns with glucose solution can be a convenient and efficient method to treat neonatal jaundice while allowing continuous breastfeeding. PMID:25209391

  16. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael L.; Thymann, Thomas; Cilieborg, Malene S.; Lykke, Mikkel; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Bent B.; Schmidt, Mette; Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment improves NEC resistance and intestinal structure, function, and immunity in neonates. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 days of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 days of enteral formula. Immediately after birth, they were assigned to receive either antibiotics (oral and parenteral doses of gentamycin, ampicillin, and metronidazole, ANTI, n = 11) or saline in the control group (CON, n = 13), given twice daily. NEC lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunity markers were recorded. None of the ANTI but 85% of the CON pigs developed NEC lesions by day 5 (0/11 vs. 11/13, P < 0.05). ANTI pigs had higher intestinal villi (+60%), digestive enzyme activities (+53–73%), and goblet cell densities (+110%) and lower myeloperoxidase (−51%) and colonic microbial density (105 vs. 1010 colony-forming units, all P < 0.05). Microarray transcriptomics showed strong downregulation of genes related to inflammation and innate immune response to microbiota and marked upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolism, in particular threonine, glucose transport systems, and cell cycle in 5-day-old ANTI pigs. In a follow-up experiment, 5 days of antibiotics prevented NEC at least until day 10. Neonatal prophylactic antibiotics effectively reduced gut bacterial load, prevented NEC, intestinal atrophy, dysfunction, and inflammation and enhanced expression of genes related to gut metabolism and immunity in preterm pigs. PMID:24157972

  17. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael L; Thymann, Thomas; Cilieborg, Malene S; Lykke, Mikkel; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Bent B; Schmidt, Mette; Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment improves NEC resistance and intestinal structure, function, and immunity in neonates. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 days of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 days of enteral formula. Immediately after birth, they were assigned to receive either antibiotics (oral and parenteral doses of gentamycin, ampicillin, and metronidazole, ANTI, n = 11) or saline in the control group (CON, n = 13), given twice daily. NEC lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunity markers were recorded. None of the ANTI but 85% of the CON pigs developed NEC lesions by day 5 (0/11 vs. 11/13, P < 0.05). ANTI pigs had higher intestinal villi (+60%), digestive enzyme activities (+53-73%), and goblet cell densities (+110%) and lower myeloperoxidase (-51%) and colonic microbial density (10(5) vs. 10(10) colony-forming units, all P < 0.05). Microarray transcriptomics showed strong downregulation of genes related to inflammation and innate immune response to microbiota and marked upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolism, in particular threonine, glucose transport systems, and cell cycle in 5-day-old ANTI pigs. In a follow-up experiment, 5 days of antibiotics prevented NEC at least until day 10. Neonatal prophylactic antibiotics effectively reduced gut bacterial load, prevented NEC, intestinal atrophy, dysfunction, and inflammation and enhanced expression of genes related to gut metabolism and immunity in preterm pigs. PMID:24157972

  18. Lipocalin 2 prevents intestinal inflammation by enhancing phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Toyonaga, Takahiko; Matsuura, Minoru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Honzawa, Yusuke; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Taku; Hibi, Toshifumi; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), also called neutrophil gelatinase B-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is an anti-microbial peptide originally identified in neutrophil granules. Although Lcn2/NGAL expression is increased in the inflamed intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the role of Lcn2/NGAL in the development of intestinal inflammation remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of Lcn2/NGAL in intestinal inflammation using a spontaneous mouse colitis model, interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10 KO) mice. Lcn2 expression in the colonic tissues of IL-10 KO mice increased with the development of colitis. Lcn2/IL-10 double-KO mice showed a more rapid onset and development of colitis compared to IL-10 KO mice. Lcn2 enhanced phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages in vitro after infection with Escherichia coli. Transfer of Lcn2-repleted macrophages prevented the development of colitis in Lcn2/IL-10 double-KO mice in vivo. Our findings revealed that Lcn2 prevents the development of intestinal inflammation. One crucial factor seems to be the enhancement of phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages by Lcn2. PMID:27734904

  19. Prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    PubMed Central

    Roner, Michael R; Tam, Ka Ian; Kiesling-Barrager, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. Rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the US FDA for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. The addition of saponins to existing water supplies offers a new form of intervention into the cycle of rotavirus infection. We believe that saponins will ‘coat’ the epithelium of the host's small intestine and prevent attachment of rotavirus. Discussion This experiment provides in vitro data for the possibility of including saponin in drinking water to prevent infections of rotavirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent rotavirus from infecting its host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block viral infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture media. Conclusion We demonstrate that two Quillaja extracts possess strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 1000-fold lower than concentrations exhibiting cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 1000 μg/ml are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/ml are able to block rotavirus and reovirus attachment and infection. PMID:20725585

  20. Somatostatin-, vasoactive intestinal peptide-, and granulin-like peptides isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Uesaka, T; Yano, K; Yamasaki, M; Ando, M

    1995-09-01

    Three new peptides were originally isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish. They were structurally related with somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and granulin (GRN) and thus termed goldfish somatostatin (gSS-28), gVIP, and gGRN, respectively. The primary structures of these peptides were determined as: SVESSNHLPA 10RERKAGCKNF20YWKGFTSC for the gSS-28; HSDAVFTDNY10SRYRKQMAAK20KYLNSVLA-NH2 for the gVIP, and VIHCDSSTIC10 PDGTTCCLSP20YGVWYCCPFS30MGQCCRDGIH40CCRHGYHCDS50TSTHCLR for the gGRN. The amino acid sequence of the gSS-28 was more similar (79-86% similarity) to somatostatins obtained in anglerfish, flounder, and sculpin, but far (21% similarity) from the catfish somatostatin, whereas goldfish and catfish belong to the same superorder. The structure of the gVIP was closely related to that of the cod VIP; only one residue (Tyr13) being substituted for Phe13 in the cod VIP. Comparing amino acid sequences of VIPs obtained in various vertebrates, the primary structure of this peptide was revealed to be relatively well conserved among vertebrates. In addition, the dose-response curve for the effect of gVIP on the short-circuit current (Isc) across the eel intestine was similar to that of human VIP, suggesting that VIPs in vertebrates have similar effect. The amino acid sequence of gGRN was 96% identical to that of carp GRN-1; only two residues (Ser6-Ser7) being substituted for Ala6-Ala7 in the carp GRN-1. The physiological significance of these peptides is discussed. PMID:8536941

  1. Tissue Expander Placement to Prevent the Adverse Intestinal Effects of Radiotherapy in Malignant Pelvic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Oue, Takaharu; Adachi, Kana; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Nakahata, Kengo; Ueno, Takehisa; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-03-01

    We herein report the findings of 3 patients with primary Ewing sarcoma in a pelvic lesion who underwent the placement of a tissue expander (TE) before radiation therapy to prevent the adverse effects of radiotherapy. The simulation study showed that the TE drastically reduced volume of the intestine that was irradiated at all dose levels. All patients could receive the scheduled dose of radiotherapy without any acute and late complications such as diarrhea, melena, the dislodging of the TE, infection, or the formation of fistulae. In the 4-year (minimum) observation period, we did not observe intestinal complications in any of our patients. TE placement is considered to be a safe and effective method for preventing the adverse effects of radiotherapy in pediatric malignant pelvic tumors.

  2. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (ρ), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug.

  3. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells.

  4. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  5. Intestinal Absorption of Fibrinolytic and Proteolytic Lumbrokinase Extracted from Earthworm, Eisenia andrei

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiang Mei; Kim, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Chul Kyu; Shin, Jang Sik; Cho, Il Hwan

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the intestinal absorption of a fibrinolytic and proteolytic lumbrokinase extracted from Eisenia andrei, we used rat everted gut sacs and an in situ closed-loop recirculation method. We extracted lumbrokinase from Eisenia andrei, and then raised polyclonal antibody against lumbrokinase. Fibrinolytic activity and proteolytic activity in the serosal side of rat everted gut sacs incubated with lumbrokinase showed dose- and time-dependent patterns. Immunological results obtained by western blotting serosal side solution using rat everted gut sacs method showed that lumbrokinase proteins between 33.6 and 54.7 kDa are absorbed mostly by the intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of plasma fractions obtained by in situ recirculation method confirmed that lumbrokinase F1 is absorbed into blood. These results support the notion that lumbrokinase can be absorbed from mucosal lumen into blood by oral administration. PMID:20473377

  6. Crofelemer, an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer Extracted from Croton lechleri, Targets Two Distinct Intestinal Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Namkung, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Crofelemer, a purified proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from the bark latex of Croton lechleri, is in clinical trials for secretory diarrheas of various etiologies. We investigated the antisecretory mechanism of crofelemer by determining its effect on the major apical membrane transport and signaling processes involved in intestinal fluid transport. Using cell lines and measurement procedures to isolate the effects on individual membrane transport proteins, crofelemer at 50 μM had little or no effect on the activity of epithelial Na+ or K+ channels or on cAMP or calcium signaling. Crofelemer inhibited the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel with maximum inhibition of ∼60% and an IC50 ∼7 μM. Crofelemer action at an extracellular site on CFTR produced voltage-independent block with stabilization of the channel closed state. Crofelemer did not affect the potency of glycine hydrazide or thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors. Crofelemer action resisted washout, with <50% reversal of CFTR inhibition after 4 h. Crofelemer was also found to strongly inhibit the intestinal calcium-activated Cl− channel TMEM16A by a voltage-independent inhibition mechanism with maximum inhibition >90% and IC50 ∼6.5 μM. The dual inhibitory action of crofelemer on two structurally unrelated prosecretory intestinal Cl− channels may account for its intestinal antisecretory activity. PMID:19808995

  7. Enhancing Effect of Trachelogenin from Trachelospermi caulis Extract on Intestinal Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Bae, Min-Jung; Jung, Sun Young; See, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Yun Tai; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Back, Su Yeon; Choi, Sang-Won; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Trachelospermi caulis is used widely as an herbal medicine in oriental countries to attenuate fever and pain. We wished to reveal the novel function of this herb and its active component on barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells. Monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were used to evaluate the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and quantity of permeated ovalbumin (OVA) as indices of barrier function. T. caulis increased TEER values on cell monolayers and decreased OVA permeation across cell monolayers. To ascertain the active component of T. caulis, the extract was isolated to five fractions, and the effect of each of these fractions on intestinal barrier function examined. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed increased TEER values and decreased OVA flux. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions contained mainly trachelogenin and its glycoside, tracheloside. Trachelogenin increased TEER values and decreased OVA flux by enhancing the tight-junction protein occludin (but not tracheloside) in Caco-2 monolayers. These findings demonstrated that trachelogenin, an active component of T. caulis, might help to attenuate food allergy or inflammatory bowel disease through inhibition of allergen permeation or enhancement of the intestinal barrier. PMID:26268064

  8. Rhubarb extract partially improves mucosal integrity in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Juliana E; Eden, Georgina L; Lampton, Lorrinne S; Cheah, Ker Y; Lymn, Kerry A; Pei, Jinxin V; Yool, Andrea J; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of orally gavaged aqueous rhubarb extract (RE) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. METHODS Female Dark Agouti rats (n = 8/group) were gavaged daily (1 mL) with water, high-dose RE (HDR; 200 mg/kg) or low-dose RE (LDR; 20mg/kg) for eight days. Intestinal mucositis was induced (day 5) with 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Intestinal tissue samples were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination. Xenopus oocytes expressing aquaporin 4 water channels were prepared to examine the effect of aqueous RE on cell volume, indicating a potential mechanism responsible for modulating net fluid absorption and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract. Statistical significance was assumed at P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS Bodyweight was significantly reduced in rats administered 5-FU compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01). Rats administered 5-FU significantly increased intestinal MPO levels (≥ 307%; P < 0.001), compared to healthy controls. However, LDR attenuated this effect in 5-FU treated rats, significantly decreasing ileal MPO activity (by 45%; P < 0.05), as compared to 5-FU controls. 5-FU significantly reduced intestinal mucosal thickness (by ≥ 29% P < 0.001) as compared to healthy controls. LDR significantly increased ileal mucosal thickness in 5-FU treated rats (19%; P < 0.05) relative to 5-FU controls. In xenopus oocytes expressing AQP4 water channels, RE selectively blocked water influx into the cell, induced by a decrease in external osmotic pressure. As water efflux was unaltered by the presence of extracellular RE, the directional flow of water across the epithelial barrier, in the presence of extracellular RE, indicated that RE may alleviate water loss across the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal health in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. CONCLUSION In summary, low dose RE improves selected parameters of mucosal integrity and reduces ileal

  9. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Guiping; Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Gong, Ting; Tossou, Myrlene Carine B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  10. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  11. Bovine Pericardium Patch Wrapping Intestinal Anastomosis Improves Healing Process and Prevents Leakage in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Testini, Mario; Gurrado, Angela; Portincasa, Piero; Scacco, Salvatore; Marzullo, Andrea; Piccinni, Giuseppe; Lissidini, Germana; Greco, Luigi; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Debellis, Lucantonio; Sardaro, Nicola; Staffieri, Francesco; Carratù, Maria Rosaria; Crovace, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Failure of intestinal anastomosis is a major complication following abdominal surgery. Biological materials have been introduced as reinforcement of abdominal wall hernia in contaminated setting. An innovative application of biological patch is its use as reinforcement of gastrointestinal anastomosis. The aim of study was to verify whether the bovine pericardium patch improves the healing of anastomosis, when in vivo wrapping the suture line of pig intestinal anastomosis, avoiding leakage in the event of deliberately incomplete suture. Forty-three pigs were randomly divided: Group 1 (control, n = 14): hand-sewn ileo-ileal and colo-colic anastomosis; Group 2 (n = 14): standard anastomosis wrapped by pericardium bovine patch; Group 3 (n = 1) and 4 (n = 14): one suture was deliberately incomplete and also wrapped by patch in the last one. Intraoperative evaluation, histological, biochemical, tensiometric and electrophysiological studies of intestinal specimens were performed at 48 h, 7 and 90 days after. In groups 2 and 4, no leak, stenosis, abscess, peritonitis, mesh displacement or shrinkage were found and adhesion rate decreased compared to control. Biochemical studies showed mitochondrial function improvement in colic wrapped anastomosis. Tensiometric evaluations suggested that the patch preserves the colic contractility similar to the controls. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that the patch also improves the mucosal function restoring almost normal transport properties. Use of pericardium bovine patch as reinforcement of intestinal anastomosis is safe and effective, significantly improving the healing process. Data of prevention of acute peritonitis and leakage in cases of iatrogenic perforation of anastomoses, covered with patch, is unpublished. PMID:24489752

  12. Inhibition of goby posterior intestinal NaCl absorption by natriuretic peptides and by cardiac extracts.

    PubMed

    Loretz, C A

    1996-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides abolish active Na+ and Cl- absorption across the posterior intestine of the euryhaline goby Gillichthys mirabilis. Inhibition by eel and human natriuretic peptides is dose-dependent with the following sequence of potencies based on experimentally determined ID50 values for inhibition of short-circuit current: eel ventricular natriuretic peptide (78 nmol.l-1), eel atrial natriuretic peptide (156 nmol.l-1), human brain natriuretic peptide (326 nmol.l-1), human alpha atrial natriuretic peptide (1.05 mumol.l-1), and eel C-type natriuretic peptide (75 mumol.l-1). Natriuretic peptides also significantly increase transcellular conductance. The observed sequence of natriuretic peptide potencies is suggestive of cellular mediation by GC-A-type NP-R1 receptors in this tissue; as expected for guanylyl-cyclase-coupled NP-R1 receptors, cyclic GMP mimics the action of natriuretic peptides on the goby intestine. Crude aqueous extracts of goby atrium and ventricle inhibited short circuit current and increased tissue conductance in a dose-dependent manner. Ventricular extract was more potent than atrial extract on both a per organ and per milligram basis.

  13. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Chen, Yifan; Song, Zehe; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, Fuliang; Conlon, Michael A.; Topping, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health. PMID:27164138

  14. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Chikako; Mizutani, Junya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2003-10-01

    It has been known that Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) is a herb that grows in the wild and is a source of natural antioxidants. We previously reported that a-glucosidase inhibitors, (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-6'-O-cinnamoylglucopyranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol and (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-glucopranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol, from the dry leaves of hyssop, were isolated. This study examined the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of hyssop extracts on intestinal carbohydrate absorption in rat everted gut sac and carbohydrate-loaded hyperglycemia in mice. In the everted gut sac experiment, 10 mM sucrose- and 5 mM maltose-treated increases in glucose concentration in the serosal compartment were inhibited in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ mL hyssop extracts, although a 10 mM glucose-induced increase in serosal glucose was not inhibited by the extracts. Additionally, hyperglycemia in sucrose- and maltose-loaded mice was significantly suppressed at an early stage, within 30 to 60 min by oral pre-administration of 300 and 100 mg/kg hyssop extracts, respectively. These findings suggest that hyssop extracts inhibited the digestion of complex carbohydrates, but not that of absorbable monosaccharide, and might be a useful supplemental food for hyperglycemia.

  15. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Chikako; Mizutani, Junya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2003-10-01

    It has been known that Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) is a herb that grows in the wild and is a source of natural antioxidants. We previously reported that a-glucosidase inhibitors, (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-6'-O-cinnamoylglucopyranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol and (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-glucopranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol, from the dry leaves of hyssop, were isolated. This study examined the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of hyssop extracts on intestinal carbohydrate absorption in rat everted gut sac and carbohydrate-loaded hyperglycemia in mice. In the everted gut sac experiment, 10 mM sucrose- and 5 mM maltose-treated increases in glucose concentration in the serosal compartment were inhibited in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ mL hyssop extracts, although a 10 mM glucose-induced increase in serosal glucose was not inhibited by the extracts. Additionally, hyperglycemia in sucrose- and maltose-loaded mice was significantly suppressed at an early stage, within 30 to 60 min by oral pre-administration of 300 and 100 mg/kg hyssop extracts, respectively. These findings suggest that hyssop extracts inhibited the digestion of complex carbohydrates, but not that of absorbable monosaccharide, and might be a useful supplemental food for hyperglycemia. PMID:14703310

  16. Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; de Bari, Ornella; Liu, Kristina J; Garruti, Gabriella; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Wang, David Q.-H

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the US, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. Therefore, the development of novel, effective, and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide. PMID:23419155

  17. Intestinal GUCY2C prevents TGF-β secretion coordinating desmoplasia and hyperproliferation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Ahmara V; Lin, Jieru E; Kim, Gilbert W; Marszalowicz, Glen P; Li, Peng; Stoecker, Brian A; Blomain, Erik S; Rattan, Satish; Snook, Adam E; Schulz, Stephanie; Waldman, Scott A

    2013-11-15

    Tumorigenesis is a multistep process that reflects intimate reciprocal interactions between epithelia and underlying stroma. However, tumor-initiating mechanisms coordinating transformation of both epithelial and stromal components are not defined. In humans and mice, initiation of colorectal cancer is universally associated with loss of guanylin and uroguanylin, the endogenous ligands for the tumor suppressor guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), disrupting a network of homeostatic mechanisms along the crypt-surface axis. Here, we reveal that silencing GUCY2C in human colon cancer cells increases Akt-dependent TGF-β secretion, activating fibroblasts through TGF-β type I receptors and Smad3 phosphorylation. In turn, activating TGF-β signaling induces fibroblasts to secrete hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), reciprocally driving colon cancer cell proliferation through cMET-dependent signaling. Elimination of GUCY2C signaling in mice (Gucy2c(-/-)) produces intestinal desmoplasia, with increased reactive myofibroblasts, which is suppressed by anti-TGF-β antibodies or genetic silencing of Akt. Thus, GUCY2C coordinates intestinal epithelial-mesenchymal homeostasis through reciprocal paracrine circuits mediated by TGF-β and HGF. In that context, GUCY2C signaling constitutes a direct link between the initiation of colorectal cancer and the induction of its associated desmoplastic stromal niche. The recent regulatory approval of oral GUCY2C ligands to treat chronic gastrointestinal disorders underscores the potential therapeutic opportunity for oral GUCY2C hormone replacement to prevent remodeling of the microenvironment essential for colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:24085786

  18. Intestinal GUCY2C Prevents TGF-β Secretion Coordinating Desmoplasia and Hyperproliferation in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Ahmara V.; Lin, Jieru E.; Kim, Gilbert W.; Marszalowicz, Glen P.; Li, Peng; Stoecker, Brian A.; Blomain, Erik S.; Rattan, Satish; Snook, Adam E.; Schulz, Stephanie; Waldman, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process that reflects intimate reciprocal interactions between epithelia and underlying stroma. However, tumor-initiating mechanisms coordinating transformation of both epithelial and stromal components are not defined. In humans and mice, initiation of colorectal cancer is universally associated with loss of guanylin and uroguanylin, the endogenous ligands for the tumor suppressor guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), disrupting a network of homeostatic mechanisms along the crypt-surface axis. Here, we reveal that silencing GUCY2C in human colon cancer cells increases Akt-dependent TGF-β secretion, activating fibroblasts through TGF-β type I receptors and Smad3 phosphorylation. In turn, activating TGF-β signaling induces fibroblasts to secrete hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), reciprocally driving colon cancer cell proliferation through cMET-dependent signaling. Elimination of GUCY2C signaling in mice (Gucy2c-/-) produces intestinal desmoplasia, with increased reactive myofibroblasts, which is suppressed by anti-TGF-β antibodies or genetic silencing of Akt. Thus, GUCY2C coordinates intestinal epithelial-mesenchymal homeostasis through reciprocal paracrine circuits mediated by TGF-β and HGF. In that context, GUCY2C signaling constitutes a direct link between the initiation of colorectal cancer and the induction of its associated desmoplastic stromal niche. The recent regulatory approval of oral GUCY2C ligands to treat chronic gastrointestinal disorders underscores the potential therapeutic opportunity for oral GUCY2C hormone replacement to prevent remodeling of the microenvironment essential for colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:24085786

  19. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-07-14

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  20. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of yeast extract in reducing intestinal Clostridium perfringens levels in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Thanissery, R; McReynolds, J L; Conner, D E; Macklin, K S; Curtis, P A; Fasina, Y O

    2010-11-01

    The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis is Clostridium perfringens. Traditionally, necrotic enteritis is controlled with in-feed antibiotics. However, increasing consumer demand for drug-free poultry has fostered the search for nonantibiotic alternatives. Yeast extract contain nucleotides that are immunomodulatory and also essential for cellular functions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NuPro yeast extract (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) in reducing intestinal C. perfringens levels in broiler chickens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old male broiler chicks were obtained and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a battery cage trial. Treatment 1 consisted of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) without added bacitracin methylene disalicylate or NuPro. Treatment 2 consisted of chicks fed BD into which bacitracin methylene disalicylate was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 consisted of chicks fed BD supplemented with NuPro at a 2% level for the first 10 d of the experiment. Treatments 4 (PX), 5, and 6 (PN) consisted of chicks that were challenged with 3 mL of the C. perfringens inoculum (~10(7) cfu/mL) on d 14, 15, and 16 of the experiment and fed diets similar to treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. On d 1 and 7 postchallenge, intestinal C. perfringens levels, lesion scores, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed. On d 1 postchallenge, C. perfringens level in treatment 5 (2.09 log(10) cfu/g) was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the PX treatment (4.71 log(10) cfu/g) but similar to the PN treatment (2.98 log(10) cfu/g). A similar trend was observed on d 7 postchallenge. NuPro supplementation enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens-challenged chicks and appeared to reduce intestinal lesion scores. Although dietary supplementation of NuPro in the PN treatment reduced C. perfringens levels by 1.73 and 0.68 log(10) cfu/g compared with the PX treatment on d 1 and 7 postchallenge, respectively, these

  2. In vitro evaluation of intestinal epithelial TLR activation in preventing food allergic responses.

    PubMed

    de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C; DeMeo, Mark T; Fox, Susan; Garssen, Johan; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L

    2014-10-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiota composition are associated with food allergy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to microbial stimuli. We studied the effects of the ligation of TLRs on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in preventing an allergic effector response. IEC monolayers (T84 cells) were co-cultured with CD3/28-activated PBMCs from healthy controls or atopic patients and simultaneously apically exposed to TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9 ligands. The barrier integrity of T84 cell monolayers was significantly reduced upon co-culture with PBMCs of food allergic subjects compared to healthy subjects. Apical exposure of IECs to a TLR9 ligand prevented PBMC-induced epithelial barrier disruption. Using PBMCs from food allergic subjects, apical TLR9 activation on IECs increased the IFN-γ/IL-13 and IL-10/IL-13 ratio, while suppressing pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in an IEC-dependent manner. Hence, the activation of apical TLR9 on IECs, potentially by microbiota-derived signals, may play an important role in the prevention of allergic inflammation. PMID:25058467

  3. [Evaluation on intestinal absorption of alkaloids extracted by different methods from Rhizoma Coptidis-Rheum rhabarum herbal pair via everted gut sacs].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yue-liang; Chen, Yan; Li, Hui; Liu, Yu-ling; Wang, Jia-qi; Zhang, Xiao-li; Liu, Wen-cong

    2015-12-01

    The research aimed to evaluate the intestinal absorption of alkaloids extracted by decoction and alcohol extraction proces- ses from Rhizoma Coptidis-Rheum rhabarum herbal pair via everted gut sacs. Berberine, palmatine, coptisine and epiberberine were the main alkaloids in this herbal pair and taken as the standard indexes in the quantitative analysis with multi-components by single marker (QAMS) method, in order to calculate absorption rate constant (Ka) and evaluate intestinal absorption characteristics of these four alkaloids extracted by different extraction methods in different intestinal segments in rats. The results showed that the four alkaloids extracted by two different processes in high, medium and low doses had linear absorption properties in the small intestine segment, which conformed to zero-order absorption rate, intestinal segment than 0.99. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of decoction group was higher than that of alcohol extraction group.

  4. [Evaluation on intestinal absorption of alkaloids extracted by different methods from Rhizoma Coptidis-Rheum rhabarum herbal pair via everted gut sacs].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yue-liang; Chen, Yan; Li, Hui; Liu, Yu-ling; Wang, Jia-qi; Zhang, Xiao-li; Liu, Wen-cong

    2015-12-01

    The research aimed to evaluate the intestinal absorption of alkaloids extracted by decoction and alcohol extraction proces- ses from Rhizoma Coptidis-Rheum rhabarum herbal pair via everted gut sacs. Berberine, palmatine, coptisine and epiberberine were the main alkaloids in this herbal pair and taken as the standard indexes in the quantitative analysis with multi-components by single marker (QAMS) method, in order to calculate absorption rate constant (Ka) and evaluate intestinal absorption characteristics of these four alkaloids extracted by different extraction methods in different intestinal segments in rats. The results showed that the four alkaloids extracted by two different processes in high, medium and low doses had linear absorption properties in the small intestine segment, which conformed to zero-order absorption rate, intestinal segment than 0.99. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of decoction group was higher than that of alcohol extraction group. PMID:27245034

  5. Anti inflammatory and anti angiogenic effect of black raspberry extract on human esophageal and intestinal microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Medda, Rituparna; Lyros, Orestis; Schmidt, Jamie L; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Nie, Linghui; Link, Benjamin J; Otterson, Mary F; Stoner, Gary D; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoid glycosides) in berries prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in rat's digestive tract and esophagus, in part, via anti-inflammatory pathways. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of black raspberry extract (BRE) on two organ specific primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells, (HIMEC) and human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC), isolated from surgically resected human intestinal and donor discarded esophagus, respectively. HEMEC and HIMEC were stimulated with TNF-α/IL-1β with or without BRE. The anti-inflammatory effects of BRE were assessed based upon COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression, PGE2 production, NFκB p65 subunit nuclear translocation as well as endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion. The anti-angiogenic effects of BRE were assessed on cell migration, proliferation and tube formation following VEGF stimulation as well as on activation of Akt, MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. BRE inhibited TNF-α/IL-1β-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation, PGE2 production, up-regulation of COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression and leukocyte binding in HEMEC but not in HIMEC. BRE attenuated VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in both HEMEC and HIMEC. The anti-angiogenic effect of BRE is mediated by inhibition of Akt, MAPK and JNK phosphorylations. BRE exerted differential anti-inflammatory effects between HEMEC and HIMEC following TNF-α/IL-1β activation whereas demonstrated similar anti-angiogenic effects following VEGF stimulation in both cell lines. These findings may provide more insight into the anti-tumorigenic capacities of BRE in human disease and cancer.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, intestinal absorption and microbial metabolism of single platycodin D in comparison to Platycodi radix extract

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinjun; Zou, Jiashuang; Xie, Tong; Kang, An; Zhou, Wei; Deng, Haishan; Mao, Yancao; Di, Liuqing; Wang, Shouchuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Platycodi radix, the dried root of Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC, has been widely used as food and herb medicine for treating cough, cold and other respiratory ailments, and platycodin D (PD) is one of the most important compounds in Platycodi Radix. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics, intestinal absorption and microbial metabolism of PD in monomer with that in Platycodi radix extract (PRE). Materials and Methods: In the pharmacokinetic study, the concentrations of PD in rat plasma were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by data analysis software (DAS). Besides, in vitro Caco-2 cells and fecal lysate were performed to investigate the intestinal absorption and metabolism, respectively. Results: The results from pharmacokinetics showed that the area under the curve, the peak concentration the time to reach peak concentration and mean residence time of PD in PRE were enhanced significantly compared with that in single PD. Caco-2 cells transport study indicated that the absorption of PD both in monomer and in PRE were poor owning that the permeability of PD were <1/106 cm/s. The hydrolysis degree of PD in PRE was significantly lower than that in monomer PD in fecal lysate, which might be illustrated by the other ingredients in PRE influenced the hydrolysis of PD via gut microbiota. Conclusion: These findings indicated that the difference of microbial metabolism, not apparent absorption in intestine for PD between in monomer and in PRE contributed to their pharmacokinetic difference. PMID:26600720

  7. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of red wine extract: unveiling the mechanisms in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Carla; Ferreira, Elisabete; Freitas, Víctor; Almeida, Leonor; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2013-02-26

    The development of new therapeutic approaches, combining efficacy and safety against intestinal inflammation, notably inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), has emerged as an important goal due to the significant side effects and the lack of effectiveness of standard current therapies. Recently, several studies described the health-promoting effects of red wine, including anti-inflammatory properties, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial role remain largely unknown. Red wine is rich in phenolic compounds and it has been suggested that the positive effect of red wine intake might be attributed not only to the antioxidant properties of these compounds but also to the modulation of signalling cascades in connection with physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as inflammatory processes. This study assesses the potential anti-inflammatory action of a red wine extract (RWE) enriched in polyphenols in a cellular model of intestinal inflammation using cytokines-stimulated HT-29 colon epithelial cells. RWE suppressed cytokines-induced IκB degradation and interleukin-8 production in a dose-dependent manner. Coherently, key inflammatory mediators downstream NF-κB activation; notably cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were maintained at low levels by RWE in the presence of the cytokines. Additionally, RWE inhibited both the increase of nitric oxide derived from iNOS and of protein tyrosine nitration, a biomarker of nitrosative stress that typically requires the reaction of nitric oxide with the superoxide radical. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory action of RWE, mechanistically supported by the modulation of cascades orchestrated by NF-κB and involving nitric oxide, suggests that RWE (a readily straightforward preparation when compared with the purification of specific compounds) may represent a simple and inexpensive therapeutic strategy in the context of intestinal inflammation.

  8. Studies of the microbial metabolism of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki by intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-hai; Wang, Ying-zi; Meng, Fan-yun; Li, You-lin; Li, Cai-xia; Duan, Fei-peng; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Xiu-ting; Zhang, Chun-ni

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid glycosides are metabolized by intestinal bacteria, giving rise to a wide range of phenolic acids that may exert systemic effects in the body. The microbial metabolism of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki (FLDK) by intestinal bacteria was investigated in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography/linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry was performed to analyze the metabolites of flavonoids in vivo using Xcalibur2.1 software. The results showed that the levels of flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid aglycones decreased rapidly in the process of microbial metabolism by intestinal bacteria in vitro, and the metabolic rate may be related to the concentration of intestinal bacteria in the culture solution. In vivo metabolites of FLDK were detected in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of FLDK. Eight flavonoids were identified in the urine, and three were identified in the plasma; however, flavonoid aglycones were not found in the plasma.

  9. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  10. Application of Heme Oxygenase-1, Carbon Monoxide and Biliverdin for the Prevention of Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Kaczorowski, David J; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R.; McCurry, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs frequently in a variety of clinical settings, including mesenteric artery occlusion, abdominal aneurism surgery, trauma, shock, and small intestinal transplantation, and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the exact mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal I/R injury have not been fully elucidated, it is generally believed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and mediators generated in the setting of oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), play important roles. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme into equimolar quantities of biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO), while the central iron is released. An inducible form of HO (HO-1), biliverdin, and CO, have been shown to possess generalized endogenous anti-inflammatory activities and provide protection against intestinal I/R injury. Further, recent observations have demonstrated that exogenous HO-1 expression, as well as exogenously administered CO and biliverdin, have potent cytoprotective effects on intestinal I/R injury as well. Here, we summarize the currently available data regarding the role of the HO system in the prevention intestinal I/R injury. PMID:18385824

  11. Is there a role for lactobacilli in prevention of urogenital and intestinal infections?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A W; McGroarty, J A; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1990-01-01

    This review describes the importance of microbial adhesion in the ecology of the urogenital and intestinal tracts and the influence of host and microbial factors in bacterial interference. In a recent revival of interest in bacterial interference, lactobacillus administration has been studied as a means of treating and preventing disease. Although evidence is conflicting, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to be involved in beneficial antagonistic and cooperative reactions that interfere with establishment of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms of action are believed to involve competitive exclusion and production of inhibitory substances, including bacteriocins. These characteristics, as well as demonstrated adherence abilities in vitro, led to selection of certain Lactobacillus strains for clinical studies of cystitis. Weekly intravaginal Lactobacillus therapy reduced the recurrence rate of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in women. Use of Lactobacillus strains resistant to Nonoxynol-9, a spermicide that kills members of the protective normal vaginal flora, may have potential for use in women with recurrent cystitis using this contraceptive agent. In veterinary studies, bacterial interference by administration of probiotics has also been beneficial in disease prevention in animals. Carefully selected bacterial mixtures integrate with the gastrointestinal flora of the animals and can confer disease resistance and improve physiological function. Additional human and animal trials are needed to determine the practical, long-term usefulness of bacterial interference as a protective mechanism against infectious diseases. Images PMID:2224835

  12. Skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum promotes both prevention and recovery from intestinal tissue damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Cairangzhuoma; Yamamoto, M; Muranishi, H; Inagaki, M; Uchida, K; Yamashita, K; Saito, S; Yabe, T; Kanamaru, Y

    2013-03-01

    Bovine colostrum is a rich source of tissue repair and growth factors, and inhibits gastrointestinal injury induced by the side effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as indomethacin. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are drugs with analgesic and antipyretic effects, but in higher doses they have inflammatory effects. The pathogenesis of small intestinal damage caused by NSAID is unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the antiinflammatory effects of skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum on intestinal injury induced by side effects of NSAID, and then to identify the active ingredient in the colostrum for intestinal tissue. In Japan, the sale of bovine colostrum within 5 d after parturition is prohibited by law. Therefore, we focused on bovine late colostrum obtained from healthy lactating cows 6 to 7 d after parturition. Proliferation of small intestine epithelial cells was stimulated in mice fed the colostrum for 1 wk. With regard to indomethacin-induced enteropathy, both prefeeding and postfeeding with colostrum facilitated growth of the intestinal villi, indicating preventive and healing effects. Furthermore, to identify the active ingredient in the colostrum responsible for this effect, the casein and whey fractions were prepared from the colostrum and fed to normal mice. Only the colostrum casein fraction stimulated intestinal villus elongation, whereas the whey fraction and mature milk casein showed no such effect. Taken together, these observations indicate that the skimmed, sterilized, and concentrated bovine late colostrum, especially the casein fraction, could be used to treat the injurious effects of NSAID in the intestine and could be effective for treatment of other ulcerative conditions in the bowel, suggesting that the colostrum has therapeutic potential for intestinal inflammation. PMID:23295115

  13. Spray-dried animal plasma prevents the effects of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B on intestinal barrier function in weaned rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Amat, Concepció; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe; Russell, Louis; Moretó, Miquel

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated intestinal barrier function during inflammation as well as the effects of dietary supplementation with porcine spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) proteins and porcine immunoglobulin concentrate (IC). Wistar Lewis rats were fed from d 21 (weaning) until d 34 or 35 either a control diet or a diet containing SDAP or IC. On d 30 and d 33, rats received an intraperitoneal dose of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB; 0.5 mg/kg body wt; groups SEB, SEB-SDAP, and SEB-IC). SEB reduced the potential difference across the jejunum by 60%, the short-circuit current by 70%, and Na-K-ATPase activity in intestinal mucosa (all P < 0.05). The fluxes of dextran flux (4 kDa) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 40 kDa) across the intestinal wall also increased in SEB-treated rats (P < 0.01, P = 0.068, respectively). SEB also increased HRP flux across the paracellular space (P < 0.05). Moreover, SEB-treated rats had a reduced expression of tight junction proteins, such as ZO-1 (10% reduction; P < 0.05) and beta-catenin (20% reduction; P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with SDAP or IC prevented dextran (P < 0.05) and HRP (P < 0.05) paracellular flux across the intestinal epithelium. SDAP supplementation also prevented SEB effects on Na-K-ATPase activity (P < 0.05). In our model of SEB-induced intestinal inflammation, the increased permeability across the intestinal mucosa was due to the lower expression of tight junction proteins, an effect that can be prevented by both SDAP and IC supplementation.

  14. Dietary protein modifies effect of plant extracts in the intestinal ecosystem of the pig at weaning.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, E G; Pérez, J F; Martín, M; Blandón, J C; Baucells, F; Kamel, C; Gasa, J

    2009-06-01

    The plant extract mixture (XT) used in the present experiment, containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and capsicum oleoresin, has previously been shown to decrease diarrhea mortality and to modify the intestinal environment of pigs after weaning. However, results obtained among experiments have not been consistent. We hypothesized that dietary protein could be a main factor determining the effect of plant extracts on intestinal environment. Thus, in the present study we assessed the effects of XT in piglet diets with different protein sources and amounts. Pigs weaned at 20 +/- 1 d of age (n = 240) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments, which followed a factorial arrangement, with 2 amounts (as-fed basis) of the XT (0 and 200 mg/kg) and 3 diets with various amounts of CP and protein sources. Diet FM18 contained 10% of low-temperature fish meal (LT-FM) and a CP level of 18%; diet SBM18 contained 5% of LT-FM plus 9% of full fat extruded soy and a CP level of 18%; and SBM20 diet contained 10% of LT-FM plus 6.3% of full fat extruded soy and a CP level of 20%. Growth performance of the animals was recorded for 14 d, but no differences were detected among treatments. Eight pigs per treatment were killed to examine variables describing aspects of gastrointestinal ecology. For diets containing 18% CP, FM18 and SBM18, XT tended to decrease ileal digestibility of OM (P = 0.064 and 0.071, respectively) and decreased starch digestibility (P = 0.032 and 0.014, respectively). It also reduced villi length (P = 0.003 and 0.013, respectively) and tended to decrease intraepithelial lymphocyte number (P = 0.051 and 0.100, respectively) in the proximal jejunum. The XT inclusion also increased ileal lactobacilli:enterobacteria (P = 0.017) ratio and decreased VFA production in the cecum (P = 0.045) for all diets. A decreased CP level appeared to favor the effects of the studied plant extracts in a positive or negative way depending on the variable measured. The microbial differences

  15. Current Hypothesis for the Relationship between Dietary Rice Bran Intake, the Intestinal Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    So, Winnie K W; Law, Bernard M H; Law, Patrick T W; Chan, Carmen W H; Chair, Sek Ying

    2016-01-01

    Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models. Rice bran intake was shown to reverse such changes through the manipulation of the population of health-promoting bacteria in the intestine. The present review first provides an overview of evidence on the link between microbial dysbiosis and CRC carcinogenesis and describes the molecular events associated with that link. Thereafter, there is a summary of current data on the effect of rice bran intake on the composition of intestinal microbiota in human and animal models. The article also highlights the need for further studies on the inter-relationship between rice bran intake, the composition of intestinal microbiota and CRC prevention. PMID:27649240

  16. Current Hypothesis for the Relationship between Dietary Rice Bran Intake, the Intestinal Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    So, Winnie K. W.; Law, Bernard M. H.; Law, Patrick T. W.; Chan, Carmen W. H.; Chair, Sek Ying

    2016-01-01

    Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models. Rice bran intake was shown to reverse such changes through the manipulation of the population of health-promoting bacteria in the intestine. The present review first provides an overview of evidence on the link between microbial dysbiosis and CRC carcinogenesis and describes the molecular events associated with that link. Thereafter, there is a summary of current data on the effect of rice bran intake on the composition of intestinal microbiota in human and animal models. The article also highlights the need for further studies on the inter-relationship between rice bran intake, the composition of intestinal microbiota and CRC prevention. PMID:27649240

  17. [General infection prevention in abdominal surgery with special reference to intestinal decontamination].

