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Sample records for extract treated cotton

  1. A study on the antimicrobial efficacy of RF oxygen plasma and neem extract treated cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaideki, K.; Jayakumar, S.; Thilagavathi, G.; Rajendran, R.

    2007-06-01

    The paper deals with a thorough investigation on the antimicrobial activity of RF oxygen plasma and Azadirachtin (neem extract) treated cotton fabric. The hydrophilicity of cotton fabric was found to improve when treated with RF oxygen plasma. The process parameters such as electrode gap, time of exposure and oxygen pressure have been varied to study their effect on improving the hydrophilicity of the cotton fabric. The static immersion test has been carried out to assess the hydrophilicity of the oxygen plasma treated samples and the process parameters were optimized based on these test results. The formation of carbonyl group during surface modification in the plasma treated sample was analysed using FTIR studies. The surface morphology has been studied using SEM micrographs. The antimicrobial activity was imparted to the RF oxygen plasma treated samples using methanolic extract of neem leaves containing Azadirachtin. The antimicrobial activity of these samples has been analysed and compared with the activity of the cotton fabric treated with neem extract alone. The investigation reveals that the surface modification due to RF oxygen plasma was found to increase the hydrophilicity and hence the antimicrobial activity of the cotton fabric when treated with Azadirachtin.

  2. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. PMID:24507269

  3. Cellulose nanofibrils extracted from the byproduct of cotton plant.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaran; Lin, Jinyou; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiuhong; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-20

    Cotton stalk bark, as the byproduct of cotton plant, was usually discarded and/or combusted, leading to waste of resources and environment pollution. How to efficiently utilize this kind of cellulosic materials is of significative to energy saving and environment protection. Herein, we report on the extraction of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from the cotton stalk bark for the first time by a combination of TEMPO-oxidation and mechanical disintegration method. The obtained CNF showed a yield more than 20 wt%. The morphologies, crystalline structures and thermal properties of CNF were extensively investigated by the transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The results showed that the final extracted CNF have similar polymorphs with their starting materials and a significantly increased crystallinity. This work will provide a new way to utilize the cotton stalk barks.

  4. Antibacterial cotton fibers treated with silver nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan Kyu; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Soojung; Lee, Jintae; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Roh, Changhyun; Lee, Jaewoong

    2016-10-20

    Cotton fibers were treated chemically with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTAC), a quaternary ammonium salt, and coated with silver nanoparticles/3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTMS) to increase the antibacterial efficacy. The coating process was accomplished by soaking the cotton fibers into a GTAC solution followed by a dry-cure method, and silver colloid/3-MPTMS solution was then applied at 43°C for 90min. The properties of the cotton fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis. SEM showed a rough surface when the cotton fibers were treated with GTAC/3-MPTMS/silver nanoparticles due to the increasing surface attachment. The existence of silver and 3-MPTMS on the cotton fibers was confirmed by XPS. The cotton fibers treated with both GTAC and silver nanoparticles showed synergistic antibacterial properties against P. aeruginosa. PMID:27474649

  5. Thermal decomposition reactions of cotton fabric treated with piperazine-phosphonates derivatives as a flame retardant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a great scientific interest in exploring the great potential of the piperazine-phosphonates in flame retardant (FR) application on cotton fabric by investigating the thermal decomposition of cotton fabric treated with them. This research tries to understand the mode of action of the t...

  6. Spectroscopic and morphological investigation of chemically treated cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) prepared from cotton sliver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Fatima, Nasreen; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zahra, Durey Nayab; Ansar, Nasir; Khan, Salman Tariq

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared from cotton sliver and chemically treated with acylating agents. FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphological changes after each chemical treatment when reinforced in unsaturated polyester resin.

  7. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  8. Soil microorganisms in cotton fields sequentially treated with insecticides.

    PubMed

    Vig, K; Singh, D K; Agarwal, H C; Dhawan, A K; Dureja, P

    2008-02-01

    A crop protection system consisting of sequential treatments by six insecticides--dimethoate, monocrotophos, deltamethrin, endosulfan, cypermethrin, and triazophos--at recommended dosages in cotton fields in Punjab, India was investigated for its effects on nontarget soil microorganisms and their activities. Successive applications of the insecticides caused only short-lived adverse effects on the soil microorganisms. None of the insecticides used had any adverse effects on soil fungi as reflected by their total numbers. Significant change in Azotobacter numbers were observed after dimethoate, triazophos, and endosulfan treatment in 1998 soil. An increase of up to 71% in actinomycetes numbers was observed after deltamethrin treatment in the treated fields in 1995. Few short-term changes in iron-reduction capacity were observed after endosulfan and cypermethrin treatments. No adverse effect was observed on the soil respiration during all the experimental periods. The amount of residues detected in soil ranged from 8.5 to 42.0 ng g(-1)dry wt. soil for organophosphorus insecticides and from nondetectable to 5.55 ng g (-1)dry wt. soil for synthetic pyrethroids. It ranged between 7.3 and 35.6 ng g(-1)dry wt. soil for endosulfan. On many occasions two or three insecticide residues were detected together; therefore, the effect observed on soil microorganisms and their activities was a multiresidue effect. In 1998, crop soil amounts of insecticide residues were generally more than those in 1995 and 1996. Persistence and dissipation patterns in soils with a history of exposure to the insecticides compared to the non-history soils were similar.

  9. Gamma radiations induced improvement in dyeing properties and colorfastness of cotton fabrics dyed with chicken gizzard leaves extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, Fatima; Adeel, Shahid; Azeem, Muhammad; Ahmad Khan, Ali; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Ghaffar, Abdul; Iqbal, Naeem

    2013-08-01

    Cotton fabric and chicken gizzard leaves powder were treated with different absorbed doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Effects of different mordants on dyeing of un-irradiated and irradiated cotton fabrics were investigated in the CIE Lab system using Spectraflash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were followed throughout the study period. The results indicated that color strength of cotton fabric was significantly improved by the gamma ray treatment. Absorbed dose of 10 kGy was proved to be most effective in improving cotton dyeing properties compared with other levels of gamma radiation used in the study. The optimum temperature for dyeing was 60 °C with the time duration of 60 min using 4 g/L of electrolyte with alkali solubilized extract of chicken gizzard. Furthermore, 4% of iron (Fe) as pre-mordant and 1% of tannic acid (TA) as post-mordant proved to be more effective in enhancing the color fastness properties of irradiated cotton fabric.

  10. Effect of treated tannery effluent with domestic wastewater and amendments on growth and yield of cotton.

    PubMed

    Jagathjothi, N; Amanullah, M Mohamed; Muthukrishnan, P

    2013-11-15

    Pot culture and field experiments were carried out at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Dindigul during kharif 2011-12 to investigate the influence of irrigation of treated tannery effluent along with domestic wastewater on growth, yield attributes and yield of cotton. The pot culture was in a factorial completely randomized design and field experiment laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that the mixing proportion of 25% Treated Tannery Effluent (TTE)+75% domestic wastewater (DWW) application recorded taller plants, higher dry matter production, number of sympodial branches plant(-1), number of fruiting points plant(-1), number of bolls plant(-1) and seed cotton yield with yield reduction of 15.28 and 16.11% compared to normal water irrigation under pot culture and field experiment, respectively. Regarding amendments, gypsum application registered higher seed cotton yield followed by VAM. PMID:24511705

  11. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  12. Antibacterial property and characterization of cotton fabric treated with chitosan/AgCl-TiO₂ colloid.

    PubMed

    Arain, Rabia Almas; Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2013-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of cotton fabric was studied by using chitosan/AgCl-TiO2 colloid. Different blend ratios of chitosan to AgCl-TiO2 colloid were used to investigate the efficacy of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli (gram negative) and its effect on physical properties of cotton fabric. Our study shows that the combination of chitosan with AgCl-TiO2 colloid produced better antibacterial activity than the fabric treated without chitosan; 100% bacterial reduction against S. aureus and E. coli obtained with chitosan/AgCl-TiO2 colloid at concentrations of 4 g/L and 10 g/L respectively. Moreover, the treated cotton indicates improved tensile strength and wrinkle recovery angle (WRA). Increasing chitosan concentration slightly affected the fabric stiffness and whiteness. The treated cotton fabrics were further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wide angle X-ray (WAXD). We can expect a direct industrial application of our proposed work because it is simple one go pad-dry-cure method and the low cost commercial grades of chitosan and AgCl-TiO2 are conveniently available in the market.

  13. Antibacterial property and characterization of cotton fabric treated with chitosan/AgCl-TiO₂ colloid.

    PubMed

    Arain, Rabia Almas; Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2013-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of cotton fabric was studied by using chitosan/AgCl-TiO2 colloid. Different blend ratios of chitosan to AgCl-TiO2 colloid were used to investigate the efficacy of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli (gram negative) and its effect on physical properties of cotton fabric. Our study shows that the combination of chitosan with AgCl-TiO2 colloid produced better antibacterial activity than the fabric treated without chitosan; 100% bacterial reduction against S. aureus and E. coli obtained with chitosan/AgCl-TiO2 colloid at concentrations of 4 g/L and 10 g/L respectively. Moreover, the treated cotton indicates improved tensile strength and wrinkle recovery angle (WRA). Increasing chitosan concentration slightly affected the fabric stiffness and whiteness. The treated cotton fabrics were further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wide angle X-ray (WAXD). We can expect a direct industrial application of our proposed work because it is simple one go pad-dry-cure method and the low cost commercial grades of chitosan and AgCl-TiO2 are conveniently available in the market. PMID:23688488

  14. Biologic activity of purified cotton bract extracts in man and guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, M G; Schachter, E N; Fick, R B; Merrill, W W; Cooper, J A; Keirns, J J; Oliver, J; Wall, J H

    1986-01-01

    Purified aqueous extracts of cotton bract induce acute airway constriction in healthy volunteers never before exposed to cotton bract. The response is similar to that of textile workers who inhale cotton dust. Approximately 60% of volunteers respond to bract extract with significant decreases in lung function, and these volunteers show an increased number of lymphocytes present in their lungs. Following inhalation of bract, the percent of polymorphonuclear leukocytes increases. Macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from volunteers pre-challenged with bract extract release increased amounts of chemotactic factor and superoxide anion. Efforts to detect release of histamine and leukotrienes in volunteers following challenge with bract show no increase in urinary histamine and no significant release of leukotrienes in lung lavage fluid. Purified extracts exhibit chemotactic activity in vitro. They also contract guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle in vitro. This preparation contains mast cells but no basophils, and the H-1 blocker, mepyramine blocks the contraction. Purified bract extracts contain no histamine or endotoxin but other contractors of smooth muscle may be present. The purified extract exhibits spectral, fluorescent, and radioimmune assay properties similar to a leukotriene B-like component. Cotton bract appears to have direct as well as cell-mediated activities. PMID:3011395

  15. Investigation on the effect of RF air plasma and neem leaf extract treatment on the surface modification and antimicrobial activity of cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaideki, K.; Jayakumar, S.; Rajendran, R.; Thilagavathi, G.