    PubMed

    Schardey, H M

    1999-01-01

    In surgery prophylaxis for infection is necessary, because patients are immunocompromised due to the underlying disease and the operation while at the same time being increasingly exposed to potentially pathogenic germs. Prophylaxis is based on the control of endogenous and exogenous microorganisms. For this purpose either systemic or locally active topical agents may be employed. Systemically active substances are applied with the aim to kill and eliminate invasive microorganisms in deep tissue levels, either by their own biological activity or by stimulating specific or unspecific host immune reactions. Local topical measures in contrast are to prevent the primary contact between microorganisms and host. The central pillar of systemic measures is the perioperative systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, immunonutrition is beginning to gain importance, and in the future possibly substances such as G-CSF, which directly stimulate the immune system, may be employed. Standard topical measures are sterilization and desinfection while decontamination of the digestive tract has until now not found a wide spread acceptance. For certain indications especially high risk surgical resections with anastomoses at the level of the oesophagus or the lower rectum it is possible to eliminate endogenous intestinal microorganisms effectively using topical decontamination in combination with systemic antibiotics and improve the surgical results, especially anastomotic healing.

  18. Relaxant effect of ethanol extract of Carum carvi on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Al-Essa, Mohammed K; Shafagoj, Yanal A; Mohammed, Faysal I; Afifi, Fatma U

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the direct effects of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) ethanol extract on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells (SMC) of guinea pigs. Effects of the plant extract on SMC and of acetylcholine (Ach) on extract pretreated SMC were measured by micrometric scanning technique. Three different extract concentrations (2.5 mg/mL, 250 mug/mL, and 25 mug/mL) were used. Ethanol extract of C. carvi reduced significantly the response of dispersed SMC to Ach. Pretreatment of SMC with the highest concentration of C. carvi ethanol extract (2.5 mg/mL) has significantly inhibited the response of SMC to Ach. The data obtained indicate a dose-dependent inhibition of the contraction induced by Ach. This response may explain, in part, the beneficial effect of caraway in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms associated with dyspepsia.

  19. Non-starch polysaccharides extracted from seaweed can modulate intestinal absorption of glucose and insulin response in the pig.

    PubMed

    Vaugelade, P; Hoebler, C; Bernard, F; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M; Duee, P H; Darcy-Vrillon, B

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the possible effects of algal polysaccharides on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in an animal model, the pig. Three seaweed fibres of different viscosities, extracted from Palmaria palmata (PP), Eucheuma cottonii (EC), or Laminaria digitata (LD), were compared to purified cellulose (CEL). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were monitored and intestinal absorption quantified for 8 h following a high carbohydrate test-meal supplemented with 5% fibre. Digestive contents were also sampled, 5 h postprandial. As compared to CEL, PP had no effect on glucose and insulin responses. The latter decreased with EC, but glucose absorption balance was not modified. LD addition resulted in a dramatically reduced glucose absorption balance, accompanied by a higher amount of starch left in the small intestine. Among polysaccharides tested, only the highly viscous alginates could affect intestinal absorption of glucose and insulin response. PMID:10737549

  20. Improvement in Human Immune Function with Changes in Intestinal Microbiota by Salacia reticulata Extract Ingestion: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Utsuyama, Masanori; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko; Hirokawa, Katsuiku

    2015-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Salacia in the Hippocrateaceae family are known to inhibit sugar absorption. In a previous study, administration of Salacia reticulata extract in rats altered the intestinal microbiota and increased expression of immune-relevant genes in small intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of S. reticulata extract in human subjects by examining the gene expression profiles of blood cells, immunological indices, and intestinal microbiota. The results revealed an improvement in T-cell proliferation activity and some other immunological indices. In addition, the intestinal microbiota changed, with an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Clostridium bacteria. The expression levels of many immune-relevant genes were altered in blood cells. We concluded that S. reticulata extract ingestion in humans improved immune functions and changed the intestinal microbiota. Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000011732 PMID:26630568

  1. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Smita; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of an oil extract of garlic on the in vivo intestinal transference of calcium, and also to verify its role in maintaining the bone mineral content and bone tensile strength in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The results suggest that, in this experimental model, oil extract of garlic promotes intestinal transference of calcium by modulating the activities of both intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca(2+) activated ATPase. Also the observed low bone mineral content and low bone tensile strength in these rats were significantly restored by garlic oil supplementation. Further, garlic oil supplementation was able to revive partially the bilateral ovariectomy-induced decrease in the serum estrogen titer. The serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was found unaltered in these rats. The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery in serum estrogen titer in bilaterally ovariectomized rat was found to be persistently associated with enhanced calcium transference and better preservation of bone mineral content. The results of this study propose that the phytoestrogenic efficacy of an oil extract of garlic prevents ovarian hormone deficiency induced bone mineral loss possibly by promoting intestinal transference of calcium through the partial revival of the serum estrogen titer.

  2. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Amoh, Takashi; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  3. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  4. Loss of intestinal GATA4 prevents diet-induced obesity and promotes insulin sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Jay V.; Chandak, Prakash G.; Obrowsky, Sascha; Pfeifer, Thomas; Diwoky, Clemens; Uellen, Andreas; Sattler, Wolfgang; Stollberger, Rudolf; Hoefler, Gerald; Heinemann, Akos; Battle, Michele; Duncan, Stephen; Kratky, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of small intestinal gene expression controls plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels, which are major determinants of metabolic diseases. GATA4, a zinc finger domain transcription factor, is critical for jejunal identity, and intestinal GATA4 deficiency leads to a jejunoileal transition. Although intestinal GATA4 ablation is known to misregulate jejunal gene expression, its pathophysiological impact on various components of metabolic syndrome remains unknown. Here, we used intestine-specific GATA4 knockout (GATA4iKO) mice to dissect the contribution of GATA4 on obesity development. We challenged adult GATA4iKO mice and control littermates with a Western-type diet (WTD) for 20 wk. Our findings show that WTD-fed GATA4iKO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Accordingly, plasma TG and TC levels are markedly decreased. Intestinal lipid absorption in GATA4iKO mice was strongly reduced, whereas luminal lipolysis was unaffected. GATA4iKO mice displayed a greater glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release on normal chow and even after long-term challenge with WTD remained glucose sensitive. In summary, our findings show that the absence of intestinal GATA4 has a beneficial effect on decreasing intestinal lipid absorption causing resistance to hyperlipidemia and obesity. In addition, we show that increased GLP-1 release in GATA4iKO mice decreases the risk for development of insulin resistance. PMID:21177287

  5. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  6. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S.; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  7. Methods to Prevent or Treat Refractory Diseases by Focusing on Intestinal Microbes Using LPS and Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Inagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal microbes are known to influence host homeostasis by producing various substances. Recently, the presence of a diverse range of intestinal microbiota has been shown to play a key role in the maintenance of health, along with influencing the host's innate immunity towards various diseases. For example, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy individuals was remarkably effective in cases of refractory Clostridium difficile colitis. Conversely, decreased number of intestinal microbes resulting from the oral administration of antibiotics reportedly suppressed the antitumor effects of immunotherapy or anticancer drugs. Furthermore, it has been shown that a change in the intestinal environment triggered by oral administration of antibiotics resulted in increased number of drug-resistant microbes causing nosocomial infections. Intestinal microbes are also shown to be effective in cancer treatment as they activate macrophages at the site of cancer. One of the effects of intestinal microbes on hosts that has been gaining increasing attention is the biological regulation caused by the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by Gram-negative bacteria. Among the intestinal microbiota present in the host, Gram-negative bacteria form the most dominant flora. The administration of antibiotics leads to a decreased number of intestinal microbes, as well as to suppression of cancer immunotherapy effects or anticancer drug effects, and this deterioration has been shown to be improved by oral administration of LPS. In this article, we discuss the functions of intestinal microbiota, that is currently undergoing a paradigm shift in relation to maintenance of health and the validity of LPS as a possible target for bio-treatment in the future.

  8. Effect of clarification techniques and rat intestinal extract incubation on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of black currant juice.

    PubMed

    Pinelo, Manuel; Landbo, Anne-Katrine R; Vikbjerg, Anders F; Meyer, Anne S

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the phenolic composition and the antioxidant potencies of black currant juices that had been experimentally clarified with acidic proteases and pectinases to retain the phenolics and which had been subjected to rat intestinal mucosa extract incubation to mimic gut cell mediated biotransformation of phenolics. When compared at equimolar levels of 2.5 microM gallic acid equivalents, the black currant juice samples prolonged the induction time of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by 2.6-3.6 times, and the order of antioxidant potency of differently clarified black currant juices was centrifuged juice > gelatin silica sol clarified juice > enzymatically clarified juice approximately raw juice. No immediate relationship between the, almost similar, phenolic profiles of the juice samples and their relative antioxidant activities could be established. Incubation of juices with a rat small intestine cell extract for 19 h promoted significant decreases in the contents of the anthocyanin 3-O-beta-glucosides (cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside), but did not affect the anthocyanin 3-O-beta-rutinosides (cyanidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-beta-rutinoside) of the black currant juice. Black currant juice samples subjected to such intestinal cell extract incubation had approximately 30% decreased antioxidant capacity. Incubation of juices with the rat small intestine cell extracts at neutral pH appeared to decrease the levels of delphinidin glucosides more than the levels of cyanidin glucosides. The results provide an explanation for the predominant detection of anthocyanin rutinosides, and not anthocyanin glucosides, in plasma and urine in in vivo studies and provide important clues to better understand the complex mechanisms affecting dietary phenols in the gut. PMID:16939310

  9. Transgenic expression of the endothelin-B receptor prevents congenital intestinal aganglionosis in a rat model of Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gariepy, C E; Williams, S C; Richardson, J A; Hammer, R E; Yanagisawa, M

    1998-01-01

    The spotting lethal rat, a naturally occurring rodent model of Hirschsprung disease, carries a deletion in the endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB) gene that abrogates expression of functional EDNRB receptors. Rats homozygous for this mutation (sl) exhibit coat color spotting and congenital intestinal aganglionosis. These deficits result from failure of the neural crest-derived epidermal melanoblasts and enteric nervous system (ENS) precursors to completely colonize the skin and intestine, respectively. We demonstrate that during normal rat development, the EDNRB mRNA expression pattern is consistent with expression by ENS precursors throughout gut colonization. We used the human dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) promoter to direct transgenic expression of EDNRB to colonizing ENS precursors in the sl/sl rat. The DbetaH-EDNRB transgene compensates for deficient endogenous EDNRB in these rats and prevents the intestinal defect. The transgene has no effect on coat color spotting, indicating the critical time for EDNRB expression in enteric nervous system development begins after separation of the melanocyte lineage from the ENS lineage and their common precursor. The transgene dosage affects both the incidence and severity of the congenital intestinal defect, suggesting dosage-dependent events downstream of EDNRB activation in ENS development. PMID:9739043

  10. Effects of dietary natural zeolite including plant extract on growth performance and intestinal histology in Aigamo ducks.

    PubMed

    Khambualai, O; Ruttanavut, J; Kitabatake, M; Goto, H; Erikawa, T; Yamauchi, K

    2009-01-01

    1. To investigate the growth performance and histological intestinal alterations of Aigamo ducks fed on dietary combinations of zeolite, plant extract and vermiculite (ZEM, 14-d-old Aigamo ducks were divided into 4 groups, with 3 replicates of 3 male and 3 female ducks. They were fed ad libitum on a basal commercial duck mash diet with 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg dietary ZEM for 63 d. 2. Body weight gain tended to be higher for the 0.1 and 0.5 g/kg ZEM groups than for the control group at 9 weeks. 3. In light microscopic observation, most values of the intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were higher in the ZEM group than those of the control in all intestinal segments, and the duodenal villus height, cell area and cell mitosis of the 0.5 g/kg ZEM group, as well as jejunal cell mitosis in the 0.1 g/kg ZEM group, increased (P < 0.05). In the scanning electron microscope results, all ZEM groups showed protuberant epithelial cells and cell clusters on the villus apical surface of the duodenum and ileum. In the jejunum, villus gyri were frequently observed in the 0.1 g/kg ZEM group. These histological intestinal alterations suggest that intestinal villi and epithelial cellular functions might have been activated. 4. From the present results, dietary ZEM showed hypertrophied functions of intestinal villi and epithelial cells at the duodenum and ileum, and the 0.1 and 0.5 g/kg levels improved body weight gain. These suggest that the ZEM can be supplemented until a level of 1.0 g/kg.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Mecistocirrus digitatus and Haemonchus contortus Intestinal Protein Extracts and Subsequent Efficacy Testing in a Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, Alison J.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin D. T.; Subhadra, Subhra; Illangopathy, Manikkavasagan; Muthusamy, Raman; Knox, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematode infections, such as Haemonchus contortus and Mecistocirrus digitatus, are ranked in the top twenty diseases affecting small-holder farmers' livestock, yet research into M. digitatus, which infects cattle and buffalo in Asia is limited. Intestine-derived native protein vaccines are effective against Haemonchus, yet the protective efficacy of intestine-derived M. digitatus proteins has yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A simplified protein extraction protocol (A) is described and compared to an established method (B) for protein extraction from H. contortus. Proteomic analysis of the H. contortus and M. digitatus protein extracts identified putative vaccine antigens including aminopeptidases (H11), zinc metallopeptidases, glutamate dehydrogenase, and apical gut membrane polyproteins. A vaccine trial compared the ability of the M. digitatus extract and two different H. contortus extracts to protect sheep against H. contortus challenge. Both Haemonchus fractions (A and B) were highly effective, reducing cumulative Faecal Egg Counts (FEC) by 99.19% and 99.89% and total worm burdens by 87.28% and 93.64% respectively, compared to the unvaccinated controls. There was no effect on H. contortus worm burdens following vaccination with the M. digitatus extract and the 28.2% reduction in cumulative FEC was not statistically significant. However, FEC were consistently lower in the M. digitatus extract vaccinates compared to the un-vaccinated controls from 25 days post-infection. Conclusions/Significance Similar, antigenically cross-reactive proteins are found in H. contortus and M. digitatus; this is the first step towards developing a multivalent native vaccine against Haemonchus species and M. digitatus. The simplified protein extraction method could form the basis for a locally produced vaccine against H. contortus and, possibly M. digitatus, in regions where effective cold chains for vaccine distribution are limited

  12. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the small intestine prevents insulin resistance in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is associated with metabolic defects, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are unknown. We recently demonstrated that reduction of the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor by degrading proteases may lead to a reduced ability to maintain normal plasma glucose values. In shock, transfer of digestive enzymes from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation after breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier causes inflammation and organ dysfunction. Suppression of the digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine with protease inhibitors is effective in reducing the level of the inflammatory reactions. To determine the degree to which blockade of digestive enzymes affects insulin resistance in shock, rats were exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 2 h) at which time all shed blood volume was returned. Digestive proteases in the intestine were blocked with a serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in polyethylene glycol and physiological electrolyte solution), and the density of the insulin receptor was measured with immunohistochemistry in the mesentery microcirculation. The untreated rat without enzyme blockade had significantly attenuated levels of insulin receptor density as compared with control and treated rats. Blockade of the digestive proteases after 60 min of hypotension in the lumen of the small intestine led to a lesser decrease in insulin receptor density compared with controls without protease blockade. Glucose tolerance test indicates a significant increase in plasma glucose levels 2 h after hemorrhagic shock, which are reduced to control values in the presence of protease inhibition in the lumen of the intestine. The transient reduction of the plasma glucose levels after an insulin bolus is significantly attenuated after shock but is restored when digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine are blocked. These results suggest that in

  13. Inhibitory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced inflammation in surviving human skin.

    PubMed

    Boisnic, S; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Coutanceau, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on skin fragments stimulated by a neuromediator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Skin fragments (from plastic surgery) were maintained in survival conditions for 6 h. To induce inflammation, VIP was placed in contact with dermis by culture medium. Histological analysis was then performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Edema was evaluated with semiquantitative scores. Vasodilation was studied by quantifying the percentage of dilated vessels according to scores and by measuring their surface by morphometrical image analysis. TNF-alpha dosage was made on culture supernatants. Vasodilation was significantly increased after application of VIP. After treatment with oatmeal extract oligomer, the mean surface of dilated vessels and edema were significantly decreased compared with VIP-treated skin. Moreover, treatment with this extract decreased TNF-alpha.

  14. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Cirilo, Carla Possani; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Vicente Umada; Vicentini, Fernando Augusto; Soares, Andréia Assunção; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar; Buttow, Nilza Cristina; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7), 12 (C12 and CA12), and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23). The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal) via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells. PMID:25960748

  15. Effect of plant extracts and formic acid on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, E G; Perez, J F; Martin, M; Kamel, C; Baucells, F; Gasa, J

    2004-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of a plant extracts mixture (XT) standardized in 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (oregano, cinnamon and Mexican pepper), alone or in combination with formic acid (FA), on the productive performance and the intestinal ecosystem of the early-weaned pig. Pigs weaned at 20 +/- 1 d of age (n = 216) were allocated in 24 pens and fed a standard medicated prestarter diet for 12 d. Twelve days after weaning, a stress management system based on social and dietary stress factors was applied to the animals, after which, each group was allocated to one of six dietary treatments, which followed a factorial arrangement, with three levels (as-fed basis) of the XT (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg) and two levels of FA (0 and 0.5%). On d 24 and 25 after the stress episode, eight pigs per treatment were killed to examine variables describing some aspects of the gastrointestinal ecology. Two days after the stress episode, an Escherichia coli K88 diarrhea episode occurred, and five casualties were registered. Four of the five deaths occurred in pens of pigs not fed the XT. The FA resulted in better G:F (P = 0.040) in coincidence with shorter villous height (P = 0.073) and lower rectal total microbial mass (P = 0.078). Both XT and FA addition increased stomach content (P = 0.006 and 0.003, respectively) and percentage of DM (P = 0.089 and 0.010, respectively), suggesting an increased gastric retention time; consequently, pH was also increased (P = 0.005 and 0.060, respectively). The XT decreased ileum total microbial mass (P = 0.025) and increased the lactobacilli:enterobacteria ratio (P = 0.002). The VFA profile in the cecum and colon was modified by XT inclusion, increasing the proportion of acetate (P = 0.018 and 0.025, respectively) and diminishing the proportion of butyrate (P = 0.096 and 0.040, respectively) and valerate (P = 0.001 and 0.039, respectively). Both XT and FA were shown to be effective in modifying the gastrointestinal

  16. Effect of plant extracts and formic acid on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, E G; Perez, J F; Martin, M; Kamel, C; Baucells, F; Gasa, J

    2004-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of a plant extracts mixture (XT) standardized in 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (oregano, cinnamon and Mexican pepper), alone or in combination with formic acid (FA), on the productive performance and the intestinal ecosystem of the early-weaned pig. Pigs weaned at 20 +/- 1 d of age (n = 216) were allocated in 24 pens and fed a standard medicated prestarter diet for 12 d. Twelve days after weaning, a stress management system based on social and dietary stress factors was applied to the animals, after which, each group was allocated to one of six dietary treatments, which followed a factorial arrangement, with three levels (as-fed basis) of the XT (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg) and two levels of FA (0 and 0.5%). On d 24 and 25 after the stress episode, eight pigs per treatment were killed to examine variables describing some aspects of the gastrointestinal ecology. Two days after the stress episode, an Escherichia coli K88 diarrhea episode occurred, and five casualties were registered. Four of the five deaths occurred in pens of pigs not fed the XT. The FA resulted in better G:F (P = 0.040) in coincidence with shorter villous height (P = 0.073) and lower rectal total microbial mass (P = 0.078). Both XT and FA addition increased stomach content (P = 0.006 and 0.003, respectively) and percentage of DM (P = 0.089 and 0.010, respectively), suggesting an increased gastric retention time; consequently, pH was also increased (P = 0.005 and 0.060, respectively). The XT decreased ileum total microbial mass (P = 0.025) and increased the lactobacilli:enterobacteria ratio (P = 0.002). The VFA profile in the cecum and colon was modified by XT inclusion, increasing the proportion of acetate (P = 0.018 and 0.025, respectively) and diminishing the proportion of butyrate (P = 0.096 and 0.040, respectively) and valerate (P = 0.001 and 0.039, respectively). Both XT and FA were shown to be effective in modifying the gastrointestinal

  17. Potential application of aromatic plant extracts to prevent cheese blowing.

    PubMed

    Librán, C M; Moro, A; Zalacain, A; Molina, A; Carmona, M; Berruga, M I

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, common bacteria responsible for early and late cheese blowing defects respectively, by using novel aqueous extracts obtained by dynamic solid-liquid extraction and essential oils obtained by solvent free microwave extraction from 12 aromatic plants. In terms of antibacterial activity, a total of 13 extracts inhibited one of the two bacteria, and only two essential oils, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Lavandula hybrida, inhibited both. Four aqueous extracts were capable of inhibiting C. tyrobutyricum, but none were effective against E. coli. After extracts' chemical composition identification, relationship between the identified compounds and their antibacterial activity were performed by partial least square regression models revealing that compounds such as 1,8 cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, β-phellandrene or verbene (present in essential oils), pinocarvone, pinocamphone or coumaric acid derivate (in aqueous extracts) were compounds highly correlated to the antibacterial activity. PMID:23417280

  18. Potential application of aromatic plant extracts to prevent cheese blowing.

    PubMed

    Librán, C M; Moro, A; Zalacain, A; Molina, A; Carmona, M; Berruga, M I

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, common bacteria responsible for early and late cheese blowing defects respectively, by using novel aqueous extracts obtained by dynamic solid-liquid extraction and essential oils obtained by solvent free microwave extraction from 12 aromatic plants. In terms of antibacterial activity, a total of 13 extracts inhibited one of the two bacteria, and only two essential oils, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Lavandula hybrida, inhibited both. Four aqueous extracts were capable of inhibiting C. tyrobutyricum, but none were effective against E. coli. After extracts' chemical composition identification, relationship between the identified compounds and their antibacterial activity were performed by partial least square regression models revealing that compounds such as 1,8 cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, β-phellandrene or verbene (present in essential oils), pinocarvone, pinocamphone or coumaric acid derivate (in aqueous extracts) were compounds highly correlated to the antibacterial activity.

  19. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  20. Effects of dietary seaweed extract supplementation in sows and post-weaned pigs on performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and immune status.

    PubMed

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of a seaweed extract (SWE) to sows and weaned pigs on post-weaning growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of pigs at days 11 and 117 post-weaning. Gestating sows (n 20) were supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 10·0 g/d) from day 107 of gestation until weaning (day 26). At weaning, pigs (four pigs per sow) were divided into two groups based on sow diet during lactation and supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 2·8 g/kg diet), resulting in four treatment groups: (1) BB (basal sows-basal pigs); (2) BS (basal sows-treated pigs); (3) SB (treated sows-basal pigs); (4) SS (treated sows-treated pigs). Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had a higher average daily gain (ADG) between days 0 and 21 (P < 0·05) post-weaning compared with pigs weaned from non-SWE-supplemented sows. Pigs offered post-weaning diets (PW) containing SWE had decreased colonic Escherichia coli populations on day 11 (P < 0·01) and decreased colonic Enterobacteriaceae numbers on day 117 (P < 0·05). Pigs offered PW containing SWE had a greater mRNA abundance of MUC2 in the colon at day 11 post-weaning (P < 0·05) compared with pigs offered unsupplemented diets. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE supplementation post-weaning provides a dietary means to improve gut health and to enhance growth performance in starter pigs. Dietary SWE supplementation increased ADG during the grower-finisher (GF) phases. However, there was no growth response to SWE inclusion in GF diets when pigs were weaned from SWE-supplemented sows.

  1. Intestinal Absorption of Fucoidan Extracted from the Brown Seaweed, Cladosiphon okamuranus

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Nakazato, Kyoumi; Tomioka, Satoru; Iha, Masahiko; Nakajima, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the absorption of fucoidan through the intestinal tract. Fucoidan (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL) was added to Transwell inserts containing Caco-2 cells. The transport of fucoidan across Caco-2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.0 mg/mL. It reached a maximum after 1 h and then rapidly decreased. In another experiment, rats were fed standard chow containing 2% fucoidan for one or two weeks. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that fucoidan accumulated in jejunal epithelial cells, mononuclear cells in the jejunal lamina propria and sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Since we previously speculated that nitrosamine may enhance the intestinal absorption of fucoidan, its absorption was estimated in rats administered N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) in their drinking water. Rats were fed 0.2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 0.2% fucoidan rats), 2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 2% fucoidan rats) and standard chow for eight weeks. The uptake of fucoidan through the intestinal tract seemed to be low, but was measurable by our ELISA method. Fucoidan-positive cells were abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. Most fucoidan-positive cells also stained positive for ED1, suggesting that fucoidan was incorporated into intestinal macrophages. The uptake of fucoidan by Kupffer cells was observed in the livers of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. In conclusion, the absorption of fucoidan through the small intestine was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:25546518

  2. Intestinal absorption of fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed, Cladosiphon okamuranus.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Nakazato, Kyoumi; Tomioka, Satoru; Iha, Masahiko; Nakajima, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the absorption of fucoidan through the intestinal tract. Fucoidan (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL) was added to Transwell inserts containing Caco-2 cells. The transport of fucoidan across Caco-2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.0 mg/mL. It reached a maximum after 1 h and then rapidly decreased. In another experiment, rats were fed standard chow containing 2% fucoidan for one or two weeks. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that fucoidan accumulated in jejunal epithelial cells, mononuclear cells in the jejunal lamina propria and sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Since we previously speculated that nitrosamine may enhance the intestinal absorption of fucoidan, its absorption was estimated in rats administered N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) in their drinking water. Rats were fed 0.2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 0.2% fucoidan rats), 2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 2% fucoidan rats) and standard chow for eight weeks. The uptake of fucoidan through the intestinal tract seemed to be low, but was measurable by our ELISA method. Fucoidan-positive cells were abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. Most fucoidan-positive cells also stained positive for ED1, suggesting that fucoidan was incorporated into intestinal macrophages. The uptake of fucoidan by Kupffer cells was observed in the livers of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. In conclusion, the absorption of fucoidan through the small intestine was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. [Absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot extract by in situ intestinal perfusion].

    PubMed

    Xue, Cai-fu; Guo, Jian-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shu, Yan

    2011-04-01

    To explore the mechanism of the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, in situ intestinal recirculation was performed to study the effect of the absorption at different concentrations and different intestinal regions. To evaluate the conditions of the absorption of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, the concentrations of Abelmoschus manihot in the perfusion solution were determined by HPLC at predesigned time. And we have investigated the inhibitory effect of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. The results demonstrated that the absorption rates of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers are not significantly different (P > 0.05) at various drug concentrations, the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption rates of each of flavonoids are significantly different. The absorption rate of flavonoid glycoside was lower than that of aglycone; the flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers could be absorbed in all of the intestinal segments. The best parts of intestine to absorb hyperoside and myricetin are jejunum and duodenum, separately. Verapamil could enhance the absorption of isoquercitrin, hyperoside, myricetin and quercetin-3'-O-glucoside by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump.

  4. Regulation of Glucose Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells following Exposure to an Anthocyanin-Rich Berry Extract

    PubMed Central

    Alzaid, Fawaz; Cheung, Hoi-Man; Preedy, Victor R.; Sharp, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols contained within plant tissues are consumed in significant amounts in the human diet and are known to influence a number of biological processes. This study investigated the effects of an anthocyanin-rich berry-extract on glucose uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Acute exposure (15 min) to berry extract (0.125%, w/v) significantly decreased both sodium-dependent (Total uptake) and sodium-independent (facilitated uptake) 3H-D-glucose uptake. In longer-term studies, SGLT1 mRNA and GLUT2 mRNA expression were reduced significantly. Polyphenols are known to interact directly with glucose transporters to regulate the rate of glucose absorption. Our in vitro data support this mechanism and also suggest that berry flavonoids may modulate post-prandial glycaemia by decreasing glucose transporter expression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the longer term effects of berry flavonoids on the management of glycaemia in human volunteers. PMID:24236070

  5. In vitro effect of fenugreek extracts on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase A.

    PubMed

    Al-Habori, M; Raman, A; Lawrence, M J; Skett, P

    2001-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed) is a food with traditional medicinal use in diabetes. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in diabetic animals and both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Effects of a lipid extract A, crude ethanolic extract B, further sub-fractions of B (saponin-free C, saponin D and sapogenin E) and a gum fibre fraction F on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake were investigated in vitro using rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. All fractions except A inhibited glucose-uptake at 0.33 and/or 3.3 mg/mL (p < 0.001). Greatest inhibition was observed with fractions D and E. Diosgenin and trigonelline (compounds reported in fenugreek) also inhibited glucose-uptake (IC50 values approximately 3 mg/ml, equivalent to 8 mM and 19 mM respectively) but did not account for the activity of the crude extracts. Fenugreek extracts had no effect on basal levels of glycogen phosphorylase a (HGPa) activity in rat hepatocyte suspensions. However fractions C and E caused a marginal but statistically significant inhibition (18.9 and 15.1% respectively, p < 0.05) of glucagon induction of this enzyme suggesting a glucagon-antagonist effect. Diosgenin (1.65 mg/ml; 4 mM) inhibited glucagon-induced HGPa activity by 20% (p < 0.05), and was more effective than trigonelline (non significant inhibition of 9.4% at 1.65 mg/ml, 10 mM). PMID:12369721

  6. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  7. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  8. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  9. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  10. The effect of probiotics for preventing radiation-induced morphological changes in intestinal mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Wontaek; Cho, Heunglae; Ahn, Kijung; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Dongwon

    2014-10-01

    Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for abdominal or pelvic cancer, but there is a common and serious complication such as radiation-induced enteritis. Probiotics is reported to have positive effects against radiation-induced enteropathy. In this study, morphological changes of bowel mucosa were analyzed in rats to presume the effect of probiotics on radiation-induced enteritis and its correlation with radiation dose. A total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received a solution containing 1.0×10(8) colony-forming units of Lactiobacillus acidophilus or water once daily for 10 days. Each of two groups was divided into three subgroups and abdomino-pelvic area of each subgroup was irradiated with 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively on the seventh day of feeding the solutions. All rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation and the mucosal thickness and villus height of jejunum, ileum and colon were measured. The morphological parameters of the small intestine represented significant differences between two solution groups irradiated 10 or 15 Gy, except for villus height of jejunum in 15 Gy-subgroup (P=0.065). There was no significant morphometric difference between two groups irradiated with 20 Gy of radiation. Probiotics appear to be effective for the morphological shortening of small intestinal mucosa damaged by radiation less than or equal to 15 Gy. PMID:25368490

  11. Development of a dual vaccine for prevention of Brucella abortus infection and Escherichia coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Iannino, Florencia; Herrmann, Claudia K; Roset, Mara S; Briones, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    Zoonoses that affect human and animal health have an important economic impact. In the study now presented, a bivalent vaccine has been developed that has the potential for preventing the transmission from cattle to humans of two bacterial pathogens: Brucella abortus and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A 66kDa chimeric antigen, composed by EspA, Intimin, Tir, and H7 flagellin (EITH7) from STEC, was constructed and expressed in B. abortus Δpgm vaccine strain (BabΔpgm). Mice orally immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) elicited an immune response with the induction of anti-EITH7 antibodies (IgA) that clears an intestinal infection of E. coli O157:H7 three times faster (t=4 days) than mice immunized with BabΔpgm carrier strain (t=12 days). As expected, mice immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) strain also elicited a protective immune response against B. abortus infection. A Brucella-based vaccine platform is described capable of eliciting a combined protective immune response against two bacterial pathogens with diverse lifestyles-the intracellular pathogen B. abortus and the intestinal extracellular pathogen STEC.

  12. Local prevention of oxidative stress in the intestinal epithelium of the rat by adhesive liposomes of superoxide dismutase and tempamine.

    PubMed

    Jubeh, Tareq Taha; Antler, Sivan; Haupt, Susan; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Rubinstein, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the local prevention of luminal superoxide-mediated biological damage in the rat jejunal mucosa could be achieved by liposomal superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the SOD mimic tempamine (TMN). Cationic liposomes loaded with either SOD or TMN were perfused in the rat jejunum prior to the induction of oxidative insult. Reactive hydroxyl radicals were generated in situ in a closed circulating intestinal loop of the rat from the reaction between hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase in the presence of chelated ferrous sulfate. Mucosal activity of lactate dehydrogenase and levels of potassium ions were used to quantify the tissue damage. Intracellular uptake and locality of SOD were examined in HT-29 cells. The intestinal uptake of SOD and TMN was further measured by using rat colon sacs. Entrapment in cationic liposomes was found to significantly enhance the antioxidant effect of SOD and TMN against the induced oxidative damage in the jejunal mucosa, compared with their free forms. The effect was found to be local and was caused by the increased mucosal adhesion of the liposomes. The cationic liposomes also triggered SOD uptake into the HT-29 cell line. It is concluded that the increased residence time of the cationic liposomes of SOD and TMN in the jejunal mucosa resulted in a local effect against oxidative injury. This local protection may be exploited for drug delivery purposes. PMID:15804172

  13. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 prevents atherosclerosis via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.

  14. Extra virgin olive oil phenolic extracts counteract the pro-oxidant effect of dietary oxidized lipids in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Incani, Alessandra; Serra, Gessica; Atzeri, Angela; Melis, Maria Paola; Serreli, Gabriele; Bandino, Giovanni; Sedda, Piergiorgio; Campus, Marco; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Deiana, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) concentrates before absorption in the intestinal lumen, where it may contribute to the modulation of enterocytes response to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli. We evaluated the ability of two monovarietal EVOOs phenolic extracts, Bosana and Nera di Gonnos/Tonda di Cagliari, typical and widespread varieties in Sardinia (Italy), to counteract in enterocytes like Caco-2 cells the pro-oxidant action of oxidized lipids, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) or a mixture of oxysterols of dietary origin. We confirmed that TBH treatment causes a significant increase of ROS production, GSH depletion, increase of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, and showed first evidence of oxidative imbalance and cell damage due to oxysterols exposure. Preincubation of cells with the phenolic extracts significantly attenuated oxidative modifications. Bosana extract showed the highest concentration of total phenols, mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and was the most active in presence of TBH, where the free radical scavenging activity of these simple phenols seems to be a determining factor. The two extracts were equally effective, in spite of the different composition, in presence of oxysterols, where ROS production probably occurs according to different and more complex mechanisms. PMID:26911552

  15. Effects of VPS extract of Coriolus versicolor on cancer of the large intestine using a serial sacrifice technique.

    PubMed

    Toth, Bela; Coles, Melissa; Lynch, James

    2006-01-01

    VPS, a hot water extract of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, was given at a 2% dose level in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice in a serial sacrifice experiment. The mice were also administered either 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) as ten weekly subcutaneous (s.c) injections of 20 microg/g body weight or physiological saline (PS) as ten weekly (s.c) injections of 0.01 ml/g body weight. The animals were sacrificed at 26 weeks or 35 weeks after the first injection of 1,2-DMH or PS. The number of mice with large intestinal tumors and the total number of these tumors were: Group I (1,2-DMH), 29 and 438; Group 2 (VPS + 1,2-DMH), 29 and 344; Group 3 (VPS + PS), 0 and 0; and Group 4 (PS), I and 1, in the mice sacrificed at 26 weeks. The corresponding tumor incidences in mice sacrificed at 35 weeks were: Group 1 (1,2-DMH), 30 and 323; Group 2 (VPS + 1,2-DMH), 29 and 521; Group 3 (VPS + PS), 1 and 2; and Group 4 (PS), 0 and 0. Histopathologically, the tumors were diagnosed as polypoid adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the cecum, colon and rectum. Contrary to expectations, the VPS treatment enhanced the development of large intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-DMH in animals sacrificed at 35 weeks after the first injection of the carcinogen.

  16. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Gillian; Wallace, Rachel Heath; Cameron, Amy; Ozel, Rifat Emrah; Hongay, Cintia F.; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a−/− embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a−/− embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34 hpf and again between 64 and 74 hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a−/− embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a−/− embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a−/− embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal

  17. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gillian; Heath Wallace, Rachel; Cameron, Amy; Emrah Ozel, Rifat; Hongay, Cintia F; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N

    2013-04-15

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a-/- embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a-/- embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34hpf and again between 64 and 74hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a-/- embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a-/- embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a-/- embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal intestinal motility. PMID

  18. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gillian; Heath Wallace, Rachel; Cameron, Amy; Emrah Ozel, Rifat; Hongay, Cintia F; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N

    2013-04-15

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a-/- embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a-/- embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34hpf and again between 64 and 74hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a-/- embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a-/- embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a-/- embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal intestinal motility.

  19. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  20. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  1. Oral Probiotic VSL#3 Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes by Modulating Microbiota and Promoting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-Enriched Tolerogenic Intestinal Environment.

    PubMed

    Dolpady, Jayashree; Sorini, Chiara; Di Pietro, Caterina; Cosorich, Ilaria; Ferrarese, Roberto; Saita, Diego; Clementi, Massimo; Canducci, Filippo; Falcone, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota modulates the autoimmune pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. The inflammasome components are innate immune sensors that are highly influenced by the gut environment and play pivotal roles in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. In this study we show that modifications of the gut microbiota induced by oral treatment with Lactobacillaceae-enriched probiotic VSL#3, alone or in combination with retinoic acid (RA), protect NOD mice from T1D by affecting inflammasome at the intestinal level. In particular, we show that VSL#3 treatment inhibits IL-1β expression while enhancing release of protolerogenic components of the inflammasome, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and IL-33. Those modifications of the intestinal microenvironment in VSL#3-treated NOD mice modulate gut immunity by promoting differentiation of tolerogenic CD103(+) DCs and reducing differentiation/expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells in the intestinal mucosa and at the sites of autoimmunity, that is, within the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) of VSL#3-treated NOD mice. Our data provide a link between dietary factors, microbiota composition, intestinal inflammation, and immune homeostasis in autoimmune diabetes and could pave the way for new therapeutic approaches aimed at changing the intestinal microenvironment with probiotics to counterregulate autoimmunity and prevent T1D. PMID:26779542

  2. Probiotics Prevent Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Induction of Ileal Mucosal Glutathione Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Sandström, Per A.; Trulsson, Lena M.; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Timmerman, Harro M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Söderholm, Johan D.