    2008-02-01

    A thorough investigation on the antimicrobial activity of RF air plasma and azadirachtin (neem leaf extract) treated cotton fabric has been dealt with in this paper. The cotton fabric was given a RF air plasma treatment to improve its hydrophilicity. The process parameters such as electrode gap, time of exposure and RF power have been varied to study their effect in improving the hydrophilicity of the cotton fabric and they were optimized based on the static immersion test results. The neem leaf extract (azadirachtin) was applied on fabric samples to impart antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial efficacy of the samples have been analysed and compared with the efficacy of the cotton fabric treated with the antimicrobial finish alone. The investigation reveals that the RF air plasma has modified the surface of the fabric, which in turn increased the antimicrobial activity of the fabric when treated with azadirachtin. The surface modification due to RF air plasma treatment has been analysed by comparing the FTIR spectra of the untreated and plasma treated samples. The molecular interaction between the fabric, azadirachtin and citric acid which was used as a cross linking agent to increase the durability of the antimicrobial finish has also been analysed using FTIR spectra.

  16. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids.

  17. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard.

  18. Two modified RNA extraction methods compatible with transcript profiling and gene expression analysis for cotton roots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengjian; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Xiaokun; Yang, Xingyong

    2013-01-01

    Efficient isolation of high-quality RNA is of prime importance for optimal transcript profiling results and further gene expression analysis. However, it is difficult for cotton roots because of lower-than-average RNA content and high content of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and other secondary metabolites. To develop simple and reliable protocols for high-quality RNA extraction from cotton roots for transcript profiling and gene expression analysis, some modifications were introduced to a reported plant RNA isolation protocol and a reagent kit method. Using method A, we successfully extracted high-quality RNA for transcript profiling from cotton roots. Gel electrophoresis analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated that RNA had good integrity without protein and genomic DNA contamination. Furthermore, the A260/280 (1.9) and A260/230 (1.6) ratios indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. Using method B, about 7 µg total RNA of high quality could be obtained from 0.1 g samples from cotton roots, which can be used for reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The two RNA extraction methods were used to investigate different gene expression of cotton roots (Gossypium hirsutum) infected by weak pathogenic Verticillium dahliae and the results showed they can satisfy the transcript profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR requirements for RNA. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  19. Isolation and Structural Characterization of Lignin from Cotton Stalk Treated in an Ammonia Hydrothermal System

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sumin; Xiao, Lingping; Meng, Lingyan; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Runcang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the utilization of cotton stalk, ammonia hydrothermal treatment was applied to fractionate the samples into aqueous ammonia-soluble and ammonia-insoluble portions. The ammonia-soluble portion was purified to yield lignin fractions. The lignin fractions obtained were characterized by wet chemistry (carbohydrate analysis) and spectroscopy methods (FT-IR, 13C and 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy) as well as gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results showed that the cotton stalk lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (0.43%–1.29%) and had relatively low average molecular weights (1255–1746 g/mol). The lignin fractions belonged to typical G-S lignin, which was composed predominately of G-type units (59%) and noticeable amounts of S-type units (40%) together with a small amount of H-type units (~1%). Furthermore, the ammonia-extractable lignin fractions were mainly composed of β-O-4′ inter-unit linkages (75.6%), and small quantities of β-β′ (12.2%), together with lower amounts of β-5′ carbon-carbon linkages (7.4%) and p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol end groups. PMID:23203120

  20. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids. PMID:26491310

  1. Effect of cotton, hemp, and flax dust extracts on lung permeability in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Bates, P J; Farr, S J; Nicholls, P J

    1995-01-01

    Byssinosis is an occupational lung disease in textile mill workers exposed to the respirable dusts of cotton, hemp, and flax. This study investigated the influence of aqueous extracts from these dusts on overall lung permeability in the guinea pig as an index of respiratory epithelial damage. Lung permeability was assessed by absorption into blood from the lung of inhaled technetium-99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (Tc-DTPA) using gamma-scintigraphy. The half-life for Tc-DTPA absorption (t1/2) was significantly reduced following a 4-week inhalation treatment with cotton, hemp, or flax dust extracts when compared to saline control. There was at least a partial return to normal permeability 7 days after stopping treatment. A single inhalation of extract did not affect the t1/2, but increased the number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h postexposure. Neutrophil migration into the airspaces therefore appeared to precede the increased lung permeability. Long-term exposure was not associated with respiratory epithelial shedding, suggesting that the increased permeability reflects a loss of epithelial tight junction integrity arising from repeated exposure to as yet undefined agents in these dusts.

  2. Improving dyeability of modified cotton fabrics by the natural aqueous extract from red cabbage using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Ben Ticha, Manel; Haddar, Wafa; Meksi, Nizar; Guesmi, Ahlem; Mhenni, M Farouk

    2016-12-10

    The concern regarding sustainable utilization of available resources is growing due to its global importance. In this paper, the dyeability of cotton fabrics with natural colorant extracted from red cabbage was improved by applying cationic groups on cotton fibers. Modification of cotton was carried using acid tannic, Rewin Os, Denitex BC and Sera Fast as cationic agents. The dyeing process was done by ultrasonic energy. The effects of the cationising agent amount, the dye bath pH, the dyeing temperature and duration, on the sonicator dyeing quality were studied. The performances of this process were evaluated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the dyeing fastness of the coloured cotton. Besides, modified cotton fibers were characterized by morphology analysis (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and compared to untreated cotton. Moreover, a two-level full factorial design was employed to optimize the sonicator dyeing process. Mathematical model equation and statistical analysis were derived by computer simulation programming applying the least squares method using Minitab 15. Best dyeing conditions were found to be: 10%, pH 11, 60min and 100°C respectively for the Sera Fast amount, dye bath pH, dyeing duration and temperature. PMID:27577920

  3. Cotton fabrics treated with novel oxidic phases acting as effective smoke suppressants.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Jenny; Malucelli, Giulio

    2012-09-01

    Sol-gel processes have been applied to cotton fabrics in order to coat the fibres with a silica film, able to improve their thermo-oxidative resistance and their combustion behaviour under the irradiative heat flow of a cone calorimeter. To this aim, tetramethoxysilane, inorganic precursor of the silica phase, has been employed alone or coupled with species having either smoke suppressant features (namely, zinc oxide, zinc acetate dihydrate and zinc borate) or well known flame retardant properties (like ammonium pentaborate octahydrate, boron phosphate, ammonium polyphosphate and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide). In addition, the use of barium sulphate, which is a smoke suppressant and, at the same time, a flame retardant, has been investigated. Cone calorimetry turned out to be a suitable technique for assessing the flammability and smoke production of the treated fabrics (particularly when referring to total smoke release, smoke production rate and CO and CO2 yields). The composition and morphology of the deposited coatings, assessed by scanning electron microscopy, have been found to influence their combustion behaviour, as well as their thermal and thermo-oxidative stability evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, respectively. PMID:24751038

  4. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering.

  5. Modification and characterization of cellulose cotton fibers for fast extraction of some precious metal ions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Akl, M A; Ali, Wael M

    2014-05-01

    In this work, native cellulose cotton fibers were first modified through graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and then by insertion of phenyl thiosemicarbazide moieties to finally produce C-PTS chelating fibers, which were fully characterized using various instrumental techniques such as SEM, FTIR, EDX and XRD spectra. The obtained C-PTS were employed in removal and extraction of Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) precious metal ions from their aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model exhibited the best fit for the experimental data. In addition, the adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the adsorption follows the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacities for Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) were 198.31, 87.43 and 71.14 mg/g respectively.

  6. Modification and characterization of cellulose cotton fibers for fast extraction of some precious metal ions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Akl, M A; Ali, Wael M

    2014-05-01

    In this work, native cellulose cotton fibers were first modified through graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and then by insertion of phenyl thiosemicarbazide moieties to finally produce C-PTS chelating fibers, which were fully characterized using various instrumental techniques such as SEM, FTIR, EDX and XRD spectra. The obtained C-PTS were employed in removal and extraction of Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) precious metal ions from their aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model exhibited the best fit for the experimental data. In addition, the adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the adsorption follows the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacities for Au(3+), Pd(2+) and Ag(+) were 198.31, 87.43 and 71.14 mg/g respectively. PMID:24530331

  7. The comparison of differences in flammability and thermal degradation between cotton fabrics treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a phosphoramidate Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphoramidate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) on cotton twill fabrics was compared with that of a previously studied Diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (DEPP). TEPP was formed in a reaction between two phosphonates...

  8. Structural effect of phosphorous-nitrogen containing flame retardant derivatives on thermal behaviors of treated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present research is aimed at studying the structural effect of two phosphoramidate derivatives such as Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphosphoramidate and Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphosphoramidate as flame retardants (FRs) for cotton. These FRs were obtained in very high yield and purity by one step proced...

  9. Study of Multifunctional Nanocoated Cold Plasma Treated Polyester Cotton Blended Curtains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Hafeezullah; Kumari, Naveeta

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, considerable progress has been made in the applications of TiO2nanoparticles to get the multifunctional textiles. This paper presents the consequences of pretreatment of polyester fabric using cold plasma in the presence of oxygen — which might be beneficial for bonding nanoparticles over the polyester cotton blended curtains. Moreover, this paper presents the primary technique for suspending titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles into nanosilica sol for nanocoating of polyester cotton blended curtains. In addition, the detailed characterization of nanocoating has been made using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); and the consequences of nanocoating with and without plasma treatment for enhancing the different properties i.e. antistatic, anti UV and antibacterial property are discussed. Furthermore, the consequences of nanocoating with and without plasma treatment on the mechanical properties have also been discussed.

  10. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  11. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  12. Evaluation of Methods to Improve the Extraction and Recovery of DNA from Cotton Swabs for Forensic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Michael S.; Stasulli, Dominique M.; Sobestanovich, Emily M.; Bille, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol’s incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  13. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. PMID:27155264

  14. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield.

  15. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  16. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Curcuma longa tuber powder and extract on cotton cloth for bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Sneha, Krishnamurthy; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2010-10-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles from silver precursor using plant biomaterials, Curcuma longa tuber powder and extract. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nano-sized silver particles. pH played a major role in size control of the particles. Silver nanoparticle synthesis was higher in tuber extract compared to powder, which was attributed to the large and easy availability of the reducing agents in the extract. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for Escherichia coli BL-21 strain was found to be 50 mg/L. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on cotton cloth using sterile water showed better bactericidal activity when compared to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) immobilized cloth, but on consecutive washing the activity reduced drastically in sterile water immobilized cloth. PMID:20541399

  17. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  18. Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?

    PubMed

    Giacosa, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Riva, A; Bianchi Porro, G; Rondanelli, M

    2015-04-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a spice traditionally used to treat indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Ginger extracts accelerate gastric emptying and stimulate gastric antral contractions. These effects are mainly due to the presence of gingerols and shogaols and their activity on cholinergic M receptors and serotonergic 5-HT and 5-HT receptors. Various researches on this subject have led to controversial results, due to the chemical instability of ginger extracts and particularly of gingerols, which are readily-oxidizable substances. A systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies highlighted the potential efficacy of ginger on the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting of various origins, even though additional controlled studies are needed. This review focuses on pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting and on chemotherapy induced nausea, and hypothesizes a therapeutic role for ginger extracts in case of side effects, as an alternative to traditional prokinetic drugs such as domperidone, levosulpiride or metoclopramide.

  19. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  20. Herbicidal activity of volatiles from coriander, winter savory, cotton lavender, and thyme isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Coelho, José A; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M F; Barroso, José G

    2010-10-27

    The volatiles from Coriandrum sativum L., Satureja montana L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were isolated by hydrodistillation (essential oil) and supercritical fluid extraction (volatile oil). Their effect on seed germination and root and shoot growth of the surviving seedlings of four crops ( Zea mays L., Triticum durum L., Pisum sativum L., and Lactuca sativa L.) and two weeds ( Portulaca oleracea L. and Vicia sativa L.) was investigated and compared with those of two synthetic herbicides, Agrocide and Prowl. The volatile oils of thyme and cotton lavender seemed to be promising alternatives to the synthetic herbicides because they were the least injurious to the crop species. The essential oil of winter savory, on the other hand, affected both crop and weeds and can be appropriate for uncultivated fields.

  1. Determination of strobilurin fungicides in cotton seed by combination of acetonitrile extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiaying; Li, Huichen; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Wenqing; Chen, Xiaochu

    2014-04-01

    The simultaneous determination of four strobilurin fungicides (picoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, and azoxystrobin) in cotton seed by combining acetonitrile extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed prior to GC with electron capture detection. Several factors, including the type and volume of the extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction condition and time, and salt addition, were optimized. The analytes were extracted with acetonitrile from cotton seed and the clean-up was carried out by primary secondary amine. Afterwards, 60 μL of n-hexane/toluene (1:1, v/v) with a lower density than water was mixed with 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract, then the mixture was injected into 7 mL of distilled water. A 0.1 mL pipette was used to collect a few microliters of n-hexane/toluene from the top of the aqueous solution. The enrichment factors of the analytes ranged from 36 to 67. The LODs were in the range of 0.1 × 10(-3) -2 × 10(-3) mg/kg. The relative recoveries varied from 87.7 to 95.2% with RSDs of 4.1-8.5% for the four fungicides. The good performance of the method, compared with the conventional pretreatments, has demonstrated it is suitable for determining low concentrations of strobilurin fungicide residues in cotton seed.

  2. [Betamethasone and aqueous extract of Arctium lappa for treating angiostrongyliasis].

    PubMed

    Fante, Camila Argenta; Dieterish, Solange; Rodriguez, Rubens

    2008-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasite that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in humans. The treatment for it includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, despite the lack of studies to justify this approach. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and Arctium lappa on the evolution of intestinal lesions induced by this parasite. Adult male Swiss mice were used, distributed into four groups: infected and treated with betamethasone; infected and treated with Arctium lappa; infected and not treated; and control group. The treatments were started on the 15th day after infection and continued for 15 days. The presence of eosinophilic infiltration and granuloma was evaluated (1-mild; 2-moderate; 3-severe). Betamethasone allowed the lesions to evolve into more severe forms, while the extract did not interfere with disease progression. The substances applied were ineffective for protection against the lesions induced by Angiostrongylus costaricensis in mice. These findings discourage the use of betamethasone and Arctium lappa for humans affected by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.

  3. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:25629069

  4. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S

    2015-11-01

    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle.

  5. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  6. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  7. Wettability and sizing property improvement of raw cotton yarns treated with He/O 2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyuan; Sun, Jie; Yao, Lan; Qiu, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    Raw cotton fiber is water repellent due to the existence of the water repellent cuticle layer. This study is designed to systematically investigate how He/O 2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatments influence the wettability and the sizing property of cotton yarns. Water absorption time and adhesion of the sizing agent to the cotton roving are used to evaluate the improvement of wettability and sizing property of the yarn respectively. The water absorption time decreases with the increase of the treatment time and the oxygen flow rate, and the decrease of the jet to substrate distance (JTSD). An optimal water absorption time of 0.8 s is obtained with a treatment time of 20 s, JTSD of 1 mm and O 2 flow rate of 0.2 L/min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the etching effect increases with the decrease of the JTSD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) presents increased oxygen contents after the plasma treatments. An increase of O-C dbnd O bonds while a decrease of C-OH/C-O-C bonds are observed when the JTSD is set at 2 mm. However, a remarkable increase of both C-OH/C-O-C and O-C dbnd O bonds are achieved when the JTSD is 1 mm. The roving impregnation test results show a nearly doubled adhesion of sizing and a slightly improved breaking elongation, indicating that the plasma treatment does effectively enhance the bonding strength between the fiber and the sizing.

  8. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton. PMID:24164041

  9. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton.

  10. General and Genetic Toxicology of Enzyme-Treated Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ginseng Rh2+ is enzyme-treated ginseng extract containing high amounts of converted ginsenosides, such as compound k, Rh2, Rg3, which have potent anticancer activity. We conducted general and genetic toxicity tests to evaluate the safety of ginseng Rh2+. Methods: An acute oral toxicity test was performed at a high-level dose of 4,000 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A 14-day range-finding study was also conducted to set dose levels for the 90-day study. A subchronic 90-day toxicity study was performed at dose levels of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day to investigate the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of ginseng Rh2+ and target organs. To identify the mutagenic potential of ginseng Rh2+, we conducted a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) using amino-acid-requiring strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli), a chromosome aberration test with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Results: According to the results of the acute oral toxicity study, the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of ginseng Rh2+ was estimated to be higher than 4,000 mg/kg. For the 90-day study, no toxicological effect of ginseng Rh2+ was observed in body-weight changes, food consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, and clinical pathology. The NOAEL of ginseng Rh2+ was established to be 2,000 mg/kg/day, and no target organ was found in this test. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found either on the in vitro genotoxicity tests, including the Ames test and the chromosome aberration test, or on the in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus test. Conclusion: On the basis of our findings, ginseng Rh2+ is a non-toxic material with no genotoxicity. We expect that ginseng Rh2+ may be used as a novel adjuvant anticancer agent that is safe for long-term administration. PMID:27695630

  11. General and Genetic Toxicology of Enzyme-Treated Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ginseng Rh2+ is enzyme-treated ginseng extract containing high amounts of converted ginsenosides, such as compound k, Rh2, Rg3, which have potent anticancer activity. We conducted general and genetic toxicity tests to evaluate the safety of ginseng Rh2+. Methods: An acute oral toxicity test was performed at a high-level dose of 4,000 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A 14-day range-finding study was also conducted to set dose levels for the 90-day study. A subchronic 90-day toxicity study was performed at dose levels of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day to investigate the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of ginseng Rh2+ and target organs. To identify the mutagenic potential of ginseng Rh2+, we conducted a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) using amino-acid-requiring strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli), a chromosome aberration test with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Results: According to the results of the acute oral toxicity study, the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of ginseng Rh2+ was estimated to be higher than 4,000 mg/kg. For the 90-day study, no toxicological effect of ginseng Rh2+ was observed in body-weight changes, food consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, and clinical pathology. The NOAEL of ginseng Rh2+ was established to be 2,000 mg/kg/day, and no target organ was found in this test. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found either on the in vitro genotoxicity tests, including the Ames test and the chromosome aberration test, or on the in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus test. Conclusion: On the basis of our findings, ginseng Rh2+ is a non-toxic material with no genotoxicity. We expect that ginseng Rh2+ may be used as a novel adjuvant anticancer agent that is safe for long-term administration.

  12. Differences between heat-treated raw and commercial peanut extracts by skin testing and immunoblotting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is generally consumed in a heat-treated form, yet the commonly available extracts for diagnostic purposes are derived from raw peanuts. Raw and heat-treated samples were prepared and compared with commercially available peanut extracts regarding SPT reactivity and serum IgE reactivity. Protei...

  13. Estrogenic activity of a naringinase-treated extract of Sophora japonica cultivated in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Ali M; Chung, Mi Hwa; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nishihara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Masao

    2010-02-01

    The naringinase-treated methanol extract of Sophora japonica L. (Fabaceae) seeds showed potent estrogen agonist activity. Through bioassay-guided isolation of the main active constituents from the naringinase-treated methanol extract of S. japonica, the aglycones genistein and kaempferol were found to be the main phytoestrogens in the naringinase-treated extract. In addition, kaempferol was nearly equipotent to genistein as an estrogen agonist. Concerning the compounds isolated from the untreated methanol extract, sophoricoside showed weak estrogenic activity on ERbeta only. PMID:20645836

  14. Effect of the Extracts of the Spiderflower, Cleome arabica, on Feeding and Survival of Larvae of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ladhari, Afef; Laarif, Asma; Omezzine, Faten; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous and organic (hexane, chloroform, and methanol) extracts of siliquae, stems and leaves, and seeds of Cleome arabica L. (Brassicales: Capparidaceae) were evaluated in the laboratory for their antifeeding and insecticidal effect on larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), using a leaf dipping bioassay with castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), leaf discs. The polar extracts caused significant mortality. At the highest dose, C. arabica extracts exhibited significant antifeeding and phagostimulating activities against S. littoralis larvae. Under no-choice conditions, the methanol extract of siliquae was the most active, and the antifeedant index calculated over 24 hr for 3rd instar larvae varied significantly from 16 to 37%. Using nutritional indices, it was established that there was a significant decrease in growth rate concomitant with a reduction in consumption. These results suggest the presence of anti-feeding and/or toxic substances in the extracts that may be useful in developing bio-insecticides based on C. arabica extracts for use in integrated pest management of leafworm and other agricultural pests. PMID:23906290

  15. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. PMID:20673937

  16. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    PubMed

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  17. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P < 0.05) improved meat pH and water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated samples. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples. PMID:23572848