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2) sham-operated, 3) AP, 4) AP and probiotics and 5) AP and placebo. AP was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion and intravenous cerulein (6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting five days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, ileal mucosa was collected for measurements of E. coli K12 and 51Cr-EDTA passage in Ussing chambers. Tight junction proteins were investigated by confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Ileal mucosal apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels were determined and glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity and expression were quantified. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was characterized by epithelial cell apoptosis and alterations of tight junction proteins (i.e. disruption of occludin and claudin-1 and up-regulation of claudin-2) and correlated with lipid peroxidation (r>0.8). Probiotic pre-treatment diminished the AP-induced increase in E. coli passage (probiotics 57.4±33.5 vs. placebo 223.7±93.7 a.u.; P<0.001), 51Cr-EDTA flux (16.7±10.1 vs. 32.1±10.0 cm/s10−6; P<0.005), apoptosis, lipid peroxidation (0.42±0.13 vs. 1.62±0.53 pmol MDA/mg protein; P<0.001), and prevented tight junction protein disruption. AP-induced decline in glutathione was not only prevented (14.33±1.47 vs. 8.82±1.30 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001), but probiotics even increased mucosal glutathione compared with sham rats (14.33±1.47 vs. 10.70±1.74 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, which is rate-limiting in glutathione biosynthesis, was enhanced in probiotic pre-treated animals (probiotics 2.88±1.21 vs. placebo 1.94±0.55 nmol/min/mg protein; P<0

  3. The impact of perception and knowledge on the treatment and prevention of intestinal worms in the Manikganj district of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bath, Jennifer L; Eneh, Peace N; Bakken, Amanda J; Knox, Megan E; Schiedt, Michael D; Campbell, Jarryd M

    2010-12-01

    Soil transmitted helminths (STHs) affect more than one billion of the world's population and are very prevalent in regions with high poverty rates and poor sanitation. Efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals, such as combating diseases and increasing the number of people with access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation facilities, will directly help in eliminating STHs. The Plains regions of Bangladesh has one of the highest prevalence rates of STHs, and the efforts made by the World Health Organization might not be enough to eradicate these diseases in this region before the 2015 goal. This survey was conducted in the Manikganj district of Central Bangladesh to evaluate local awareness about the transmission and prevention of STHs. The results from this survey show that although a large percentage of the respondents were knowledgeable about the spread and impact of intestinal worms, the majority of individuals still do not take the necessary steps to prevent infection. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of controlling and eliminating STHs and show that concluding efforts should incorporate additional measures for vaccine development as well as improved educational efforts that are sensitive to the region's traditions and cultures.

  4. Pineapple Waste Extract for Preventing Oxidation in Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Segovia Gómez, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is consumed in the form of chunks (canned), cubes, fruit salad, and also in juices, concentrates, and jams. In the processes to produce these products, the waste generated represents a high percentage of the total fruit. Some studies have shown that residues of certain fruits, such as pineapple, have the same antioxidant activity as the fruit pulp. So although these residues are discarded, they could be used as an alternative source of polyphenols, as natural antioxidants. This study is focused on the antioxidant activity of wastes obtained in the production of pineapple products and their application. The polyphenols' scavenging activity was determined by the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity assay. The antioxidant potential was determined in emulsions (o/w) and in muffins, where the primary oxidation products (by peroxide value, PV) and the secondary oxidation products (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were analyzed. In addition the muffins were analyzed by means of a triangular sensory test. The PV method showed that pineapple waste extracts caused a reduction in oxidation products of 59% in emulsions and 91% in the muffins. The reduction in TBARs values for emulsions were 27% and for muffins were 51%. The triangular sensory test showed that the samples containing the extract were not distinguished from the control (α = 0.05). PMID:27384012

  5. Pineapple Waste Extract for Preventing Oxidation in Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Segovia Gómez, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is consumed in the form of chunks (canned), cubes, fruit salad, and also in juices, concentrates, and jams. In the processes to produce these products, the waste generated represents a high percentage of the total fruit. Some studies have shown that residues of certain fruits, such as pineapple, have the same antioxidant activity as the fruit pulp. So although these residues are discarded, they could be used as an alternative source of polyphenols, as natural antioxidants. This study is focused on the antioxidant activity of wastes obtained in the production of pineapple products and their application. The polyphenols' scavenging activity was determined by the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity assay. The antioxidant potential was determined in emulsions (o/w) and in muffins, where the primary oxidation products (by peroxide value, PV) and the secondary oxidation products (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were analyzed. In addition the muffins were analyzed by means of a triangular sensory test. The PV method showed that pineapple waste extracts caused a reduction in oxidation products of 59% in emulsions and 91% in the muffins. The reduction in TBARs values for emulsions were 27% and for muffins were 51%. The triangular sensory test showed that the samples containing the extract were not distinguished from the control (α = 0.05).

  6. Utilization of the serosal scarification model of postoperative intestinal adhesion formation to investigate potential adhesion-preventing substances in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, E R; Livesey, M A; Barker, I K; Hurtig, M B; Conlon, P D

    1996-01-01

    A rabbit serosal scarification model was utilized to compare the ability of four drugs, previously administered peri-operatively to horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy, to prevent the development of postoperative intestinal adhesions. The substances compared were 32% Dextran 70 (7 mL/kg), 1% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (7 mL/kg), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (30 mg/kg), and flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg). The first two were administered intra-abdominally following surgery, while the latter two were administered systemically in the peri-operative period. Fibrous adhesions were evident in all animals in the untreated serosal scarification group. No significant difference in the number of animals with adhesions was found between the untreated control group and any treatment group, nor among the treatment groups. Microscopic examination of adhesions collected at postmortem examination revealed fibers consistent with cotton, surrounded by a giant-cell reaction and ongoing acute inflammation. The source of the fibers was likely the cotton laparotomy sponges used to scarify the intestinal surface, since the pattern in the granuloma and sponge fibers appeared similar under polarized light. Though consistent intestinal adhesion formation was produced in the rabbit, the presence of foreign body granulomas may prevent consideration of this model for future research. The drugs tested were ineffective in preventing the formation of postoperative small intestinal adhesions in this model. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8904667

  7. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol rich fractions derived from the pomegranate fruit have been studied for their potential chemopreventive and/or cancer therapeutic effects in several animal models. Although data from in vitro and in vivo studies look convincing, well designed clinical trials in humans are needed to ascertain whether pomegranate can become part of our armamentarium against cancer. This review summarizes the available literature on the effects of pomegranate against various cancers. PMID:23094914

  8. The intestinal microbiota, gastrointestinal environment and colorectal cancer: a putative role for probiotics in prevention of colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Sikes, Michael; Bruno-Bárcena, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, and, even though 5–15% of the total CRC cases can be attributed to individual genetic predisposition, environmental factors could be considered major factors in susceptibility to CRC. Lifestyle factors increasing the risks of CRC include elevated body mass index, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Additionally, a number of dietary elements have been associated with higher or lower incidence of CRC. In this context, it has been suggested that diets high in fruit and low in meat might have a protective effect, reducing the incidence of colorectal adenomas by modulating the composition of the normal nonpathogenic commensal microbiota. In addition, it has been demonstrated that changes in abundance of taxonomic groups have a profound impact on the gastrointestinal physiology, and an increasing number of studies are proposing that the microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. High-throughput sequencing and molecular taxonomic technologies are rapidly filling the knowledge gaps left by conventional microbiology techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of the human intestinal microbiota and their associated metabolic repertoire. The information provided by these studies will be essential to identify agents capable of modulating the massive amount of gut bacteria in safe noninvasive manners to prevent CRC. Probiotics, defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host” (219), are capable of transient modulation of the microbiota, and their beneficial effects include reinforcement of the natural defense mechanisms and protection against gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics have been successfully used to manage infant diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease; hence, the purpose of this review was to examine probiotic metabolic activities that may have an

  9. The intestinal microbiota, gastrointestinal environment and colorectal cancer: a putative role for probiotics in prevention of colorectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Azcárate-Peril, M Andrea; Sikes, Michael; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2011-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, and, even though 5-15% of the total CRC cases can be attributed to individual genetic predisposition, environmental factors could be considered major factors in susceptibility to CRC. Lifestyle factors increasing the risks of CRC include elevated body mass index, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Additionally, a number of dietary elements have been associated with higher or lower incidence of CRC. In this context, it has been suggested that diets high in fruit and low in meat might have a protective effect, reducing the incidence of colorectal adenomas by modulating the composition of the normal nonpathogenic commensal microbiota. In addition, it has been demonstrated that changes in abundance of taxonomic groups have a profound impact on the gastrointestinal physiology, and an increasing number of studies are proposing that the microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. High-throughput sequencing and molecular taxonomic technologies are rapidly filling the knowledge gaps left by conventional microbiology techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of the human intestinal microbiota and their associated metabolic repertoire. The information provided by these studies will be essential to identify agents capable of modulating the massive amount of gut bacteria in safe noninvasive manners to prevent CRC. Probiotics, defined as "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host" (219), are capable of transient modulation of the microbiota, and their beneficial effects include reinforcement of the natural defense mechanisms and protection against gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics have been successfully used to manage infant diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease; hence, the purpose of this review was to examine probiotic metabolic activities that may have an effect

  10. [Acid oligosaccharides as the active principle of aqueous carrot extracts for prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal infections].

    PubMed

    Kastner, U; Glasl, S; Follrich, B; Guggenbichler, J P; Jurenitsch, J

    2002-01-01

    Adherence of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa is an important and initial step in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infections and mediated by carbohydrate structures on the cell surface. Adherence can be blocked by carbohydrate receptor analogues. Aqueous extracts from carrots (carrot soup) contain acidic oligosaccharides, which are able to block adherence of various enteropathogenic microorganisms to HEp-2 cells and human intestinal mucosa in vitro. Dependent on the grade of polymerisation the most potent blocking ability was seen for trigalacturonic acid. Clinical studies revealed, that aqueous carrot extracts are significantly superior to the basic glucose-electrolyt-solution for oral rehydration in acute gastrointestional infections of children.

  11. Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and Caco-2 Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Rodrigo; Douglass, John D.; Kodukula, Sarala; Medina, Isabel; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The (n-3) PUFAs 20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and 22:6 (n-3) (DHA) are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion. The development of oxidation products during digestion and the potential effects on intestinal PUFA uptake are incompletely understood. In the present studies, we examined: 1) the development and bioaccessibility of lipid oxidation products in the gastrointestinal lumen during active digestion of fatty fish using the in vitro digestive tract TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1); 2) the mucosal cell uptake and metabolism of oxidized compared with unoxidized PUFAs using Caco-2 intestinal cells; and 3) the potential to limit the development of oxidation products in the intestine by incorporating antioxidant polyphenols in food. We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFAs was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs. PMID:23325921

  12. Alpinia katsumadai Extracts Inhibit Adhesion and Invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in Animal and Human Foetal Small Intestine Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Pogačar, Maja Šikić; Klančnik, Anja; Bucar, Franz; Langerholc, Tomaž; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2015-10-01

    Alpinia katsumadai is used in traditional Chinese medicine for abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhoea. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal illnesses worldwide. Adhesion to gut epithelium is a prerequisite in its pathogenesis. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and anti-adhesive activities of a chemically characterised extract (SEE) and its residual material of hydrodistillation (hdSEE-R) from A. katsumadai seeds were evaluated against C. jejuni. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for SEE and hdSEE-R were 0.5 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, and there was no cytotoxic influence in the anti-adhesion tests, as these were performed at much lower concentrations of these tested plant extracts. Adhesion of C. jejuni to pig (PSI) and human foetal (H4) small-intestine cell lines was significantly decreased at lower concentrations (0.2 to 50 µg/mL). In the same concentration range, the invasiveness of C. jejuni in PSI cells was reduced by 45% to 65% when they were treated with SEE or hdSEE-R. The hdSEE-R represents a bioactive waste with a high phenolic content and an anti-adhesive activity against C. jejuni and thus has the potential for use in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:26058384

  13. Alpinia katsumadai Extracts Inhibit Adhesion and Invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in Animal and Human Foetal Small Intestine Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Pogačar, Maja Šikić; Klančnik, Anja; Bucar, Franz; Langerholc, Tomaž; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2015-10-01

    Alpinia katsumadai is used in traditional Chinese medicine for abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhoea. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal illnesses worldwide. Adhesion to gut epithelium is a prerequisite in its pathogenesis. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and anti-adhesive activities of a chemically characterised extract (SEE) and its residual material of hydrodistillation (hdSEE-R) from A. katsumadai seeds were evaluated against C. jejuni. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for SEE and hdSEE-R were 0.5 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, and there was no cytotoxic influence in the anti-adhesion tests, as these were performed at much lower concentrations of these tested plant extracts. Adhesion of C. jejuni to pig (PSI) and human foetal (H4) small-intestine cell lines was significantly decreased at lower concentrations (0.2 to 50 µg/mL). In the same concentration range, the invasiveness of C. jejuni in PSI cells was reduced by 45% to 65% when they were treated with SEE or hdSEE-R. The hdSEE-R represents a bioactive waste with a high phenolic content and an anti-adhesive activity against C. jejuni and thus has the potential for use in pharmaceutical and food products.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation with an ethanolic extract of propolis on broiler intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Eyng, C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Santos, T C

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on broiler performance, carcass characteristics, weight of gastrointestinal organs, intestinal morphometry and digestive enzyme activity. 1020 male broiler chicks were assigned in a completely randomised experimental design to six treatments (EEP supplement levels of 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm) and five replications, and 34 birds per experimental unit. The experimental diets were administered from 1 to 21 days of age, and the birds were subsequently provided a ration based on corn and soybean meal. EEP supplementation from 1 to 7 days negatively affected (p < 0.05) the weight gain and feed intake. The proventriculus weight at 7 days exhibited a quadratic response (p < 0.05), which predicted a lower weight at a dose of 2865 ppm of the EEP. For the duodenum at 21 days of age, the response pattern (p < 0.05) predicted that birds that were fed 2943 and 3047 ppm of the EEP would exhibit an improved crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio respectively. The villus height, crypt depth and villus-to-crypt ratio in the jejunum and the ileum were not affected (p > 0.05). With increased EEP doses, the duodenal sucrase activity linearly decreased at 7 days of age and linearly increased in the jejunum at 21 days of age (p < 0.05), while pancreatic enzyme activity was unaffected (p > 0.05). Although the carcass and cut yields did not improve, the percentage of abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). The supplementation of the broiler pre-starter diet with 1000-5000 ppm of the EEP impaired performance at this stage, most likely due to the decreased sucrase activity. However, the EEP supplementation from 3000 ppm improved intestinal morphophysiology at 21 days of age and did not affect the performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age.

  15. Effects of butyrate, avilamycin, and a plant extract combination on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, E G; Nofrarías, M; Anguita, M; Castillo, M; Perez, J F; Martín-Orúe, S M; Kamel, C; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3 additives, sodium butyrate (AC), avilamycin (AB), and a combination of plant extracts (XT), on the productive performance and the intestinal environment of the early-weaned pig. The XT was a standardized mixture with 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol (from Origanum spp.), 3% cinnamaldehyde (from Cinnamonum spp.), and 2% capsicum oleoresin (from Capsicum annum). Pigs (n = 32) weaned at 18 to 22 d of age with an initial BW of 6.0 +/- 0.10 kg were allocated to 8 pens that, in turn, were allocated to 4 treatments. The treatments included a basal diet (CT) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.3% of AC, 0.04% of AB, or 0.03% of XT. Productive performance was determined during the initial 14 d postweaning. On d 19 and 21 of the experiment, the pigs were killed to allow collection of digesta and intestinal tissue to evaluate variables indicative of aspects of the gastrointestinal environment. Treatments AB and AC improved G:F (P = 0.012 and 0.003, respectively) compared with the CT. Butyrate included in the diet was only detected in the stomach but not in cranial jejunum. When compared with CT, AC produced a lower ileal starch digestibility (P = 0.002) and a lower whole-tract OM and starch digestibility (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively), related to a lower VFA concentration in the cranial colon (P = 0.082) and a numerically reduced branched VFA percentage in the rectum. The AB treatment diminished propionate production in caudal colon (P = 0.002) and rectum (P = 0.012) compared with CT. The AC group exhibited deeper crypt depth in the jejunum without variations in villus height compared with CT (P = 0.042). The AC and AB groups also increased goblet cell presence in the colon (P = 0.001 and 0.032, respectively). On the other hand, AB and XT diminished intraepithelial lymphocytes in the jejunum (P = 0.003 and 0.034, respectively). The XT increased lymphocyte presence in the colon (P = 0.003). These results show the important influence of AB and AC on

  16. Effects of butyrate, avilamycin, and a plant extract combination on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, E G; Nofrarías, M; Anguita, M; Castillo, M; Perez, J F; Martín-Orúe, S M; Kamel, C; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3 additives, sodium butyrate (AC), avilamycin (AB), and a combination of plant extracts (XT), on the productive performance and the intestinal environment of the early-weaned pig. The XT was a standardized mixture with 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol (from Origanum spp.), 3% cinnamaldehyde (from Cinnamonum spp.), and 2% capsicum oleoresin (from Capsicum annum). Pigs (n = 32) weaned at 18 to 22 d of age with an initial BW of 6.0 +/- 0.10 kg were allocated to 8 pens that, in turn, were allocated to 4 treatments. The treatments included a basal diet (CT) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.3% of AC, 0.04% of AB, or 0.03% of XT. Productive performance was determined during the initial 14 d postweaning. On d 19 and 21 of the experiment, the pigs were killed to allow collection of digesta and intestinal tissue to evaluate variables indicative of aspects of the gastrointestinal environment. Treatments AB and AC improved G:F (P = 0.012 and 0.003, respectively) compared with the CT. Butyrate included in the diet was only detected in the stomach but not in cranial jejunum. When compared with CT, AC produced a lower ileal starch digestibility (P = 0.002) and a lower whole-tract OM and starch digestibility (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively), related to a lower VFA concentration in the cranial colon (P = 0.082) and a numerically reduced branched VFA percentage in the rectum. The AB treatment diminished propionate production in caudal colon (P = 0.002) and rectum (P = 0.012) compared with CT. The AC group exhibited deeper crypt depth in the jejunum without variations in villus height compared with CT (P = 0.042). The AC and AB groups also increased goblet cell presence in the colon (P = 0.001 and 0.032, respectively). On the other hand, AB and XT diminished intraepithelial lymphocytes in the jejunum (P = 0.003 and 0.034, respectively). The XT increased lymphocyte presence in the colon (P = 0.003). These results show the important influence of AB and AC on

  17. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-01

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone. PMID:27118173

  18. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren on cancer prevention and intestinal microbiota in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Fan, Xing; Fang, Bing; Zhu, Chengzhen; Zhu, Jun; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-06-01

    Probiotics have been suggested as a prophylactic measure in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (Ren) in modulating colonic microbiota structure and colon cancer incidence in a rat model after injection with 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). The results indicated that oral administration of Ren could effectively suppress DMH-induced colonic carcinogenesis. A significant decrease in cancer incidence (87.5% to 25%) was detected in rats fed with a dose of 5 × 10(10) CFU/kg bodyweight per day. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Real-time PCR combined with multivariate statistical methods, we demonstrated that injection with DMH significantly altered the rat gut microbiota, while Ren counteracted these DMH-induced adverse effects and promoted reversion of the gut microbiota close to the healthy state. Tvalue biplots followed by band sequencing identified 21 bacterial strains as critical variables affected by DMH and Ren. Injection of DMH significantly increased the amount of Ruminococcus species (sp.) and Clostridiales bacteria, as well as decreasing the Prevotella sp. Administration of Ren reduced the amount of Ruminococcus sp., Clostridiales bacteria, and Bacteroides dorei, and increased the amount of Prevotella. Real-time PCR results were consistent with the results derived by t-value biplots. These findings suggested that Ren is a potential agent for colon cancer prevention. In conclusion, the results in the present study suggest a potential therapeutic approach based on the modulation of intestinal microflora by probiotics may be beneficial in the prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren on cancer prevention and intestinal microbiota in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Fan, Xing; Fang, Bing; Zhu, Chengzhen; Zhu, Jun; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-06-01

    Probiotics have been suggested as a prophylactic measure in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (Ren) in modulating colonic microbiota structure and colon cancer incidence in a rat model after injection with 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). The results indicated that oral administration of Ren could effectively suppress DMH-induced colonic carcinogenesis. A significant decrease in cancer incidence (87.5% to 25%) was detected in rats fed with a dose of 5 × 10(10) CFU/kg bodyweight per day. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Real-time PCR combined with multivariate statistical methods, we demonstrated that injection with DMH significantly altered the rat gut microbiota, while Ren counteracted these DMH-induced adverse effects and promoted reversion of the gut microbiota close to the healthy state. Tvalue biplots followed by band sequencing identified 21 bacterial strains as critical variables affected by DMH and Ren. Injection of DMH significantly increased the amount of Ruminococcus species (sp.) and Clostridiales bacteria, as well as decreasing the Prevotella sp. Administration of Ren reduced the amount of Ruminococcus sp., Clostridiales bacteria, and Bacteroides dorei, and increased the amount of Prevotella. Real-time PCR results were consistent with the results derived by t-value biplots. These findings suggested that Ren is a potential agent for colon cancer prevention. In conclusion, the results in the present study suggest a potential therapeutic approach based on the modulation of intestinal microflora by probiotics may be beneficial in the prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26025172

  1. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S; Leung, Frederick C C; Hsiao, W L Wendy

    2016-05-24

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects.

  2. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-β, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects. PMID:27121311

  3. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  4. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

  5. Lubiprostone prevents nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal damage by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators via EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shusaku; Kurata, Naoto; Yamaguchi, Aya; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2014-06-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid derived from prostaglandin E1, has been used to treat chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome, and its mechanism of action has been attributed to the stimulation of intestinal fluid secretion via the activation of the chloride channel protein 2/cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (ClC-2/CFTR) chloride channels. We examined the effects of lubiprostone on indomethacin-induced enteropathy and investigated the functional mechanisms involved, including its relationship with the EP4 receptor subtype. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.) and killed 24 hours later to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Lubiprostone (0.01-1 mg/kg) was administered orally twice 30 minutes before and 9 h after the indomethacin treatment. Indomethacin markedly damaged the small intestine, accompanied by intestinal hypermotility, a decrease in mucus and fluid secretion, and an increase in enterobacterial invasion as well as the up-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNAs. Lubiprostone significantly reduced the severity of these lesions, with the concomitant suppression of the functional changes. The effects of lubiprostone on the intestinal lesions and functional alterations were significantly abrogated by the coadministration of AE3-208 [4-(4-cyano-2-(2-(4-fluoronaphthalen-1-yl)propionylamino)phenyl)butyric acid], a selective EP4 antagonist, but not by CFTR(inh)-172, a CFTR inhibitor. These results suggest that lubiprostone may prevent indomethacin-induced enteropathy via an EP4 receptor-dependent mechanism. This effect may be functionally associated with the inhibition of intestinal hypermotility and increase in mucus/fluid secretion, resulting in the suppression of bacterial invasion and iNOS/TNFα expression, which are major pathogenic events in enteropathy. The direct activation of CFTR/ClC-2 chloride channels is not

  6. Dietary glutamine prevents the loss of intestinal barrier function and attenuates the increase in core body temperature induced by acute heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Soares, Anne D N; Costa, Kátia A; Wanner, Samuel P; Santos, Rosana G C; Fernandes, Simone O A; Martins, Flaviano S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Coimbra, Cândido C; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2014-11-28

    Dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation improves intestinal function in several stressful conditions. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of dietary Gln supplementation on the core body temperature (T core), bacterial translocation (BT) and intestinal permeability of mice subjected to acute heat stress were evaluated. Male Swiss mice (4 weeks old) were implanted with an abdominal temperature sensor and randomly assigned to one of the following groups fed isoenergetic and isoproteic diets for 7 d before the experimental trials: group fed the standard AIN-93G diet and exposed to a high ambient temperature (39°C) for 2 h (H-NS); group fed the AIN-93G diet supplemented with l-Gln and exposed to a high temperature (H-Gln); group fed the standard AIN-93G diet and not exposed to a high temperature (control, C-NS). Mice were orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid radiolabelled with technetium (99mTc) for the assessment of intestinal permeability or 99mTc-Escherichia coli for the assessment of BT. Heat exposure increased T core (approximately 41°C during the experimental trial), intestinal permeability and BT to the blood and liver (3 h after the experimental trial) in mice from the H-NS group relative to those from the C-NS group. Dietary Gln supplementation attenuated hyperthermia and prevented the increases in intestinal permeability and BT induced by heat exposure. No correlations were observed between the improvements in gastrointestinal function and the attenuation of hyperthermia by Gln. Our findings indicate that dietary Gln supplementation preserved the integrity of the intestinal barrier and reduced the severity of hyperthermia during heat exposure. The findings also indicate that these Gln-mediated effects occurred through independent mechanisms.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and Intestinal Barrier-protective Activities of Commensal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Thoroughbreds: Role of Probiotics in Diarrhea Prevention in Neonatal Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya; Wasano, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Tomonori; Nagamine, Natsuko; Tsurumachi, Takashi; Sugaya, Kiyoshi; Akita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Misako; Takagi, Kunihiko; Inoue, Yoshinobu; Asai, Yo; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    We previously isolated the commensal bacteria lactobacilli and bifidobacteria from the Thoroughbred intestine and prepared the horse probiotics LacFi(TM), consisting of Lactobacillus ruminis KK14, L. equi KK 15, L. reuteri KK18, L. johnsonii KK21, and Bifidobacterium boum HU. Here, we found that the five LacFi(TM) constituent strains remarkably suppressed pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 production in mouse splenocytes stimulated with interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-β. The protective effects of the probiotic on impaired intestinal barrier function were evaluated in Caco-2 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-α. Evaluation of transepithelial resistance showed that all the strains exhibited intestinal barrier protective activity, with significant suppression of barrier impairment by L. reuteri KK18. The LacFi(TM) constituent strains were detected in neonatal LacFi(TM)-administered Thoroughbred feces using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and culture methods. These five strains were found to be the predominant lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the intestinal microbiota of LacFi(TM)-administered Thoroughbreds. Administration of LacFi(TM) to neonatal Thoroughbreds decreased diarrhea incidence from 75.9% in the control group (n=29 neonatal Thoroughbreds) to 30.7% in the LacFi(TM)-administered group (n=101 neonatal Thoroughbreds) immediately after birth to 20 weeks after birth. LacFi(TM) treatment also prevented diarrhea especially at and around 4 weeks and from 10 to 16 weeks. The duration of diarrhea was also shorter in the probiotics-administered group (7.4 ± 0.8 days) than in the control group (14.0 ± 3.2 days). These results indicate that the LacFi(TM) probiotics regulates intestinal function and contributes to diarrhea prevention.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and preventing DNA damage effect of pomegranate extracts by chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Deng, Qianchun; Xiao, Junsong; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2007-04-18

    The antioxidant activities of three parts (peel, juice, and seed) and extracts of three pomegranate varieties in China were investigated by using a chemiluminescence (CL) method in vitro. The scavenging ability of pomegranate extracts (PEs) on superoxide anion, hydroxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide was determined by the pyrogallol-luminol system, the CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2 system, and the luminol-H2O2 system, respectively. DNA damage preventing the effect of PE was determined by the CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2-DNA CL system. The results showed that the peel extract of red pomegranate had the best effect on the scavenging ability of superoxide anion because its IC50 value (4.01 +/- 0.09 microg/mL) was the lowest in all PEs. The seed extract of white pomegranate could scavenge hydroxide radical most effectively of the nine extracts (the IC50 value was 1.69 +/- 0.03 microg/mL). The peel extract of white pomegranate had the best scavenging ability on hydrogen peroxide, which had the lowest IC50 value (0.032 +/- 0.003 microg/mL) in the nine extracts. The seed extract of white pomegranate (the IC50 value was 3.67 +/- 0.03 microg/mL) was the most powerful on the DNA damage-preventing effect in all of the PEs. Also, the statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences (at P < 0.05) among the extracts of the different varieties and parts in each system. PMID:17381116

  9. Bioactive packaging using antioxidant extracts for the prevention of microbial food-spoilage.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Gomes, Ana; Tavaria, Freni

    2016-07-13

    Bioactive food packaging is an innovative approach for the prevention of the growth of food-spoilage microorganisms. Four active extracts from agroindustrial subproducts (Eucalyptus wood, almond shells, corn cobs and grape pomace) with demonstrated antioxidant activity have been investigated for bestowing antimicrobial activity to bioactive packaging. To carry out this evaluation, the antioxidant extracts were tested against five food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The results obtained showed that all the tested extracts inhibited the growth of all five pathogenic bacteria. From the analysis of the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the Eucalyptus wood extract was the most active, being necessary only 2% (v/v) to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas almond shells extract were less active requiring 4% (w/v) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the extract from corn cobs was bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 4% (w/v). After checking their antimicrobial activity, the antioxidant extracts have been incorporated into sodium alginate films and the maintenance of their antimicrobial properties was confirmed. This work showed that the antioxidant extracts from agroindustrial byproducts exhibited antimicrobial activity and were suitable for incorporation into edible films that could be used in bioactive packaging systems. PMID:27363903

  10. Bioactive packaging using antioxidant extracts for the prevention of microbial food-spoilage.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Gomes, Ana; Tavaria, Freni

    2016-07-13

    Bioactive food packaging is an innovative approach for the prevention of the growth of food-spoilage microorganisms. Four active extracts from agroindustrial subproducts (Eucalyptus wood, almond shells, corn cobs and grape pomace) with demonstrated antioxidant activity have been investigated for bestowing antimicrobial activity to bioactive packaging. To carry out this evaluation, the antioxidant extracts were tested against five food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The results obtained showed that all the tested extracts inhibited the growth of all five pathogenic bacteria. From the analysis of the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the Eucalyptus wood extract was the most active, being necessary only 2% (v/v) to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas almond shells extract were less active requiring 4% (w/v) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the extract from corn cobs was bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 4% (w/v). After checking their antimicrobial activity, the antioxidant extracts have been incorporated into sodium alginate films and the maintenance of their antimicrobial properties was confirmed. This work showed that the antioxidant extracts from agroindustrial byproducts exhibited antimicrobial activity and were suitable for incorporation into edible films that could be used in bioactive packaging systems.

  11. Evaluation of the intestinal transport of a phenylethanoid glycoside-rich extract from Cistanche deserticola across the Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Zong, Chuanjie; Liu, Fen; Fang, Lei; Cai, Runlan; Shi, Yue; Chen, Xi; Qi, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), a class of polyphenolic compounds, are considered one of major bioactive constituents of Cistanche deserticola Y.C. Ma (CD), whose extract is orally used in traditional Chinese medicine. Although previous pharmacological studies have reported that PhGs exert many activities, their intestinal transport profiles have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the intestinal permeability of a PhG-rich extract (PRE) from CD as an integrated system in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model using a bioassay system. The results showed that PRE is primarily transported via poorly absorbed passive diffusion down a concentration gradient without efflux, which provides the pharmacokinetic basis for the clinical application of PhGs in CD. We also determined the intestinal permeability of three major PhGs [acteoside (AC), isoacteoside (IS) and echinacoside (EC)] by HLPC. Furthermore, we developed a novel HPLC-fluorescence detection method to accurately determine the flux amount of AC and IS. As expected, the transport characteristics of the three PhGs are consistent with those of PRE, indicating that the present bioassay system is appropriate and reliable for the evaluation of the transport characteristics of active ingredient groups (AIG) in PRE. Moreover, this system may also be suitable for other plant extracts given appropriate bioactivity.

  12. The protective effect of lemon fruit extract on histopathological changes induced in small intestines and pancreas of male mice by cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed; Balbaid, Samira Omar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide (CP) is alkylating agent and the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for various types of cancer; it causes severe toxicity. The aim of the research was to assess the protective effect of lemon fruit extract (LFE) against the side effects of the anti-cancer drug “cyclophosphamide” (CP). Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015. Thirty male mice were divided into six groups: group A (control): intraperitoneal injection of saline, group B: oral LFE (10ml/kg), group C: intraperitoneal injection of CP (10 mg/kg), group D: intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 mg/kg), group E: intraperitoneal injection of CP (10 mg/kg) and oral LFE (10 ml/kg), and group F: intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 mg/kg) and oral LFE (10 ml/kg). All groups were treated daily for five consecutive days. Results The results of the group treated with the drug C and D was that, in their intestines, the effect was uneven between a severe to a sharp effect, and there was a lack of dense connective tissue and its collagen fibers and fat cells, the intestinal glands or crypt of Lieberkühn appeared few in number and distorted in composition when compared with control A, as the pancreas appeared divided into several lobes containing small numbers of pancreatic Acini, padded with secretory pyramid-shaped cells, although some of them appeared exaggerated. While treatment in group E and F resulted in the intestines and pancreas appearing to be semi-normal; regarding the pancreas, it showed an observed improvement more than the response of the intestines. Conclusion The results support the protective effect of lemon fruit extract against CP-induced intestinal and pancreatic injury. PMID:26516452

  13. Cooperative role of antibodies against heat-labile toxin and the EtpA Adhesin in preventing toxin delivery and intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy, Koushik; Hamilton, David J; Fleckenstein, James M

    2012-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries, where it is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Vaccine development for ETEC has been hindered by the heterogeneity of known molecular targets and the lack of broad-based sustained protection afforded by existing vaccine strategies. In an effort to explore the potential role of novel antigens in ETEC vaccines, we examined the ability of antibodies directed against the ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and the recently described EtpA adhesin to prevent intestinal colonization in vivo and toxin delivery to epithelial cells in vitro. We demonstrate that EtpA is required for the optimal delivery of LT and that antibodies against this adhesin play at least an additive role in preventing delivery of LT to target intestinal cells when combined with antibodies against either the A or B subunits of the toxin. Moreover, vaccination with a combination of LT and EtpA significantly impaired intestinal colonization. Together, these results suggest that the incorporation of recently identified molecules such as EtpA could be used to enhance current approaches to ETEC vaccine development. PMID:22875600

  14. HuR-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of p21 is involved in the effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice aqueous extract on polyamine-depleted intestinal crypt cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zhang, Xian; Zeng, Xing; Huang, Yu; Wei, Jian-An; Han, Ling; Li, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Guo-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice has long been used worldwide as a food additive and herbal medicine. It possesses a remarkable healing action on gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study was carried out to assess the effect of licorice on intestinal crypt cell proliferation and to investigate the corresponding molecular mechanism. Considering the role of crypt stem cells in intestinal mucosa repair, a well-established cytostatic cellular model, polyamine-depleted IEC-6 cells, was utilized to evaluate the effect of aqueous licorice on the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells. The growth inhibition of IEC-6 cells caused by alpha-difluoromethylornithine could be significantly reversed by concomitant treatment with 40 μg/ml and 80 μg/ml licorice aqueous extract. In particular, the restoration of cell cycle progression was accompanied by a decrease in p21 mRNA level and cytoplasmic accumulation of the RNA-binding protein HuR, which was shown to be involved in the destabilization of p21 mRNA. Using a biotin pull-down assay and a luciferase assay, it was found that licorice-modulated p21 mRNA expression was achieved by HuR-targeted AU-rich and U-rich elements that resided in the 3' untranslated region of p21 mRNA. These results demonstrate that licorice can exert its action on stimulating the growth of intestinal crypt cells by regulating p21 mRNA level at the posttranscriptional level by HuR.

  15. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  16. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract.

  17. Study on the small intestine absorptive kinetics characters of tanshinol and protocatechualdehyde of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kai; Zhai, Shuiting; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Guoquan; Fu, Xiaoyang; Li, Tianxiao

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for clinical selection of drugs, to compare and analyze the effective constitutes and the intestinal absorption in vivo in rats of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills (taken as the representatives). Determine the contents of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone II A, cryptotanshinone, ginseng saponin Rg1 and Rb1 in the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The intestinal absorption condition of the tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills in rats were detected by intestinal perfusion experiment. Only the intake of protocatechuic aldehyde in the compound salvia tablets was higher than in the compound dropping pills, the intake of the other 6 effective constitutes were all lower than in the compound dropping pills. The intestinal absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was rather complete, while the intestinal absorption of tanshinol and salvianolic acid B were not significant. The duodenum was the main absorption region of these three components. The absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was different in different regions of the intestines. Each intake of the effective constitutes in the tablets and dropping pills were significantly different, and the rat intestinal absorption of part of the components were different. PMID:27592492

  18. Study on the small intestine absorptive kinetics characters of tanshinol and protocatechualdehyde of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kai; Zhai, Shuiting; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Guoquan; Fu, Xiaoyang; Li, Tianxiao

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for clinical selection of drugs, to compare and analyze the effective constitutes and the intestinal absorption in vivo in rats of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills (taken as the representatives). Determine the contents of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone II A, cryptotanshinone, ginseng saponin Rg1 and Rb1 in the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The intestinal absorption condition of the tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills in rats were detected by intestinal perfusion experiment. Only the intake of protocatechuic aldehyde in the compound salvia tablets was higher than in the compound dropping pills, the intake of the other 6 effective constitutes were all lower than in the compound dropping pills. The intestinal absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was rather complete, while the intestinal absorption of tanshinol and salvianolic acid B were not significant. The duodenum was the main absorption region of these three components. The absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was different in different regions of the intestines. Each intake of the effective constitutes in the tablets and dropping pills were significantly different, and the rat intestinal absorption of part of the components were different.

  19. [Using Metronidazole and Hydroxyapatite for preventing dry socket after extraction of impacted mandibular 3rd molar

    PubMed

    Xue, Z X; Mao, T Q

    1993-03-01

    Dry socket is one of the most frequent complications after teeth extraction,especially in impacted mandibular third molars.The etilogy and prevention is not clear.This study id based on principles of clinical epidemiology.Randomized double-blind method was carried out in 549 patients to test the value of the prophylactic use of Hydroxyapatite,to test the value of the prophylactic use of Hydroxyapatite and Metronidazole,placed in the sockets of extracted impacted mandibular third molars.The results of the incidence of DS was 7.1% of Metronidazole treated sockets,and 2.1% of Hydroxyapatite treated sockets,It is concluded that Hydroxyapatite is an effective preventive factor for dry socket,The possible mechanism of Hydroxyapatite and the dry socket etiology were discussed. PMID:15159869

  20. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract by suppressing lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory mediators in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells co-cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lim, Ji Ye; Min, Soo Jin; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, involves chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, Sasa quelpaertensis leaves have been shown to mediate anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects, although it remains unclear whether Sasa leaves are able to attenuate inflammation-related intestinal diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) using an in vitro co-culture model of the intestinal epithelial environment. MATERIALS/METHODS An in vitro co-culture system was established that consisted of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce inflammation. RESULTS Treatment with SQE significantly suppressed the secretion of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-6, and IL-1β in co-cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were down-regulated in response to inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation by SQE. Compared with two bioactive compounds that have previously been identified in SQE, tricin and P-coumaric acid, SQE exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory properties. CONCLUSIONS SQE exhibited intestinal anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting various inflammatory mediators mediated through nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-kB) activation. Thus, SQE has the potential to ameliorate inflammation-related diseases, including IBD, by limiting excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:25671061

  1. GLP-2 Prevents Intestinal Mucosal Atrophy and Improves Tissue Antioxidant Capacity in a Mouse Model of Total Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiucheng; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Wu, Chao; Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wan, Xiao; Zheng, Huijun

    2016-01-09

    We investigated the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on mucosal atrophy and intestinal antioxidant capacity in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Male mice (6-8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 8 for each group): a control group fed a standard laboratory chow diet, and experimental TPN (received standard TPN solution) and TPN + GLP-2 groups (received TPN supplemented with 60 µg/day of GLP-2 for 5 days). Mice in the TPN group had lower body weight and reduced intestinal length, villus height, and crypt depth compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 supplementation increased all parameters compared to TPN only (all p < 0.05). Intestinal total superoxide dismutase activity and reduced-glutathione level in the TPN + GLP-2 group were also higher relative to the TPN group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 administration significantly upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and increased glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) abundance. Compared with the control and TPN + GLP-2 groups, intestinal cleaved caspase-3 was increased in the TPN group (all p < 0.05). This study shows GLP-2 reduces TPN-associated intestinal atrophy and improves tissue antioxidant capacity. This effect may be dependent on enhanced epithelial cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated GRP78 expression.