  18. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P < 0.05) improved meat pH and water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated samples. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  19. Compromised Osseous Healing of Dental Extraction Sites in Zoledronic Acid-Treated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Ruggiero, Salvatore L.; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this study was to document how treatment with a bisphosphonate affects the bone tissue following dental extraction. METHODS Skeletally mature female beagle dogs were either untreated controls (CON) or treated with intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL). Following the extraction of the 4th premolars, healing was allowed for 4 or 8 weeks. Properties of the extraction site were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dynamic histomorphometry. RESULTS The initial infilling of the extraction socket with bone was not affected by ZOL but subsequent removal of this bone was significantly suppressed compared to CON. After 8-weeks of healing, the alveolar cortical bone adjacent to the extraction socket had a remodeling rate of ~50%/year in CON animals while ZOL-treated animals had a rate of < 1%/year. One ZOL-treated animal developed exposed bone post-extraction which eventually led to the formation of a sequestrum. Assessment of the sequestrum with micro-CT and histology showed that it had features consistent with those reported in humans with osteonecrosis of the jaw. CONCLUSIONS These results, showing significantly compromised post-extraction osseous healing as well as presence of exposed bone and development of a sequestrum in one ZOL animal, provide a building block toward understanding the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:20458574

  20. Ultra structural study of the rat cheek epithelium treated with Neem extract.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Muhammad Arshad; Khatoon, Nasira; Ghaffar, Rizwana Abdul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neem extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the ultrastructure of the rat oral epithelium, because neem extract has been added in the tooth paste as an anti-plaque-forming substance in Asian countries. The non-toxic dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of Neem extract (NBE) was applied daily to the surface of buccal epithelium for four weeks and controls did not receive Neem extract. After four weeks cheek epithelial tissues were excised and processed for light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy did not show significant differences between NBE-treated and control epithelium. Difference between control and treated rats weight was non-significant. Moreover, time period was also non-significant. Irregular cell surfaces were noticed when compared to control specimens when examined by scanning electron microscopy. Under transmission electron microscopy, wider intercellular spaces were observed in the treated epithelial spinous cellular layers when compared to control. Further, more keratohyalin granules were present in experimental granular cells. It was concluded that present study showed differences between Neem-treated and control in epithelial tissues but these structural differences may not be related to adverse side effects of the Neem extract.

  1. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Kirker, G T; Bishell, A B; Lebow, P K

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat southern pine, Pt, Pinus taeda L. sapwood blocks. Extractive treated blocks were evaluated for decay resistance in standard soil bottle fungal assays challenged with brown and white rot decay fungi. Results showed that extractives did impart some improvement to decay resistance of Pt blocks. BL- and HM-treated Pt blocks were also used in choice and no-choice assays to determine feeding preference and damage by eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Kollar. Minimal feeding on treated blocks was seen in both choice and no-choice assays. In choice assays, there was similar mortality between HM and BL arenas; however, in no-choice assays, complete mortality was recorded for HM-treated Pt and high mortality was seen with BL-treated Pt. Subsequent dose mortality termite assays showed HM to be effective in killing R. flavipes at low concentrations. Both HM and BL show promise as deterrents or termiticidal protectants and will be further evaluated in field studies. PMID:26494706

  2. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Kirker, G T; Bishell, A B; Lebow, P K

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat southern pine, Pt, Pinus taeda L. sapwood blocks. Extractive treated blocks were evaluated for decay resistance in standard soil bottle fungal assays challenged with brown and white rot decay fungi. Results showed that extractives did impart some improvement to decay resistance of Pt blocks. BL- and HM-treated Pt blocks were also used in choice and no-choice assays to determine feeding preference and damage by eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Kollar. Minimal feeding on treated blocks was seen in both choice and no-choice assays. In choice assays, there was similar mortality between HM and BL arenas; however, in no-choice assays, complete mortality was recorded for HM-treated Pt and high mortality was seen with BL-treated Pt. Subsequent dose mortality termite assays showed HM to be effective in killing R. flavipes at low concentrations. Both HM and BL show promise as deterrents or termiticidal protectants and will be further evaluated in field studies.

  3. Mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat extracts: Mutagenicity assay, analysis and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-11-01

    Cooking of meat usually aims in producing microbiologically safe food suitable for human consumption. However, doing so at such high temperatures may produce some cooking toxicants or mutagens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat after different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying and charcoal grilling) using Ames Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. In addition, the content of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the meat extracts prepared under different cooking methods were measured using HPLC. In a trial to investigate the causes behind the mutagenicity of different meat extracts, HepG2 cell line was exposed to different modelled-heat-treated meat extracts. mRNA expression levels of various phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) were examined using real time PCR. The results obtained declared that pan-fried and charcoal grilled-meat extracts significantly induced production of histidine+ revertants in the Ames mutagenicity assay. Grilled-meat extracts had the highest residual concentrations of B[a]P followed by pan-fried-meat, boiled meat and raw meat extracts, respectively. Induction of XMEs especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and NQO1 may contribute to the mutagenic ability of these extracts. It is highly advisable to control cooking temperature, time and method in order to reduce cooked-meat mutagens.

  4. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  5. Anti-aging Effect and Gene Expression Profiling of Aged Rats Treated with G. bimaculatus Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Sam; Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Kun-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Gryllus bimaculatus crickets inhibits oxidation at the DNA level, with reduced production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Microarray analyses were performed with a rat 28K cDNA clone set array to identify the gene expression profiles of aged (10 months old) Wistar Kyoto rats treated for one month with 100 mg/kg G. bimaculatus ethanol extract to assess the effects. The extract produced a meaningful anti-edema effect, evident by the inhibition of creatinine phosphokinase activity. The weights of abdominal and ovarian adipose tissues were reduced and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissues was increased in an extract dose-dependent manner. Compared with untreated control rats, rats treated with the extract displayed the upregulation of 1053 genes including Fas (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6), Amigo3 (adhesion molecule with an immunoglobulin-like domain), Reticulon 4, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme (Hmgcr; a reductase), related anti-fatigue (enzyme metabolism), and Rtn antioxidant, and the downregulation of 73 genes including Ugt2b (UDP glycosyltransferase 2 family), Early growth response 1, and Glycoprotein m6a. Data suggest that G. bimaculatus extract may have value in lessening the effects of aging, resulting in a differential gene expression pattern indicative of a marked stress response and lower expression of metabolic and biosynthetic genes. PMID:26191384

  6. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yih; Wu, Der-Chung; Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang, Chin-Ling; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.

  7. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  8. Fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ergun; Altinok, Mustafa; Colak, Mehmet; Ozaki, S Kiyoka; Toker, Hilmi

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi (Mirb.) Franco) specimens treated with borate supplemented aqueous solutions of brutia pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder, and gall-nut powder. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) were used as borates which are the most commonly used fire retardants in wood preservation industry. Natural extractives (brutia pine bark powder, sumach leaf powder, acorn powder, and gall-nut powder) were also used which have toxic efficiency against insects and fungi due to their tannin contents. A commercial treatment compound Tanalith-CBC (copper-borate-chromate), which is an impregnation chemical, is used for comparison. The fire test method was performed in three stages: flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage. Results indicated that the lowest temperature for flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage were obtained for specimens treated with BA and BX mixture (7:3; weight:weight). The lowest mass loss was found for the specimens treated with a mixture of BA and BX. Natural extractives did not improve fire resistance of the samples. However, boric acid and borax had excellent fire retardant effectiveness over untreated and treated samples with natural extractives.

  9. Evaluation of osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Tumer, Celal; Ugur, Omer; Vatankulu, Betul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) improved the healing of extraction sockets. Study Design: A total of 20 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular third molars were included in this study. The left and right third molars were extracted during the same session. Subsequently, the PRF membrane was randomly administered to one of the extraction sockets, whereas the contra lateral sockets were left without treatment. On postoperative 30. and 90. days, panoramic images and bone scintigrams were taken to evaluate the bone healing between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets. Also, periodontal evaluation was performed in the same control sessions. Dependent group t test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. Results: The average increase in technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake as an indication of enhanced bone healing did not differ significantly between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets 30 and 90 days post operatively. Radio opacity that can show the bone healing on panoramic images were measured by Image J programmer and they did not differ significantly. Also periodontal values did not differ significantly. Conclusions: PRF might not lead to enhanced bone healing in impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets 30 and 90 days after surgery. It is thought that PRF has the potential characteristics of an autologous fibrin matrix and can accelerate the healing. To better understand the effects of PRF on healing, further research is warranted with larger sample sizes. Key words:PRF, scintigraphy, healing, extraction sockets. PMID:25475771

  10. Mortality of bollworm and tobacco budworm larvae exposed to microbial and chemical insecticides in treated Bt and non-Bt cotton assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory colonies of bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens F.) were exposed to microbial and chemical insecticides on non-Bt (DP1441) and Bt (DP1321) cotton leaves in spray-table and field-plot experiments. The microbial insecticides included commercial formula...

  11. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for microbial communities from soil treated with biochar

    PubMed Central

    Leite, D.C.A.; Balieiro, F.C.; Pires, C.A.; Madari, B.E.; Rosado, A.S.; Coutinho, H.L.C.; Peixoto, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of biochar application on soil structure and plant growth. However, there are very few studies describing the effect of biochar on native soil microbial communities. Microbial analysis of environmental samples requires accurate and reproducible methods for the extraction of DNA from samples. Because of the variety among microbial species and the strong adsorption of the phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule to biochar, extracting and purifying high quality microbial DNA from biochar-amended soil is not a trivial process and can be considerably more difficult than the extraction of DNA from other environmental samples. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacies of three commercial DNA extraction kits, the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (FD kit), the PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (PS kit) and the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit Miniprep™ (ZR kit), for extracting microbial genomic DNA from sand treated with different types of biochar. The methods were evaluated by comparing the DNA yields and purity and by analysing the bacterial and fungal community profiles generated by PCR-DGGE. Our results showed that the PCR-DGGE profiles for bacterial and fungal communities were highly affected by the purity and yield of the different DNA extracts. Among the tested kits, the PS kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount and purity of recovered DNA and considering the complexity of the generated DGGE microbial fingerprint from the sand-biochar samples. PMID:24948928

  12. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for microbial communities from soil treated with biochar.

    PubMed

    Leite, D C A; Balieiro, F C; Pires, C A; Madari, B E; Rosado, A S; Coutinho, H L C; Peixoto, R S

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of biochar application on soil structure and plant growth. However, there are very few studies describing the effect of biochar on native soil microbial communities. Microbial analysis of environmental samples requires accurate and reproducible methods for the extraction of DNA from samples. Because of the variety among microbial species and the strong adsorption of the phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule to biochar, extracting and purifying high quality microbial DNA from biochar-amended soil is not a trivial process and can be considerably more difficult than the extraction of DNA from other environmental samples. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacies of three commercial DNA extraction kits, the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (FD kit), the PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (PS kit) and the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit Miniprep™ (ZR kit), for extracting microbial genomic DNA from sand treated with different types of biochar. The methods were evaluated by comparing the DNA yields and purity and by analysing the bacterial and fungal community profiles generated by PCR-DGGE. Our results showed that the PCR-DGGE profiles for bacterial and fungal communities were highly affected by the purity and yield of the different DNA extracts. Among the tested kits, the PS kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount and purity of recovered DNA and considering the complexity of the generated DGGE microbial fingerprint from the sand-biochar samples.

  13. Extraction of the lateral incisors to treat maxillary protrusion: quantitative evaluation of the stomatognathic functions.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    To treat morphological abnormalities, impaction, and severe malposition of the teeth, the lateral incisors are sometimes extracted, followed by orthodontic space closure. This procedure often requires special consideration, not only with regard to esthetics but also for functional issues. However, thus far, few reports that have performed a functional evaluation in such cases. The purpose of this article is to report the successful treatment of an adult patient with a Class II division 1 malocclusion who was treated with extraction of the upper lateral incisors. The female patient, aged 23 years and 6 months, had a chief complaint of maxillary incisal protrusion and crooked teeth. In this patient, the upper lateral incisors were extracted to fulfill the patient's strong request, followed by orthodontic treatment using edgewise appliances. A high-pull J-hook headgear on the lower dental arch was used to prevent further labial inclination of the lower incisors. The total active treatment period was 37 months. The resulting occlusion and a satisfactory facial profile were maintained during a 4-year retention period. Additionally, this treatment did not affect the stomatognathic functions as assessed by the following criteria: range of the incisal path or condylar motion during maximal open-close movement, protrusive excursion, lateral excursion, and the chewing test. In conclusion, extraction of the upper lateral incisors can be an effective treatment choice when the upper lateral incisors are dwarfed, are nonvital, or demonstrate severe malposition.

  14. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on the liver of epileptic female rats treated with lamotrigine

    PubMed Central

    Poorrostami, Ameneh; Farokhi, Farah; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug, widely used in the treatment of epilepsy; long-term use of this drug can cause hepatotoxicity. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) possesses antioxidant properties. In present research, the effect ofhydroalcoholic extract of ginger (HEG) on the liver of lamotrigine-treated epileptic rats was investigated Material and Methods: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were selected and allocated to 8 groups of 6 each. Group 1: Negative controls were treated with normal saline. Group 2: Positive controls were treated with lamotrigine (LTG) (10 mg/kg) daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Epilepsy was induced in treatment groups by i.p. injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (40 mg/kg). Group 3: Epileptic group received normal saline (10 ml/kg). Group 4: Epileptic group was treated with LTG (10 mg/kg). Groups 5 and 6: Epileptic groups received HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg). Groups 7 and 8: Epileptic groups received LTG and HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg). At the end of 28 days, blood samples were drawn and their livers were processed for light microscopy. Results: The mean values of TG, CHOL, AST, and ALT activity significantly rose (p<0.01) in groups 2, 3, and 4, while in rats treated with HEG (groups 5, 6, 7, and 8), the levels of liver enzymes significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with epileptic group treated with lamotrigine (group 4). Histopathological changes of liver samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger improves liver function in lamotrigine-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25068142

  15. Marked Antigiardial Activity of Yucca baccata Extracts: A Potential Natural Alternative for Treating Protozoan Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; León-Trujillo, Rocio; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Robles, María del Refugio; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E.; Canett, Rafael; Sánchez-Escalante, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Human Giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females) were weighed and orally inoculated with 5 × 106 Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group). Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL) or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis. PMID:25250335

  16. Functionalization of medical cotton by direct incorporation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Emam, Hossam E; Saleh, N H; Nagy, Khaled S; Zahran, M K

    2015-07-01

    Medical cotton is usually used to clean skin, pack wounds and in other surgical tasks. Such important usages make imparting the antibacterial property to medical cotton is so essential research. The current research focuses on functionalization of medical cotton by direct incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in two-step process namely, pre-alkalization followed by sorption. Decorative color and antibacterial action were accomplished for medical cotton after in situ incorporation of AgNPs without using any other external reducing agent. AgNPs were produced due to the reduction action of alcoholic and aldehydic groups of cotton's skeletal blocks. Cotton fibers were acquired a decorative color attributed to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. The treated cotton was characterized by using electron microscope. Results showed that Ag(0) with size distribution of 0-160 nm was formed in the cotton fibers and their size majority (70%) was less than 80 nm. The reduction of Ag(+) to Ag(0) was confirmed by measuring the carboxylic and aldehydic contents. The treated cotton exhibited excellent antibacterial action at low silver contents. The absorbency of cotton was not affected by treatment. The produced medical cotton could be used to safe cleaning of wounds without getting any microbial infections. PMID:25907009

  17. Effect of alkali treatment on physiological activity of cotton condensed tannin.

    PubMed Central

    Rousselle, M A; Elissalde, M H; Domelsmith, L N

    1990-01-01

    Cotton dusts contain condensed tannins and endotoxins, which are suspected of contributing to the development of acute and chronic biological responses in some cotton textile mill workers. Condensed tannin extracted from cotton dust was coated on to cellulose powder, and the tannin coated powder was treated with an alkali solvent system previously developed to reduce the endotoxin content and pulmonary toxicity of cotton dust. Physiological activities of the dusts and powders were compared by assaying the production of the arachidonic acid metabolites prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), thromboxane A2 (TxA2) (the precursor to thromboxane B2 (TxB2], leukotriene C4 (LTC4), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by guinea pig pulmonary cells obtained by lung lavage. Cotton dust stimulated the pulmonary cells to produce a total of 29 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. Production of metabolites by cells stimulated with tannin coated cellulose powder was reduced to 8.3 pg/10(6) cells. Alkali treatment of the tannin coated cellulose powder resulted in a further decrease in its ability to stimulate the cells, producing 3.5 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. The ability of the dusts and powders to stimulate production of metabolites of arachidonic acid by pulmonary cells from guinea pigs was highly correlated with tannin content of the materials, but not with endotoxin content as measured by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. PMID:2223662

  18. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  19. Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis Treated with Tooth Extractions following Mediastinal and Cervical Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Okihide; Nasu, Daisuke; Koizumi, Kazue; Muta, Yu; Imaizumi, Hideko; Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare condition in which oropharyngeal infection spreads to the mediastinum via the cervical fascia. Delayed diagnosis and surgery result in a high mortality rate among patients with DNM. We present a case of DNM resulting from odontogenic infection treated successfully with tooth extraction following mediastinal and cervical drainage. A 43-year-old, previously healthy Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of acute mediastinitis. Computed tomography revealed gas collection around the mid-thoracic esophagus and bilateral pleural effusion. We performed mediastinal drainage via right thoracotomy. Cervicotomy was performed on postoperative day 14 to drain a residual cervical abscess. The patient required the extraction of ten teeth over three procedures to address primary odontogenic infection before his fever resolved on postoperative day 40. Prompt diagnosis, aggressive drainage and removal of the source of infection can improve survival among patients with this life-threatening disease. PMID:26600767

  20. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Urribarrí, Lauris; Chacón, David; González, Orlaidy; Ferrer, Alexis

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, cassava leaves were treated with 0.5 kg ammonia/kg dry matter at 78 degrees C and 30% moisture content in a 2-kg reactor. Protein extraction was carried out with a calcium hydroxide solution (pH 10) for 30 min at several temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C) and solid/liquid ratios (1:10 and 1:15) in a thermostatized bath. Soluble protein content of the extracts was determined by Lowry's method. Dry substrate concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and enzyme doses of 2 and 5 IU/g dry matter were used for the enzymatic hydrolysis in an orbital incubator at 50 degrees C and 100 rpm. Both cellulase and xylanase were used. Reducing sugars produced were determined with the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest protein extraction yield for the ammonia-treated leaves was 29.10%, which was 50% higher than with the untreated leaves (20%), and was obtained at 90 degrees C with a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio. The concentrate had a protein content of 36.35% and the amino acid profile was suitable for swine and poultry. The highest sugar yield was 54.72% with respect to theoretical and was obtained with 5% solids and an enzyme dose of 5 IU/g dry matter. This yield was 3.4 times higher than the yield of the untreated leaves (16.13%). These results indicate that cassava leaves have a great potential for animal feeding and ethanol production. Both protein extraction and sugar yields may be enhanced by optimizing the ammonia treatment.

  1. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions.

  2. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions. PMID:26930855

  3. An in vivo molecular response analysis of colorectal cancer treated with Astragalus membranaceus extract

    PubMed Central

    TSENG, AILUN; YANG, CHIH-HSUEH; CHEN, CHIH-HAO; CHEN, CHANG-HAN; HSU, SHIH-LAN; LEE, MEI-HSIEN; LEE, HOONG-CHIEN; SU, LI-JEN

    2016-01-01

    The fact that many chemotherapeutic drugs cause chemoresistance and side effects during the course of colorectal cancer treatment necessitates development of novel cytotoxic agents aiming to attenuate new molecular targets. Here, we show that Astragalus membranaceus (Fischer) Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao (AM), a traditional Chinese medicine, can inhibit tumor growth in vivo and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The antitumor effect of AM was assessed on the subcutaneous tumors of human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116 grafted into nude mice. The mice were treated with either water or 500 mg/kg AM once per day, before being sacrificed for extraction of tumors, which were then subjected to microarray expression profiling. The gene expression of the extraction was then profiled using microarray analysis. The identified genes differentially expressed between treated mice and controls reveal that administration of AM suppresses chromosome organization, histone modification, and regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. A separate analysis focused on differentially expressed microRNAs revealing involvement of macromolecule metabolism, and intracellular transport, as well as several cancer signaling pathways. For validation, the input of the identified genes to The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures led to many chemopreventive agents of natural origin that produce similar gene expression profiles to that of AM. The demonstrated effectiveness of AM suggests a potential therapeutic drug for colorectal cancer. PMID:26719057

  4. Arch width changes in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first premolar extraction and non-extraction method

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Sajjad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Shahvaghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine arch width changes during maxillary first premolars extraction and non-extraction treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. Material and Methods Dental casts of 91 Class II division 1 patients (36 males and 55 females) were evaluated. The minimum age of the subjects at the beginning of treatment was above 16 years. 48 patients were treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and 43 patients were treated without extraction. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary and mandibular inter-canine and inter-molar arch widths were measured. Results At the end of treatment, maxillary and mandibular inter-canine widths of both groups increased significantly. The maxillary inter-molar width decreased in the extraction group and increased in the non-extraction group. The mandibular inter-molar width increased significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that there was a tendency for an increase in arch width during both the extraction and non-extraction treatment except maxillary inter-molar width in the extraction cases. Key words:Dental arch, malocclusion, angle Class II, tooth movement, extraction. PMID:27703608

  5. Establishment of reentry intervals for organophosphate-treated cotton fields based on human data: III. 12 To 72 hours post-treatment exposure to monocrotophos, ethyl- and methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Ware, G W; Morgan, D P; Estesen, B J; Cahill, W P

    1975-01-01

    Five human volunteers entered methyl parathion, ethyl parathion, or monocrotophos treated cotton fields for five-hr exposure periods when the residues of the respective pesticides had aged 12 hr, 24 and 48 hr and 72 hr. Foliage residues of methyl parathion disappeared fastest, those of monocrotophos slowest. Personal exposure to pesticide was evaluated from contamination of skin, clothing, and ambient air, while actual absorption of chemical was assessed from pesticide concentration in blood, urinary metabolite excretion, and effects on blood cholinesterase activities. There was good correspondence between magnitudes of foliar residue, estimates of personal contamination, and measures of chemical absorption. Field exposures caused no symptoms or clinical signs of organophosphate poisoning and depressed averaged blood cholinesterase activities by no more than 14% of pre-exposure levels.