  2. GLP-2 Prevents Intestinal Mucosal Atrophy and Improves Tissue Antioxidant Capacity in a Mouse Model of Total Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiucheng; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Wu, Chao; Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wan, Xiao; Zheng, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on mucosal atrophy and intestinal antioxidant capacity in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Male mice (6–8 weeks old) were divided into three groups (n = 8 for each group): a control group fed a standard laboratory chow diet, and experimental TPN (received standard TPN solution) and TPN + GLP-2 groups (received TPN supplemented with 60 µg/day of GLP-2 for 5 days). Mice in the TPN group had lower body weight and reduced intestinal length, villus height, and crypt depth compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 supplementation increased all parameters compared to TPN only (all p < 0.05). Intestinal total superoxide dismutase activity and reduced-glutathione level in the TPN + GLP-2 group were also higher relative to the TPN group (all p < 0.05). GLP-2 administration significantly upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and increased glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) abundance. Compared with the control and TPN + GLP-2 groups, intestinal cleaved caspase-3 was increased in the TPN group (all p < 0.05). This study shows GLP-2 reduces TPN-associated intestinal atrophy and improves tissue antioxidant capacity. This effect may be dependent on enhanced epithelial cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated GRP78 expression. PMID:26761030

  3. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  4. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  5. Prevention of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws secondary to tooth extractions. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Limeres, Jacobo

    2016-01-01

    Background A study was made to identify the most effective protocol for reducing the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) following tooth extraction in patients subjected to treatment with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs. Material and Methods A MEDLINE and SCOPUS search (January 2003 - March 2015) was made with the purpose of conducting a systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. All articles contributing information on tooth extractions in patients treated with oral or intravenous antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs were included. Results Only 13 of the 380 selected articles were finally included in the review: 11 and 5 of them offered data on patients treated with intravenous and oral bisphosphonates, respectively. No randomized controlled trials were found – all publications corresponding to case series or cohort studies. The prevalence of ONJ in the patients treated with intravenous and oral bisphosphonates was 6,9% (range 0-34.7%) and 0.47% (range 0-2.5%), respectively. The main preventive measures comprised local and systemic infection control. Conclusions No conclusive scientific evidence is available to date on the efficacy of ONJ prevention protocols in patients treated with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs subjected to tooth extraction. Key words:Bisphosphonates, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiresorptive drugs, extraction, osteonecrosis. PMID:26827065

  6. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A.; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A.; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for “CBD botanical drug substance,” on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage – after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment. PMID:27757083

  7. Comparative investigation of in vitro biotransformation of 14 components in Ginkgo biloba extract in normal, diabetes and diabetic nephropathy rat intestinal bacteria matrix.

    PubMed

    Tang, Daoquan; Yu, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Jing; Li, Yinjie; Wu, Xiaowen; Du, Qian; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2014-11-01

    Most herbal medicines will be metabolized by intestinal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract before absorbed by the small intestine. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) possesses protective effects on the glomerulosclerosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but its biotransformation in diabetes and DN intestinal bacteria has not yet been recognized. In this work, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was established for the simultaneous quantification of 14 components in GBE in rat intestinal bacteria matrix, namely ginkgolides A, ginkgolides B, ginkgolides C, bilobalide, rutin, myricetin, quercitrin, quercetin, luteolin, genistein, kaempferol, apigenin, isorhamnetin and genkwanin. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kromasil-C18 (4.6mm×250mm i.d., 5.0μm) analytical column maintained at 35°C. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol (A) and 0.1% formic acid in water (B) with a step linear gradient at a flow rate of 1.0mlmin(-1). The calibration curves of these 14 analytes demonstrated good linearity within the test range (R>0.99). This validated method has successfully been applied into the pharmacokinetic study of the 14 components. More importantly, in the pharmacokinetic study, by comparing the time course of the biotransformation by normal, diabetes and DN rat intestinal bacteria, we found that the biotransformation speed and residence time of the 14 compounds in diabetes and DN rats differed obviously from that obtained in normal group, which provided valuable chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on GBE.

  8. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  9. The schistosome glutathione S-transferase P28GST, a unique helminth protein, prevents intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through a Th2-type response with mucosal eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Driss, V; El Nady, M; Delbeke, M; Rousseaux, C; Dubuquoy, C; Sarazin, A; Gatault, S; Dendooven, A; Riveau, G; Colombel, J F; Desreumaux, P; Dubuquoy, L; Capron, M

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal helminth parasites are potent inducers of T helper type 2 (Th2) response and have a regulatory role, notably on intestinal inflammation. As infection with schistosomes is unlikely to provide a reliable treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, we have investigated the beneficial effect of a schistosome enzymatic protein, the 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (P28GST), on the modulation of disease activity and immune responses in experimental colitis. Our results showed that immunization with recombinant P28GST is at least as efficient as established schistosome infection to reduce colitis lesions and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Considering underlying mechanisms, the decrease of inflammatory parameters was associated with the polarization of the immune system toward a Th2 profile, with local and systemic increases of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5. Dense eosinophil infiltration was observed in the colons of P28GST-immunized rats and mice. Depletion of eosinophils by treatment with an anti-Siglec-F monoclonal antibody and use of IL-5-deficient mice led to the loss of therapeutic effect, suggesting the crucial role for eosinophils in colitis prevention by P28GST. These findings reveal that immunization with P28GST, a unique recombinant schistosome enzyme, ameliorates intestinal inflammation through eosinophil-dependent modulation of harmful type 1 responses, representing a new immuno-regulatory strategy against inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26174763

  10. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B; Brenner, David A; Hooper, Lora V; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-02-10

    Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  11. Histidine Prevents Cu-Induced Oxidative Stress and the Associated Decreases in mRNA from Encoding Tight Junction Proteins in the Intestine of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Wu, Pei; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is a common heavy metal pollutant in aquatic environments that originates from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. The present study investigated whether Cu causes oxidative damage and induces changes in the expression of genes that encode tight junction (TJ) proteins, cytokines and antioxidant-related genes in the intestine of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We demonstrated that Cu decreases the survival rate of fish and increases oxidative damage as measured by increases in malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents. Cu exposure significantly decreased the expression of genes that encode the tight junction proteins, namely, claudin (CLDN)-c, -3 and -15 as well as occludin and zonula occludens-1, in the intestine of fish. In addition, Cu exposure increases the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically, IL-8, TNF-α and its related signalling factor (nuclear factor kappa B, NF-κB), which was partly correlated to the decreased mRNA levels of NF-κB inhibitor protein (IκB). These changes were associated with Cu-induced oxidative stress detected by corresponding decreases in glutathione (GSH) content, as well as decreases in the copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA levels, which were associated with the down-regulated antioxidant signalling factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels, and the Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein1 (Keap1) mRNA levels in the intestine of fish. Histidine supplementation in diets (3.7 up to 12.2 g/kg) blocked Cu-induced changes. These results indicated that Cu-induced decreases in intestinal TJ proteins and cytokine mRNA levels might be partially mediated by oxidative stress and are prevented by histidine supplementation in fish diet. PMID:27280406

  12. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. PMID:26912037

  13. Fermented Pueraria Lobata extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and recovering intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungho; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Jang, Yeong-Su; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Yoon, Yeo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD. PMID:27729931

  14. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    PubMed

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  15. Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Ferrara, Tarcisio; Togni, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    Echinacea preparations are extensively used for the prevention and the management of the common cold. Despite this popularity, the clinical studies on Echinacea have produced mixed results, possibly in part because of the poor characterization of the extracts investigated and the use of different species and/or plant parts for the preparations investigated in the various trials. To address this issue, Polinacea, a highly standardized extract from a well-defined botanical source (roots of Echinacea angustifolia) with a specific phytochemical profile (presence of the complex polysaccharide IDN5405, the phenylethanoid echinacoside, and substantial lack of alkamides) was developed. We have studied whether Polinacea could enhance the immune response subsequent to the influenza vaccination, and whether the use of this preparation could translate into a decreased morbidity from influenza. The preliminary results were encouraging, and suggest that Polinacea could be used for improving the immune response to influenza vaccine.

  16. Aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; González, Roxana Elizabeth; Renna, Nicolás Federico; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2010-06-01

    The organosulfur profile and the effect on oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed rats (FFR) were evaluated in Fuego INTA and Morado INTA garlic cultivars. Wistar rats were fed either normal rat chow (control) or the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. During the last 6 weeks of a 12 week period of the corresponding diet, a subgroup of control and FFR received an aqueous extract of Fuego INTA and Morado INTA. Fuego INTA showed higher levels of total thiosulfinates, allicin, and pungency than Morado INTA. FFR showed an increase of systolic blood pressure, aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and vascular remodeling that was significantly reduced after both garlic administrations. The beneficial effect was slightly higher when Fuego INTA was administered. Both aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in rats with metabolic syndrome, suggesting the existence of slight differences among cultivars.

  17. Ethanol extract of Moringa oliefera prevents in vitro glucose induced cataract on isolated goat eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Kurmi, Raghvendra; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dubey, Nazneen

    2014-01-01

    Aim of Study: The aim of current work was to evaluate in vitro anticataract potential of Moringa oliefera extract. Materials and Methods: Goat eye lenses were divided into 4 groups; Group served as control, Group II as toxic control, Group III and Group IV were incubated in extract (250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of extract of M. oliefera) Group II, III and IV were incubated in 55 mM glucose in artificial aqueous humor to induce lens opacification. Estimation of total, water soluble protein, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde along with photographic evaluation of lens was done. Results: Group II (toxic control) lenses showed high amount of MDA (Malondialdehyde), soluble, insoluble protein, decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with Moringa oliefera extract (Group III and Group IV) showed significant (* P < 0.05) reduction in MDA and increased level of catalase, glutathione, total and soluble protein. Conclusion: Results of present findings suggest protective effect of Moringa oliefera in prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract. PMID:24008789

  18. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells.

  19. Brg1 loss attenuates aberrant wnt-signalling and prevents wnt-dependent tumourigenesis in the murine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Holik, Aliaksei Z; Young, Madeleine; Krzystyniak, Joanna; Williams, Geraint T; Metzger, Daniel; Shorning, Boris Y; Clarke, Alan R

    2014-07-01

    Tumourigenesis within the intestine is potently driven by deregulation of the Wnt pathway, a process epigenetically regulated by the chromatin remodelling factor Brg1. We aimed to investigate this interdependency in an in vivo setting and assess the viability of Brg1 as a potential therapeutic target. Using a range of transgenic approaches, we deleted Brg1 in the context of Wnt-activated murine small intestinal epithelium. Pan-epithelial loss of Brg1 using VillinCreERT2 and AhCreERT transgenes attenuated expression of Wnt target genes, including a subset of stem cell-specific genes and suppressed Wnt-driven tumourigenesis improving animal survival. A similar increase in survival was observed when Wnt activation and Brg1 loss were restricted to the Lgr5 expressing intestinal stem cell population. We propose a mechanism whereby Brg1 function is required for aberrant Wnt signalling and ultimately for the maintenance of the tumour initiating cell compartment, such that loss of Brg1 in an Apc-deficient context suppresses adenoma formation. Our results highlight potential therapeutic value of targeting Brg1 and serve as a proof of concept that targeting the cells of origin of cancer may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:25010414

  20. Brg1 Loss Attenuates Aberrant Wnt-Signalling and Prevents Wnt-Dependent Tumourigenesis in the Murine Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Holik, Aliaksei Z.; Young, Madeleine; Krzystyniak, Joanna; Williams, Geraint T.; Metzger, Daniel; Shorning, Boris Y.; Clarke, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Tumourigenesis within the intestine is potently driven by deregulation of the Wnt pathway, a process epigenetically regulated by the chromatin remodelling factor Brg1. We aimed to investigate this interdependency in an in vivo setting and assess the viability of Brg1 as a potential therapeutic target. Using a range of transgenic approaches, we deleted Brg1 in the context of Wnt-activated murine small intestinal epithelium. Pan-epithelial loss of Brg1 using VillinCreERT2 and AhCreERT transgenes attenuated expression of Wnt target genes, including a subset of stem cell-specific genes and suppressed Wnt-driven tumourigenesis improving animal survival. A similar increase in survival was observed when Wnt activation and Brg1 loss were restricted to the Lgr5 expressing intestinal stem cell population. We propose a mechanism whereby Brg1 function is required for aberrant Wnt signalling and ultimately for the maintenance of the tumour initiating cell compartment, such that loss of Brg1 in an Apc-deficient context suppresses adenoma formation. Our results highlight potential therapeutic value of targeting Brg1 and serve as a proof of concept that targeting the cells of origin of cancer may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:25010414

  1. Effects of dietary fibre-rich juice colloids from apple pomace extraction juices on intestinal fermentation products and microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Jacobasch, Gisela; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2003-09-01

    Effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymic liquefaction on food intake, body and faecal weights, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and selected intestinal microbiota were investigated in rats. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets without any apple dietary fibre (DF) (control) or supplement with 5 % B-juice colloids or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Rats fed with apple DF (5 % B-juice colloids or AIS) gained less weight than control rats (P<0.05). B-juice colloids did not affect food intake, whereas feeding AIS resulted in a 10 % higher food consumption than in control rats. Both juice colloids and AIS increased the weight of caecal contents in rats and lowered luminal pH values (P<0.05). In addition, SCFA concentrations and total yields were also raised (P<0.05) in caecum of these rats indicating good fermentability of apple substrates by gut microflora. Distinctly higher concentrations of acetate and propionate were found in intestinal contents of juice colloid-fed rats (P<0.05), whereas AIS also increased butyrate yield. Changes in microbiota due to apple DF in diets were restricted in the caecum to the Eubacterium rectale cluster (AIS; P<0.05) and in faeces to the Bacteroidaceae (juice colloids and AIS; P<0.05). The present study shows the physiological effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymic liquefaction on intestinal fermentation. Results may be helpful for the development of such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin.

  2. Bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate binds pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds and prevents immune activation in an intestinal co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Christopher J; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L; Petschow, Bryon W; Warner, Christopher D; Maas, Kenneth J; Weaver, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-α cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (≤50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI

  3. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  4. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  5. Preventing Infective Complications following Leech Therapy: Elimination of Symbiotic Aeromonas spp. from the Intestine of Hirudo verbana Using Antibiotic Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Litwinowicz, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hirudotherapy is often used successfully in modern medicine, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, Aeromonas infections are the most common complications of post-operative leech application. Hence, prophylactic antibiotic administration is recommended before and during leech therapy. It has been confirmed that patient safety and achieving the desired therapeutic effect depend mainly on the microbiologic purity of the animals used. The aims of this study were to find a safe and practical way to eradicate symbiotic Aeromonas spp. occuring in the intestine of Hirudo verbana. Methods: Leeches were fed artificially with 1.5 mL of sterile defibrinated sheep blood supplemented with ciprofloxacin (CIP) or cefotaxime (CTX), at bacteriostatic concentrations of 0.2 mcg/mL or 1.5 mcg/mL, and bactericidal concentrations of 20 mcg/mL or 50 mcg/mL, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the leech intestines before and after feeding at different time intervals: 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Results: Biochemical identification of bacterial isolates from water samples and intestines of H. verbana using the API-NE20 test showed that A. veronii biovar sobria was predominant. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas were detected in all control leeches. The results showed that optimum eradication of bacteria from leech intestines was obtained using 20 mcg/mL of CIP and 50 mcg/mL of CTX, which decreased the number of Aeromonas spp. to undetectable levels for two weeks after feeding in all treated leeches. A statistically significant reduction in the number of bacterial colonies (p<0.0001) was observed in leeches treated with bacteriostatic concentrations of CIP or CTX; no bacterial growth was found on the plates after only seven days of feeding with antibiotics. All water samples in which the leeches were kept before treatment were contaminated with Aeromonas spp., whereas these samples were negative after antibiotic feeding of

  6. Prevention of taurolithocholate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by HPLC-characterized extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R

    2002-09-01

    The effects of water-soluble extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves on taurolithocholate-induced cholestatic bile canalicular membrane distortions were studied in primary cultured rat hepatocytes using electron microscopy. Artichoke extracts at concentrations between 0.08 and 0.5 mg/ml were able to prevent the formation of bizarre canalicular membrane transformations in a dose-dependent manner when added simultaneously with the bile acid. However, prevention also occurred when the hepatocytes were preincubated with the extracts, indicating that absorption of the bile acid to components of the extracts was not involved. These results demonstrate that artichoke leaf extracts exert a potent anticholestatic action at least in the case of taurolithocholate. This effect may contribute to the overall hepatoprotective influence of this herbal formulation.

  7. Antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) occurs after the administration of intravenous iodinated contrast agents. Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the most important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of the extract from Phyllanthus emblica (PE) in preventing CI-AKI. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected into eight groups, were given water (control) or PE extract (125 or 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 5 days before the induction of CI-AKI. Renal function and oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in plasma and renal tissue. Kidney sections were performed for histopathological examination. Results In the contrast media (CM) group, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were demonstrated which correlated with severity of tubular necrosis, peritubular capillary congestion and interstitial edema. Moreover, an increase in MDA and a decrease in TAC SOD and CAT activity in CM group were significantly changed when compared with the control (P < 0.05). In contrast, CI-AKI-induced rats administrated with PE extract 250 and 500 mg/kg/day significantly preserved renal function and attenuated the severity of pathological damage (P < 0.05) as well as significantly lower MDA and higher TAC, SOD and CAT than the CM group (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrated the protective role of PE extract against CI-AKI. PMID:24755233

  8. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilms Formation on Urinary Catheter by Selected Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Adesina, T D; Nwinyi, O C; Olugbuyiro, J A O

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing Escherichia coli biofilm formation. The plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. The various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. Biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of E. coli. Biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count and turbidity at 600 nm. From the obtained results, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum delayed the onset of biofilm formation for a week. Ocimum gratissimum coated catheter had the highest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) with bacterial count ranging from 2.2 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(5)-3.7 x10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. The Psidium guajava coated catheter had the lowest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1), with bacterial count ranging between 4.3 x 10(5)-1.9 x 10(3) and 7.7 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. Despite the antimicrobial activities, the differences in the activity of these plant extracts were statistically not significant (p < 0.05).

  9. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilms Formation on Urinary Catheter by Selected Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Adesina, T D; Nwinyi, O C; Olugbuyiro, J A O

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing Escherichia coli biofilm formation. The plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. The various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. Biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of E. coli. Biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count and turbidity at 600 nm. From the obtained results, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum delayed the onset of biofilm formation for a week. Ocimum gratissimum coated catheter had the highest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) with bacterial count ranging from 2.2 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(5)-3.7 x10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. The Psidium guajava coated catheter had the lowest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1), with bacterial count ranging between 4.3 x 10(5)-1.9 x 10(3) and 7.7 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. Despite the antimicrobial activities, the differences in the activity of these plant extracts were statistically not significant (p < 0.05). PMID:26364356

  10. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2006-01-01

    Background Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of the bark of Termnalia arjuna (TA), an important Indian medicinal plant widely used in the preparation of ayurvedic formulations, on CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in the livers and kidneys of mice. Methods Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of TA (50 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days. Serum marker enzymes, namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in the sera of all study groups. Antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); as well as by determining the levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined from its DPPH radical quenching ability. Results Results showed that CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of GPT and ALP. TBARS level was also increased significantly whereas GSH, SOD, CAT and GST levels were decreased in the liver and kidney tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated mice. Aqueous extract of TA successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals. Data also showed that the extract possessed strong free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of vitamin C. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of the bark of TA could protect the liver and kidney tissues against CCl4

  11. Polyphenol-rich black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) extract regulates the expression of genes critical for intestinal cholesterol flux in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Youngki; Wegner, Casey J; Bolling, Bradley W; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-09-01

    Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is a rich source of polyphenols. The hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich black chokeberry extract (CBE) have been reported, but underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of CBE on the expression of genes involved in intestinal lipid metabolism. Caco-2 cells were incubated with 50 or 100 μg/ml of CBE for 24 h for quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction analysis. Expression of genes for cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and sterol regulatory element binding protein 2), apical cholesterol uptake (Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 and scavenger receptor class B Type 1) and basolateral cholesterol efflux [ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)] was significantly decreased by CBE compared with control. Western blot analysis confirmed that CBE inhibited expression of these proteins. In contrast, CBE markedly induced mRNA and/or protein levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8 that mediate apical cholesterol efflux to the intestinal lumen. Furthermore, CBE significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, and cellular LDL uptake. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein assembly, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase and acyl-CoA oxidase 1, was significantly decreased by CBE in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, CBE significantly increased sirtuin 1, 3 and 5 mRNA levels, while it decreased SIRT-2. Our data suggest that hypolipidemic effects of CBE may be attributed, at least in part, to increased apical efflux of LDL-derived cholesterol and to decreased chylomicron formation in the intestine; and specific isoforms of SIRT may play an important role in this process.

  12. Prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized rats: the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts.

    PubMed

    Chae, H J; Chae, S W; Yun, D H; Keum, K S; Yoo, S K; Kim, H R

    2004-02-01

    The preventive effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts (SMEs) on the progress of bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX) was studied in rats. We measured body weight and bone histomorphometry in sham, OVX or SMEs-administered OVX rats. From light microscopic analyses, a porous or erosive appearances were observed on the surface of trabecular bone of tibia in OVX rats, whereas those of the same bone in sham rats and in SMEs-administered rats were composed of fine particles. The trabecular bone area and trabecular thickness in OVX rats decreased by 50% from those in sham rats, these decreases were completely inhibited by administration of SMEs for 7 weeks. In this study, the mechanical strength in femur neck was significantly enhanced by the treatment of SMEs for 7 weeks. In OVX rats, free T3 was normal in all cases, whereas free T4 was significantly increased. Although there was no difference between OVX and SMEs-administered rats in T3 level, we have found significant difference between them in T4 level. These results strongly suggest that SMEs are effective in preventing the development of bone loss induced by OVX in rats.

  13. Decreasing cariogenic bacteria with a natural, alternative prevention therapy utilizing phytochemistry (plant extracts).

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Y; Goda, H; Baliga, M S; Munshi, A K

    2011-01-01

    The association between the oral microbiota and oral diseases is well established. Various antimicrobial agents including antibiotics are commercially available against oral pathogenic bacteria. For the reasons of antibiotic resistance, their adverse effects and financial considerations in the developing countries, there is a need for alternate preventive and curative treatment options that are also safe, effective and economical. Traditional medicines have been used since ancient times for the treatment of oral diseases including dental caries, periodontal diseases that affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Natural phytochemicals are certain organic components isolated from plants and some of these extracts are considered to be beneficial to health. They serve as antioxidants, enhance immune response, provide protection against oral cancer and other diseases and also repair DNA damage caused by smoking and other toxic exposure, and detoxify carcinogens. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new lead chemicals for pharmaceuticals. They are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. This article presents a review of natural alternatives derived from plants and plant products that can serve as a prevention and treatment option against cariogenic bacteria.

  14. Effects of spray-dried porcine plasma and plant extracts on intestinal morphology and on leukocyte cell subsets of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Nofrarías, M; Manzanilla, E G; Pujols, J; Gibert, X; Majó, N; Segalés, J; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of a 6% spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) and a plant extracts mixture (XT; 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin) on the productive performance, intestinal morphology, and leukocyte cell subsets of early-weaned pigs compared with a control group. Morphometry of the jejunum, ileum, and colon, and immune cell analysis of blood, ileocolic lymph node (LN), and ileal Peyer's patches were done in 24 weaned pigs (20 +/- 2 d) at 19 or 21 d postweaning. Although SDPP and XT treatments did not increase ADG or ADFI, SDPP improved the G:F ratio (P = 0.024) compared with the control group. Dietary SDPP reduced the percentages of blood monocytes (P = 0.006) and macrophages in ileal Peyer's patches and LN (P = 0.04), of B lymphocytes (P = 0.04) and gammadelta+ T cells in LN (P = 0.009), and of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P = 0.026) as well as the density of lamina propria cells in the colon (P < 0.01). Dietary XT reduced intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers in jejunum (P = 0.034) and the percentages of blood cytotoxic cells (P = 0.07) and B lymphocytes in LN (P = 0.03); however, XT increased blood monocytes (P = 0.038) and the density of lamina propria lymphocytes in the colon (P = 0.003). These results indicate that dietary SDPP and plant extracts can affect intestinal morphology and immune cell subsets of gut tissues and blood in weaned pigs. Furthermore, the effects of SDPP suggest lower activation of the immune system of the piglets. PMID:16971575

  15. Preventive oral supplementation with glutamine and arginine has beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines in endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Cui; He, Liuqin

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with a combination of arginine and glutamine on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adult rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight of 185 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups: control group A (CA) and control group B (CB), both orally supplemented with 0.9% saline; group Arg, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) arginine; group Gln, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine; group AG, supplemented with 150 mg/kg day(-1) arginine and 150 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine. The experiment lasted for 2 weeks. Food intake and body weight were measured during the experiment. At 10.00 h of day 15, animals were injected with 4 mg/kg LPS (group CB, Arg, Gln, and AG) or sterile saline (group CA) after supplementation. Then at 14.00 h, all animals were killed and blood and tissue collected. The results showed that compared with group CB, arginine concentration tended to be increased (P > 0.05) in group Arg and AG, while there was no significant difference in glutamine concentration among the groups challenged with LPS. Oral supplementation with arginine or/and glutamine mitigated morphology impairment (lower villus height, P < 0.05) in the jejunum and ileum induced by LPS challenge. LPS administration resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA abundance. Arginine only significantly decreased TNF-α mRNA abundance in the ileum, while glutamine significantly decreased both TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in the ileum. A combination of arginine and glutamine significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA abundance in both the jejunum and ileum, while they also significantly decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the ileum. These results revealed that an oral supply of combined arginine and glutamine had more favorable effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines than a supply of arginine or glutamine alone.

  16. Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-03-01

    Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M. officinalis (10 mg/ kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 µg/ kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M. officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M. officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M. officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M. officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD.

  17. Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-02-01

    Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or Aβ1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. PMID:25546299

  18. Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-02-01

    Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or Aβ1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine.

  19. Thalidomide prevents cigarette smoke extract-induced lung damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Chiharu; Tabata, Rie; Takahashi, Yuta; Nakamura, Kazuki; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a progressive airway obstruction that is not completely reversible and is mainly caused by smoking tobacco. COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and there are currently no proven effective treatments. The pathogenesis of COPD involves several factors such as chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Cytokines play important roles in chronic inflammation. Thalidomide (Thal) has been used to treat multiple myeloma due to its inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced cell growth. We recently demonstrated that thalidomide (Thal) played important roles in cytokine-induced lung damage in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in mice. We herein examined the preventative effects of Thal on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced emphysematous changes in mice. We performed histological examinations and quantitative measurements of the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA, as well as apoptosis in CSE-induced mouse lung tissues treated with or without Thal. The results of the histological examination showed that Thal ameliorated CSE-induced emphysema in mice. It also inhibited the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in mouse lung tissues. Thal decreased apoptosis in the mouse lung. In vitro studies revealed that Thal decreased 1) the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in human lung epithelial cells, and 2) CSE-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of cell growth, which may be the underlying mechanisms for the preventative effects of Thal on emphysema. These results provide a rationale for exploring the clinical use of Thal for COPD.

  20. Deer Bone Extract Prevents Against Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or Aβ1–42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. PMID:25546299

  1. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  2. Oral administration of protease inhibits enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli receptor activity in piglet small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, T L; Luke, R K; Chandler, D S

    1996-01-01

    The virulence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is attributed to their ability to adhere via fimbrial adhesins to specific receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. A novel approach to preventing ETEC induced diarrhoea would be to prevent attachment of ETEC to intestine by proteolytically modifying the receptor attachment sites. This study aimed to examine the effect of bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, on ETEC receptor activity in porcine small intestine. Bromelain was administered orally to piglets and K88+ ETEC attachment to small intestine was measured at 50 cm intervals using an enzyme immunoassay. K88+ ETEC attachment to intestinal sections that were not treated with bromelain varied appreciably between sampling sites. Variability in receptor activity along the intestinal surface is though to be caused by the localised effects of endogenous proteases. Oral administration of exogenous protease inhibited K88+ ETEC attachment to pig small intestine in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05). Attachment of K88+ ETEC was negligible after treatment, resembling the levels of attachment of K88 to piglets of the genetically determined non-adhesive phenotype, which are resistant to K88+ ETEC infection. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of treated piglets showed no adverse effects of the bromelain treatment. It is concluded that administration of bromelain can inhibit ETEC receptor activity in vivo and may therefore be useful for prevention of K88+ ETEC induced diarrhoea. PMID:8566855

  3. Intestinal Malrotation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines don't position themselves normally during fetal development and aren't attached inside properly as a result. The exact reason this occurs is unknown. When a fetus develops in the womb, the intestines start out ...

  4. Polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract prevents inflammation in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Wegner, Casey J; Harness, Ellen; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji-Young

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is closely associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. We investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the control diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. In BCE-fed mice, the percentage of body weight and adipocyte size of the epididymal fat were significantly lower than those of control mice. There were fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in F4/80, cluster of differentiation 68 and inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase ε (IKKε) mRNA in the epididymal adipose of BCE-fed mice. F4/80 and IKKε mRNA levels were positively correlated with CLS number. In the skeletal muscle of mice fed with BCE, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy expenditure and mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPARα, PPARδ, UCP-2, UCP-3 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, were significantly increased. When splenocytes from BCE-fed mice were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β mRNA were significantly lower than control splenocytes. Together, the results suggest that BCE supplementation decreases obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue and splenocytes, at least in part, by modulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  5. Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25353662

  6. Asbestos contamination in feldspar extraction sites: a failure of prevention? Commentary.

    PubMed

    Cavariani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous tremolite is a mineral species belonging to the amphibole group. It is present almost everywhere in the world as a natural contaminant of other minerals, like talc and vermiculite. It can be also found as a natural contaminant of the chrysotile form of asbestos. Tremolite asbestos exposures result in respiratory health consequences similar to the other forms of asbestos exposure, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. Although abundantly distributed on the earth's surface, tremolite is only rarely present in significant deposits and it has had little commercial use. Significant presence of amphibole asbestos fibers, characterized as tremolite, was identified in mineral powders coming from the milling of feldspar rocks extracted from a Sardinian mining site (Italy). This evidence raises several problems, in particular the prevention of carcinogenic risks for the workers. Feldspar is widespread all over the world and every year it is produced in large quantities and it is used for several productive processes in many manufacturing industries (over 21 million tons of feldspar mined and marketed every year). Until now the presence of tremolite asbestos in feldspar has not been described, nor has the possibility of such a health hazard for workers involved in mining, milling and handling of rocks from feldspar ores been appreciated. Therefore the need for a wider dissemination of knowledge of these problems among professionals, in particular mineralogists and industrial hygienists, must be emphasized. In fact both disciplines are necessary to plan appropriate environmental controls and adequate protections in order to achieve safe working conditions. PMID:27033611

  7. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Juliana Paola Corrêa; de CASTILHO, Adriana Lígia; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Couri; DÍAZ, Ingrit Elida Collantes; PACIÊNCIA, Mateus Luís Barradas; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLextracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries. PMID:24676578

  8. Intestine Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ from a deceased donor. In addition, most intestine transplants are performed in ... blood before surgery. I am looking for ... allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  9. Target cell extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis for screening potential bioactive components in Ginkgo biloba extract with preventive effect against diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jing-ying; Chen, Xu; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Jiang, Xiang-lan; Yang, Dong-zhi; Yu, Yan-yan; Du, Qian; Tang, Dao-quan; Yin, Xiao-xing

    2015-02-01

    A rapid and useful approach for screening potential bioactive components in Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) with preventive effect against diabetic nephropathy (DN) was developed using mesangial cells extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Mesangial cells were first divided into two groups according to their treatments with high glucose or high glucose plus GBE. After incubation for 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 48 h, the cells were harvested and extracted with 40% acetic acid in water before LC-MS/MS analysis. Then, 19 compounds and five metabolites were found to selectively combine with mesangial cells. Notably, compounds including quercetin and rutin were identified or tentatively characterized according to the results of retention time and MS spectra, which is highly consistent with our previous reports that quercetin and rutin are potent protective agents against glomerulosclerosis in DN. Therefore, all these results indicate that target cell extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis can be successfully applied for predicting the bioactive components in GBE with preventive effect against DN.

  10. Flos Puerariae Extract Prevents Myocardial Apoptosis via Attenuation Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Hongke; Wu, Jiliang; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) suggests a direct cellular insult to myocardium. Apoptosis is considered as one of the hallmarks of DCM. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DCM. In this study, we explored the prevention of myocardial apoptosis by crude extract from Flos Puerariae (FPE) in experimental diabetic mice. Methods Experimental diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days in C57BL/6J mice. FPE (100, 200 mg/kg) was orally administrated once a day for ten weeks. Cardiac structure changes, apoptosis, superoxide production, NADPH oxidase subunits expression (gp91phox, p47phox, and p67phox), and related regulatory factors were assessed in the heart of mice. Results Diabetic mice were characterized by high blood glucose (≥11.1 mmol/L) and reduced body weight. In the end of the experiment, aberrant myofilament structure, as well as TUNEL positive cardiac cells coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression was found in diabetic mice. Moreover, ROS formation, the ratio of NADP+/NADPH and NADPH oxidase subunits expression of gp91phox and p47phox, lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, while antioxidant enzyme SOD and GSH-Px activity were reduced in the myocardial tissue of diabetic mice. In contrast, treatment with FPE resulted in a normalized glucose and weight profile. FPE administration also preserved myocardial structure and reduced apoptotic cardiac cell death in diabetic mice. The elevated markers of oxidative stress were significantly reversed by FPE supplementation. Further, FPE treatment markedly inhibited the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3 expression, as well as suppressed JNK and P38 MAPK activation in the heart of diabetic mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate for the first time that FPE may have therapeutic potential for STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy through preventing myocardial apoptosis via

  11. Prevention of browning in potato with a heat-treated onion extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Mai; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Gi-Nahm; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Bang, Keuk-Seung; Park, Inshik

    2002-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of an onion extract on browning of potato was investigated. The addition of the heated onion extract to potato exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on potato polyphenol oxidase and the formation of a brown color. The inhibitory effect of the onion extract was dependent upon its heating temperature. The addition of both glycine and glucose increased the inhibitory effect of the onion extract toward potato polyphenol oxidase. PMID:12036061

  12. Alcea rosea root extract as a preventive and curative agent in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Marzieh; Rad, Abolfazl Khajavi; Rajaei, Ziba; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Mohammadian, Nema; Tabasi, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Alcea rosea L. is used in Asian folk medicine as a remedy for a wide range of ailments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Alcea rosea roots on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ethylene glycol (EG), curative and preventive groups. Control group received tap drinking water for 28 days. Ethylene glycol (EG), curative and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation; preventive and curative subjects also received the hydroalcoholic extract of Alcea rosea roots in drinking water at dose of 170 mg/kg, since day 0 or day 14, respectively. Urinary oxalate concentration was measured by spectrophotometer on days 0, 14 and 28. On day 28, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically under light microscopy for counting the calcium oxalate deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In both preventive and curative protocols, treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of Alcea rosea roots significantly reduced the number of kidney calcium oxalate deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Administration of Alcea rosea extract also reduced the elevated urinary oxalate due to ethylene glycol. Conclusion: Alcea rosea showed a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating calcium oxalate deposition in the rat kidney. This effect is possibly due to diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects or presence of mucilaginous polysaccharides in the plant. It may also be related to lowering of urinary concentration of stone-forming constituents. PMID:22701236

  13. Intestinal inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 prevents cardiorenal damage in rats and inhibits Na+ uptake in humans.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Andrew G; Labonte, Eric D; Rosenbaum, David P; Plato, Craig F; Carreras, Christopher W; Leadbetter, Michael R; Kozuka, Kenji; Kohler, Jill; Koo-McCoy, Samantha; He, Limin; Bell, Noah; Tabora, Jocelyn; Joly, Kristin M; Navre, Marc; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Charmot, Dominique

    2014-03-12

    The management of sodium intake is clinically important in many disease states including heart failure, kidney disease, and hypertension. Tenapanor is an inhibitor of the sodium-proton (Na(+)/H(+)) exchanger NHE3, which plays a prominent role in sodium handling in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney. When administered orally to rats, tenapanor acted exclusively in the gastrointestinal tract to inhibit sodium uptake. We showed that the systemic availability of tenapanor was negligible through plasma pharmacokinetic studies, as well as autoradiography and mass balance studies performed with (14)C-tenapanor. In humans, tenapanor reduced urinary sodium excretion by 20 to 50 mmol/day and led to an increase of similar magnitude in stool sodium. In salt-fed nephrectomized rats exhibiting hypervolemia, cardiac hypertrophy, and arterial stiffening, tenapanor reduced extracellular fluid volume, left ventricular hypertrophy, albuminuria, and blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion. We observed these effects whether tenapanor was administered prophylactically or after disease was established. In addition, the combination of tenapanor and the blood pressure medication enalapril improved cardiac diastolic dysfunction and arterial pulse wave velocity relative to enalapril monotherapy in this animal model. Tenapanor prevented increases in glomerular area and urinary KIM-1, a marker of renal injury. The results suggest that therapeutic alteration of sodium transport in the gastrointestinal tract instead of the kidney--the target of current drugs--could lead to improved sodium management in renal disease.

  14. Comparative study between two animal models of extrapyramidal movement disorders: prevention and reversion by pecan nut shell aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Trevizol, Fabiola; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Pase, Camila S; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Dolci, Geisa S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Bürger, Marilise E

    2011-08-01

    Acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol are animal models of extrapyramidal disorders often used to study parkinsonism, akinesia and tardive dyskinesia. In humans, these usually irreversible and disabling extrapyramidal disorders are developed by typical antipsychotic treatment, whose pathophysiology has been related to oxidative damages development. So far, there is no treatment to prevent these problems of the psychiatric clinic, and therefore further studies are needed. Here we used the animal models of extrapyramidal disorders cited above, which were performed in two distinct experiments: orofacial dyskinesia (OD)/catalepsy induced by acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) oral treatment with pecan shell aqueous extract (AE), a natural and promissory antioxidant. When administered previously (exp.1), the AE prevented OD and catalepsy induced by both reserpine and haloperidol. When reserpine and haloperidol were administered before the extract (exp.2), the animals developed OD and catalepsy all the same. However, the orofacial parameter (but not catalepsy) in both animal models was reversed after 7 and 14 days of AE treatment. These results indicate that, acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol administrations induced similar motor disorders, although through different mechanisms, and therefore are important animal models to study the physiopathology of extrapyramidal disorders. Comparatively, the pecan shell AE was able to both prevent and reverse OD but only to prevent catalepsy. These results reinforce the role of oxidative stress and validate the two animal models used here. Our findings also favor the idea of prevention of extrapyramidal disorders, rather than their reversal. PMID:21356248

  15. Effect of garlic extract on some serum biochemical parameters and expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Bazrafshani, Mohamad Reza; Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi

    2013-12-01

    Some compounds in the garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL level. However, the mechanism of this specific effect is not fully understood. In the small intestine, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5, G8 and A1 (ABCG5, ABCG8 and ABCA1), as well as Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein have important roles in cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on lipid profile and also expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of N-Marry mice fed a high cholesterol diet as a possible mechanism of garlic effect. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: hypercholesterolmic (received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); Group 2: garlic (received chow + 4% (w/w) garlic extract + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); and Group 3: received chow only. After one month, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected from their heart. The jejunum was removed, washed with PBS and entrocytes were scraped and used for the experiments. Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and expression of mRNA levels for the above-mentioned proteins was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Garlic extract significantly reduced serum lipids (p < 0.05), compared with the hypercholesterolemic group. Expression of the intestinal npc1l1 was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the garlic group, compared with the chow group, while abcg5 (p < 0.01), abcg8 (p < 0.01) and abca1 (p < 0.05) expressions were significantly increased. In conclusion, this study reveals a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of the garlic in lowering serum lipids by decreasing the intestinal lipid absorption and increasing excretion of cholesterol back into the intestinal lumen.