  6. Induction of Terpenoid Synthesis in Cotton Roots and Control of Rhizoctonia solani by Seed Treatment with Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Howell, C R; Hanson, L E; Stipanovic, R D; Puckhaber, L S

    2000-03-01

    ABSTRACT Research on the mechanisms employed by the biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens to suppress cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedling disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani has shown that mycoparasitism and antibiotic production are not major contributors to successful biological control. In this study, we examined the possibility that seed treatment with T. virens stimulates defense responses, as indicated by the synthesis of terpenoids in cotton roots. We also examined the role of these terpenoid compounds in disease control. Analysis of extracts of cotton roots and hypocotyls grown from T. virens-treated seed showed that terpenoid synthesis and peroxidase activity were increased in the roots of treated plants, but not in the hypocotyls of these plants or in the untreated controls. Bioassay of the terpenoids for toxicity to R. solani showed that the pathway intermediates desoxyhemigossypol (dHG) and hemigossypol (HG) were strongly inhibitory to the pathogen, while the final product gossypol (G) was toxic only at a much higher concentration. Strains of T. virens and T. koningii were much more resistant to HG than was R. solani, and they thoroughly colonized the cotton roots. A comparison of biocontrol efficacy and induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots by strains of T. virens, T. koningii, T. harzianum, and protoplast fusants indicated that there was a strong correlation (+0.89) between these two phenomena. It, therefore, appears that induction of defense response, particularly terpenoid synthesis, in cotton roots by T. virens may be an important mechanism in the biological control by this fungus of R. solani-incited cotton seedling disease.

  7. Are the reductions in nematode attack on plants treated with seaweed extracts the result of stimulation of the formaldehyde cycle?

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T; Blunden, G; Wu, Y; Hankins, S D; Gabrielsen, B O

    1998-01-01

    Soil application to the roots of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) of a commercially-available alkaline extract of the brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, resulted in a significant reduction in the number of second-stage juveniles of both Meloidogynejavanica and M. incognita invading the roots, compared to those of plants treated with water alone. Egg recovery from the seaweed extract treated plants was also significantly lower. The three major betaines found in the seaweed extract (gamma-aminobutyric acid betaine, delta-aminovaleric acid betaine and glycinebetaine) also led to significant reductions in both the nematode invasion profile and egg recovery when applied at concentrations equivalent to those present in the extract. This led to the conclusion that the betaines present in the seaweed extract play a major role in bringing about the observed effects. Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with seaweed extract also resulted in a significant decrease in the number of females of M. javanica which developed in the roots. Significant reductions in egg recovery were also achieved from plants treated with the seaweed extract and similar effects were produced with the betaines found in the seaweed extract. As the experiments were conducted under monoxenic conditions, it can be concluded that the results obtained with the application of either the seaweed extract or betaines are not dependent on microorganisms associated with the rhizosphere.

  8. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  9. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Şen, Velat; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Türkçü, Gül; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Özlem; Kaplan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol (CRV) and pomegranate extract (PE) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced lung injury in rats. Material/Methods A total of 32 male rats were subdivided into 4 groups: control (group I), MTX treated (group II), MTX+CRV treated (group III), and MTX+PE treated (group IV). A single dose of 73 mg/kg CRV was administered intraperitoneally to rats in group III on Day 1 of the investigation. To group IV, a dose of 225 mg/kg of PE was administered via orogastric gavage once daily over 7 days. A single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX was given intraperitoneally to groups II, III, and IV on Day 2. The total duration of experiment was 8 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured from rat lung tissues and cardiac blood samples. Results Serum and lung specimen analyses demonstrated that MDA, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly greater in group II relative to controls. Conversely, the TAC level was significantly reduced in group II when compared to the control group. Pre-administering either CRV or PE was associated with decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAC levels compared to rats treated with MTX alone. Histopathological examination revealed that lung injury was less severe in group III and IV relative to group II. Conclusions MTX treatment results in rat lung oxidative damage that is partially counteracted by pretreatment with either CRV or PE. PMID:25326861

  10. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  11. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  12. Arsenic speciation of solvent-extracted leachate from new and weathered CCA-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Khan, Bernine I; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Dubey, Brajesh K; Townsend, Timothy G; Cai, Yong

    2004-09-01

    For the past 60 yr, chromate-copper-arsenate (CCA) has been used to pressure-treat millions of cubic meters of wood in the United States for the construction of many outdoor structures. Leaching of arsenic from these structures is a possible health concern as there exists the potential for soil and groundwater contamination. While previous studies have focused on total arsenic concentrations leaching from CCA-treated wood, information pertaining to the speciation of arsenic leached is limited. Since arsenic toxicity is dependent upon speciation, the objective of this study was to identify and quantify arsenic species leaching from new and weathered CCA-treated wood and CCA-treated wood ash. Solvent-extraction experiments were carried out by subjecting the treated wood and the ash to solvents of varying pH values, solvents defined in the EPA's Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), rainwater, deionized water, and seawater. The generated leachates were analyzed for inorganic As(III) and As(V) and the organoarsenic species, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS). Only the inorganic species were detected in any of the wood leachates; no organoarsenic species were found. Inorganic As(V) was the major detectable species leaching from both new and weathered wood. The weathered wood leached relatively more overall arsenic and was attributed to increased inorganic As(III) leaching. The greater presence of As(III) in the weathered wood samples as compared to the new wood samples may be due to natural chemical and biological transformations during the weathering process. CCA-treated wood ash leached more arsenic than unburned wood using the SPLP and TCLP, and ash samples leached more inorganic As(III) than the unburned counterparts. Increased leaching was due to

  13. Arsenic Speciation of Solvent-Extracted Leachate from New and Weathered CCA-Treated Wood

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, BERNINE I.; SOLO - GABRIELE, HELENA M.; DUBEY, BRAJESH K.; TOWNSEND, TIMOTHY G.; CAI, YONG

    2009-01-01

    For the past 60 yr, chromate-copper-arsenate (CCA) has been used to pressure-treat millions of cubic meters of wood in the United States for the construction of many outdoor structures. Leaching of arsenic from these structures is a possible health concern as there exists the potential for soil and groundwater contamination. While previous studies have focused on total arsenic concentrations leaching from CCA-treated wood, information pertaining to the speciation of arsenic leached is limited. Since arsenic toxicity is dependent upon speciation, the objective of this study was to identify and quantify arsenic species leaching from new and weathered CCA-treated wood and CCA-treated wood ash. Solvent-extraction experiments were carried out by subjecting the treated wood and the ash to solvents of varying pH values, solvents defined in the EPA’s Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), rainwater, deionized water, and seawater. The generated leachates were analyzed for inorganic As(III) and As(V) and the organoarsenic species, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC–HG-AFS). Only the inorganic species were detected in any of the wood leachates; no organoarsenic species were found. Inorganic As(V) was the major detectable species leaching from both new and weathered wood. The weathered wood leached relatively more overall arsenic and was attributed to increased inorganic As(III) leaching. The greater presence of As(III) in the weathered wood samples as compared to the new wood samples may be due to natural chemical and biological transformations during the weathering process. CCA-treated wood ash leached more arsenic than unburned wood using the SPLP and TCLP, and ash samples leached more inorganic As(III) than the unburned counterparts. Increased leaching was due

  14. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C

    2000-09-01

    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event. PMID:10995322

  15. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C

    2000-09-01

    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event.

  16. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document.

  17. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil using accelerated solvent extraction followed by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Golet, Eva M; Strehler, Adrian; Alder, Alfredo C; Giger, Walter

    2002-11-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of humanuse fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil samples was developed. The accelerated solvent extraction was optimized with regard to solvents and operational parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and extraction time. A 50 mM aqueous phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile mixture (1:1) was found to be optimum in combination with an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C at 100 bar, during 60 and 90 min for sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil samples, respectively. A cleanup step using solid-phase extraction substantially improved the selectivity of the method. Overall recovery rates for FQs ranged from 82 to 94% for sewage sludge and from 75 to 92% for sludge-treated soil, with relative standard deviations between 8 and 11%. Limits of quantification were 0.45 and 0.18 mg/kg of dry matter for sewage sludge and sludge-treated soils, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to untreated and anaerobically digested sewage sludges and sludge-treated soils. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were determined in sewage sludges from several wastewater treatment plants with concentrations ranging from 1.40 to 2.42 mg/kg of dry matter. Therefore, contrary to what may be expected for human-use pharmaceuticals, FQs may reach the terrestrial environment as indicated by the occurrence of FQs in topsoil samples from experimental fields, to which sewage sludge had been applied. PMID:12433073

  18. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takahiro; Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Maruyama, Katsuya; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Zinc in Electric Arc Furnace dust or EAF dust mainly exists as ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. While ZnO can be simply dissolved into either an acidic or alkaline solution, it is difficult to dissolve ZnFe2O4. In our previous work, we introduced a process called "CaO treatment", a preliminary pyrometallurgical process designed to transform the ZnFe2O4 in the EAF dust into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5. The halogens and others heavy metals were favorably vaporized during CaO treatment with no essential evaporation loss of zinc and iron, leaving CaO treated dust which consisted mainly of ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 and no problematic ZnFe2O4 compound. In this work, the selective leaching of zinc over iron and calcium in the CaO treated dust was investigated using an NH4Cl solution. The effects of temperature, reaction time and NH4Cl concentration on dissolution behavior were examined. While most of the zinc in the CaO treated dust was extracted after 2 h at 70 °C with 2 M NH4Cl, only about 20% of calcium was leached in NH4Cl solution. However, the iron did not dissolve and remained as Ca2Fe2O5 in residue. It was confirmed that zinc can be effectively recovered using NH4Cl solution.

  19. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals.

  20. Protective effects of cornus mas extract on in vitro fertilization potential in methotrexate treated male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Leila; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahmadi, Abbas; Bakhtiary, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Current study was aimed to evaluating protective effects of cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) in mice treated with methotrexate (MTX). For this purpose, 48 young mature male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received only normal saline (0.1 mL per day, intraperitoneally), and the second group was administered MTX (20 mg kg-1 per week, intraperitoneally). The third, fourth and fifth groups received MTX daily oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 CMFE as well as MTX. The sixth group was only given CMFE with a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 per day, orally, for 35 days. Then, the animals were anesthetically euthanized and the sperms were separated from epididymis. DNA damage level, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as in vitro fertility was evaluated. The number of sperms with damaged DNA and MDA level in MTX-treated group showed a significant increase compared to control group (p < 0.05). In groups receiving CMFE along with MTX, DNA damage level and MDA amount suggested a decrease in comparison with MTX group (p < 0.05). Also, in vitro fertilization and embryonic development in MTX-treated group was significantly lower than the control group, and the level of embryonic arresting was higher (p < 0.05). In groups which received CMFE along with MTX, in vitro fertility and embryonic development was higher than MTX group (p < 0.05) and the arrested embryos showed a decrease. This study suggested that cornus mas is able to ameliorate the side effects of MTX. PMID:25992252

  1. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  2. Sister chromatid exchange test in river buffalo lymphocytes treated in vitro with furocoumarin extracts.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Perucatti, Angela; Genualdo, Viviana; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Melis, Rita; Porqueddu, Claudio; Marchetti, Mauro; Usai, Marianna; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2016-09-01

    Furocoumarin extracts from Psoralea morisiana, the endemic Sardinian legume species, were tested for their mutagenic potential on river buffalo blood cells. The results obtained performing the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in blood cultures of five river buffalo calves (exposure to furocoumarins for 72h) and five cows (exposure to furocoumarins for 3h, in the absence and presence of S9 metabolic activator) are reported. Significant differences in mean values of SCEs were observed in cells of calves compared to control cells (unexposed), but no differences in SCE mean values were found between treated and untreated cells of cows in the presence or absence of S9. SCE mean values were much higher in cells of cows (exposed and control) than in cells of calves. Indeed, in calf cells, SCE mean values/cell (±SD) were 6.66±2.45 in the control and 7.63±3.01, 9.03±3.90, 9.53±3.60 and 9.99±3.41 in treated cells at 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg/ml of furocoumarin extracts, respectively. In cow cells, grown in presence of S9, SCE mean values/cell were 11.49±4.78 and 11.65±5.19 in treated cells at 100 and 200 µg/ml of furocoumarins and 11.66±5.45 in the control. In cow cells grown in absence of S9, SCE mean values were 11.81±6.14 in the control and 12.35±7.09 and 12.01±5.43, respectively, in the presence of 100 and 200 µg/ml of furocoumarins. Despite their higher SCE values in the absence of S9, no statistically significant differences were found when these values were compared with those shown in presence of S9, suggesting no mutagenic action of furocoumarins in cows, at the doses used in this study. PMID:27180332

  3. Imazamox Tolerance in Mutation Derived Lines of Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of genes conferring herbicide resistance by mutagenesis could facilitate use of imidazolinone herbicides in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 1997 and 1998, seeds of eight High Plains cotton cultivars were treated with 2.45% v/v EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate). The resulting M3 and M...

  4. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  5. Expression pattern of genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase and sesquiterpene cyclase in cotton suspension-cultured cells treated with fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Heinstein, P; Chen, X Y

    1999-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate sesquiterpene aldehydes in pigment glands. The two enzymes farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) and (+)-delta-cadinene synthase (CAD), a sesquiterpene cyclase, are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA (garfps) encoding FPS was isolated from Gossypium arboreum and identified by in vitro enzymatic assay of the garfps protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Treatment of G. arboreum suspension-cultured cells with an elicitor preparation obtained from the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae dramatically induced transcription of both FPS and CAD, paralleling the accumulation of the sesquiterpene aldehydes in these cells. For G. australe, a wild species from Australia, the V. dahliae elicitor preparation also caused an induction of FPS but only a low rate of induction of CAD, apparently because of a constitutive expression of the sesquiterpene cyclase gene in suspension-cultured cells. Two transcripts and proteins of FPS were detected in the elicited G. australe cells; the smaller FPS seemed to be de novo synthesized after elicitation. Furthermore, G. australe-cultured cells accumulated the cadinene, instead of sesquiterpene aldehydes, indicating that the biosynthetic pathway leading to sesquiterpene aldehydes was absent or blocked after FPP cyclization. PMID:10624017

  6. Microvesicles from brain-extract-treated mesenchymal stem cells improve neurological functions in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Eiru; Choi, Seong-Mi; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Insuk; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was reported to improve functional outcomes in a rat model of ischemic stroke, and subsequent studies suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MVs) can replace the beneficial effects of MSCs. Here, we evaluated three different MSC-derived MVs, including MVs from untreated MSCs (MSC-MVs), MVs from MSCs treated with normal rat brain extract (NBE-MSC-MVs), and MVs from MSCs treated with stroke-injured rat brain extract (SBE-MSC-MVs), and tested their effects on ischemic brain injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. NBE-MSC-MVs and SBE-MSC-MVs had significantly greater efficacy than MSC-MVs for ameliorating ischemic brain injury with improved functional recovery. We found similar profiles of key signalling proteins in NBE-MSC-MVs and SBE-MSC-MVs, which account for their similar therapeutic efficacies. Immunohistochemical analyses suggest that brain-extract-treated MSC-MVs reduce inflammation, enhance angiogenesis, and increase endogenous neurogenesis in the rat brain. We performed mass spectrometry proteomic analyses and found that the total proteomes of brain-extract-treated MSC-MVs are highly enriched for known vesicular proteins. Notably, MSC-MV proteins upregulated by brain extracts tend to be modular for tissue repair pathways. We suggest that MSC-MV proteins stimulated by the brain microenvironment are paracrine effectors that enhance MSC therapy for stroke injury. PMID:27609711

  7. Microvesicles from brain-extract-treated mesenchymal stem cells improve neurological functions in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Eiru; Choi, Seong-Mi; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Insuk; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-09-09

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was reported to improve functional outcomes in a rat model of ischemic stroke, and subsequent studies suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MVs) can replace the beneficial effects of MSCs. Here, we evaluated three different MSC-derived MVs, including MVs from untreated MSCs (MSC-MVs), MVs from MSCs treated with normal rat brain extract (NBE-MSC-MVs), and MVs from MSCs treated with stroke-injured rat brain extract (SBE-MSC-MVs), and tested their effects on ischemic brain injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. NBE-MSC-MVs and SBE-MSC-MVs had significantly greater efficacy than MSC-MVs for ameliorating ischemic brain injury with improved functional recovery. We found similar profiles of key signalling proteins in NBE-MSC-MVs and SBE-MSC-MVs, which account for their similar therapeutic efficacies. Immunohistochemical analyses suggest that brain-extract-treated MSC-MVs reduce inflammation, enhance angiogenesis, and increase endogenous neurogenesis in the rat brain. We performed mass spectrometry proteomic analyses and found that the total proteomes of brain-extract-treated MSC-MVs are highly enriched for known vesicular proteins. Notably, MSC-MV proteins upregulated by brain extracts tend to be modular for tissue repair pathways. We suggest that MSC-MV proteins stimulated by the brain microenvironment are paracrine effectors that enhance MSC therapy for stroke injury.

  8. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression.

  9. Smile attractiveness in patients with Class II division 1 subdivision malocclusions treated with different tooth extraction protocols.

    PubMed

    Janson, Guilherme; Branco, Nuria C; Morais, Juliana F; Freitas, Marcos R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare smile attractiveness between one, three, and four premolar extraction protocols in patients with Class II division 1 subdivision malocclusions and to analyse the aesthetic influence of buccal and posterior corridor widths on smile attractiveness. The sample consisted of posed smile photographs obtained from 66 subjects, divided into three groups according to the treatment-extraction protocol. Group 1 was treated with one maxillary premolar extraction included 23 subjects, group 2 was treated with four premolar extractions included 23 subjects, and 20 patients in group 3 were treated with three premolar extractions. Buccal and posterior corridor widths of each photograph were measured in proportion to the smile width. To rate the posed smile photographs, panels of 70 orthodontists and 46 laypeople used a 10-point scale. There were no significant differences in smile attractiveness scores between the three groups and between orthodontists and laypeople. Also buccal and posterior corridor widths did not differ between the groups and they did not influence the aesthetic scores. It was concluded that smile attractiveness is similar in treatment protocols of one, three, and four premolar extractions and that widths of buccal and posterior corridors do not influence smile attractiveness in these groups.

  10. A Phenolic Extract Obtained from Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberries Enhances Apoptosis in a Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Flores, Gema; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on strawberry phenolic composition. Strawberry extracts contain a mixture of phenolic compounds possessing several biological properties. We demonstrated that these extracts were more effective in inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells compared to phenolic preparations derived from untreated strawberries. Treatment of strawberries with 0.5% MeJA resulted in increased polyphenols content (from 7.4 to 8.6 mM quercetin equivalents) and antioxidant properties (from 3.9 to 4.6 mM quercetin equivalents). The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the strawberry extracts showed that cyanidin glucoside, pelargonidin glucoside, and ellagic glucoside acid were significantly higher in strawberries treated with MeJA. Phenolic extracts from MeJA-treated strawberries significantly decreased the cell viability in HeLa cells, compared to extracts derived from untreated fruits. We hypothesized that the enhanced apoptotic activity of MeJA-treated strawberries was due to a synergistic or additive effect of different phenolic compounds present in the extract, rather than the activity of a single molecule.