  16. Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar

    2013-03-01

    Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (P<0.05) the production of IL-8 and NO compared with digested samples. ROS production increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested commercial red fruit juice (86.8±1.3%) compared with fresh juice (77.4±0.8%) and increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested enriched red fruit juice (82.6±1.6%) compared with the fresh enriched juice (55.8±6%). The anti-inflammatory properties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

  17. Effects of methanolic extract form Fuzhuan brick-tea on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human intestinal epithelial adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jia-Le; Gao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the protective effect of methanolic extract from Fuzhuan brick‑tea (FME) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress in the human intestinal epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line Caco‑2. Caco‑2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) of FME for 2 h and then exposed to H2O2 (1 mM) for 6 h. FME did not exhibit a significant cytotoxic effect and increased the cell viability following H2O2 treatment by decreasing lipid peroxidation in Caco‑2 cells. To investigate the protective effect of FME on H2O2‑induced oxidative stress in Caco‑2 cells, the levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and the activity of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑px) and glutathione S‑transferase (GST), were determined. FME significantly increased the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results from the present study demonstrated that FME has a protective effect on H2O2‑induced oxidative damage in Caco‑2 cells through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, FME reduced the H2O2‑induced expression of interleukin‑8 at both the mRNA and protein levels in Caco‑2 cells.

  18. Radiochemical assay for a NADP+-specific gamma-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase extracted from mitochondrial membrane of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.J.; Gooding, R.C.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-02-01

    A radiochemical assay has been developed for a NADP+-specific gamma-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from rat intestinal epithelial cells. The spectrophotometric assay utilized to measure the enzyme in bacterial cell homogenates is not sensitive enough for homogenates from rat mitochondria, which require an assay that can measure as little as 0.5 nmol NADPH formed/min/ml extract. The assay described here is sensitive to 0.1 nmol product formed/min/ml of extract and employs the use of (/sup 3/H)pyrroline 5-carboxylate which is phosphorylated and oxidized by the enzyme to gamma-(/sup 3/H)glutamyl phosphate, a product that decomposes to (/sup 3/H)pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate. The latter product is separated from the substrate by ion-exchange chromatography. In order to correct for any product loss during separation by ion-exchange (/sup 14/C)pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate is added as an internal standard to the deproteinized assay mixture. Under the assay conditions described mammalian gamma-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity is linear with respect to time and protein concentration. Comparison between the kinetic parameters reported for the bacterial enzyme and those reported here for the mammalian enzyme indicate similarities in the pH optima as well as a requirement for phosphate. Kinetic studies on mammalian enzyme yield apparent Km values of 1.8 mM for pyrroline 5-carboxylate, 0.2 mM for NADP+, and 11.3 mM for phosphate.

  19. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. PMID:26176658

  20. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. PMID:26176658

  1. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  2. Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract mitigates lipotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells and prevents atherogenic changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipak; Desai, Swati; Gajaria, Tejal; Devkar, Ranjitsinh; Ramachandran, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum L. (CS) in preventing in vitro low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation mediated macrophage modification. Further, an in vivo study was also conducted to confirm upon the efficacy of CS seed extract in alleviating pathophysiological alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Copper mediated cell free oxidation of LDL accounted for elevated indices of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP)and protein carbonyl (PC) and a progressive increment in conjugate diene (CD) levels whereas, reverse set of changes were recorded in presence of CS extract. Cell mediated LDL oxidation (using RAW 264.7 cells) accounted for lowered MDA production and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) mediated cell death in presence of CS extract and the same was attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials. High cholesterol fed atherogenic rats showed elevated lipid indices, evidences of LDL oxidation, plaque formation in thoracic aorta. The same was further validated with immunostaining of cell adhesion molecules and hematoxylin and eosin (HXE) staining. However, co-supplementation of CS to atherogenic rats recorded significant lowering of the above mentioned parameters further strengthening the claim that CS extract is instrumental in preventing onset and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26417232

  3. Preventive effect of Vaccinium uliginosum L. extract and its fractions on age-related macular degeneration and its action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Myung; Lee, Bom-Lee; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness among the elderly. Although the pathogenesis of this disease remains still obscure, several researchers have report that death of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) caused by excessive accumulation of A2E is crucial determinants of AMD. In this study, the preventive effect of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (V.U) extract and its fractions on AMD was investigated in blue light-irradiated human RPE cell (ARPE-19 cells). Blue light-induced RPE cell death was significantly inhibited by the treatment of V.U extract or its fraction. To identify the mechanism, FAB-MS analysis revealed that V.U inhibits the photooxidation of N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) induced by blue light in cell free system. Moreover, monitoring by quantitative HPLC also revealed that V.U extract and its fractions reduced intracellular accumulation of A2E, suggesting that V.U extract and its fractions inhibit not only blue light-induced photooxidation, but also intracellular accumulation of A2E, resulting in RPE cell survival after blue light exposure. A2E-laden cell exposed to blue light induced apoptosis by increasing the cleaved form of caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2. Additionally, V.U inhibited by the treatment of V.U extract or quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside. These results suggest that V.U extract and its fractions have preventive effect on blue light-induced damage in RPE cells and AMD.

  4. Vaccinium myrtillus extract prevents or delays the onset of diabetes--induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Jo, Kyuhyung; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-03-01

    Many dietary supplements have been sold through advertising their large number of beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) help to prevent diabetes-induced retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. V. myrtillus extract (VME; 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 weeks. All diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, and VME did not affect the blood glucose levels and body weight during the experiments. In the fluorescein-dextran angiography, the fluorescein leakage was significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with VME. VME treatment also decreased markers of diabetic retinopathy, such as retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and degradation of zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-5 in diabetic rats. In conclusion, VME may prevent or delay the onset of early diabetic retinopathy. These findings have important implications for prevention of diabetic retinopathy using a dietary bilberry supplement. PMID:25582181

  5. Chaperone potential of Pulicaria undulata extract in preventing aggregation of stressed proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghahghaei, Arezou; Valizadeh, Jafar; Nazari, Shahrzad; Ravandeh, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of an aqueous extract of Pulicaria undulata on the 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of proteins. The effects of the chaperone properties of P. undulata extract on protein aggregation were determined by measuring light scattering absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The aqueous extract of P. undulata possesses good chaperone properties but the protection effect was varied in different protein. The extract showed a higher level of protection in high molecular weight proteins than in those of low molecular weight. Using a fluorescence study, the present study provides information on the hydrophobic area of proteins interacting with the P. undulata extract. In fact, by increasing the concentration of the P. undulata extract, the hydrophic area of the protein decreased. CD spectroscopy also revealed that DTT caused changes in both the tertiary and the secondary structure of the proteins, while in the presence of P. undulata extract, there was little change. Our finding suggests the possibility of using P. undulata extract for the inhibition of aggregation and the deposition of protein in disease.

  6. Field survey for strongyloidiasis in eastern Uganda with observations on efficacy of preventive chemotherapy and co-occurrence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis/intestinal schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Day, M; Betson, M; Rowell, C; Wamboko, A; Arinaitwe, M; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B; Stothard, J R

    2011-09-01

    Following our previous field surveys for strongyloidiasis in western Uganda, 120 mothers and 232 children from four villages in eastern Uganda were examined, with two subsequent investigative follow-ups. As before, a variety of diagnostic methods were used: Baermann concentration, Koga agar plate and strongyloidid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as well as Kato-Katz faecal smears for detection of eggs of other helminths. At baseline, the general prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis was moderate: 5.4% as estimated by Baermann and Koga agar methods combined. A much higher estimate was found by ELISA (42.3%) which, in this eastern setting, appeared to be confounded by putative cross-reaction(s) with other nematode infections. Preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel and albendazole was offered to all participants at baseline. After 21 days the first follow-up was conducted and 'cure rates' were calculated for all parasites encountered. Eleven months later, the second follow-up assessed longer-term trends. Initial treatments had little, if any, effect on S. stercoralis, and did not alter local prevalence, unlike hookworm infections and intestinal schistosomiasis. We propose that geographical patterns of strongyloidiasis are likely not perturbed by ongoing praziquantel/albendazole campaigns. Antibody titres increased after the first follow-up then regressed towards baseline levels upon second inspection. To better define endemic areas for S. stercoralis, careful interpretation of the ELISA is warranted, especially where diagnosis is likely being confounded by polyparasitism and/or other treatment regimens; new molecular screening tools are clearly needed.

  7. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  8. Mesona Chinensis Benth extract prevents AGE formation and protein oxidation against fructose-induced protein glycation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesona chinensis Benth (Chinese Mesona), an economically significant agricultural plant, is the most widely consumed as an herbal beverage in Southeast Asia and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of Mesona chinensis (MC) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and protein oxidation in an in vitro model of fructose-mediated protein glycation. Methods The content of total polyphenolic compounds was measured by using Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), the level of fructosamine, and the formation of amyloid cross β-structure. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results Our results revealed that the content of total polyphenolic compound in MC extract was 212.4 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract. MC extract (0.25-1.00 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescence AGEs in fructose-glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) during 4 weeks of study. Furthermore, MC extract also decreased the level of Nϵ-CML, fructosamine, and amyloid cross β-structure in fructose-glycated BSA. While the total thiol group was elevated and the protein carbonyl content was decreased in BSA incubated with fructose and MC extract. Conclusions The extract of MC inhibits fructose-mediated protein glycation and protein oxidation. This edible plant could be a natural rich source of antiglycation agent for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complication. PMID:24708679

  9. Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Shudong; Ji, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg), and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation. PMID:27457280

  10. Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Shudong; Ji, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg), and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation. PMID:27457280

  11. Tissue-specific knockouts of ACAT2 reveal that intestinal depletion is sufficient to prevent diet-induced cholesterol accumulation in the liver and blood[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Marshall, Stephanie M.; Davis, Matthew A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Farese, Robert V.; Brown, J. Mark; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) generates cholesterol esters (CE) for packaging into newly synthesized lipoproteins and thus is a major determinant of blood cholesterol levels. ACAT2 is expressed exclusively in the small intestine and liver, but the relative contributions of ACAT2 expression in these tissues to systemic cholesterol metabolism is unknown. We investigated whether CE derived from the intestine or liver would differentially affect hepatic and plasma cholesterol homeostasis. We generated liver-specific (ACAT2L−/L−) and intestine-specific (ACAT2SI−/SI−) ACAT2 knockout mice and studied dietary cholesterol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. ACAT2SI−/SI− mice, in contrast to ACAT2L−/L− mice, had blunted cholesterol absorption. However, specific deletion of ACAT2 in the intestine generated essentially a phenocopy of the conditional knockout of ACAT2 in the liver, with reduced levels of plasma very low-density lipoprotein and hepatic CE, yet hepatic-free cholesterol does not build up after high cholesterol intake. ACAT2L−/L− and ACAT2SI−/SI− mice were equally protected from diet-induced hepatic CE accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that inhibition of intestinal or hepatic ACAT2 improves atherogenic hyperlipidemia and limits hepatic CE accumulation in mice and that depletion of intestinal ACAT2 is sufficient for most of the beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism. Inhibitors of ACAT2 targeting either tissue likely would be beneficial for atheroprotection. PMID:22460046

  12. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  13. Chemoprevention of intestinal polyps in ApcMin/+ mice fed with western or balanced diets by drinking annurca apple polyphenol extract.

    PubMed

    Fini, Lucia; Piazzi, Giulia; Daoud, Yahya; Selgrad, Michael; Maegawa, Shinji; Garcia, Melissa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Romano, Marco; Graziani, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Carmack, Susanne W; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Genta, Robert M; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Boland, C Richard; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2011-06-01

    The Western diet (WD) is associated with a higher incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) than the Mediterranean diet. Polyphenols extracted from Annurca apple showed chemopreventive properties in CRC cells. A multifactorial, four-arm study by using wild-type (wt) and Apc(Min/+) mice was carried out to evaluate the effect on polyp number and growth of APE treatment (60 μmol/L) ad libitum in drinking water combined with a WD or a balanced diet (BD) for 12 weeks. Compared with APE treatment, we found a significant drop in body weight (P < 0.0001), severe rectal bleeding (P = 0.0076), presence of extraintestinal tumors, and poorer activity status (P = 0.0034) in water-drinking Apc(Min/+) mice, more remarkably in the WD arm. In the BD and WD groups, APE reduced polyp number (35% and 42%, respectively, P < 0.001) and growth (60% and 52%, respectively, P < 0.0001) in both colon and small intestine. Increased antioxidant activity was found in wt animals fed both diets and in Apc(Min/+) mice fed WD and drinking APE. Reduced lipid peroxidation was found in Apc(Min/+) mice drinking APE fed both diets and in wt mice fed WD. In normal mucosa, mice drinking water had lower global levels of DNA methylation than mice drinking APE. APE treatment is highly effective in reducing polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice and supports the concept that a mixture of phytochemicals, as they are naturally present in foods, represent a plausible chemopreventive agent for CRC, particularly in populations at high risk for colorectal neoplasia.

  14. Intestinal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucocorticoids as well as a tissue capable of producing and metabolizing sex steroids. This finding is based on the detection of steroidogenic enzyme expression as well as the presence of bioactive steroids in both the rodent and human gut. Within the intestinal mucosa, the intestinal epithelial cell layer is one of the main cellular sources of steroids. Glucocorticoid synthesis regulation in the intestinal epithelial cells is unique in that it does not involve the classical positive regulator steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) but a closely related homolog, namely the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). This local production of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids contributes to intestinal homeostasis and has been linked to pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells also possess the ability to metabolize sex steroids, notably estrogen; this mechanism may impact colorectal cancer development. In this review, we contextualize and discuss what is known about intestinal steroidogenesis and regulation as well as the key role these functions play both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  16. Considerations to prevent the breakdown and loss of fruit carotenoids during extraction and analysis in Musa.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Keulemans, Wannes

    2009-07-24

    The impact of treatments aimed at improving the robustness of protocols for the analysis of carotenoids in fruit of banana and plantain were examined. Neither the inclusion of polyvinylpolypyrrolidine in the extraction buffer, nor vigorous homogenisation with glass beads influenced recoveries or chromatographic profiles. By contrast, heating lead to losses of up to 53% and to the formation of degradation products that are no longer detectable on our RP-HPLC system. Carotenoid extracts are unstable and most sensitive to exposure to light. However, even in the dark at -20 degrees C and in the presence of antioxidants breakdown rates of around 5% per day were observed. PMID:19541318

  17. Considerations to prevent the breakdown and loss of fruit carotenoids during extraction and analysis in Musa.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Keulemans, Wannes

    2009-07-24

    The impact of treatments aimed at improving the robustness of protocols for the analysis of carotenoids in fruit of banana and plantain were examined. Neither the inclusion of polyvinylpolypyrrolidine in the extraction buffer, nor vigorous homogenisation with glass beads influenced recoveries or chromatographic profiles. By contrast, heating lead to losses of up to 53% and to the formation of degradation products that are no longer detectable on our RP-HPLC system. Carotenoid extracts are unstable and most sensitive to exposure to light. However, even in the dark at -20 degrees C and in the presence of antioxidants breakdown rates of around 5% per day were observed.

  18. Rhodiola crenulata extract for prevention of acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is widely used to prevent acute mountain sickness in the Himalayan areas and in Tibet, but no scientific studies have previously examined its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate its efficacy in acute mountain sickness prevention. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to 2 treatment sequences, receiving either 800 mg R. crenulata extract or placebo daily for 7 days before ascent and 2 days during mountaineering, before crossing over to the alternate treatment after a 3-month wash-out period. Participants ascended rapidly from 250 m to 3421 m on two separate occasions: December 2010 and April 2011. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of acute mountain sickness, as defined by a Lake Louise score ≥ 3, with headache and at least one of the symptoms of nausea or vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, or difficulty sleeping. Results One hundred and two participants completed the trial. There were no demographic differences between individuals taking Rhodiola-placebo and those taking placebo-Rhodiola. No significant differences in the incidence of acute mountain sickness were found between R. crenulata extract and placebo groups (all 60.8%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–1.52). The incidence of severe acute mountain sickness in Rhodiola extract vs. placebo groups was 35.3% vs. 29.4% (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.90–2.25). Conclusions R. crenulata extract was not effective in reducing the incidence or severity of acute mountain sickness as compared to placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01536288. PMID:24176010

  19. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract ameliorates intestinal inflammation through MAPKs/NF-κB signaling in a murine model of acute experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Ketkar, Avanee; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-07-13

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-colitis effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) by using both in vitro LPS-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental murine colitis and suggested the underlying possible mechanisms. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the major components present in the RE. The clinical signs, biochemistry, immunoblot, ELISA and histology in colon tissues were assessed in order to elucidate the beneficial effect of RE. RE suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the expressions of inflammatory proteins in macrophages. Administration of RE (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) also significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis, as assessed by the clinical symptoms, colon length and histology. RE administration prevented the DSS-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs, attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB (p65). RE also suppressed the COX-2 and iNOS expressions, decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines and the myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation revealed that RE administration alleviated mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS in the colon tissue. Hence, RE could be used as a new preventive and therapeutic food ingredient or as a dietary supplement for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27349640

  20. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses. PMID:24397881

  1. Potential applications for Annona squamosa leaf extract in the treatment and prevention of foodborne bacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Trachoo, Nathanon; Sakee, Uthai; Cushnie, T P Tim

    2013-03-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem. The present study examined Annona squamosa leaves, which are traditionally used to treat diarrhea and other infections, for their potential to be used in modern food safety or medicine. Active constituents were partially purified by ethanol extraction and column chromatography. MICs of the extract were 62.5 to 125 microg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, and 250 microg/mL against Campylobacter jejuni. In time-kill assays, 500 microg/mL of the extract reduced colony forming unit numbers of C. jejuni almost 10 000-fold within 12 hours. Similar decreases were seen against B. cereus, but over a longer time-frame. LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of reticuline and oxophoebine. Assessment of stability by MIC assay showed activity was heat-labile, with loss of activity greatest following high temperature treatments. Activity was relatively stable at refrigeration temperature. These results indicate A. squamosa has broad-spectrum but heat-labile activity against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and bactericidal activity against B. cereus and C. jejuni. This bactericidal activity is not sufficiently rapid for A. squamosa to be used as a food sanitizer, but the extract could potentially be developed as an additive for refrigerated foods, or a modern treatment for foodborne illness.

  2. Green tea extract containing a highly absorbent catechin prevents diet-induced lipid metabolism disorder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Yamashita, Shuya; Nakahara, Kanami; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Sasaki, Masako; Hagihara, Takatoki; Tsurudome, Yukari; Huang, Yuhui; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Shinoda, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2013-09-25

    We investigated the effects of extracts of Benifuuki (a tea cultivar that contains methylated catechins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me)) in mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet. This tea cultivar was then compared with an extract of Yabukita (a popular tea cultivar that lacks methylated catechins). For 6 weeks, C57BL/6J mice were fed either HF/HS diet with or without tea extracts from tea cultivars, which contained almost identical ingredients except for methylated catechins (i.e., Yabukita (0.2% and 1%) or Benifuuki (0.2% and 1%) extract powders). Supplementation with Benifuuki 0.2% markedly lowered plasma levels of TG and NEFAs compared with mice supplemented with Yabukita 0.2%. The diet containing Benifuuki 1% decreased adipose tissue weights, liver TG, and expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. These results suggested that Benifuuki had much greater lipid-lowering effects than Yabukita. Taken together, these data suggest that methylated catechins direct the strong lipid-lowering activity of Benifuuki.

  3. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses.

  4. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bowel may be due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  5. Pulicaria jaubertii extract prevents triglyceride deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, levels of obesity in Middle Eastern countries are increasing. Phytochemicals have anti-obesogenic properties as evidenced by prevention of adipocyte differentiation. In Yemen, Pulicaria jaubertii E.Gamal-Eldin (PJ) is a food additive and a traditional medicine. We tested the ability of ex...

  6. Intestinal phase of gastric secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Kwiecien, N; Obtułowicz, W; Sito, E; Oleksy, J

    1978-04-01

    In 10 healthy subjects and 10 duodenal ulcer patients the intestinal phase of gastric acid secretion was studied by intraduodenal infusion of a 10% liver extract meal (pH 7) at 400 ml/h for three hours. A gastroduodenal double lumen tube with two balloons was used to block the pylorus and to prevent duodenogastric reflux. Gastric acid response to a duodenal meal of liver extract reached a peak at the end of the first hour of infusion of the extract and was then followed by a relatively well-sustained plateau. When the figure was normalised as a percentage of peak response to pentagastrin it was about 45% in healthy subjects and 63% in duodenal ulcer patients. Serum gastrin concentration increased significantly during a duodenal meal of liver extract only in duodenal ulcer patients and not in healthy subjects. The combination of the duodenal meal of liver extract with pentagastrin infusion resulted in a significantly greater increase in acid output in duodenal ulcer patients than in healthy controls. Duodenal perfusion with a liver extract meal in which the pH was gradually decreased caused a pH-dependent reduction in acid output, but not in serum gastrin, both in the duodenal ulcer patients and in healthy subjects. This study shows that the intestinal phase in man results in a potent gastric acid stimulation which is pH-dependent, greatly augmented by pentagastrin, and more vigorous in duodenal ulcer patients than in healthy controls.

  7. Preventive Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two Extracts on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Ali-Reza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Abed, Ali-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of pancreas with sudden onset, high mortality rate and multiple organ failure characteristics. It has been shown that oxygen free radicals have an important role in development of pancreatitis and its complications. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxicity and gastroprotective properties of Cichorium intybus L. suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: Five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulean (50 μg/ kg at 1 h intervals) in mice resulted in acute pancreatitis, which was characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, as well as increases in the serum levels of amylase and lipase in comparison to normal mice. Different doses of C. intybus root (CRE) and aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract (CAPE) orally (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and intraperitoneally (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) were administrated 1.0 and 0.5 h respectively before pancreatitis induction on separate groups of male mice (n=6). Control groups treated with normal saline (5 ml/ kg) similarly. Results: Both extracts in greater test doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) were effective to decrease amylase (23-36%) and lipase (27-35%) levels. In oral route, the dose of 200 mg/ kg showed a significant decrease in levels of amylase (16%) and lipase (24%) activity while the greatest dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was only effective to diminish inflammatory features like edema and leukocyte infiltration in pancreatitis tissue (P<0.01). Vacuolization was not significantly reduced in extracts treated groups. Conclusions: These data suggest that C. intybus hydroalcoholic extracts were effective to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis and the efficacy was partly dependent to the dose and was more significant after parenteral administration. PMID:22708031

  8. Silymarin, the antioxidant component and Silybum marianum extracts prevent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Shaker, E; Mahmoud, H; Mnaa, S

    2010-03-01

    Liver disorders are one of the common recent problems affects on the human health. These disorders due to many environmental polluted sources. Many herbal, medicinal and pharmaceutical plants and their extracts are widely studied by many researchers. Silybum marianum got a bright reputation in relieve the liver diseases, and that might be for the potent silymarin mixture. Mechanism of action for silymarin conducted mainly to the antiradical and anticarcinogenic roles. Ethyl acetate (100mg/kg bw) and ethanol seed extracts for S. marianum (100mg/kg bw) were tested against the injection (i.p.) by carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg bw) the inducer of liver damage. Their activity were compared with standard hepatic drug hepaticum (100mg/kg bw) for 10 days. Ethanolic extract showed the most significantly decrease in the liver enzymes. For the oxidative experiments, ethyl acetate showed the most increase for glutathione level and the risk factor HDL/LDL significantly. Hepaticum was the most powerful group for the significant decreasing for malondialdehyde and fucosidase activity. Some equal improvements were noticed in the histopathological studies for the protective groups.

  9. Fucoidan extracted from Fucus evanescens prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Besednova, Natalya N; Somova, Larisa M; Plekhova, Natalya G

    2014-01-31

    An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide) from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6), as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice's resistance to LPS.

  10. The Cimicifuga racemosa special extract BNO 1055 prevents hot flashes in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Priya; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-09-01

    Hot flashes are a disorder of thermoregulation due to the lack of estrogens and are the most common and characteristic climacteric complaint. Hormone replacement therapy is the gold standard treatment but now its use is limited due to several side effects. Need therefore arises to search for non-estrogenic alternatives. It is well established that extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) ease climacteric complaints but solid animal experimental data supporting such effects are not available. The availability of sensitive transponders which record subcutaneous temperature continuously enables nowadays experiments in rats to establish whether they have hot flashes following ovariectomy (Seidlova-Wuttke et al. 2003) and if so, whether they can be influenced by the extract of CR BNO 1055. Intact Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were acclimatized and their subcutaneous body temperature was measured in 5 min intervals and mean values from 3h recordings were calculated. Thereafter, the rats were ovx and fed either with soy free (sf) or CR BNO 1055 (25 mg/animal/day) food. Temperature was recorded again after acute and sub-acute application of CR. In individual intact animals temperature was stable over the 3h recording period. Following ovx temperature pulses appeared with peaks occurring every 20-40 min. These fluctuations were not seen in CR BNO 1055 treated animals resulting in significantly higher mean temperatures in ovx in comparison to intact or ovx CR BNO treated rats. This reduction of hot flashes by BNO 1055 outlasted the experimental period of 3 weeks. These results suggest that the ovx rats and the new temperature-sensitive device may be useful for the study of hot flashes. Furthermore the results prove that the CR BNO 1055 exerts hot flash reducing effects.

  11. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  12. Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuezhong; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Wanqing; Gao, Ling; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Cai, Lu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney. PMID:27669240

  13. Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuezhong; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Wanqing; Gao, Ling; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Cai, Lu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney. PMID:27669240

  14. Moringa oleifera leaf extract prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence for an antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and cardioprotective intervention.

    PubMed

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LV dP/dt, (-) LV dP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties. PMID:19298195

  15. Moringa oleifera leaf extract prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence for an antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and cardioprotective intervention.

    PubMed

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LV dP/dt, (-) LV dP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.

  16. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xuemei; Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE's effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  17. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE’s effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  18. Prevention Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Mulberry Leaf Extract and its Formulation on Rats with Insulin-Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xuemei; Xie, Chen; Luo, Xiuzhen; Bao, Yonggang; Wu, Bin; Hu, Yuchi; Zhong, Zhong; Liu, Chang; Li, MinJie

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, mulberry leaf has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. This study aims to test the prevention effects of a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and a formula consisting of MLE, fenugreek seed extract, and cinnamon cassia extract (MLEF) on insulin resistance development in animals. MLE was refined to contain 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin by weight. MLEF was formulated by mixing MLE with cinnamon cassia extract and fenugreek seed extract at a 6:5:3 ratio (by weight). First, the acute toxicity effects of MLE on ICR mice were examined at 5 g/kg BW dose. Second, two groups of normal rats were administrated with water or 150 mg/kg BW MLE per day for 29 days to evaluate MLE's effect on normal animals. Third, to examine the effects of MLE and MLEF on model animals, sixty SD rats were divided into five groups, namely, (1) normal, (2) model, (3) high-dose MLE (75 mg/kg BW) treatment; (4) low-dose MLE (15 mg/kg BW) treatment; and (5) MLEF (35 mg/kg BW) treatment. On the second week, rats in groups (2)-(5) were switched to high-energy diet for three weeks. Afterward, the rats were injected (ip) with a single dose of 105 mg/kg BW alloxan. After four more days, fasting blood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Last, liver lysates from animals were screened with 650 antibodies for changes in the expression or phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins. The results were further validated by Western blot analysis. We found that the maximum tolerance dose of MLE was greater than 5 g/kg in mice. The MLE at a 150 mg/kg BW dose showed no effect on fast blood glucose levels in normal rats. The MLE at a 75 mg/kg BW dose and MLEF at a 35 mg/kg BW dose, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fast blood glucose levels in rats with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. In total, 34 proteins with significant changes in expression and phosphorylation levels were identified. The

  19. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the small intestine (duodenum) may be caused by cancer of the pancreas, scarring from an ulcer, or Crohn disease . Rarely, a gallstone, a mass of undigested food, or a collection of parasitic worms may block ... commonly caused by cancer, diverticulitis , or a hard lump of stool (fecal ...

  20. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers root extract (TCRE) in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as “normal” and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of “irradiated control” were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Group 4 (experimental) were administered optimum dosage of TCRE with prior exposure to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Follicle cell counts were scored at autopsy intervals of 24 hrs, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after gamma irradiation. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also measured in all groups. TCRE supplementation rendered significant protection to ovaries by restoring follicle counts; it also reduced LPO levels and increased GSH levels in ovaries. It implies that TCRE administration protects ovaries against radiation exposure. PMID:26357520

  1. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers root extract (TCRE) in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as "normal" and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of "irradiated control" were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Group 4 (experimental) were administered optimum dosage of TCRE with prior exposure to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Follicle cell counts were scored at autopsy intervals of 24 hrs, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after gamma irradiation. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also measured in all groups. TCRE supplementation rendered significant protection to ovaries by restoring follicle counts; it also reduced LPO levels and increased GSH levels in ovaries. It implies that TCRE administration protects ovaries against radiation exposure. PMID:26357520

  2. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera prevents ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh K; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2011-10-01

    The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is assessed in terms of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Swiss albino mice were administered MoLE (300 mg/kg of body weight) for 15 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 5 Gy of ⁶⁰Co γ-irradiation. Mice were sacrificed at 4 hours after irradiation. Liver was collected for immunoblotting and biochemical tests for the detection of markers of hepatic oxidative stress. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and lipid peroxidation were augmented, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values were decreased by radiation exposure. Translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus and lipid peroxidation were found to be inhibited, whereas increases in SOD, CAT, GSH, and FRAP were observed in the mice treated with MoLE prior to irradiation. Therefore pretreatment with MoLE protected against γ-radiation-induced liver damage. The protection may be attributed to the free radical scavenging activity of MoLE, through which it can ameliorate radiation-induced oxidative stress. PMID:21861723

  3. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera prevents ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh K; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2011-10-01

    The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is assessed in terms of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Swiss albino mice were administered MoLE (300 mg/kg of body weight) for 15 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 5 Gy of ⁶⁰Co γ-irradiation. Mice were sacrificed at 4 hours after irradiation. Liver was collected for immunoblotting and biochemical tests for the detection of markers of hepatic oxidative stress. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and lipid peroxidation were augmented, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values were decreased by radiation exposure. Translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus and lipid peroxidation were found to be inhibited, whereas increases in SOD, CAT, GSH, and FRAP were observed in the mice treated with MoLE prior to irradiation. Therefore pretreatment with MoLE protected against γ-radiation-induced liver damage. The protection may be attributed to the free radical scavenging activity of MoLE, through which it can ameliorate radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Babita; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek; Indap, Madhavi Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME) on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham) group and six ovariectomised (OVX) subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day); OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day). Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphatase (ACP), serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. PMID:24995144

  5. Preventive Effects of Spirogyra neglecta and a Polysaccharide Extract against Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Taya, Sirinya; Kakehashi, Anna; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Gi, Min; Ishii, Naomi; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) results from colonic epithelial barrier defects and impaired mucosal immune responses. In this study, we aimed to investigate the modifying effects of a Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE), a polysaccharide extract (PE) and a chloroform fraction (CF) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to determine the mechanisms. To induce colitis, ICR mice received 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. Seven days preceding the DSS treatment, oral administration of SNE, PE and CF at doses of 50, 25 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight (low dose), 200, 100 and 1 mg/kg body weight (high dose) and vehicle was started and continued for 14 days. Histologic findings showed that DSS-induced damage of colonic epithelial structure and inflammation was attenuated in mice pre-treated with SNE, PE and CF. Furthermore, SNE and PE significantly protected colonic epithelial cells from DSS-induced cell cycle arrest, while SNE, PE and CF significantly diminished apoptosis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that SNE and PE might ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by inducing antioxidant enzymes, restoring impaired mitochondria function, and regulating inflammatory cytokines, proliferation and apoptosis. These results suggest that SNE and PE could prevent DSS-induced colitis in ICR mice by protection against and/or aiding recovery from damage to the colonic epithelium, reducing ROS and maintaining normal mitochondrial function and apoptosis.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and in vitro prevention of dental plaque formation by extracts and condensed tannins of Paullinia cupana.

    PubMed

    Yamaguti-Sasaki, Elza; Ito, Lia Akina; Canteli, Vanessa Cristina Dias; Ushirobira, Tânia Mara Antonelli; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2007-08-20

    Chemical evaluation of the semi-purified fraction from the seeds of guaraná, Paullinia cupana H.B.K. var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke, yielded the following compounds: caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, ent-epicatechin, and procyanidins B1, B2, B3, B4, A2, and C1. Measurement of the antioxidant activity by reduction of the DPPH radical confirmed the anti-radical properties of the aqueous (AqE) and crude (EBPC) extracts and semi-purified (EPA and EPB) fractions. The EPA fraction showed radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and protected DPPH from discoloration at 5.23 +/- 0.08 (RSD% = 1.49) microg/mL, and for the phosphomolybdenum complex showed a higher Relative Antioxidant Capacity (RAC) at 0.75 +/- 0.01 (1.75). The EPA fraction had a total polyphenolics content of 65.80% +/- 0.62 (RSD% = 0.93). The plant drug showed 5.47% +/- 0.19 (RSD% = 3.51) and 6.19% +/- 0.08 (RSD% = 1.29) for total polyphenolics and methylxanthines, respectively. In vitro assessment of the antibacterial potential of the Paullinia cupana extracts against Streptococcus mutans showed that these could be used in the prevention of bacterial dental plaque.

  7. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease. PMID:26569295

  8. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease. PMID:26569295

  9. Preventative effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on high glucose-cultured opacity of rat lens.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Mingzhu; Du, Lei; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Gang; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic cataract is one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes, and it is characterized by opacification of the eye lens. In this study, we examined the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on rat lenses cultured in high-glucose conditions. The cultured rat lenses were divided into six groups: normal group, high-glucose group, high glucose plus low, medium, and high concentrations of EGb761 groups, and a high glucose plus bendazac lysine group. The activities of antioxidases, aldose reductase, advanced glycosylation end products, transforming growth factor-β2, Smad2/3, E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin were assessed by different methods. Compared with the levels in the high glucose group, EGb761 decreased the intensity of oxidative stress, decreased aldose reductase activation and the level of advanced glycosylation end products, and suppress the transforming growth factor-β2 or Smad pathway activation, further increase the expression of E-cadherin and decrease α-smooth muscle actin, and therefore, prevents the pathological changes of high glucose-induced lens epithelial cells and ameliorated lens opacity. These results suggest that EGb761 has protective effects on several pharmacological targets in the progress of diabetic cataract and is a potential drug for the prevention of diabetic cataract.

  10. Silver-zeolite combined to polyphenol-rich extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum: potential active role in prevention of periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Chandad, Fatiha; Rébillard, Amélie; Cillard, Josiane; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various biological effects of silver-zeolite and a polyphenol-rich extract of A. nodosum (ASCOP) to prevent and/or treat biofilm-related oral diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii contribute to the biofilm formation associated with chronic periodontitis. In this study, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of silver-zeolite (Ag-zeolite) combined to ASCOP on P. gingivalis and S. gordonii growth and biofilm formation capacity. We also studied the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities of ASCOP in cell culture models. While Ag-zeolite combined with ASCOP was ineffective against the growth of S. gordonii, it showed a strong bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis growth. Ag-zeolite combined with ASCOP was able to completely inhibit S. gordonii monospecies biofilm formation as well as to reduce the formation of a bi-species S. gordonii/P. gingivalis biofilm. ASCOP alone was ineffective towards the growth and/or biofilm formation of S. gordonii and P. gingivalis while it significantly reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6) by LPS-stimulated human like-macrophages. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and decreased LPS induced lipid peroxidation in gingival epithelial cells. These findings support promising use of these products in future preventive or therapeutic strategies against periodontal diseases. PMID:25272151

  11. Silver-Zeolite Combined to Polyphenol-Rich Extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum: Potential Active Role in Prevention of Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Chandad, Fatiha; Rébillard, Amélie; Cillard, Josiane; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various biological effects of silver-zeolite and a polyphenol-rich extract of A. nodosum (ASCOP) to prevent and/or treat biofilm-related oral diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii contribute to the biofilm formation associated with chronic periodontitis. In this study, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of silver-zeolite (Ag-zeolite) combined to ASCOP on P. gingivalis and S. gordonii growth and biofilm formation capacity. We also studied the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities of ASCOP in cell culture models. While Ag-zeolite combined with ASCOP was ineffective against the growth of S. gordonii, it showed a strong bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis growth. Ag-zeolite combined with ASCOP was able to completely inhibit S. gordonii monospecies biofilm formation as well as to reduce the formation of a bi-species S. gordonii/P. gingivalis biofilm. ASCOP alone was ineffective towards the growth and/or biofilm formation of S. gordonii and P. gingivalis while it significantly reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6) by LPS-stimulated human like-macrophages. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and decreased LPS induced lipid peroxidation in gingival epithelial cells. These findings support promising use of these products in future preventive or therapeutic strategies against periodontal diseases. PMID:25272151

  12. ''Sandwich'' treatment for diospyrobezoar intestinal obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Xiong; Prasoon, Pankaj; Chen, Yan; Hu, Liang; Chen, Li

    2014-12-28

    Intestinal obstruction is a common clinical entity encountered in surgical practice. The objective of this report is to corroborate an atypical scenario of intestinal obstruction in a Chinese patient and to focus on the diagnosis and treatment. A 27-year-old male presented with a history of gastric pain combined with nausea and abdominal distension that had been present for 5 d. The presence of a foreign body was detected by computed tomography and observed as an abnormal density within the stomach. A diospyrobezoar was revealed during gastroscopy, the extraction of which was prevented due to its size and firmness. An endoscopic holmium laser joined with a snare was used to fragment the obstruction, which was followed by management with a conservative "sandwich" treatment strategy involving intestinal decompression with an ileus tube and Coca-Cola lavage between endoscopic lithotripsy fragmentation procedures. This strategy resulted in the successful removal of the diospyrobezoar along with multiple small bowel obstructions. The patient was discharged after abatement of symptoms. The case presented here demonstrates the implementation of a conservative, yet successful, treatment as an alternative to conventional surgical removal of intestinal obstructions. PMID:25561823

  13. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) extract prevents dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting the muscle degradation pathway in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kyung Kyun; Chung, Ki Wung; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Min Jo; Park, Chan Hum; Yoon, Changshin; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Cheol Min; Kim, Nam Deuk; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-09-01

    In the Orient, loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) extract (LE) is widely used in teas, food and folk medicines. The leaves of the loquat tree have been used for generations to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm production, high fever and gastroenteric disorders. One of the major active components of loquat leaves is ursolic acid, which was recently investigated in the context of preventing muscle atrophy. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of LE on dexamethasone‑induced muscle atrophy in rats. Daily intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone caused muscle atrophy and evidence of muscle atrophy prevention by LE was demonstrated using various assays. In particular, dexamethasone‑induced grip strength loss was alleviated by LE and the increase in serum creatine kinase activity, a surrogate marker of muscle damage, caused by dexamethasone injection was reduced by LE. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that dexamethasone markedly increased the protein expression levels of muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1), which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and decreased the protein expression levels of MyHC as well as increased the ubiquitinated MyHC to MyHC ratio. However, LE reduced the dexamethasone‑induced protein expression levels of MuRF1 and ubiquitinated MyHC. Additional experiments revealed that LE supplementation inhibited the nuclear translocation of FoxO1 induced by dexamethasone. These findings suggested that LE prevented dexamethasone‑induced muscle atrophy by regulating the FoxO1 transcription factor and subsequently the expression of MuRF1.

  14. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  15. Pomegranate peel extract prevents liver fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Z; Dumlu, Melek U; Sehirli, Ozer; Ercan, Feriha; Gedik, Nursal; Gökmen, Vural; Sener, Goksel

    2007-09-01

    Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) is a widely used plant that has high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic administration of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. PPE (50 mg kg(-1)) or saline was administered orally for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver function and tissue damage. Proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta) in the serum and antioxidant capacity (AOC) were measured in plasma samples. Samples of liver tissue were taken for measurement of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and cytokines were elevated in the BDL group compared with the control group; this increase was significantly decreased by PPE treatment. Plasma AOC and hepatic GSH levels were significantly depressed by BDL but were increased back to control levels in the PPE-treated BDL group. Increases in tissue MDA levels and MPO activity due to BDL were reduced back to control levels by PPE treatment. Similarly, increased hepatic collagen content in the BDL rats was reduced to the level of the control group with PPE treatment. Thus, chronic PPE administration alleviated the BDL-induced oxidative injury of the liver and improved the hepatic structure and function. It therefore seems likely that PPE, with its antioxidant and antifibrotic properties, may be of potential therapeutic value in protecting the liver from fibrosis and oxidative injury due to biliary obstruction. PMID:17939210

  16. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar cane extract on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Abasy, Moshira; Motobu, Maki; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Koge, Kenji; Onodera, Takashi; Vainio, Olli; Toivanen, Paavo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2004-08-01

    Effects of oral administration of sugar cane extract (SCE) on immunosuppression in chickens treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) were evaluated. Three-week-old inbred chickens were inoculated into the crop with SCE (500 mg/kg/day) for three consecutive days before or after injection of CPA 12 or 20 mg/chicken. At the last day of SCE or CPA treatment, all chickens were immunized intravenously with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA). Chickens administered SCE showed a significant increase in body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and antibody responses to SRBC and BA than untreated control chickens. Chickens injected with CPA alone showed significantly decreased body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative weight of the bursa and antibody responses to SRBC and BA, showing immunosuppression in the bursa-dependent immune system. All chickens administered SCE before or after the treatment with CPA showed significantly higher values in body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative bursal weight and antibody responses to both antigens, when compared to chickens treated with CPA alone. In histological examination, chickens administered SCE showed a typical bursa with well constituted follicles, although chickens treated with CPA alone showed a severely atrophied bursa with rudimentary follicles and enormous proliferation of interfollicular connective tissue. Chickens treated with SCE and CPA showed a well-reconstituted bursa with almost normal structure. These results suggest that SCE has functionally and morphologically reconstituting effects on the bursa-dependent immune system in immunosuppressed chickens induced by injection of CPA.

  17. Flavonoids Extracted from Licorice Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiaowei; Liu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Li, Liyong; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally considered as a major risk factor in the progression of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Thus, it is well accepted that ameliorating inflammation creates a potential to achieve an inhibitory effect on CAC. Licorice flavonoids (LFs) possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, making it possible to investigate its pharmacologic role in suppressing CAC. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of LFs, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model was established and administered with or without LFs for 10 weeks, and then the severity of CAC was examined macroscopically and histologically. Subsequently, the effects of LFs on expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and proliferation, levels of inflammatory cytokine, expression of phosphorylated-Janus kinases 2 (p-Jak2) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-Stat3), and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and P53 were assessed. We found that LFs could significantly reduce tumorigenesis induced by AOM/DSS. Further study revealed that LFs treatment substantially reduced activation of NFκB and P53, and subsequently suppressed production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3 in AOM/DSS-induced mice. Taken together, LFs treatment alleviated AOM/DSS induced CAC via P53 and NFκB/IL-6/Jak2/Stat3 pathways, highlighting the potential of LFs in preventing CAC. PMID:27563884

  18. Flavonoids Extracted from Licorice Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiaowei; Liu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Li, Liyong; Cao, Li

    2016-08-24

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally considered as a major risk factor in the progression of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Thus, it is well accepted that ameliorating inflammation creates a potential to achieve an inhibitory effect on CAC. Licorice flavonoids (LFs) possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, making it possible to investigate its pharmacologic role in suppressing CAC. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of LFs, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model was established and administered with or without LFs for 10 weeks, and then the severity of CAC was examined macroscopically and histologically. Subsequently, the effects of LFs on expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and proliferation, levels of inflammatory cytokine, expression of phosphorylated-Janus kinases 2 (p-Jak2) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-Stat3), and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and P53 were assessed. We found that LFs could significantly reduce tumorigenesis induced by AOM/DSS. Further study revealed that LFs treatment substantially reduced activation of NFκB and P53, and subsequently suppressed production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3 in AOM/DSS-induced mice. Taken together, LFs treatment alleviated AOM/DSS induced CAC via P53 and NFκB/IL-6/Jak2/Stat3 pathways, highlighting the potential of LFs in preventing CAC.

  19. Flavonoids Extracted from Licorice Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiaowei; Liu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Li, Liyong; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally considered as a major risk factor in the progression of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Thus, it is well accepted that ameliorating inflammation creates a potential to achieve an inhibitory effect on CAC. Licorice flavonoids (LFs) possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, making it possible to investigate its pharmacologic role in suppressing CAC. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of LFs, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model was established and administered with or without LFs for 10 weeks, and then the severity of CAC was examined macroscopically and histologically. Subsequently, the effects of LFs on expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and proliferation, levels of inflammatory cytokine, expression of phosphorylated-Janus kinases 2 (p-Jak2) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-Stat3), and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and P53 were assessed. We found that LFs could significantly reduce tumorigenesis induced by AOM/DSS. Further study revealed that LFs treatment substantially reduced activation of NFκB and P53, and subsequently suppressed production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3 in AOM/DSS-induced mice. Taken together, LFs treatment alleviated AOM/DSS induced CAC via P53 and NFκB/IL-6/Jak2/Stat3 pathways, highlighting the potential of LFs in preventing CAC. PMID:27563884

  20. Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract Prevents Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson’s Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result

  1. Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and β-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified β-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNFα and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas β-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified β-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that β-glucan fractions or pure β-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID

  2. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  3. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine ... Embolus: Blood clots can block one of the arteries supplying the intestine. People who have had a ...

  4. Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Leaves Displays In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Prevents the Elevation of Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Kumar, Korla Praveen; Muniandy, Sekaran; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes. PMID:24991228

  5. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  6. High-Dose Viscum album Extract Treatment in the Prevention of Recurrent Bladder Cancer: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Wilkens, Johannes; Kienle, Gunver S; Kiene, Helmut; Vagedes, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Viscum album extract (European mistletoe), containing immuno-active compounds with dose-dependent cytotoxic activity, is being used as an adjuvant cancer treatment in Europe. Few studies have yet been done with high-dose, fever-inducing Viscum album treatment. Objective: To explore whether subcutaneous injections of high-dose Viscum album have a preventive effect on risk of recurrence of bladder cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the case records of patients with resectable bladder cancer who underwent initiation of high-dose Viscum album treatment at our clinic between January 2006 and December 2012. Main Outcome Measures: We calculated tumor recurrence and progression risk and explored case records to assess whether treatment had a likely, possible, or unlikely beneficial effect. Results: Eight patients were identified, 7 of whom had nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer and 1 with muscle-invasive cancer. Four patients had frequently recurring tumors before treatment. Among the 8 patients, 28 episodes of recurrence were observed. Median tumor-free follow-up duration was 48.5 months. High-dose Viscum album showed a possible beneficial effect in 5 of 8 patients, could not be assessed in 2 patients, and had an uncertain effect in 1 patient. No tumor progression was observed. Treatment was generally well tolerated and no patient stopped treatment because of side effects. Conclusion: High-dose Viscum album treatment may have interrupted frequently recurring tumors in individual patients with recurrent bladder cancer. Prospective studies are needed to assess whether this treatment offers an additional, bladder-sparing preventive option for patients with intermediate- to high-risk nonmuscleinvasive bladder cancer. PMID:26517439

  7. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action. PMID:21713743

  8. Olive and grape seed extract prevents post-traumatic osteoarthritis damages and exhibits in vitro anti IL-1β activities before and after oral consumption.

    PubMed

    Mével, Elsa; Merceron, Christophe; Vinatier, Claire; Krisa, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Hivernaud, Vincent; Gauthier, Olivier; Abadie, Jérôme; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Houard, Xavier; Wittrant, Yohann; Urban, Nelly; Beck, Laurent; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols exert a large range of beneficial effects in the prevention of age-related diseases. We sought to determine whether an extract of olive and grape seed standardized according to hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy) content, exerts preventive anti-osteoathritic effects. To this aim, we evaluated whether the HT/PCy mix could (i) have in vitro anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions, (ii) exert anti-osteoarthritis effects in two post-traumatic animal models and (iii) retain its bioactivity after oral administration. Anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of HT/PCy were tested on primary cultured rabbit chondrocytes stimulated by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). The results showed that HT/PCy exerts anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions in vitro. The preventive effect of HT/PCy association was assessed in two animal models of post-traumatic OA in mice and rabbits. Diet supplementation with HT/PCy significantly decreased the severity of post-traumatic osteoarthritis in two complementary mice and rabbit models. The bioavailability and bioactivity was evaluated following gavage with HT/PCy in rabbits. Regular metabolites from HT/PCy extract were found in sera from rabbits following oral intake. Finally, sera from rabbits force-fed with HT/PCy conserved anti-IL-1β effect, suggesting the bioactivity of this extract. To conclude, HT/PCy extract may be of clinical significance for the preventive treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27640363

  9. Olive and grape seed extract prevents post-traumatic osteoarthritis damages and exhibits in vitro anti IL-1β activities before and after oral consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mével, Elsa; Merceron, Christophe; Vinatier, Claire; Krisa, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Hivernaud, Vincent; Gauthier, Olivier; Abadie, Jérôme; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Houard, Xavier; Wittrant, Yohann; Urban, Nelly; Beck, Laurent; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols exert a large range of beneficial effects in the prevention of age-related diseases. We sought to determine whether an extract of olive and grape seed standardized according to hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy) content, exerts preventive anti-osteoathritic effects. To this aim, we evaluated whether the HT/PCy mix could (i) have in vitro anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions, (ii) exert anti-osteoarthritis effects in two post-traumatic animal models and (iii) retain its bioactivity after oral administration. Anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of HT/PCy were tested on primary cultured rabbit chondrocytes stimulated by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). The results showed that HT/PCy exerts anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions in vitro. The preventive effect of HT/PCy association was assessed in two animal models of post-traumatic OA in mice and rabbits. Diet supplementation with HT/PCy significantly decreased the severity of post-traumatic osteoarthritis in two complementary mice and rabbit models. The bioavailability and bioactivity was evaluated following gavage with HT/PCy in rabbits. Regular metabolites from HT/PCy extract were found in sera from rabbits following oral intake. Finally, sera from rabbits force-fed with HT/PCy conserved anti-IL-1β effect, suggesting the bioactivity of this extract. To conclude, HT/PCy extract may be of clinical significance for the preventive treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27640363

  10. Monoclonal immunoglobulin A antibodies directed against cholera toxin prevent the toxin-induced chloride secretory response and block toxin binding to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Apter, F M; Lencer, W I; Finkelstein, R A; Mekalanos, J J; Neutra, M R

    1993-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies directed against cholera toxin (CT) are thought to be important in resistance to oral challenge with virulent Vibrio cholerae, although alternative mechanisms for protection of intestinal epithelia against CT-induced fluid secretion have been proposed. The ability of anti-CT IgA to block the effects of CT on human enterocytes has not been directly tested because of the lack of a well-defined in vitro intestinal epithelial cell system to directly measure toxin action and the limited availability of purified anti-CT IgA antibodies. We have generated hybridomas that produce monoclonal IgA and IgG antibodies directed against CT by fusion of Peyer's patch cells with mouse myeloma cells after oral-systemic immunization of mice with CT and CT B-subunit protein. All of the anti-CT antibodies recognized the B subunit. Three clones (designated anti-CTB IgA-1, IgA-2, and IgA-3) which produced IgA antibodies in dimeric and polymeric forms were selected. Checkerboard immunoblotting demonstrated that IgA-1 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by IgA-2 and IgA-3 and that none of the antibodies were directed against the binding site of GM1, the intestinal cell membrane toxin receptor. The protective capacity of these IgAs was tested in vitro with human T84 colon carcinoma cells grown on permeable supports as confluent monolayers of polarized enterocytes. When each anti-CTB IgA was mixed with 10 nM CT and applied to the apical surfaces of T84 cell monolayers, all three IgAs blocked CT-induced Cl- secretion in a dose-dependent manner and completely inhibited binding of rhodamine-labelled CT to apical cell membranes. Thus, monoclonal anti-CTB IgA antibodies are sufficient to protect human enterocytes in vitro against CT binding and action. Images PMID:7693598

  11. PEGylated porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 improved the intestinal digestive function and prevented inflammation of weaning piglets challenged with LPS.

    PubMed

    Qi, K K; Wu, J; Deng, B; Li, Y M; Xu, Z W

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects on intestinal function, anti-inflammatory role and possible mechanism of polyethylene glycosylated (PEGylated) porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2), a long-acting form of pGLP-2, in weaning piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We divided 18 weaned piglets on day 21 into three groups (control, LPS and LPS+PEG-pGLP-2; n=6). The piglets from the LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 group were injected with PEG-pGLP-2 at 10 nmol/kg BW from 5 to 7 days of the trials daily. On 8th day, the piglets in the LPS and LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 groups were intraperitoneally administered with 100 µg LPS/kg. The control group was administered with the same volume of saline solution. The piglets were then sacrificed on day 28. Afterwards, serum, duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples were collected for analysis of structural and functional endpoints. LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment increased (P<0.05) lactase activities in the duodenum and the jejunum compared with LPS treatment. LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment also significantly increased sucrase activity in the jejunum compared with LPS treatment. Furthermore, LPS treatment increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-8, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10 in the ileum compared with the control treatment. By contrast, LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment decreased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression levels of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in the ileum compared with the LPS treatment. LPS treatment also increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression level of GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) and the percentage of GLP-2R-positive cells in the ileum; by comparison, these results were (P<0.05) reduced by LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment. Moreover, LPS+PEG-pGLP-2 treatment increased (P<0.05) the content of serum keratinocyte growth factor compared with the control group and the LPS group. The protective effects of PEG-pGLP-2 on intestinal digestive function were associated with the release of GLP-2R mediator (keratinocyte

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

  13. Activation of TOLLIP by porin prevents TLR2-associated IFN-γ and TNF-α-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Tapas

    2014-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cause chronic inflammation of the intestine leading to progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is manifested through rapid apoptosis of the intestinal epithelial cells (iECs). Here, we show inhibition of IFN-γ and TNF-α-induced apoptosis of INT-407 cells by porin, a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) with affinity for toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and commonly present in Gram-negative bacteria. Proinflammatory cytokines induce apoptosis by activation of caspase 8 that triggers caspase 9 through Bax finally leading to activation of caspase 3, the executioner caspase. Interestingly, while IFN-γ and TNF-α promotes Bax expression, in contrast porin up-regulates anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL resulting in iEC survivability. We show elevated expression of TLR2 is a key requisite for IFN-γ and TNF-α mediated caspase 8 up-regulation that contributes to apoptosis of iECs. Down-regulation of TLR2 expression is central for checking apoptosis which is achieved by elevated level of toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) in presence of porin. Attempts to limit IBD is in progress with anti-IFN-γ and anti-TNF-α Abs or use of IL-10. Although probiotic bacterial proteins have shown to successfully reduce IFN-γ and TNF-α mediated apoptosis, the exact mechanism of their action has remained elusive. This study identifies the underlying sequential events of transient TLR2 stimulation followed by its blocking in response to the bacterial outer membrane protein, which advocates intervention at TLR-juncture is crucial for controlling IBD.

  14. Does constraining field of view prevent extraction of geometric cues for humans during virtual-environment reorientation?

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kilday, Zachary A; Bodily, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Environment size has been shown to influence the reliance on local and global geometric cues during reorientation. Unless changes in environment size are produced by manipulating length and width proportionally, changes in environment size are confounded by the amount of the environment that is visible from a single vantage point. Yet, the influence of the amount of the environment that is visible from any single vantage point on the use of local and global geometric cues remains unknown. We manipulated the amount of an environment that was visually available to participants by manipulating field of view (FOV) in a virtual environment orientation task. Two groups of participants were trained in a trapezoid-shaped enclosure to find a location that was uniquely specified by both local and global geometric cues. One group (FOV 50°) had visually less of the environment available to them from any one perspective compared to another group (FOV 100°). Following training, we presented both groups with a control test along with three novel-shaped environments. Testing assessed the use of global geometry in isolation, in alignment with local geometry, or in conflict with local geometry. Results (confirmed by a follow-up experiment) indicated that constraining FOV prevented extraction of geometric properties and relationships of space and resulted in an inability to use either global or local geometric cues for reorientation.

  15. Prevention of arthritis markers in experimental animal and inflammation signalling in macrophage by Karanjin isolated from Pongamia pinnata seed extract.

    PubMed

    Bose, Madhura; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mukherjee, Debarati; Mandal, Suvra; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-08-01

    Karanjin, the furanoflavonoid reported to possess gastroprotective and anti-diabetic properties, was investigated against experimental arthritis and its molecular signalling in inflammation was explored in macrophages. Karanjin was isolated from hexane extract of Pongamia pinnata seeds and was evaluated on arthritis markers in adjuvant induced arthritis model (AIA) in two doses (per oral; 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day). Karanjin dose dependently reduced collagen and cartilage breakdown markers viz. urinary hydroxyproline and glucosamine, respectively, serum lysosomal enzymes responsible for articular cartilage damage, and major proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, secreted by macrophages involved in articular inflammation and destruction. Karanjin also prevented joint damage as evidenced from arthritis score, radiographic and histopathological analysis. To delineate the molecular target of Karanjin, in vitro study on LPS induced macrophages were performed at calibrated non toxic doses (4 µg/mL and 6 µg/mL). Karanjin reduced TNFα production and also showed potent inhibitory effect on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production which is generally induced by TNFα from activated macrophages. NF-κB, the key regulator of TNFα signalling during inflammation was significantly suppressed by Karanjin. Our study for the first time highlights the anti-inflammatory role of Karanjin in experimental arthritis model as well as on macrophage signalling, thereby depicting its probable mechanism of action. PMID:24399783

  16. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  17. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) alleviates arsenic-induced damages to DNA and intestinal tissues in rat and in situ intestinal loop by reinforcing antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Sajed Ali, Sk; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-09-01

    This study elucidates the protective role of Green tea (Camellia sinensis or CS) against arsenic-induced mutagenic DNA-breakage/intestinal (small) damages in female rats. Intestinal epithelial cells receive ingested arsenic initially. Though, the possibility of damages in this tissue is immense and the therapeutic strategies against this damage are of great concern, reports on either issue are scanty. Our earlier study on arsenic-exposed human unveils a link between carcinogenesis and mutagenic DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation of CS-extract (10 mg/mL water) with NaAsO2 (0.6 ppm)/100 g b.w. for 28 days to rats offered a significant protection against arsenic-induced oxidative damages to DNA and intestinal (small) tissues by buttressing antioxidant systems. Necrotic and apoptotic damages and their CS-protection are shown in DNA-fragmentation, comet-assay, and histoarchitecture (hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining) results. Only arsenic exposure significantly decreased intestinal superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and level of soluble thiol with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde/conjugated dienes. Alteration of serum necrotic marker lactate dehydrogenase and the metabolic inflammatory marker c-reactive protein also indicate the impairment may be occurring at transcription and/or cellular signal transduction level. In addition, in situ incubation in rat intestinal loop filled for 24 h with NaAsO2 alone (250 µM) or with aqueous CS-extract (250 mg/mL) suggests that small intestinal epithelial cells are significantly protected by CS against arsenic-associated necrotic/mutagenic damages, which is observed in DNA-breakage studies. In conclusion, besides intensifying endogenous antioxidant system, CS polyphenols also offer a direct role on free radical scavenging activity that is associated to the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakages and prevention of tissue necrosis/carcinogenesis generated by arsenic.

  18. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria

  19. Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers Crude Extract and Fractions: Prevention of Dental Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Mayara Brito; Júnior, José Otávio Carrera Silva; Barbosa, Wagner Luiz Ramos; da Silva Valério, Erika; da Mata Lima, Andriele; de Araújo, Marlon Heggdorne; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Teixeira, Francisco Martins

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caries and periodontal diseases remain as important diseases in the Brazilian population. One important pathogen associated with this situation is Streptococcus mutans and other important factor is this pathogen's ability to adhere firmly to the tooth surface leading to dental biofilm formation and caries development. Objectives: Determine the antibacterial and other biological activities of P. venusta related to its potential to be used in the treatment of caries and periodontal disease. Methods: The growth inhibition by P. venusta of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. oralis and Candida albicans was determined using the broth microdilution method. In addition, the effect of the samples in adherence and reducing production of acids by S. mutans, and germ-tube formation of C. albicans was analysed. The Nitric Oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity of P. venusta to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and RAW 264.7 Cell Line Murine Macrophage from Blood were assessed. Results: The crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate (AF) and n-butanol (BF) fractions showed antibacterial activity. The ethyl-acetate (AF) fraction showed the highest inhibition percentage against the adherence of S. mutans and C. albicans cells without budding, beyond NO production inhibition. There was not any cytotoxicity in the murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that P. venusta presents potential to be used as a preliminary source of compounds that can provide helpful activity when used in prophylaxis or treatment of caries or periodontal disease. SUMMARY Biological activities of Pyrostegia venusta and its potential for use in formulations for the prevention of oral diseases. Abbreviations used: NO: Nitric oxide, PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CE: Crude extract, AF: Ethyl-acetate fraction, BF: n-butanol fraction, HF: Hexane fraction, WF: Water fraction, MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration, MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration, ATCC

  20. Effects of Two Herbal Extracts and Virginiamycin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora Population and Fatty Acid Composition in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Zulkifli, Idrus; Rahim, Nordiana Asyikin Abdul; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, “day-old” chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at −20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens’ breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens. PMID:25049964

  1. N-acetyl-L-glutamine, a liquid-stable source of glutamine, partially prevents changes in body weight and on intestinal immunity induced by protein energy malnutrition in pigs.

    PubMed

    López-Pedrosa, José M; Manzano, Manuel; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Rueda, Ricardo

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of free glutamine versus N-acetyl-L-glutamine, a liquid-stable source of glutamine, on gut damage induced by protein energy malnutrition in pigs. Healthy pigs (n = 6) were fed a liquid formula for 30 days. Three subgroups of malnourished pigs (n = 6) received daily 20% of the food intake recorded in control group, supplemented with calcium caseinate, glutamine, or N-acetyl-L-glutamine. Body weight was recorded, and small intestinal samples were evaluated for biochemical and immunologic parameters. Suppression in body weight gain was significantly lower in pigs fed with N-acetyl-L-glutamine than in the rest of malnourished pigs. Total number of lymphocytes, CD21+ B cells and CD4+ T cells in ileal Peyer patches were not significantly different in malnourished pigs fed with N-acetyl-L-glutamine and in healthy pigs. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-glutamine has a moderate protective effect, partially preventing changes induced by protein energy malnutrition.

  2. Antioxidative Activity of Blueberry Leaf Extract Prevents High-fat Diet-induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Chul; Kim, Dae Yong; Choi, Bu Young

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health beneficial effects of blueberry have been well documented. Obesity is health hazard that is associated with metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the effect of blueberry leaf extract (BBLE) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD with or without BBLE for 10 weeks. Body weight, serum parameter, and adipose tissues morphology were assessed. The expression of mRNA associated with adipogenesis was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Results: Administration of BBLE to mice challenged with HFD significantly decreased the body weight gain, the levels of plasma triglyceride (TG) and liver lipid peroxidation, and reduced the adipocyte size and improved hepatic status compared with the group treated with HFD only. BBLE treatment significantly improved glucose control compared with the HFD group. Moreover, BBLE showed an inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation in obese mice together with significant decrease in the lipid accumulation by downregulating gene expression of adipocyte-specific transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and upregulating the mRNA expression of adiponectin, which are critical for adipogenesis. Conclusion: BBLE suppressed the body weight gain in the HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice. Intake of BBLE reduced body weight in HFD-fed mice by 20%. Furthermore, BBLE supplementation significantly decreased the TG level in the liver and inhibited leptin secretion. BBLE supplementation also improved insulin resistance. Therefore, BBLE is a possible agent to prevent obesity. PMID:25337590

  3. Long lasting preventive effects of piperlongumine and a Piper longum extract against stress triggered pathologies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vaishali; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Majeed, Muhammed; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare doxycycline (DOX) such as oral efficacies of piperlongumine (PL) and a Piper longum fruits extract (PLE) as stress resistance inducers. Materials and Methods: Efficacies of oral pretreatments with 5 mg/kg PL or PLE or of 50 mg/kg DOX for 10 consecutive days against stress resistance were compared. Mice in treated groups were subjected to a stress induced hyperthermia on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10thday. Treated mice were then subjected to tail suspension test on the 11thday. Alteration in body weights, core temperatures, and gastric ulcers triggered by occasional exposures to foot shocks were determined. Results: DOX like long-lasting protective effects of PL and PLE against gradual alterations in body weights, basal temperatures and transient hyperthermic responses triggered by foot shocks during the post-treatment days were observed. Altered responses of stressed mice in tail suspension test observed 1 day after the last foot-shock exposures and gastric ulcers and other pathologies quantified 1 day after the test were also suppressed in PL or PLE or DOX pretreated groups. Conclusion: PL and crude PLE are DOX like long-acting desensitizers of stress triggered co-morbidities. Reported observations add further experimental evidences justifying traditionally known medicinal uses of P. longum and other plants of the Piperaceae family, and reveal that PL is also another very long acting and orally active inducer of stress resistance. Efforts to confirm stress preventive potentials of low dose plant-derived products enriched in PL or piperine like amide alkaloids in volunteers and patients can be warranted. PMID:26649232

  4. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    PubMed Central

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  5. Preventive (myoglobin, transferrin) and scavenging (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) anti-oxidative properties of raw liquid extract of Morinda lucida leaf in the traditional treatment of Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Mathew Folaranmi; Babatunde, Elizabeth Moyinoluwa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liquid extract of Morinda lucida leaf has been demonstrated to have antiplasmodial activities. Some phytochemicals act as preventive and or scavenging antioxidants. This study aimed to investigate the preventative and scavenging properties of the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf using plasma myoglobin, transferrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Plasmodium-infected patients aged 29-47 years that have not been treated with any antimalaria medication but have decided to be treated traditionally using M. lucida leaf extract were recruited from 15 traditional homes in ATISBO, Saki-East, and Saki-West local government areas of Oke-Ogun — the Northern part of Oyo State-Nigeria. Identification of Plasmodium in the blood of the test and normal control subjects were carried out by Giemsha thick film technique. Packed cell volume, total bile acids, blood glucose, blood pressure, plasma myoglobin, transferrin, SOD, and GSH peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated in the normal control subjects and in the Plasmodium-infected patients before and after the treatment with raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf. Results: A significant (P < 0.05) biochemical alterations were observed in the plasma values of transferrin, SOD, and GPx in the Plasmodium-infected patients when compared with the normal control subjects and after treatment with the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf. Conclusion: Our study supports the possible preventative and scavenging antioxidative effect of the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf in the traditional treatment of Plasmodium infection. PMID:27003969

  6. Deleterious Effect of p-Cresol on Human Colonic Epithelial Cells Prevented by Proanthocyanidin-Containing Polyphenol Extracts from Fruits and Proanthocyanidin Bacterial Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ximena; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Escobar, Elizabeth; Navarrete, Paola; Blachier, Franςois; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Lan, Annaig; Tomé, Daniel; Cires, Marı́a José; Pastene, Edgar; Gotteland, Martin

    2016-05-11

    The protective effect of proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts from apples, avocados, cranberries, grapes, or proanthocyanidin microbial metabolites was evaluated in colonic epithelial cells exposed to p-cresol, a deleterious compound produced by the colonic microbiota from l-tyrosine. In HT29 Glc(-/+) cells, p-cresol significantly increased LDH leakage and decreased ATP contents, whereas in Caco-2 cell monolayers, it significantly decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance and increased the paracellular transport of FITC-dextran. The alterations induced by p-cresol in HT29 Glc(-/+) cells were prevented by the extracts from cranberries and avocados, whereas they became worse by extracts from apples and grapes. The proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites decreased LDH leakage, ameliorating cell viability without improving intracellular ATP. All of the polyphenol extracts and proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites prevented the p-cresol-induced alterations of barrier function. These results suggest that proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts and proanthocyanidin metabolites likely contribute to the protection of the colonic mucosa against the deleterious effects of p-cresol. PMID:27039931

  7. Intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Juckett, G

    1996-06-01

    Giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in North America, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. Entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. Dysentery caused by E. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although Cryptosporidium parvum, Balantidium coli, Isospora belli, Sarcocystis species and other newly described protozoa also may cause diarrhea in healthy individuals and may result in intractable, life-threatening illness in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or other immunosuppressive diseases. Certain protozoa once considered relatively unimportant, such as Cryptosporidium, are now recognized as significant causes of morbidity even in the United States, since transmission readily occurs through contaminated water. PMID:8644565

  8. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii (Seed of Burdock) Reinforces Intestinal Barrier Function in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Jung, Sun Young; Back, Su Yeon; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Fructus Arctii is used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat inflammatory diseases in oriental countries. This study aimed to investigate effect of F. Arctii extract on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and to reveal the active component of F. Arctii. We measured transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value (as an index of barrier function) and ovalbumin (OVA) permeation (as an index of permeability) to observe the changes of intestinal barrier function. The treatment of F. Arctii increased TEER value and decreased OVA influx on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, we found that arctigenin as an active component of F. Arctii increased TEER value and reduced permeability of OVA from apical to the basolateral side but not arctiin. In the present study, we revealed that F. Arctii could enhance intestinal barrier function, and its active component was an arctigenin on the functionality. We expect that the arctigenin from F. Arctii could contribute to prevention of inflammatory, allergic, and infectious diseases by reinforcing intestinal barrier function.

  9. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii (Seed of Burdock) Reinforces Intestinal Barrier Function in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Soon; Jung, Sun Young; Back, Su Yeon; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Fructus Arctii is used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat inflammatory diseases in oriental countries. This study aimed to investigate effect of F. Arctii extract on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and to reveal the active component of F. Arctii. We measured transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value (as an index of barrier function) and ovalbumin (OVA) permeation (as an index of permeability) to observe the changes of intestinal barrier function. The treatment of F. Arctii increased TEER value and decreased OVA influx on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, we found that arctigenin as an active component of F. Arctii increased TEER value and reduced permeability of OVA from apical to the basolateral side but not arctiin. In the present study, we revealed that F. Arctii could enhance intestinal barrier function, and its active component was an arctigenin on the functionality. We expect that the arctigenin from F. Arctii could contribute to prevention of inflammatory, allergic, and infectious diseases by reinforcing intestinal barrier function. PMID:26550018

  10. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii (Seed of Burdock) Reinforces Intestinal Barrier Function in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Jung, Sun Young; Back, Su Yeon; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Fructus Arctii is used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat inflammatory diseases in oriental countries. This study aimed to investigate effect of F. Arctii extract on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and to reveal the active component of F. Arctii. We measured transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value (as an index of barrier function) and ovalbumin (OVA) permeation (as an index of permeability) to observe the changes of intestinal barrier function. The treatment of F. Arctii increased TEER value and decreased OVA influx on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, we found that arctigenin as an active component of F. Arctii increased TEER value and reduced permeability of OVA from apical to the basolateral side but not arctiin. In the present study, we revealed that F. Arctii could enhance intestinal barrier function, and its active component was an arctigenin on the functionality. We expect that the arctigenin from F. Arctii could contribute to prevention of inflammatory, allergic, and infectious diseases by reinforcing intestinal barrier function. PMID:26550018

  11. Evaluation of the effect of green tea extract on the prevention of gingival bleeding after posterior mandibular teeth extraction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasool; Haghighat, Abbas; Fanaei, Mehrdad; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Removing tooth results in gingival bleeding. Several measures are taken to stop bleeding. In this study, the effect of green tea extract on cessation of bleeding and oozing after removing of mandibular molars was investigated. Methods. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial carried out on 62 patients who were referred for extraction of their mandibular molars. The volunteers were randomly and equally divided into treatment and control groups. In the first group, green tea extract-impregnated sterile gauze was used after removing the tooth while in the second group, green tea extract-free gauze was applied. Active bleeding and oozing monitoring was done every 5 minutes until cessation of bleeding and one hour after that, respectively. The results were compared using t-test. Results. The mean ± SD of bleeding duration in green tea group was significantly lower than control group (5.87 ± 1.76 versus 10.09 ± 3.61 minutes, P = 0.001). In addition, the number of people with oozing one hour after surgery was significantly lower in the green tea group (6 versus 29 persons, P = 0.001). Conclusion. This study showed that green tea extract contributes to significant decline in bleeding of the socket caused by tooth extraction as well as reduction of oozing. PMID:25024733

  12. Diagnosis and pharmacological management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children with intestinal failure

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bushra A; Xie, Yuan Y; Wine, Eytan; Huynh, Hien Q

    2011-01-01

    The present article provides a general overview of the possible diagnostic procedures available for the management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in pediatric patients with intestinal failure. The focus is to address current diagnostic tools and understand their associated advantages and disadvantages based on a literature search. Culture of small intestinal aspirates, noninvasive breath tests and an emerging interest in quantitative bacterial DNA fingerprinting are discussed. Proper management is critical for preventing the recurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and its related complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis is one approach to the treatment of bacterial overgrowth in intestinal failure patients. Although treatment trials can be challenging in such a vulnerable population, more investigative clinical studies examining early diagnosis, more effective control of recurrence and the prevention of associated complications must be conducted. PMID:21258668

  13. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (CE = Cinnulin PF®) attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339-treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibited the over-secretion of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S-labelling study. In vivo, oral treatment with C...

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Antinociceptive Effect of Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn Extracts: A Possible Action by Recovering Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lina; Cai, Xueting; Yan, Jing; Luo, Yi; Shao, Ming; Lu, Yin; Sun, Zhiguang; Cao, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn (Fag) is a herb rhizome which has been widely used to treat diseases. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Fag on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in vivo neonatal pups maternal separation (NMS) combined with intracolonic infusion of acetic acid (AA) was employed to establish IBS rat models. Fag reduced their visceral hyperalgesia and the whole gut permeability, ameliorated colonic mucosa inflammation and injury, and upregulated the expression of decreased tight junction proteins (TJs) of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 (except ZO-2) in colonic epithelium. Caco-2 monolayer cells were incubated with TNF-α and IFN-γ  in vitro to establish an epithelial barrier dysfunction model whose transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) depended more on dose of Fag than that of the controls, and whose TJs levels were lower than those of the controls. Fag upregulated the NP-40 insoluble and soluble components of the four TJs markedly in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that Fag alleviated the hyperalgesia of IBS rats by reducing intestinal inflammation and enhancing mucosal epithelial function after regulating the structure and function of TJs. PMID:23365604

  15. In Vivo and In Vitro Antinociceptive Effect of Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn Extracts: A Possible Action by Recovering Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Cai, Xueting; Yan, Jing; Luo, Yi; Shao, Ming; Lu, Yin; Sun, Zhiguang; Cao, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn (Fag) is a herb rhizome which has been widely used to treat diseases. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Fag on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in vivo neonatal pups maternal separation (NMS) combined with intracolonic infusion of acetic acid (AA) was employed to establish IBS rat models. Fag reduced their visceral hyperalgesia and the whole gut permeability, ameliorated colonic mucosa inflammation and injury, and upregulated the expression of decreased tight junction proteins (TJs) of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 (except ZO-2) in colonic epithelium. Caco-2 monolayer cells were incubated with TNF-α and IFN-γ  in vitro to establish an epithelial barrier dysfunction model whose transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) depended more on dose of Fag than that of the controls, and whose TJs levels were lower than those of the controls. Fag upregulated the NP-40 insoluble and soluble components of the four TJs markedly in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that Fag alleviated the hyperalgesia of IBS rats by reducing intestinal inflammation and enhancing mucosal epithelial function after regulating the structure and function of TJs.

  16. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific

  17. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  18. Cryptic diversity in intestinal protists.

    PubMed

    Clark, C G

    2008-09-01

    In the past few years our understanding of genetic variation within and between species of intestinal parasitic protists has changed significantly. New species names have been assigned and others have been dropped in response to new data. In this review, I summarise these findings and discuss their implications for future studies. In several cases the findings suggest that caution needs to be exercised to prevent premature conclusions being reached.

  19. Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Velat; Uluca, Ünal; Ece, Aydın; Güneş, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, İbrahim; Türkçü, Gül; Tekin, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

  20. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Vats, V; Yadav, S S

    2005-07-01

    Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies

  1. Green Tea Extract Rich in Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Fatty Liver by AMPK Activation via LKB1 in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, Aline B; Oliveira, Juliana L; Silva, Fernanda P; Carnier, June; Mennitti, Laís V; Santana, Aline A; de Souza, Gabriel H I; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Lira, Fábio S; Oyama, Lila M

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice.

  2. Preventive Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. Root on Liver Injury Induced by Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hossein; Zare, Samad

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assessthe preventive effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. root (AEBIR) on liver damage and oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus in rats. Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1- normal (N); 2- normal + barberry (N+B) (they received barberry root extract for 6 weeks); 3- diabetic (D) (they received Streptozotocin (STZ), 65 mg/Kg BW /i.p.); 4- diabetic +barberry before (D+Bb) (they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another three weeks); and 5- diabetic + barberry after (D+Ba) (three days after STZ injection, they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks). The experimental groups received barberry root extract (500 mg/Kg bw) intra gastric by gavage for 6 weeks. The treatment of diabetic rats with AEBIR showed a significant decreases(p<0.001) in levels of blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin while body weight, total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) increased (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control rats. Consumption of AEBIR in group D+Bb caused significant improvement in all these factors, compared to the group D+Ba. Also in this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that administration of AEBIR before diabetes induction resulted in enhanced amelioration of liver complications compared to the group receiving it after induction, indicating that AEBIR can play a preventive role in such patients.

  3. Green Tea Extract Rich in Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Fatty Liver by AMPK Activation via LKB1 in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Santamarina, Aline B.; Oliveira, Juliana L.; Silva, Fernanda P.; Carnier, June; Mennitti, Laís V.; Santana, Aline A.; de Souza, Gabriel H. I.; Ribeiro, Eliane B.; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M.; Lira, Fábio S.; Oyama, Lila M.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice. PMID:26536464

  4. Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Triacylglycerol Intestinal Absorption by a Pinhão Coat (Araucaria angustifolia) Extract Rich in Condensed Tannin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Roselene Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize the possible inhibition of pancreatic lipase by a tannin-rich extract obtained from the pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seed) coat, based on the previous observation that this preparation inhibits α-amylases. Kinetic measurements of pancreatic lipase revealed that the pinhão coat tannin is an effective inhibitor. Inhibition was of the parabolic non-competitive type. The inhibition constants, Ki1 and Ki2, were equal to 332.7 ± 146.1 μg/mL and 321.2 ± 93.0 μg/mL, respectively, corresponding roughly to the inhibitor concentration producing 50% inhibition ([I]50). Consistently, the pinhão coat extract was also effective at diminishing the plasma triglyceride levels in mice after an olive oil load; 50% diminution of the area under the plasma concentration versus the time curve occurred at a dose of 250 mg/kg. This observation is most probably the consequence of an indirect inhibition of triglyceride absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. For the pinhão coat tannin, this is the second report of a biological activity, the first one being a similar inhibition of the absorption of glucose derived from starch as a consequence of an inhibitory action on α-amylases. Taken together, these effects represent a potential anti-obesity action, as suggested for other polyphenol or tannin-rich preparations. PMID:26184295

  5. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of purple potato extracts (Solanum tuberosum cv Vitelotte noire) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Ombra, Maria Neve; Fratianni, Florinda; Granese, Tiziana; Cardinale, Federica; Cozzolino, Autilia; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of antioxidant and in vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanin-rich extracts from purple potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. cv Vitelotte noire (Solanaceae), were performed by simulating both a domestic cooking process and human digestion. Extracts of crude and cooked purple potato did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the tester strains: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The behaviour changed after the simulated gastrointestinal transit, when an inhibition halo was observed against all tester strains used, ranging from 0.53 cm against B. cereus to 0.82 cm against E. coli. In addition antioxidant activity exhibited, before and after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion (5.96 mg/mL ± 0.92; 28 mg/mL ± 0 .13, respectively) and the persistence of anti-proliferative activity against the colon cancer cells Caco-2, SW48 and MCF7, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, after the simulated digestion, (EC50 = 0.21; 1.13 μg/mL), suggest that vitelotte consumption might bring tangible benefits for human health.

  6. Prevention of experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats by an ethanolic extract of "Parsley" Petroselinum crispum.

    PubMed

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; El-Tahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2003-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Parsley, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym.ex A.W. Hill (Umbelliferae), was tested for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, indomethacin and cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) in rats. The extract in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight had a significant antiulcerogenic activity on the models used. Besides, ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl contents were replenished by pretreatment with Parsley extract. Acute toxicity tests showed a large margin of safety for the extract. The phytochemical screening of Parsley leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, sterols and/or triterpenes.

  7. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach to ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods ...

  8. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePlus

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  9. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. The ileocecal valve of the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the ...

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  11. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Marrubium vulgare L. methanolic extract inhibits inflammatory response and prevents cardiomyocyte fibrosis in isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Soraya, Hamid; Rameshrad, Maryam; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, finding new therapeutic compounds from natural products for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular disorders is getting a great deal of attention. This approach would result in finding new drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects than the conventional medicines. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Marrubiumvulgare, a popular traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/12h of the extract given orally concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive days was used to induce MI. Then, histopathological changes and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results: Isoproterenol injection increased inflammatory response, as shown by a significant increase in peripheral neutrophil count, myocardial myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum levels of creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and TNF-α (p<0.001). In the groups treated with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of M.vulgare extract serum CK-MB was subsided by 55.4%, 52.2% and 69%, respectively. Also treatment with the extract (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced (p<0.001) MPO activity in MI group. The levels of TNF-α was also considerably declined in the serums of MI group (p<0.001). In addition, peripheral neutrophil count, was significantly lowered by all doses of the extract (p<0.001). Interstitial fibrosis significantly was attenuated in treated groups compared with control MI group. Conclusion: The results of study demonstrate that the M. vulgare extract has strong protective effects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and it seems possible that this protection is due to its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24790895

  13. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  14. Echinacea purpurea: A Proprietary Extract of Echinacea purpurea Is Shown to be Safe and Effective in the Prevention of the Common Cold.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The research study in this review represents the largest clinical trial to date that evaluated the safety and efficacy of Echinacea purpurea for prophylactic treatment of the common cold, in addition to investigating its risk-benefit in a long-term treatment period. The clinical application of the proprietary standardized Echinacea purpurea extract(Echinaforce) demonstrated efficacy as a preventive cold treatment option over a 4-month duration. This study showed that Echinacea’s long-term prevention was associated with a reduction in the total number of cold episodes, a reduction in the number of days with colds, and a reduction in cold episodes requiring additional medication. Furthermore, the Echinacea test agent inhibited virally confirmed colds, exhibited maximal effects on recurrent infections, and demonstrated that its preventive effects increased relative to therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. In summary, Echinacea purpurea when taken as recommended for the prevention of the common cold appears to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  15. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  16. An aqueous extract from toad skin prevents gelatinase activities derived from fetal serum albumin and serum-free culture medium of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Munehiro; Kawaguchi, Shota; Oikawa, Ayami; Inamura, Akito; Nomoto, Shunki; Miyai, Hirokazu; Nonaka, Tomomi; Ichimi, Saeko; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Luo, Chuan; Gao, Bo; Tang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous extract from toad skin, cinobufacini, has been known to possess anticancer ability. The present study examined effect of toad skin extract on activity of gelatinases including matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 which play an important role in invasion of carcinoma cells. Gelatinase activities derived from fetal serum albumin and culture medium of human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 were significantly prevented in the presence of toad skin extract. The inhibitory activity was found in water-soluble fraction of the extract prepared by the Bligh & Dyer method but not in CHCl(3)-soluble lipid fraction. These results suggest that an aqueous extract from toad skin contains a water-soluble substance possessing a potent ability to prevent gelatinase activity. In conclusion, the water-soluble substance in toad skin extract cinobufacini may be able to regulate cancer cell migration accelerated by matrix metalloproteinases.

  17. Vertebrate Intestinal Endoderm Development

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Jason R.; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F.

    2010-01-01

    The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. PMID:21246663

  18. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  19. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract prevents and improves D-galactose and NaNO2 induced memory impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-r, M.H.; Zeinali, F.; Anvari, M.; Hosseini, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of saffron extract on preventing D-galactose and NaNO2 induced memory impairment and improving learning and memory deficits in amnestic mice. In this study, the learning and memory functions in ovariectomized mice were examined by the one way passive and active avoidance tests. In active avoidance test, training in amnestic treated (AT) and amnestic prophylaxis (AP) groups, was improved so that there was a significant difference between them and the amnestic control (AC) group. In passive avoidance test, animal's step through latency, as an index for learning, in all test groups was significantly greater than control group. Total time spent in dark room (DS), which opposes the memory retention ability, in AC was significantly greater than AT group at 1 and 2 hours after full training, while there was not any significant difference between this index in AP and AT as compared with normal control (NC) group. Our findings indicate that saffron hydro-alcoholic extract prevents and improves amnesia induced by D-galactose and NaNO2 in mice. PMID:27418908

  20. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  1. Methanolic Extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Prevents the Toxicity Caused by Cyclophosphamide to Bone Marrow Cells, Liver and Kidney of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Heisanam Pushparani; Mazumder, Pranab Behari

    2016-01-01

    methanolic extract of C. caesia Roxb. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the methanolic extract of C. caesia Roxb has not shown any genotoxicity and reduces the genotoxicity caused by cyclophosphamide. It was also to have the protective effects against the liver and kidney. So it could be provided as one of the herbal supplementation in chemoprevention of CP to ameliorate the side effects of it. SUMMARY Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells and much research has been done for the past several years from various disciplines for the treatment of cancer but till now no therapy has been discovered. Treatment of cancer with chemotherapeutic drugs has been suggested to prevent cancer cells however they are often limited with their toxicity to normal cells. Therefore it has been suggested that the supplementation of medicinal plants which are rich source of antioxidants can decrease the toxic effect caused by chemotherapeutic drugs. Curcuma caesia Roxb is a medicinal plant which has high antioxidant activity, as per present study, methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb prevents the toxicity caused by cyclophosphosphamide (chemotherapeutic drug) in bone marrow cells by reducing the micronuclei formation; it also prevents the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by cyclophosphamide, so it can be used as a supplement in cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide. PMID:26941535

  2. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats. PMID:26511488

  3. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

  4. Chronic exposure to Rhodobacter sphaeroides extract Lycogen™ prevents UVA-induced malondialdehyde accumulation and procollagen I down-regulation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Lin, Tsuey-Pin; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Kuan, Li-Chun; Liu, Chia-Chyuan

    2014-01-01

    UVA contributes to the pathogenesis of skin aging by downregulation of procollagen I content and induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-associated responses. Application of antioxidants such as lycopene has been demonstrated as a convenient way to achieve protection against skin aging. Lycogen™, derived from the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exerts several biological effects similar to that of lycopene whereas most of its anti-aging efficacy remains uncertain. In this study, we attempted to examine whether Lycogen™ could suppress malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and restore downregulated procollagen I expression induced by UVA exposure. In human dermal fibroblasts Hs68 cells, UVA repressed cell viability and decreased procollagen I protein content accompanied with the induction of MMP-1 and MDA accumulation. Remarkably, incubation with 50 µM Lycogen™ for 24 h ameliorated UVA-induced cell death and restored UVA-induced downregulation of procollagen in a dose-related manner. Lycogen™ treatment also prevented the UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation and intracellular MDA generation in Hs68 cells. Activation of NFκB levels, one of the downstream events induced by UVA irradiation and MMP-1 induction, were also prevented by Lycogen™ administration. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Lycogen™ may be an alternative agent that prevents UVA-induced skin aging and could be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:24463291

  5. Zeta isoform of protein kinase C prevents oxidant-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and I-kappaBalpha degradation: a fundamental mechanism for epidermal growth factor protection of the microtubule cytoskeleton and intestinal barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Banan, A; Fields, J Z; Zhang, L J; Shaikh, M; Farhadi, A; Keshavarzian, A

    2003-10-01

    Oxidant damage and gut barrier disruption contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In our studies using a model of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial barrier, monolayers of intestinal (Caco-2) cells, we investigated damage to and protection of the monolayer barrier. We reported that activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) via degradation of its endogenous inhibitor I-kappaBalpha is key to oxidant-induced disruption of barrier integrity and that growth factor (epidermal growth factor, EGF) protects against this injury by stabilizing the cytoskeletal filaments. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation seems to be required for monolayer maintenance, especially activation of the atypical zeta isoform of PKC. In an attempt to investigate, at the molecular level, the fundamental events underlying EGF protection against oxidant disruption, we tested the intriguing hypothesis that EGF-induced activation of PKC-zeta prevents oxidant-induced activation of NF-kappaB and the consequences of NF-kappaB activation, namely, cytoskeletal and barrier disruption. Monolayers of wild-type (WT) Caco-2 cells were incubated with oxidant (H2O2) with or without EGF or modulators. In other studies, we used the first gastrointestinal cell clones created by stable transfection of varying levels (1-5 microg) of cDNA to either overexpress PKC-zeta or to inhibit its expression. Transfected cell clones were then pretreated with EGF or a PKC activator (diacylglycerol analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, OAG) before oxidant. We monitored the following endpoints: monolayer barrier integrity, stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton, subcellular distribution and activity of the PKC-zeta isoform, intracellular levels and phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB inhibitor I-kappaBalpha, and nuclear translocation and activity of NF-kappaB subunits p65 and p50. Monolayers were also fractionated and processed to assess

  6. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy. PMID:27219840

  7. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically. PMID:26030160

  8. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  9. Putative free radical-scavenging activity of an extract of Cineraria maritima in preventing selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rat pups

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, Thirugnanasambandhar Sivasubramanian; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Jesudasan, Christdas Arul Nelson; Thomas, Philip Aloysius

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the possible free radical-scavenging activity of an extract of Cineraria maritima on selenite-induced cataractous lenses in Wistar rat pups. Methods In the present study, Wistar rat pups were divided into three experimental groups. On P10, Group I (control) rat pups received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.89% saline. Rats in groups II (selenite-challenged, untreated) and III (selenite-challenged, C. maritima treated) received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 μmol/kg bodyweight); Group III rat pups also received an intraperitoneal injection of the extract of C. maritima (350 mg/kg bodyweight) once daily P9–14. Both eyes of each pup were examined from P16 until P30. Cytochemical localization of nitroblue tetrazolium salts and generation of superoxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide levels were measured. The expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene was evaluated with reverse transcription-PCR. Immunoblot analysis was also performed to confirm the differential expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. Results Subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite led to severe oxidative damage in the lenticular tissues, shown by increased formation of formazan crystals, elevated generation of superoxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals, and elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and protein expression that possibly contributed to the opacification of the lens and thus cataract formation. When rat pups were treated with intraperitoneal administration of the extract of C. maritima, the generation of free radicals as well as the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were maintained at near normal levels. Conclusions The data generated by this study suggest that an ethanolic extract of C. maritima possibly prevents cataractogenesis in a rat model by minimizing free radical generation. PMID:24357923

  10. The Role of Growth Factors in Intestinal Regeneration and Repair in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Kathryn J.; Choi, Pamela M.; Warner, Brad W.

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease resulting in major neonatal morbidity and mortality. The pathology is poorly understood, and means of preventing and treating NEC are limited. Several endogenous growth factors have been identified as having important roles in intestinal growth as well as aiding intestinal repair from injury or inflammation. In this review, we will discuss several growth factors as mediators of intestinal regeneration and repair as well as potential therapeutic agents for NEC. PMID:23611614

  11. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same.

  12. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same. PMID:27610020

  13. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-08-21

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same. PMID:27610020

  14. Commercial and Plant Extract Denture Cleansers in Prevention of Candida albicans Growth on Soft Denture Reliner: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhaded, Sunil; Joshi, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the efficacy of two plant extracts and two commercially available denture cleansers against candida albicans adherent to soft denture reline material. Materials and Methods In this study 60 specimens of soft denture reliner material specimens were fabricated with dimensions 10x10x2 mm. The sterile specimens were inoculated by immersion in Sabourand broth containing Candida albicans for 16 hours at 37°C in an incubator. Then the specimens were washed and immersed in denture cleansers which were divided into group five groups from Group I-V for CD Clean®, Nigella sativa, thyme essential oil, Fittydent® and distilled water respectively, for 8 hours at room temperature. Then they were washed, fixed with methanol and stained with crystal violet. Candida cells adherent to the specimens were counted under microscope. The number of cells adherent to test samples were compared with that adherent to control. Results The effectiveness of Fittydent® was more than CD Clean® in reducing the adherent candida albicans and the difference was statically significant (p = <0.001). Both thyme essential oil and nigella sativa were almost same in effectiveness against candida albicans but the difference was not statically significant (p= 0.79). Post-hoc Tukey’s test was performed which indicated that Fittydent® was the most effective amongst the denture cleansers tested in this study, followed by thyme essential oil, nigella sativa and CD Clean®. Conclusion The results of the study showed that all denture cleansers used in the study were significantly effective. The study indicated that Fittydent is more effective amongst the denture cleansers because of its mechanism of action; however the plant extracts used in this study were also significantly effective against candida albicans. PMID:27042584

  15. Role of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon in prevention of carbofuran- induced oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rai, D K; Sharma, R K; Rai, P K; Watal, G; Sharma, B

    2011-02-12

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of C. dactylon on carbofuran induced oxidative stress (OS) and alterations in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of rats. Vitamin C was used as a positive control. Wistar rats were administered with single sub-acute oral dose (1.6 mgkg-1 b.wt.) of carbofuran for 24 h. The OS parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and that of AChE were studied in brain. Carbofuran treatment significantly increased the activities of SOD and CAT by 75 and 60%, respectively. It also induced the level of LPO by 113%. In contrast, the activities of GST and AChE were recorded to be diminished by 25 and 33%, respectively. Pretreatment of the rats with aqueous extract of C. dactylon (oral; 500mgkg-1) restored SOD activity completely but CAT activity only partially (7%). Carbofuran induced LPO was moderated by 95% in the brain of C. dactylon treated rats. The observed changes in OS parameters in C. dactylon treated group were comparable to that observed in vitamin C (200 mg-kg-1 b. wt.) treated group. Surprisingly, C. dactylon treatment significantly recovered the activity of AChE to a similar level as observed in the brain of control group. In contrast vitamin C treatment did not cause significant change in the activity of AChE in carbofuran treated group. There were no noticeable changes in the aforementioned study parameters in the brain of rats receiving C. dactylon and vitamin C, only. The results suggest that the study is extremely important in the context of development of new anticholinestesterase and antioxidant antidotes against carbofuran from C. dactylon.

  16. Limonoid Compounds Inhibit Sphingomyelin Biosynthesis by Preventing CERT Protein-dependent Extraction of Ceramides from the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Tomishige, Nario; Sakai, Shota; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ishii, Kumiko; Makino, Asami; Greimel, Peter; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Laviad, Elad L.; Lagarde, Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Kentaro; Futerman, Anthony H.; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    To identify novel inhibitors of sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism, a new and selective high throughput microscopy-based screening based on the toxicity of the SM-specific toxin, lysenin, was developed. Out of a library of 2011 natural compounds, the limonoid, 3-chloro-8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal (CHC), rendered cells resistant to lysenin by decreasing cell surface SM. CHC treatment selectively inhibited the de novo biosynthesis of SM without affecting glycolipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Pretreatment with brefeldin A abolished the limonoid-induced inhibition of SM synthesis suggesting that the transport of ceramide (Cer) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is affected. Unlike the Cer transporter (CERT) inhibitor HPA-12, CHC did not change the transport of a fluorescent short chain Cer analog to the Golgi apparatus or the formation of fluorescent and short chain SM from the corresponding Cer. Nevertheless, CHC inhibited the conversion of de novo synthesized Cer to SM. We show that CHC specifically inhibited the CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes in vitro. Subsequent biochemical screening of 21 limonoids revealed that some of them, such as 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal and gedunin, which exhibits anti-cancer activity, inhibited SM biosynthesis and CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from membranes. Model membrane studies suggest that 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal reduced the miscibility of Cer with membrane lipids and thus induced the formation of Cer-rich membrane domains. Our study shows that certain limonoids are novel inhibitors of SM biosynthesis and suggests that some biological activities of these limonoids are related to their effect on the ceramide metabolism. PMID:22605339

  17. Limonoid compounds inhibit sphingomyelin biosynthesis by preventing CERT protein-dependent extraction of ceramides from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Tomishige, Nario; Sakai, Shota; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ishii, Kumiko; Makino, Asami; Greimel, Peter; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Laviad, Elad L; Lagarde, Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Kentaro; Futerman, Anthony H; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2012-07-13

    To identify novel inhibitors of sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism, a new and selective high throughput microscopy-based screening based on the toxicity of the SM-specific toxin, lysenin, was developed. Out of a library of 2011 natural compounds, the limonoid, 3-chloro-8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal (CHC), rendered cells resistant to lysenin by decreasing cell surface SM. CHC treatment selectively inhibited the de novo biosynthesis of SM without affecting glycolipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Pretreatment with brefeldin A abolished the limonoid-induced inhibition of SM synthesis suggesting that the transport of ceramide (Cer) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is affected. Unlike the Cer transporter (CERT) inhibitor HPA-12, CHC did not change the transport of a fluorescent short chain Cer analog to the Golgi apparatus or the formation of fluorescent and short chain SM from the corresponding Cer. Nevertheless, CHC inhibited the conversion of de novo synthesized Cer to SM. We show that CHC specifically inhibited the CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes in vitro. Subsequent biochemical screening of 21 limonoids revealed that some of them, such as 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal and gedunin, which exhibits anti-cancer activity, inhibited SM biosynthesis and CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from membranes. Model membrane studies suggest that 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal reduced the miscibility of Cer with membrane lipids and thus induced the formation of Cer-rich membrane domains. Our study shows that certain limonoids are novel inhibitors of SM biosynthesis and suggests that some biological activities of these limonoids are related to their effect on the ceramide metabolism. PMID:22605339

  18. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  19. Intestinal transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag Sureshchandra; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Girlanda, Raffaele; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving therapy for patients with intestinal failure. Intestinal transplantation is now recognized as a treatment for patients who develop complications of parenteral nutrition and in whom attempts at intestinal rehabilitation have failed. Patients with parenteral nutrition related liver disease will require a liver graft typically part of a multivisceral transplant. Isolated intestinal transplants are more commonly performed in adults while multivisceral transplants are most commonly performed in infants. Isolated intestinal transplants have the best short-term outcome, with over 80 % survival at 1 year. Patients requiring multivisceral transplants have a high rate of attrition with a 1 year survival less than 70 %. Prognostic factors for a poor outcome include patient hospitalization at the time of transplant and donor age greater than 40 years while systemic sepsis and acute rejection are the major determinant of early postoperative outcome. For patients surviving the first year the outcome of transplantation of the liver in addition to intestine affords some survival advantage though long-term outcome does not yet match other abdominal organs. Outcomes for intestinal retransplantation are poor as a result of immunology and patient debility. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop and is a clear indication with cost and quality of life advantages in patients with intestinal failure that do not remain stable on parenteral nutrition.

  20. The equine intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Weese, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    The equine intestinal tract contains a complex microbial population (microbiota) that plays an important role in health and disease. Despite the undeniable importance of a 'normal' microbiota, understanding of the composition and function of this population is currently limited. As methods to characterize the microbiota and its genetic makeup (the microbiome) have evolved, the composition and complexity of this population are starting to be revealed. As is befitting a hindgut fermenter, members of the Firmicutes phylum appear to predominate, yet there are significant populations of numerous other phyla. The microbiome appears to be profoundly altered in certain disease states, and better understanding of these alterations may offer hope for novel preventive and therapeutic measures. The development and increasing availability of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methods offer a revolution in microbiome evaluation and it is likely that significant advances will be made in the near future. Yet, proper use of these methods requires further study of basic aspects such as optimal testing protocols, the relationship of the fecal microbiome to more proximal locations where disease occurs, normal intra- and inter-horse variation, seasonal variation, and similar factors. PMID:22626511

  1. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23–25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (P<0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice. PMID:27799833

  2. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  3. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  4. Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Cell Death via Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signalling in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Oki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Suda, Ikuo; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reduces cell viability and contributes to disease processes. Flavonoids including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins reportedly induce intracellular antioxidant defence systems. Thus, in this study, we examined the antioxidant effects of a commercial extract from black soybean seed coats (BE), which are rich in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, and investigated the associated intracellular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (HPO) showed 60% viability, whereas pretreatment with BE-containing media for 2 h ameliorated HPO-mediated cell death by up to 90%. Pretreatment with BE for 2 h partially blocked HPO-mediated activation of ERK in HepG2 cells, and that for 1 h led to a 20% increase in intracellular total protein phosphatase (PP) activity, which is known to deactivate protein kinases. These results indicate that BE prevents HPO-mediated cell damage by inhibiting ERK signalling, potentially via PPs.

  5. A catechin-enriched green tea extract prevents glucose-induced survival reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans through sir-2.1 and uba-1 dependent hormesis.

    PubMed

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni; Winter, Sarah; Kler, Adolf; Kriesl, Erwin; Bonnländer, Bernd; Wenzel, Uwe; Fitzenberger, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus which leads to the onset of complications in the long term. Green tea through its high content of polyphenolic catechins, on the other hand, is suggested to prevent or at least delay such detrimental complications. In the present study we fed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on a liquid medium supplemented with 10mM glucose in the absence or presence of a catechin-enriched green tea extract (CEGTE). After exposure of young adults for 48h survival was subsequently measured under heat stress at 37°C. Whereas CEGTE at 0.01% did not affect the survival of wild type nematodes, it completely reversed the glucose-induced survival reduction. Those effects were not achieved through the monomeric catechins included in CEGTE. RNA interference (RNAi) for sir-2.1 not only prevented the survival extension by CEGTE under simultaneous glucose exposure but also caused a further reduction of survival. Likewise, the knockdown of uba-1, encoding the only E1-ubiquitin-activating enzyme in C. elegans, proved that UBA-1 is essential for the survival extension by CEGTE and that its loss of function changes CEGTE from a survival extending into a survival reducing extract. Stimulation of the proteasome by CEGTE was finally proven through measurements of the proteolytic cleavage of a fluorogenic peptide substrate. To conclude, our studies provide evidence that CEGTE reverses glucose-induced damage in C. elegans through activation of adaptive responses mediated by SIR-2.1 and proteasomal degradation. The hormetic mode of action is revealed by a reduction of survival once the adaptive processes were blocked.

  6. A catechin-enriched green tea extract prevents glucose-induced survival reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans through sir-2.1 and uba-1 dependent hormesis.

    PubMed

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni; Winter, Sarah; Kler, Adolf; Kriesl, Erwin; Bonnländer, Bernd; Wenzel, Uwe; Fitzenberger, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus which leads to the onset of complications in the long term. Green tea through its high content of polyphenolic catechins, on the other hand, is suggested to prevent or at least delay such detrimental complications. In the present study we fed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on a liquid medium supplemented with 10mM glucose in the absence or presence of a catechin-enriched green tea extract (CEGTE). After exposure of young adults for 48h survival was subsequently measured under heat stress at 37°C. Whereas CEGTE at 0.01% did not affect the survival of wild type nematodes, it completely reversed the glucose-induced survival reduction. Those effects were not achieved through the monomeric catechins included in CEGTE. RNA interference (RNAi) for sir-2.1 not only prevented the survival extension by CEGTE under simultaneous glucose exposure but also caused a further reduction of survival. Likewise, the knockdown of uba-1, encoding the only E1-ubiquitin-activating enzyme in C. elegans, proved that UBA-1 is essential for the survival extension by CEGTE and that its loss of function changes CEGTE from a survival extending into a survival reducing extract. Stimulation of the proteasome by CEGTE was finally proven through measurements of the proteolytic cleavage of a fluorogenic peptide substrate. To conclude, our studies provide evidence that CEGTE reverses glucose-induced damage in C. elegans through activation of adaptive responses mediated by SIR-2.1 and proteasomal degradation. The hormetic mode of action is revealed by a reduction of survival once the adaptive processes were blocked. PMID:25771124

  7. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P < 0.001) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bile salts. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of 50 mg kg-1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg-1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  8. Viola mandshurica ethanolic extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-07-01

    Viola mandshurica W. Becker has been used as an expectorant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. We evaluated the effects of V. mandshurica ethanol extract (VME) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. HPLC analysis showed that the VME contained 11.95 ± 0.37 mg/g esculetin and 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g scopoletin. Orally administered VME decreased the body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and triglyceride and leptin serum concentrations. In contrast, VME increased serum adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin expression levels in epididymal adipose tissues. VME also significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty-acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, VME reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase phosphorylation in epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, treatment of VME and esculetin in 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation. These results suggest that VME exerts anti-obesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice by activating AMPK and suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissues.

  9. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Kitts, D D

    2005-08-01

    Flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives were identified from dandelion flower (Taraxacum officinale). Characteristics of chain-breaking antioxidants, such as extended lag phase and reduced propagation rate, were observed in oxidation of linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of dandelion flower extract (DFE). DFE suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical, while the latter was further distinguished by both site-specific and non-specific hydroxyl radical inhibition. DPPH-radical-scavenging activity and a synergistic effect with alpha-tocopherol were attributed to the reducing activity derived from phenolic content of DFE. A significant (p < 0.05) and concentration-dependent, reduced nitric oxide production from acterial-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells was observed with the addition of DFE. Moreover, peroxyl-radical-induced intracellular oxidation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) by the addition of DFE over a range of concentrations. These results showed that the DFE possessed marked antioxidant activity in both biological and chemical models. Furthermore, the efficacy of DFE in inhibiting both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were attributed to its phenolic content.

  10. Surgical extraction of lower third molars: diagnostic tests and operative technique in the prevention of inferior alveolar nerve injury. Case study

    PubMed Central

    MELEO, D.; PACIFICI, L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Increased knowledge and technical refinement have broadened the limits of outpatient oral surgery; however, these changes have at the same time led to a greater number of complications and poor outcomes and, accordingly, to legal action for professional responsibility. Oral surgery represents 10% of all actions, and almost all of these are attributable to exodontic surgery, of which around a third are related to inferior alveolar nerve injury following the extraction of lower third molars. The aim of this case study is to suggest operative technical strategies in accordance with a correct clinical-diagnostic pathway in order to prevent neurological complications involving the inferior alveolar nerve subsequent to lower third molar extraction. Cases should be carefully selected and surgical intervention undertaken solely when genuinely necessary. The patient should be informed of the risks, the methods and the possible results of the treatment. These are the bases for correct indication, along with a sufficient diagnostic path and a good level of communication between operator and patient. PMID:23285341

  11. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling

    PubMed Central

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  12. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells. PMID:27657123

  13. Extract of Wax Gourd Peel Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 Mice via the Inhibition of the PPARγ Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ming; Fan, Shengjie; Liu, Gaigai; Guo, Lu; Ding, Xiaobo; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Wax gourd is a popular vegetable in East Asia. In traditional Chinese medicine, wax gourd peel is used to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no experimental evidence to support these applications. Here, we examined the effect of the extract of wax gourd peel (EWGP) on metabolic disorders in diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. In the preventive experiment, EWGP blocked body weight gain and lowered serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), liver TG and TC contents, and fasting blood glucose in mice fed with a high-fat diet. In the therapeutic study, we induced obesity in the mice and treated with EWGP for two weeks. We found that EWGP treatment reduced serum and liver triglyceride (TG) contents and fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance in the mice. Reporter assay and gene expression analysis showed that EWGP could inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transactivities and could decrease mRNA levels of PPARγ and its target genes. We also found that HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was downregulated in the mouse liver by EWGP. Our data suggest that EWGP lowers hyperlipidemia of C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diet via the inhibition of PPARγ and HMGCR signaling. PMID:23533476

  14. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    preventative effect on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in vivo, as a result of its antioxidative capacity. PMID:26170959

  15. Intestinal adaptation after massive intestinal resection

    PubMed Central

    Weale, A; Edwards, A; Bailey, M; Lear, P

    2005-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome require long term parenteral nutrition support. However, after massive intestinal resection the intestine undergoes adaptation and nutritional autonomy may be obtained. Given that the complications of parenteral nutrition may be life threatening or result in treatment failure and the need for intestinal transplantation, a more attractive option is to wean patients off nutrition support by optimising the adaptive process. The article examines the evidence that after extensive small bowel resection adaptation occurs in humans and focuses on the factors that influence adaptation and the strategies that have been used to optimise this process. The review is based on an English language Medline search with secondary references obtained from key articles. There is evidence that adaptation occurs in humans. Adaptation is a complex process that results in response to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli. Successful and reproducible strategies to improve adaptation remain elusive despite an abundance of experimental data. Nevertheless given the low patient survival and quality of life associated with other treatments for irreversible intestinal failure it is imperative that clinical research continues into the optimisation of the adaptation. PMID:15749794

  16. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase to treat necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Biesterveld, Ben E.; Koehler, Shannon M.; Heinzerling, Nathan P.; Rentea, Rebecca M.; Fredrich, Katherine; Welak, Scott R.; Gourlay, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity is decreased in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and IAP supplementation prevents NEC development. It is not known if IAP given after NEC onset can reverse the course of the disease. We hypothesized that enteral IAP given after NEC induction would not reverse intestinal injury. Materials and methods NEC was induced in Sprague–Dawley pups by delivery preterm followed by formula feedings with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hypoxia exposure and continued up to 4 d. IAP was added to feeds on day 2 until being sacrificed on day 4. NEC severity was scored based on hematoxylin and eosin-stained terminal ileum sections, and AP activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. IAP and interleukin-6 expression were measured using real time polymerase chain reaction. Results NEC pups' alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was decreased to 0.18 U/mg compared with controls of 0.57 U/mg (P < 0.01). Discontinuation of LPS and hypoxia after 2 d increased AP activity to 0.36 U/mg (P < 0.01). IAP supplementation in matched groups did not impact total AP activity or expression. Discontinuing LPS and hypoxia after NEC onset improved intestinal injury scores to 1.14 compared with continued stressors, score 2.25 (P < 0.01). IAP supplementation decreased interleukin-6 expression two-fold (P < 0.05), though did not reverse NEC intestinal damage (P = 0.5). Conclusions This is the first work to demonstrate that removing the source of NEC improves intestinal damage and increases AP activity. When used as a rescue treatment, IAP decreased intestinal inflammation though did not impact injury making it likely that IAP is best used preventatively to those neonates at risk. PMID:25840489

  17. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    +) absorption could lead to the development of nutritional and medical strategies for optimizing the efficiency of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and preventing osteoporosis and other pathologies related to Ca(2+) metabolism. PMID:26109800

  18. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption

    PubMed Central

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-01-01

    nutritional and medical strategies for optimizing the efficiency of intestinal Ca2+ absorption and preventing osteoporosis and other pathologies related to Ca2+ metabolism. PMID:26109800

  19. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    +) absorption could lead to the development of nutritional and medical strategies for optimizing the efficiency of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and preventing osteoporosis and other pathologies related to Ca(2+) metabolism.

  20. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  1. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  2. Age-related resistance to 987P fimbria-mediated colonization correlates with specific glycolipid receptors in intestinal mucus in swine.

    PubMed

    Dean-Nystrom, E A; Samuel, J E

    1994-11-01

    Strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that produce 987P fimbriae (987P+ strains) colonize the small intestines and cause diarrhea in neonatal (< 6-day-old) pigs but not in weaned pigs. However, 987P+ E. coli strains adhere in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells from pigs of both ages. Two intestinal components, designated 987R and 987M, bind 987P fimbriae (987P) on Western blots (immunoblots). We examined brush borders (BB) and intestinal washes (IW) from pigs to determine if they contain glycolipids which bind 987P. Total glycolipid extracts from BB and IW of 4-week-old pigs were separated on thin-layer chromatograms and overlaid with purified 987P. Bound 987P were detected with 987P-specific antiserum. 987P bound to at least one moiety in both BB and IW glycolipids and also bound to several purified glycolipids, including gangliotetraosylceramide, lactosylceramide (CDH), sulfatide (SFT), gangliotriaosylceramide, and galactosylceramide (listed in order of decreasing affinity). Strain 987, but not the isogenic 987P- strain I36, bound to these same glycolipids, indicating that the fimbriae contain the adhesin required for binding to these lipids. Glycolipids extracted from BB and IW isolated from 3- and 4-week-old pigs and from BB isolated from 1-day-old pigs contained similar amounts of glycolipids like CDH and SFT that bound 987P. Finally, 987P bound to CDH, SFT, and total BB glycolipids separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to Immobilon, and these glycolipids had mobilities similar to that of 987M. Thus, 987M may contain 987P-binding glycolipids. We hypothesize that glycolipid receptors for 987P, most likely CDH or SFT, in the mucus of older pigs bind 987P and inhibit 987P- mediated intestinal colonization by preventing the attachment of 987P+ E. coli to 987P receptors on the intestinal epithelium.

  3. In vitro inhibition of influenza virus infection by a crude extract from Isatis indigotica root resulting in the prevention of viral attachment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zifeng; Wang, Yutao; Zhong, Shan; Zhao, Suishan; Zeng, Xiangteng; Mo, Ziyao; Qin, Sheng; Guan, Wenda; Li, Chuyuan; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-03-01

    Isatis indigotica root (IIR) has been widely used as a Chinese medicinal herb to treat regular seasonal influenza over the long history of traditional Chinese medicinal practice. However, its inhibitory activities against influenza virus infections along with the associated mechanisms have not been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the chemical nature, mode of action and in vitro anti-influenza activities of a crude extract (G2) of IIR were characterized. The extract was found to inhibit different subtypes of human or avian influenza viruses at various magnitudes of activity (IC50 0.39‑4.3 mg/ml) in vitro, including A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/FM/1/47 (H1N1), A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), seasonal influenza (A/Guangzhou/GIRD/02/09 H1N1, B/Guangzhou/GIRD/08/09), novel swine-originating influenza (A/Guangzhou/GIRD/07/09, H1N1), A/Duck/Guangdong/09 (H6N2), A/Duck/Guangdong/94 (H7N3) and A/Chicken/Guangdong/96 (H9N2), while G2 was inactive against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus 3 (ADV3), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). An apparent virus titer reduction was detected when the influenza viruses were pretreated with G2, and it was also shown that G2 exhibited inhibitory effects on influenza virus hemagglutination. In addition, G2 played a role in the early stages of infection, which did not easily result in the emergence of virus drug resistance. Thus, G2 may affect the attachment of influenza virus by interfering with the viral particles, thereby preventing the binding of influenza virus to the host cell surface.

  4. The "aged garlic extract:" (AGE) and one of its active ingredients S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    PubMed

    Ray, B; Chauhan, N B; Lahiri, D K

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the older people and 7(th) leading cause of death in the United States. Deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, hyperphosphorylation of microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), neuroinflammation and cholinergic neuron loss are the major hallmarks of AD. Deposition of Aβ peptides, which takes place years before the clinical onset of the disease can trigger hyperphophorylation of tau proteins and neuroinflammation, and the latter is thought to be primarily involved in neuronal and synaptic damage seen in AD. To date, four cholinesterase inhibitors or ChEI (tacrine, rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine) and a partial NMDA receptor antagonist (memantine) are the only approved treatment options for AD. However, these drugs fail to completely cure the disease, which warrants a search for newer class of targets that would eventually lead to effective drugs for the treatment of AD. In addition to selected pharmacological agents, botanical and medicinal plant extracts are also being investigated. Apart from its culinary use, garlic (Allium sativum) is being used to treat several ailments like cancer and diabetes. Herein we have discussed the effects of a specific 'Aged Garlic Extract' (AGE) and one of its active ingredients, S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) in restricting several pathological cascades related to the synaptic degeneration and neuroinflammatory pathways associated with AD. Thus, based on the reported positive preliminary results reviewed herein, further research is required to develop the full potential of AGE and/or SAC into an effective preventative strategy for AD. PMID:21728972

  5. Review: prospects for the use of extracts and polysaccharides from marine algae to prevent and treat the diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Besednova, Natalya N; Zaporozhets, Tatyana S; Somova, Larisa M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H. pylori. In recent years, fucoidans have been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes the data on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H. pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H. pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H. pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H. pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of

  6. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Enzo A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  7. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Enzo A

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.

  8. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include narcotic (pain) medicines and drugs used when you are ... that may have caused the problem (such as narcotic drugs) may help. In severe cases, surgery may ...

  9. Small intestine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. The pyloric sphincter governs the passage of partly digested food ...

  10. Extract of Kuding Tea Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in C57BL/6 Mice via Liver X Receptor (LXR) β Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Sun, Qinhu; Ding, Xiaobo; Li, Guowen; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Ming; Huang, Feisi; Sun, Yin-Qiang; Zhou, Zhiqin; Lu, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Ji, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea), a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets. Design For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HF), and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK) for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay. Results In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXRβ transactivity and mRNA expression of LXRβ target genes. Conclusion We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXRβ transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs. PMID:23226556

  11. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity. PMID:22734251

  12. Z-100, an immunomodulatory extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B, prevents spontaneous lymphatic metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takayuki; Yoshinaga, Koji; Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi; Seto, Koichi; Orikawa, Yuki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Eta, Runa; Ohira, Yuta; Katsunuma, Kokichi; Hori, Yuko; Tanaka, Takao; Takei, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic metastasis is common in advanced-stage carcinoma and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, few effective treatments to inhibit it are available. Z-100 is an immunomodulatory extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B that contains polysaccharides such as arabinomannan and mannan. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Z-100 on spontaneous lymphatic metastasis. C57BL/6N mice injected subcutaneously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells in the right hind footpad were administered Z-100 subcutaneously in the right inguinal region on a daily basis. On day twenty-one after the injection, the right inguinal lymph nodes were excised, and the extent of metastasis, the number of immune cells, and the amount of granzyme B protein in the lymph nodes were examined. We also investigated the combined effect of Z-100 and irradiation in this model. Results showed that Z-100 reduced number of animals with metastasis, with respective metastasis rates of 85.7%, 42.9%, 7.1% and 0.0% in saline, 0.1 mg/kg Z-100, 1 mg/kg Z-100 and 10 mg/kg Z-100 group. Further, mice that had been given Z-100 were found to have more immune cells and granzyme B protein in the lymph nodes than control mice. The combination of low dose Z-100 and irradiation also inhibited spontaneous lymph node metastases. These findings suggest that Z-100 may be beneficial in preventing lymphatic metastasis by enhancing the immune response.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of the Transition from Extracapsular Cataract Extraction to Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery in Prevention of Blindness Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Signes-Soler, Isabel; Javaloy, Jaime; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Moya, Tomas; Montalbán, Raúl; Albarrán, César

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the safety and the visual outcomes of two experienced cataract surgeons who converted from extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) to manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) during a campaign for the prevention of blindness. Methods: Two surgeons used the ECCE technique (ECCE group) during a campaign in Burkina Faso on 93 consecutive cataract patients with a corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) <20/80 in the best eye. Both surgeons used MSICS for the first time on 98 consecutive cases in another campaign in Kenya after theoretical instructional courses. Results: There were no significant differences in CDVA at 3 months postoperatively. There were 69% of eyes with uncorrected distance visual acuity ≥20/60 in the MSICS group and 49% eyes in the ECCE group. Spherical equivalents ranged between −1D and +1D in 55% of the MSICS group versus 43% in the ECCE group. There were significant differences in the changes in the vertical component of astigmatism (J45) but not the horizontal (J0) component. There were no significant differences in the intraoperative complications. The most common postoperative complication was corneal edema on the first day in 40.86% and 19.38% of the ECCE and MSICS groups, respectively. Conclusion: Transitioning from ECCE to MSICS for experienced cataract surgeons in surgical campaigns is safe. The rate of complications is similar for both techniques. Slightly better visual and refractive outcomes can be achieved due to the decreased induction of corneal astigmatism. PMID:27162451

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract prevents early liver injury and restores antioxidant status in mice fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Ghosh, Santinath; Fromenty, Bernard; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In the present study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Liver histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated using liver homogenate. Results of the study suggested that MoLE treatment protected HFD-induced liver damage as indicated by histopathology and liver enzyme activity compared to only-HFD fed group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, early signs of HFD-induced fatty liver were also alleviated by MoLE. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treated groups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as also curative hepatoprotective activity.

  15. Protein Mediators of Sterol Transport Across Intestinal Brush Border Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Yu, Liqing

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cholesterol balance contributes significantly to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of death in the United States. The intestine has the unique capability to act as a gatekeeper for entry of cholesterol into the body, and inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption is now widely regarded as an attractive non-statin therapeutic strategy for ASCVD prevention. In this chapter we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding sterol transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. The purpose of this work is to summarize substantial progress made in the last decade in regards to protein-mediated sterol trafficking, and to discuss this in the context of human disease. PMID:20213550

  16. Stimulation of dendritic cell maturation and induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells by a heat-stable extract from azuki bean (Vigna angularis), a promising immunopotentiating food and dietary supplement for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Kazuyasu; Nabata, Yuri; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; An, Wei Wei

    2012-01-01

    Non-toxic stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are central immunomodulators, may aid the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by anticancer agents contributes to the induction of DC maturation. We previously reported that extracts from Pinus parviflora Sieb. et Zucc pine cone and Mucuna seed induce differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells into mature dendritic cells and also induce apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we screened 31 kinds of edible beans with biological activity similar to that of extracts from pine cone and Mucuna and found that the heat-stable extract from azuki bean (Vigna angula) stimulated differentiation of bone marrow cells into immature DCs with the greatest efficacy. The level of IL-6 produced by sequential treatment of DCs with azuki extract and lipopolysaccharide was the highest among the examined beans. Azuki extract also inhibited the growth of human leukemia U937 cells, leading to induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that azuki bean and its extract are immunopotentiating foods that can be used as a dietary supplement for cancer prevention and immunotherapy. PMID:22524832

  17. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  18. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  19. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health.

  20. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-03

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Rancan, Serena; Orso, Genny; Dall’Acqua, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Carrara, Maria; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the

  2. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Rancan, Serena; Orso, Genny; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Carrara, Maria; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027 μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the

  3. Intestinal obstruction: predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Ismail, Ibtisam; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25868638

  4. Influence of trichlorfon and fractionated irradiation on hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Koćmierska-Grodzka, D

    1976-03-01

    Investigations into the hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues (small intestine and colon) of rats after fractionated irradiation (5 X 150 R) were carried out. There was found marked postirradiation enhancement of lipase activity in pancreas and duodenal part of intestine and increase of B-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activity in nearly all parts of the examined intestinal tissues. Fractionated irradiation resulted in an increase of pancreatic catheptic (proteolytic) activity causing simultaneous decrease of proteolytic activity in intestine and colon. Preventive administration of Trichlorfon (ten days before irradiation) in the dose of 10 mg or 30 mg/kg evoked modification of hydroproteolytic activity in intestinal tissues of healthy and irradiated rats. Trichlorfon applied in the dose of 30 mg/kg exerted antilipolytic and anticatheptic effects in pancreas and intestinal tissues of irradiated rats. PMID:1258099

  5. Small Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  6. Intestinal Rotation Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Juan Carlos; Lo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal rotation abnormality (IRA) predisposes to lethal midgut volvulus. An understanding of intestinal development illustrates the process of normal intestinal rotation and fixation. An appreciation of the clinical presentation and consequences of missed IRA will enhance clinical suspicion and timely evaluation. Selecting the appropriate imaging modality to diagnose IRA requires an understanding of the benefits and limitations of each. The Ladd's procedure continues to be the appropriate surgical treatment for IRA with or without volvulus. Laparoscopy has emerged as an option for the diagnosis and treatment of IRA. Populations in which IRA is always associated, but a Ladd's procedure rarely required, include patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and abdominal wall defects. Prevalence of IRA is higher in children with congenital heart disease and heterotaxy syndrome; asymptomatic patients require multidisciplinary consideration of the risks and benefits of screening for IRA, whether a Ladd's procedure is required, and the timing thereof. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e247-e250.]. PMID:27403672

  7. Epidemiology of cancer of the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sai Yi; Morrison, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the small intestine is very uncommon. There are 4 main histological subtypes: adenocarcinomas, carcinoid tumors, lymphoma and sarcoma. The incidence of small intestine cancer has increased over the past several decades with a four-fold increase for carcinoid tumors, less dramatic rises for adenocarcinoma and lymphoma and stable sarcoma rates. Very little is known about its etiology. An increased risk has been noted for individuals with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, adenoma, familial adenomatous polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Several behavioral risk factors including consumption of red or smoked meat, saturated fat, obesity and smoking have been suggested. The prognosis for carcinomas of the small intestine cancer is poor (5 years relative survival < 30%), better for lymphomas and sarcomas, and best for carcinoid tumors. There has been no significant change in long-term survival rates for any of the 4 histological subtypes. Currently, with the possible exceptions of obesity and cigarette smoking, there are no established modifiable risk factors which might provide the foundation for a prevention program aimed at reducing the incidence and mortality of cancers of the small intestine. More research with better quality and sufficient statistical power is needed to get better understanding of the etiology and biology of this cancer. In addition, more studies should be done to assess not only exposures of interest, but also host susceptibility. PMID:21461167

  8. Intestinal β-galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.; Colver, Eugene H.; Genel, Myron

    1969-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in some racial groups and in patients with intestinal disease, the biochemical defect has not been characterized. In the preceding paper normal intestine was found to have two lactases with distinctly different pH optima. Therefore, pH activity curves of homogenates from lactase-deficient intestine were studied, and the pH optimum was found to be shifted from the normal of 5.8 to 4.8. Density gradient ultracentrifugation of intestinal material from five lactase-deficient patients demonstrated absence of a lactase with pH optimum 6.0 and molecular weight 280,000. A second lactase with pH optimum 4.5 and molecular weights of 156,000 and 660,000 remained at normal levels accounting for the shift in the pH optimum in whole intestinal homogenates. In addition, three of the five patients had absence of a smaller β-galactosidase (molecular weight 80,000) that had specificity only for synthetic substrates. Although not a lactase, this enzyme had a pH optimum identical with the missing lactase, and its activity was inhibited by lactose in a partially competitive manner suggesting that it is capable of binding lactose. It is possible that this enzyme is a precursor or fragment of the missing lactase. The residual lactase activity provided by the lactase with low pH optimum represents 20-70% of the activity of the missing enzyme, and yet these patients are not able to digest dietary lactose. Thus it appears that the residual enzyme plays no significant role in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. PMID:5774110

  9. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Dukowicz, Andrew C.; Levine, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), defined as excessive bacteria in the small intestine, remains a poorly understood disease. Initially thought to occur in only a small number of patients, it is now apparent that this disorder is more prevalent than previously thought. Patients with SIBO vary in presentation, from being only mildly symptomatic to suffering from chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption. A number of diagnostic tests are currently available, although the optimal treatment regimen remains elusive. Recently there has been renewed interest in SIBO and its putative association with irritable bowel syndrome. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of SIBO. PMID:21960820

  10. Assessment of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Nikaki, K; Gupte, G L

    2016-04-01

    Significant efforts have been made in the last decade to either standardize the available tests for intestinal malabsorption or to develop new, more simple and reliable techniques. The quest is still on and, unfortunately, clinical practice has not dramatically changed. The investigation of intestinal malabsorption is directed by the patient's history and baseline tests. Endoscopy and small bowel biopsies play a major role although non-invasive tests are favored and often performed early on the diagnostic algorithm, especially in paediatric and fragile elderly patients. The current clinically available methods and research tools are summarized in this review article.

  11. Assessment of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Nikaki, K; Gupte, G L

    2016-04-01

    Significant efforts have been made in the last decade to either standardize the available tests for intestinal malabsorption or to develop new, more simple and reliable techniques. The quest is still on and, unfortunately, clinical practice has not dramatically changed. The investigation of intestinal malabsorption is directed by the patient's history and baseline tests. Endoscopy and small bowel biopsies play a major role although non-invasive tests are favored and often performed early on the diagnostic algorithm, especially in paediatric and fragile elderly patients. The current clinically available methods and research tools are summarized in this review article. PMID:27086887

  12. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  13. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  14. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  15. Molecular methods to measure intestinal bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G Douglas; Thomas, Matthew C; Thomas, Dallas K; Kalmokoff, Martin L; Brooks, Stephen P J; Selinger, L Brent

    2012-01-01

    The intestine is an exceptionally rich ecosystem encompassing a complex interaction among microorganisms, influenced by host factors, ingested food, and liquid. Characterizing the intestinal microbiota is currently an active area of research. Various molecular-based methods are available to characterize the intestinal microbiota, but all methods possess relative strengths, as well as salient weaknesses. It is important that researchers are cognizant of the limitations of these methods, and that they take the appropriate steps to mitigate weaknesses. Here, we discuss methodologies used to monitor intestinal bacteria including: (i) traditional clone libraries; (ii) direct sequencing using next-generation parallel sequencing technology; (iii) denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; (iv) terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; (v) fluorescent in situ hybridization; and (vi) quantitative PCR. In addition, we also discuss experimental design, sample collection and storage, DNA extraction, gene targets, PCR bias, and methods to reduce PCR bias.

  16. Sodium butyrate protects the intestinal barrier function in peritonitic mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaofeng; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yunlei; Sheng, Yingmo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peritonitis is a commonly seen disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is prevalently considered that the impaired intestinal barrier during peritonitis is the access point of gut microbes into the blood system, and acts as the engine of the following systemic infection. In our previous study, we found that Sodium Butyrate (NaB) was protective on intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effects of NaB on overwhelming infection animal models of peritonitis. Methods: Mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was used to study the effects of NaB on the intestinal barrier. Experimental animals were fed of NaB by gavage. Post-CLP mortality, gut permeability and intestinal histological alterations were studied. Results: Gastrointestinal NaB pharmacodynamics profiles after medication were studied. Measurements of NaB concentration in chyme showed significantly higher intestinal concentration of NaB in the NaB treated group than that of the control group. CLP-induced mortality was significantly decreased by oral NaB treatments. Gut permeability was largely increased after CLP, which was partially prevented by NaB feeding. Histological study showed that intestinal, especially ileal injury following peritonitis was substantially alleviated by NaB treatments. Moreover, tissue regeneration was also prompted by NaB. Conclusion: NaB has a potential protective effect on intestinal barrier function in peritonitis. PMID:26064302

  17. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

  18. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols.

  19. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine cancer include unexplained weight loss and abdominal pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... doctor if you have any of the following: Pain or cramps in the middle of the abdomen. Weight loss with no known reason. A lump ...

  20. Small intestinal fungal overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C

    2015-04-01

    Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is characterized by the presence of excessive number of fungal organisms in the small intestine associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Candidiasis is known to cause GI symptoms particularly in immunocompromised patients or those receiving steroids or antibiotics. However, only recently, there is emerging literature that an overgrowth of fungus in the small intestine of non-immunocompromised subjects may cause unexplained GI symptoms. Two recent studies showed that 26 % (24/94) and 25.3 % (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. The most common symptoms observed in these patients were belching, bloating, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, and gas. The underlying mechanism(s) that predisposes to SIFO is unclear but small intestinal dysmotility and use of proton pump inhibitors has been implicated. However, further studies are needed; both to confirm these observations and to examine the clinical relevance of fungal overgrowth, both in healthy subjects and in patients with otherwise unexplained GI symptoms. Importantly, whether eradication or its treatment leads to resolution of symptoms remains unclear; at present, a 2-3-week course of antifungal therapy is recommended and may be effective in improving symptoms, but evidence for eradication is lacking. PMID:25786900

  1. Aging and the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2006-01-01

    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body’s organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon, pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars. The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone. Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging. PMID:17171784

  2. New and emerging regulators of intestinal lipoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Morgantini, Cecilia; Lewis, Gary F

    2014-04-01

    Overproduction of hepatic apoB100-containing VLDL particles has been well documented in animal models and in humans with insulin resistance such as the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and contributes to the typical dyslipidemia of these conditions. In addition, postprandial hyperlipidemia and elevated plasma concentrations of intestinal apoB48-containing chylomicron and chylomicron remnant particles have been demonstrated in insulin resistant states. Intestinal lipoprotein production is primarily determined by the amount of fat ingested and absorbed. Until approximately 10 years ago, however, relatively little attention was paid to the role of the intestine itself in regulating the production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) and its dysregulation in pathological states such as insulin resistance. We and others have shown that insulin resistant animal models and humans are characterized by overproduction of intestinal apoB48-containing lipoproteins. Whereas various factors are known to regulate hepatic lipoprotein particle production, less is known about factors that regulate the production of intestinal lipoprotein particles. Monosacharides, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), resveratrol, intestinal peptides (e.g. GLP-1 and GLP-2), and pancreatic hormones (e.g. insulin) have recently been shown to be important regulators of intestinal lipoprotein secretion. Available evidence in humans and animal models strongly supports the concept that the small intestine is not merely an absorptive organ but rather plays an active role in regulating the rate of production of chylomicrons in fed and fasting states. Metabolic signals in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and in some cases an aberrant intestinal response to these factors contribute to the enhanced formation and secretion of TRL. Understanding the regulation of intestinal lipoprotein production is imperative for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of

  3. The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Graft versus Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Qayed, Muna; Horan, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) remains a major life threatening complication and one of the primary barriers to successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, limiting its application in nonmalignant conditions. Immunosuppression is used for prevention and treatment of GVHD, dampening the graft versus leukemia effect. Intestinal bacteria play a major role in inflammation and augmenting the GVHD cytokine response. Early studies in murine models showed that manipulating the presence of intestinal flora or counteracting its byproducts could limit GVHD. Thus multiple clinical trials targeting gut decontamination were conducted, with the aims of modulating inflammation and protecting against GVHD, with mixed results. More recent work has improved our understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota in the maintenance of innate immunity, mucosal integrity and limiting inflammation. This review offers a summary of this data, with a discussion of potential therapeutic interventions manipulating the intestinal microbiota.

  4. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects the intestinal mucosal barrier following peritoneal air exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Peichen; Chen, Xiaoxi; Yan, Jingyi; Yao, Jiangao; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), which is one of the main ingredients derived from Panax ginseng, has been widely used to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. The present study aimed to determine whether GRb1 was able to prevent intestinal mucosal barrier damage in rats following peritoneal air exposure for 3 h. GRb1 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was orally administrated via gavage four times prior to and following surgery. Blood and terminal ileum were sampled 24 h following surgery. Levels of serum D-lactate (D-LA) were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Intestinal permeability was assessed by determining the intestinal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD4). Activity of intestinal myeloperoxidase was measured to assess intestinal inflammation, and intestinal histopathology was assessed by light microscopy. The results showed that GRb1 reduced the level of serum D-LA, intestinal clearance of FD4, and the activity of intestinal myeloperoxidase. Intestinal edema and inflammation were also ameliorated by GRb1, and the Chiu's scores employed for assessing intestinal mucosal damage were also reduced in the GRb1-treated peritoneal air exposure group. In addition, GRb1 induced a significant difference at 10 and 20 mg/kg, indicating a dose-dependent effect. The results of the present study suggest that GRb1 may be able to protect the intestinal mucosal barrier against damage induced by peritoneal air exposure, which may be associated with its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27703510

  5. Relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cipe, Gokhan; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Firat, Deniz; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a complex and vast microbial community with up to 1011-1012 microorganisms colonizing the colon. The gut microbiota has a serious effect on homeostasis and pathogenesis through a number of mechanisms. In recent years, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and sporadic colorectal cancer has attracted much scientific interest. Mechanisms underlying colonic carcinogenesis include the conversion of procarcinogenic diet-related factors to carcinogens and the stimulation of procarcinogenic signaling pathways in luminal epithelial cells. Understanding each of these mechanisms will facilitate future studies, leading to the development of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the relationship between colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26483877

  6. Oesophagostomum dentatum Extract Modulates T Cell-Dependent Immune Responses to Bystander Antigens and Prevents the Development of Allergy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schabussova, Irma; Ul-Haq, Onisa; Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Akgün, Johnnie; Wagner, Angelika; Loupal, Gerhard; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    One third of the human population is currently infected by one or more species of parasitic helminths. Certain helminths establish long-term chronic infections resulting in a modulation of the host’s immune system with attenuated responsiveness to “bystander” antigens such as allergens or vaccines. In this study we investigated whether parasite-derived products suppress the development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model. We show that extract derived from adult male Oesophagostomum dentatum (eMOD) induced Th2 and regulatory responses in BALB/c mice. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced production of regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. In a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, co-administration of eMOD with sensitizing allergen Bet v 1 markedly reduced the production of allergen-specific antibodies in serum as well as IgE-dependent basophil degranulation. Furthermore, eMOD prevented the development of airway inflammation, as demonstrated by attenuation of bronchoalveolar lavages eosinophil influx, peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, and mucus secretion in lungs and IL-4 and IL-5 levels in lung cell cultures. Reduced secretion of Th2-related cytokines by birch pollen-re-stimulated splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells was observed in eMOD-treated/sensitized and challenged mice in comparison to sensitized and challenged controls. The suppressive effects of eMOD were heat-stable. Immunization with model antigens in the presence of eMOD reduced production of antibodies to thymus-dependent but not to thymus-independent antigen, suggesting that suppression of the immune responses by eMOD was mediated by interference with antigen presenting cell or T helper cell function but did not directly suppress B cell function. In conclusion, we have shown that eMOD possesses immunomodulatory properties and that heat-stable factors in eMOD are responsible for the dramatic suppression of allergic responses in a mouse model of type I

  7. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Dubner, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD.

  8. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Dubner, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD. PMID:26402120

  9. Measurement of small intestinal damage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Many animal models have been devised for investigating the pathogenesis of intestinal lesions and for screening drugs for the treatment of intestinal ulcers in humans. Recently, particular attention has been focused on NSAID-induced intestinal lesions as a result of the development of the capsule endoscope and double-balloon endoscope. Ischemic enteritis, one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies, is known to cause severe damage to the small intestine by a significant decrease of arterial blood flow in the small intestine. In this unit, two animal models for small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs or intestinal ischemia are described. Also included are methods for lesion induction and evaluation of the damage as well as the measurement of pathogenic functional and biochemical changes.

  10. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    a critical clinical condition of Polycompartment Syndrome. The monitoring of Abdominal Perfusion Pressure (APP) is more correct than the measurement of IAP because it reveals hydrodynamic alterations in the abdominal compartment. The APP (MAP-IAP) depends on arterial flow, venous outflow and capacity of the abdominal compartments response to increased internal volumes. The medical therapy used to decrease IAH and to contrast ACS is intestinal decompression with gastric and rectal tube; colonic endoscopic detention; correction of electrolytic abnormalities and prokinetic agents. Surgery, besides being decompressive and resolutive, must prevent a recurrence of ACS through the "tension-free closure" procedure.

  11. Orally delivered microencapsulated probiotic formulation favorably impacts polyp formation in APC (Min/+) model of intestinal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Bhathena, Jasmine; Cherif, Sofiane; Prakash, Satya

    2016-01-01

    The development of intestinal polyps in an orthotopic colorectal mouse model, receiving a probiotic yogurt formulation containing microencapsulated live Lactobacillus acidophilus cells was investigated. The expression of various immunohistochemical markers namely CD8, Mac-1, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase-3, was evaluated. Results suggest that the probiotic formulation decreases overall intestinal inflammation. Mice receiving the probiotic formulation were found to develop almost two-fold fewer tumors in the small intestines. In the large intestine, however, there was no significant difference observed among polyp numbers. The formulation appears to have potential application in the prevention of various GI pathological conditions. PMID:25060720

  12. Intestinal sensing of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Gwen; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of a meal triggers a range of physiological responses both within and outside the gut, and results in the remote modulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Luminal contents are sensed by specialised chemosensitive cells scattered throughout the intestinal epithelium. These enteroendocrine and tuft cells make direct contact with the gut lumen and release a range of chemical mediators, which can either act in a paracrine fashion interacting with neighbouring cells and nerve endings or as classical circulating hormones. At the molecular level, the chemosensory machinery involves multiple and complex signalling pathways including activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and solute carrier transporters. This chapter will discuss our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal chemosensation with a particular focus on the relatively well-characterised nutrient-triggered secretion from the enteroendocrine system. PMID:22249821

  13. The allometry of rodent intestines.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents. The herbivorous rodents have longer caecums, colons and large intestines, but their small intestines, with the exception of the desert otomyine rodents, are no different to those of omnivorous rodents. Desert otomyine rodents have significantly shorter small intestines than all other rodents, reflecting a possible habitat effect and providing a partial explanation for the low basal metabolic rates of small desert mammals. However, the desert otomyines do not have shorter colons or large intestines, challenging claims for adaptation to water retention in arid environments. Data for the Arvicolidae revealed significantly larger caecums and colons, and hence longer large intestines, with no compensatory reduction in the length of the small intestine, which may explain how the smallest mammalian herbivores manage to meet the demands of a very high mass-specific metabolic rate. This study provides phylogenetically corrected allometries suitable for future prediction testing.

  14. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  15. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  16. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  17. Intestinal bacteria and ageing.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, E J

    2007-05-01

    Advancements in science and medicine, as well as improved living standards, have led to a steady increase in life expectancy, and subsequently a rise in the elderly population. The intestinal microbiota is important for maintenance of host health, providing energy, nutrients and protection against invading organisms. Although the colonic microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, age-related changes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as well as changes in diet and host immune system reactivity, inevitably affect population composition. Recent studies indicate shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which may lead to detrimental effects for the elderly host. Increased numbers of facultative anaerobes, in conjunction with a decrease in beneficial organisms such as the anaerobic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, amongst other anaerobes, have been reported. These changes, along with a general reduction in species diversity in most bacterial groups, and changes to diet and digestive physiology such as intestinal transit time, may result in increased putrefaction in the colon and a greater susceptibility to disease. Therapeutic strategies to counteract these changes have been suggested in ageing people. These include dietary supplements containing prebiotics, probiotics and a combination of both of these, synbiotics. Limited feeding trials show promising results with these supplements, although further longer-term investigations are required to substantiate their use in elderly healthcare fields. PMID:17448153

  18. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kishii, Y; Kawasaki, S; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Uchida, T

    2014-02-01

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  19. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kishii, Y. Kawasaki, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.

    2014-02-15

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  20. Neuroprotective evaluation of Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia in the neuronal damage induced by intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1×10(-5) M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention. PMID:23739919

  1. Neuroprotective evaluation of Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia in the neuronal damage induced by intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1×10(-5) M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention.

  2. The role of intestinal epithelial barrier function in the development of NEC

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Melissa D; Denning, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial barrier plays an important role in maintaining host health. Breakdown of intestinal barrier function is known to play a role in many diseases such as infectious enteritis, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, and neonatal inflammatory bowel diseases. Recently, increasing research has demonstrated the importance of understanding how intestinal epithelial barrier function develops in the premature neonate in order to develop strategies to promote its maturation. Optimizing intestinal barrier function is thought to be key to preventing neonatal inflammatory bowel diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. In this review, we will first summarize the key components of the intestinal epithelial barrier, what is known about its development, and how this may explain NEC pathogenesis. Finally, we will review what therapeutic strategies may be used to promote optimal development of neonatal intestinal barrier function in order to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. PMID:25927016

  3. Effect of rhubarb pre-treatment on intestinal microcirculation in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yun-Liang; Wang, Lv; Tian, Zhao-Tao; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The intestine plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of sepsis development. The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of rhubarb on intestinal microcirculation in septic rats. We used moorFLPI laser speckle imaging to detect the blood flow of the intestinal mucosa and wall. Using an ELISA, we assayed the concentration of lactate (L) and pyruvic acid (P) in the intestinal tissue to calculate the ratio of lactate to pyruvic acid (L/P ratio). To observe the intestinal mucosal capillaries, gelatin and ink were perfused into the intestine and subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to measure the ratio of the vessel area. We then used immunohistochemistry to measure CD31 expression. Using an MTT assay, the effect of the rhubarb extract on the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was analyzed. The blood flow in the intestinal wall and mucosa of the control, sham and rhubarb-treated groups was significantly higher, while the sepsis group had relatively low blood flow. The L/P ratio in the intestinal tissue was larger in the sepsis group than in the other three groups. The microvascular area (MVA) in the sepsis group was smaller than in the control group, sham group or rhubarb group. Positive expression for CD31 was observed in the cytoplasm of vascular endothelial cells. The intestinal mucosal capillaries were reduced in septic rats as compared to the other three groups. HUVEC proliferation was enhanced by the rhubarb extract monomers at 1 μmol/L, but suppressed at higher concentrations of 10 to 100 μmol/L. These results suggest that pre-treatment with rhubarb prior to sepsis induction promotes the expansion of the intestinal mucosal capillaries, protects intestinal mucosal capillary endothelial cells and increases the number of functional intestinal capillaries. PMID:25176604

  4. Microbes, intestinal inflammation and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad W; Kale, Amod A; Bere, Praveen; Vajjala, Sriharsha; Gounaris, Elias; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells act in a synergistic fashion with intestinal epithelial cells and microbiota to initiate the triad that governs the intestinal immune responses (whether inflammatory or regulatory). In this review, we will discuss the interplay of intestinal epithelial cells, bacteria and the innate immune component. Moreover, whether or not genetic intervention of probiotic bacteria is a valid approach for attenuating/mitigating exaggerated inflammation and IBD will also be discussed.

  5. Gossypiboma causing mechanical intestinal obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Akin; Akkucuk, Seckin; Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Karcioglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Gossypiboma (GP) is a term used to express the mass resulting from forgotten cotton sponge in operations. Rarely, a transmural migration may occur into the gastrointestinal lumen without creating any defect by GP. Laparotomy or endoscopic removal may be required, by the way it can be taken out of the body itself by intestinal ways. In this study, we reported a case of mechanical intestinal obstruction causing GP. Case. The fifty-one-year-old female patient admitted to the emergency department with the complaints of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had a history of open cholecystectomy 20 years ago. There were the findings of intestinal obstruction in abdominal plain radiography and computerized tomography. The sponge that obstructed the lumen completely 40 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve was identified in the laparotomy with the diagnosis of brid ileus. The small intestine was closed over double-fold after removal of sponge. Transmural migration of abdominal-remained sponge was thought to be occurred without creating a defect after cholecystectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged without having any problems at 4th day of hospitalization. Conclusion. Although it is a rare situation in routine clinical practice, GP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the patients who had a diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction, and laparotomy was applied before. As GP may lead to situations which cause mortality, all precautions should be taken to prevent it. PMID:23133784

  6. Oral PEG 15–20 protects the intestine against radiation: role of lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborina, Olga; Long, Jason; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Wang, Junru; Holbrook, Christopher; Zaborin, Alexander; Drabik, Kenneth; Katdare, Mukta; Mauceri, Helena; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Firestone, Millicent A.; Lee, Ka Yee; Chang, Eugene B.; Matthews, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15–20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15–20 (n = 9–13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15–20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15–20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15–20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15–20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation. PMID:19833862

  7. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    SciTech Connect

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  8. The Intestinal Microbiota in Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woting, Anni; Blaut, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gut bacteria exert beneficial and harmful effects in metabolic diseases as deduced from the comparison of germfree and conventional mice and from fecal transplantation studies. Compositional microbial changes in diseased subjects have been linked to adiposity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the intestinal microbiota could result in an increased nutrient absorption by the host. The degradation of dietary fiber and the subsequent fermentation of monosaccharides to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) is one of the most controversially discussed mechanisms of how gut bacteria impact host physiology. Fibers reduce the energy density of the diet, and the resulting SCFA promote intestinal gluconeogenesis, incretin formation and subsequently satiety. However, SCFA also deliver energy to the host and support liponeogenesis. Thus far, there is little knowledge on bacterial species that promote or prevent metabolic disease. Clostridium ramosum and Enterococcus cloacae were demonstrated to promote obesity in gnotobiotic mouse models, whereas bifidobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila were associated with favorable phenotypes in conventional mice, especially when oligofructose was fed. How diet modulates the gut microbiota towards a beneficial or harmful composition needs further research. Gnotobiotic animals are a valuable tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet–host–microbe interactions. PMID:27058556

  9. The Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F; Wirtz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has important metabolic and host-protective functions. Conversely to these beneficial functions, the intestinal microbiota is thought to play a central role in the etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), a chronic inflammation of the gut mucosa. Genetic screens and studies in experimental mouse models have clearly demonstrated that IBD can develop due to excessive translocation of bacteria into the bowel wall or dysregulated handling of bacteria in genetically susceptible hosts. In healthy individuals, the microbiota is efficiently separated from the mucosal immune system of the gut by the gut barrier, a single layer of highly specialized epithelial cells, some of which are equipped with innate immune functions to prevent or control access of bacterial antigens to the mucosal immune cells. It is currently unclear whether the composition of the microbial flora or individual bacterial strains or pathogens induces or supports the pathogenesis of IBD. Further research will be necessary to carefully dissect the contribution of individual bacterial species to this disease and to ascertain whether specific modulation of the intestinal microbiome may represent a valuable further option for future therapeutic strategies.

  10. The Intestinal Microbiota in Metabolic Disease.

    PubMed

    Woting, Anni; Blaut, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gut bacteria exert beneficial and harmful effects in metabolic diseases as deduced from the comparison of germfree and conventional mice and from fecal transplantation studies. Compositional microbial changes in diseased subjects have been linked to adiposity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the intestinal microbiota could result in an increased nutrient absorption by the host. The degradation of dietary fiber and the subsequent fermentation of monosaccharides to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) is one of the most controversially discussed mechanisms of how gut bacteria impact host physiology. Fibers reduce the energy density of the diet, and the resulting SCFA promote intestinal gluconeogenesis, incretin formation and subsequently satiety. However, SCFA also deliver energy to the host and support liponeogenesis. Thus far, there is little knowledge on bacterial species that promote or prevent metabolic disease. Clostridium ramosum and Enterococcus cloacae were demonstrated to promote obesity in gnotobiotic mouse models, whereas bifidobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila were associated with favorable phenotypes in conventional mice, especially when oligofructose was fed. How diet modulates the gut microbiota towards a beneficial or harmful composition needs further research. Gnotobiotic animals are a valuable tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet-host-microbe interactions. PMID:27058556

  11. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibits the proinflammatory nucleotide uridine diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hamarneh, Sulaiman R.; Mohamed, Mussa M. Rafat; Ramasamy, Sundaram; Yammine, Halim; Patel, Palak; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Alam, Sayeda N.; Muhammad, Nur; Moaven, Omeed; Teshager, Abeba; Malo, Nondita S.; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Warren, H. Shaw; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Malo, Madhu S.; Hodin, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate (UDP) is a proinflammatory nucleotide implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a gut mucosal defense factor capable of inhibiting intestinal inflammation. We used the malachite green assay to show that IAP dephosphorylates UDP. To study the anti-inflammatory effect of IAP, UDP or other proinflammatory ligands (LPS, flagellin, Pam3Cys, or TNF-α) in the presence or absence of IAP were applied to cell cultures, and IL-8 was measured. UDP caused dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release by immune cells and two gut epithelial cell lines, and IAP treatment abrogated IL-8 release. Costimulation with UDP and other inflammatory ligands resulted in a synergistic increase in IL-8 release, which was prevented by IAP treatment. In vivo, UDP in the presence or absence of IAP was instilled into a small intestinal loop model in wild-type and IAP-knockout mice. Luminal contents were applied to cell culture, and cytokine levels were measured in culture supernatant and intestinal tissue. UDP-treated luminal contents induced more inflammation on target cells, with a greater inflammatory response to contents from IAP-KO mice treated with UDP than from WT mice. Additionally, UDP treatment increased TNF-α levels in intestinal tissue of IAP-KO mice, and cotreatment with IAP reduced inflammation to control levels. Taken together, these studies show that IAP prevents inflammation caused by UDP alone and in combination with other ligands, and the anti-inflammatory effect of IAP against UDP persists in mouse small intestine. The benefits of IAP in intestinal disease may be partly due to inhibition of the proinflammatory activity of UDP. PMID:23306083

  12. Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Review

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Tamer; Esmat, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. Hepatic schistosomiasis represents the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection. Egg deposition and granuloma formation eventually leads to acute then chronic schistosomal colitis and is commonly associated with polyp formation. It frequently presents as abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus and anal pain. Definite diagnosis of schistosomiasis disease depends on microscopy and egg identification. Marked progress regarding serologic diagnosis occurred with development of recent PCR techniques that can confirm schistosomal affection at any stage. Many antischistosomal drugs have been described for treatment, praziquantel being the most safe and efficient drug. Still ongoing studies try to develop effective vaccines with identification of many target antigens. Preventive programs are highly needed to control the disease morbidity and to break the cycle of transmission. PMID:25685451

  13. Polyamines alter intestinal glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L R; Brockway, P D; Madsen, K; Hardin, J A; Gall, D G

    1995-03-01

    Polyamines are required for the growth of all eukaryotic cells. Enterocytes respond to luminal nutrients with large increases in polyamine synthesis, even though they are mature, nonproliferating cells. The role of polyamines in these cells is unknown. The current experiments examined whether polyamines affected intestinal transport of glucose, since absorption is the primary activity of enterocytes and since polyamines are known to affect membrane function and stability. Glucose transport was examined in rabbit brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). BBMV from rabbits given 5% alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in their drinking water 24 h before they were killed transported significantly less glucose than control vesicles [38% decrease in maximal transport rate (Jmax)]. Orogastric administration of spermine, spermidine, or putrescine to DFMO-treated animals 24 h before they were killed prevented the decrease. In rabbits receiving only orogastric spermine, glucose transport was significantly increased (64% increase in Jmax), whereas in vivo spermidine and putrescine decreased Jmax. This increase in Jmax caused by in vivo administration of spermine was not dependent on protein synthesis. Addition of polyamines whether in vivo or in vitro decreased Michaelis constant in vesicles from control and DFMO-treated animals. The change in glucose transport induced by DFMO or polyamines was not related to altered membrane lipid composition or fluidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal bacteria and effect of Bacillus spp. on intestinal microbial diversity in kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaide; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Jiang, Shan); Sun, Shujuan; Wang, Lei

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the intestinal microbiota of kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus) was examined by molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA to identify the dominant intestinal bacteria and to investigate the effects of Bacillus spp. on intestinal microbial diversity. Samples of the intestines of kuruma shrimp fed normal feed and Bacillus spp. amended feed. PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses were then performed on DNA extracted directly from the guts. Population fingerprints of the predominant organisms were generated by DGGE analysis of the universal V3 16S rDNA amplicons, and distinct bands in the gels were sequenced. The results suggested that the gut of kuruma shrimp was dominated by Vibrio sp. and uncultured gamma proteobacterium. Overall, the results of this study suggest that PCR-DGGE is a possible method of studying the intestinal microbial diversity of shrimp.

  15. Biaxial mechanical modeling of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Chiara; Glass, Paul; Sitti, Metin; Di Martino, Elena S

    2011-11-01

    Capsule endoscopes are pill-size devices provided with a camera that capture images of the small intestine from inside the body after being ingested by a patient. The interaction between intestinal tissue and capsule endoscopes needs to be investigated to optimize capsule design while preventing tissue damage. To that purpose, a constitutive model that can reliably predict the mechanical response of the intestinal tissue under complex mechanical loading is required. This paper describes the development and numerical validation of a phenomenological constitutive model for the porcine duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Parameters characterizing the mechanical behavior of the material were estimated from planar biaxial test data, where intestinal tissue specimens were simultaneously loaded along the circumferential and longitudinal directions. Specimen-specific Fung constitutive models were able to accurately predict the planar stress-strain behavior of the tested samples under a wide range of loading conditions. To increase model generality, average anisotropic constitutive relationships were also generated for each tissue region by fitting average stress-strain curves to the Fung potential. Due to the observed variability in the direction of maximum stiffness, the average Fung models were less anisotropic than the specimen-specific models. Hence, average isotropic models in the Neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin forms were attempted, but they could not adequately describe the degree of nonlinearity in the tissue. Values of the R2 for the nonlinear regressions were 0.17, 0.44 and 0.93 for the average Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and Fung models, respectively. Average models were successfully implemented into FORTRAN routines and used to simulate capsule deployment with a finite element method analysis. PMID:22098873

  16. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the intestinal homeostasis in a computer controlled model of the large intestine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus) consecutively or in combination were investigated and compared to controls without therapy using a standardized human fecal microbiota in a computer-controlled in vitro model of large intestine. Microbial metabolites (short chain fatty acids, lactate, branched chain fatty acids, and ammonia) and the intestinal microbiota were analyzed. Results Compared to controls and combination therapy, short chain fatty acids and lactate, but also ammonia and branched chain fatty acids, were increased under probiotic therapy. The metabolic pattern under combined therapy with antibiotics and probiotics had the most beneficial and consistent effect on intestinal metabolic profiles. The intestinal microbiota showed a decrease in several indigenous bacterial groups under antibiotic therapy, there was no significant recovery of these groups when the antibiotic therapy was followed by administration of probiotics. Simultaneous application of anti- and probiotics had a stabilizing effect on the intestinal microbiota with increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Conclusions Administration of VSL#3 parallel with the clindamycin therapy had a beneficial and stabilizing effect on the intestinal metabolic homeostasis by decreasing toxic metabolites and protecting the endogenic microbiota from destruction. Probiotics could be a reasonable strategy in prevention of

  17. Antioxidant action and potential antidiabetic properties of an isoflavonoid-containing soyabean phytochemical extract (SPE).

    PubMed

    Vedavanam, K; Srijayanta, S; O'Reilly, J; Raman, A; Wiseman, H

    1999-11-01

    The potential role of oestrogenic agents, antioxidants and intestinal glucose-uptake inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes is briefly reviewed. Reports in the literature suggest that oestrogen replacement therapy may favourably modulate glucose homeostasis. A soya phytochemical extract (SPE) containing the isoflavone phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein (mostly in their glycone forms as genistin and daidzin) was investigated as an antioxidant and modulator of intestinal glucose-transport. In the present study, SPE was found to protect against glucose-induced oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) in vitro. Equol (a gut bacterial metabolite of daidzein) was a more effective antioxidant than daidzein or genistein in this system and was of similar antioxidant potency to the dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol and to the endogenous antioxidant 17beta-oestradiol. SPE was found to be an inhibitor of glucose uptake into rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles in vitro, though of weaker potency than the classical sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor, phlorizin. Thus SPE displays a range of properties which may be of benefit in diabetes, namely as an oestrogenic agent, an inhibitor of intestinal glucose-uptake and a preventive agent for glucose-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:10548755

  18. EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TREATMENT WITH EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI LATEX ON THE SURVIVAL AND INTESTINAL ADHESIONS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Lilhian Alves; MRUÉ, Fátima; NEVES, Roberpaulo Anacleto; ALVES, Maxley Martins; da SILVA-JÚNIOR, Nelson Jorge; SILVA, Marcelo Seixo de Brito; de MELO-REIS, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of plants of the family Euphorbiaceae, particularly Euphorbia tirucalli (avelós) has been popularly widespread for treating a variety of diseases of infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory. Aim: To demonstrated antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of these