  11. A Phenolic Extract Obtained from Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberries Enhances Apoptosis in a Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Flores, Gema; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on strawberry phenolic composition. Strawberry extracts contain a mixture of phenolic compounds possessing several biological properties. We demonstrated that these extracts were more effective in inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells compared to phenolic preparations derived from untreated strawberries. Treatment of strawberries with 0.5% MeJA resulted in increased polyphenols content (from 7.4 to 8.6 mM quercetin equivalents) and antioxidant properties (from 3.9 to 4.6 mM quercetin equivalents). The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the strawberry extracts showed that cyanidin glucoside, pelargonidin glucoside, and ellagic glucoside acid were significantly higher in strawberries treated with MeJA. Phenolic extracts from MeJA-treated strawberries significantly decreased the cell viability in HeLa cells, compared to extracts derived from untreated fruits. We hypothesized that the enhanced apoptotic activity of MeJA-treated strawberries was due to a synergistic or additive effect of different phenolic compounds present in the extract, rather than the activity of a single molecule. PMID:27618150

  12. Comparative evaluation of soft tissue changes in Class I borderline patients treated with extraction and nonextraction modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yashwant V., Aniruddh; K., Ravi; Arumugam, Edeinton

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare soft tissue changes in Class I borderline cases treated with extraction and nonextraction modalities. Methods: A parent sample of 150 patients with Class I dental and skeletal malocclusion (89 patients treated with premolar extraction and 61 patients without extraction) was randomly selected and subjected to discriminant analysis which identified the borderline sample of 44 patients (22 extraction and 22 nonextraction patients). Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalograms of the borderline subsample were analyzed using 22 soft tissue parameters. Results: Upper and lower lips were more retracted and thickness of the upper lip increased more in the borderline extraction cases (p < 0.01). The nasolabial angle became more obtuse and the interlabial gap was reduced in the borderline extraction cases (p < 0.01). Lower lip, interlabial gap and nasolabial angle showed no changes in the borderline nonextraction cases. Conclusion: The soft tissue parameters which can be used as guideline in decision making to choose either extraction or nonextraction in Class I borderline cases are upper and lower lip protrusion in relation to the E-plane and Sn-Pg' line, lower lip protrusion in relation to the true vertical line (TVL), upper lip thickness, nasolabial angle and interlabial gap. PMID:27653264

  13. Prevention of browning in potato with a heat-treated onion extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Mai; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Gi-Nahm; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Bang, Keuk-Seung; Park, Inshik

    2002-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of an onion extract on browning of potato was investigated. The addition of the heated onion extract to potato exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on potato polyphenol oxidase and the formation of a brown color. The inhibitory effect of the onion extract was dependent upon its heating temperature. The addition of both glycine and glucose increased the inhibitory effect of the onion extract toward potato polyphenol oxidase. PMID:12036061

  14. Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.

    PubMed

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented. PMID:22524051

  15. Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.

    PubMed

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented.

  16. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals. PMID:27465727

  17. Biochemical changes of Culex pipiens larvae treated with oil and oleo-resin extracts of Myrrh Commiphora molmol.

    PubMed

    Massoud, A M; Labib, I M; Rady, M

    2001-08-01

    The mosquitocidal plant extracts of the Myrrh, Commiphora molmol namely; oil and oleo-resin, were proved to demonstrate larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae. Oleo-resin was found to induce significant higher toxic action than oil. Solvent (cremophore EL) did not perform any toxic activity. The Impact of both oleo-resin and oil extracts on the protein profile of the treated larvae was evaluated in order to explain their mode of action. Electrophoretic analysis of total proteins, lipoproteins and glycoproteins revealed inhibitory action of the used plant extracts on the protein contents. Larvicidal activity of the oleo-resin and oil was explained as to be related to the loss of certain enzymes inhibited by these extracts which affect the metabolic processes. PMID:11478451

  18. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  19. Application of carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel based silver nanocomposites on cotton fabrics for antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Bozaci, Ebru; Akar, Emine; Ozdogan, Esen; Demir, Asli; Altinisik, Aylin; Seki, Yoldas

    2015-12-10

    In this study, fumaric acid (FA) crosslinked carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogel (CMCF) based silver nanocomposites were coated on cotton fabric for antibacterial property for the first time. The performance of the nanocomposite treated cotton fabric was tested for different mixing times of hydrogel solution, padding times and concentrations of silver. The cotton fabrics treated with CMC hydrogel based silver nanocomposites demonstrated 99.9% reduction for both Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) and Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp). After one cycle washing processes of treated cotton fabric, there is no significant variation observed in antibacterial activity. From SEM and AFM analyses, silver particles in nano-size, homogenously distributed, were observed. The treated samples were also evaluated by tensile strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, fluid absorbency properties, and whiteness index. The treatment of cotton fabric with CMCF hydrogel did not affect the whiteness considerably, but increased the absorbency values of cotton.

  20. Application of carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel based silver nanocomposites on cotton fabrics for antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Bozaci, Ebru; Akar, Emine; Ozdogan, Esen; Demir, Asli; Altinisik, Aylin; Seki, Yoldas

    2015-12-10

    In this study, fumaric acid (FA) crosslinked carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogel (CMCF) based silver nanocomposites were coated on cotton fabric for antibacterial property for the first time. The performance of the nanocomposite treated cotton fabric was tested for different mixing times of hydrogel solution, padding times and concentrations of silver. The cotton fabrics treated with CMC hydrogel based silver nanocomposites demonstrated 99.9% reduction for both Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) and Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp). After one cycle washing processes of treated cotton fabric, there is no significant variation observed in antibacterial activity. From SEM and AFM analyses, silver particles in nano-size, homogenously distributed, were observed. The treated samples were also evaluated by tensile strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, fluid absorbency properties, and whiteness index. The treatment of cotton fabric with CMCF hydrogel did not affect the whiteness considerably, but increased the absorbency values of cotton. PMID:26428108

  1. Decreased expression of alpha-2-HS glycoprotein in the sera of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yeng; Phang, Wai-Mei; Mu, Alan K.-W.; Chan, Choon-Keat; Low, Bin-Seng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia is a Malaysian native herb that has been widely used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for andropause. Although the physiological effects of the plant extract were predicted as a result of the alterations in protein expression, the key protein(s) involved in these alterations are still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of standardized E. longifolia extract on serum protein expression up to 28 days following oral administration in rats. Serum protein profiles were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and altered proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. We observed that alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHS) was significantly decreased in the serum of experimentally treated rats compared to pre-treated animals. Moreover, reduction in AHS was confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHS expression is known to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Our data indicated that serum AHS was reduced in rats treated with standardized E. longifolia extract, and therefore form a prelude for further investigation into the effects of this natural extract in animal models involving infertility and diabetes. PMID:26441666

  2. Extraction and Functional Properties of Proteins from Pre-roasted and Enzyme Treated Poppyseed (Papaver somniferum L.) Press Cakes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emin; Emir, Dilek Dündar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteins of the defatted meals obtained from cold-pressed poppyseed previously treated (pre-roasting and enzyme against control) were extracted and their compositional and functional properties were determined. Saline-alkaline extraction (pH 11-12, and 0.2-0.6 M NaCI) and isoelectric point (pH 4.0-5.5) precipitation technique showed that seed pre-roasting enhances protein yield while enzyme treatment reduces it. There were 7 bands on SDS-PAGE, and enzyme treated samples were weaker than control. While enzyme treatment decreased denaturation temperatures (T(d)), roasting enhanced the enthalpy change (ΔH) values. Pre-treatments caused a decrease in protein least gelling concentration (LGC) values. Water and oil holding capacities (WHC and OHC) were found lower in enzyme treated and higher in preroasted samples. Similar effects were also determined for emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) values. While foaming capacity (FC) in treated samples decreased, foam stability (FS) increased oppositely. In conclusion, poppyseed meals can be nutritionally good source for diet protein, and a limited pre-roasting can be very beneficial for enhanced protein extraction yield and desirable functional properties. PMID:26972462

  3. Extraction and Functional Properties of Proteins from Pre-roasted and Enzyme Treated Poppyseed (Papaver somniferum L.) Press Cakes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emin; Emir, Dilek Dündar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteins of the defatted meals obtained from cold-pressed poppyseed previously treated (pre-roasting and enzyme against control) were extracted and their compositional and functional properties were determined. Saline-alkaline extraction (pH 11-12, and 0.2-0.6 M NaCI) and isoelectric point (pH 4.0-5.5) precipitation technique showed that seed pre-roasting enhances protein yield while enzyme treatment reduces it. There were 7 bands on SDS-PAGE, and enzyme treated samples were weaker than control. While enzyme treatment decreased denaturation temperatures (T(d)), roasting enhanced the enthalpy change (ΔH) values. Pre-treatments caused a decrease in protein least gelling concentration (LGC) values. Water and oil holding capacities (WHC and OHC) were found lower in enzyme treated and higher in preroasted samples. Similar effects were also determined for emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) values. While foaming capacity (FC) in treated samples decreased, foam stability (FS) increased oppositely. In conclusion, poppyseed meals can be nutritionally good source for diet protein, and a limited pre-roasting can be very beneficial for enhanced protein extraction yield and desirable functional properties.

  4. Data on cell viability of human lung fibroblasts treated with polyphenols-rich extract from Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel).

    PubMed

    Calloni, Caroline; Silva Santos, Luciana Fernandes; Martínez, Luana Soares; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-03-01

    Jaboticaba (Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel) is a Brazilian native berry, which presents high levels of polyphenols. Here we provide data related to the effects of the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba on the cell viability, mitochondrial complex I (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/CoQ oxidoreductase) activity and ATP biosynthesis of human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) treated with amiodarone. The data presented in this article demonstrate that the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba was able to reduce cell death as well as the decrease in complex I activity and ATP biosynthesis caused by amiodarone in MRC-5 cells.

  5. Data on cell viability of human lung fibroblasts treated with polyphenols-rich extract from Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel)

    PubMed Central

    Calloni, Caroline; Silva Santos, Luciana Fernandes; Martínez, Luana Soares; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba (Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel) is a Brazilian native berry, which presents high levels of polyphenols. Here we provide data related to the effects of the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba on the cell viability, mitochondrial complex I (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/CoQ oxidoreductase) activity and ATP biosynthesis of human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) treated with amiodarone. The data presented in this article demonstrate that the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba was able to reduce cell death as well as the decrease in complex I activity and ATP biosynthesis caused by amiodarone in MRC-5 cells. PMID:26870757

  6. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  7. Study of a novel phosphorus-containing flame retardant for cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W. W.; Lu, Y. H.; Xu, F.; Zhang, G. X.; Zhang, F. X.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a high efficiency FR named HPA was applied to treat cotton fabric. The results of LOI values and vertical flammability test showed that HPA treated cotton fabric had the best flame retardancy (LOI value was 36.0%), when the FR concentration is 50 g/L, and cured at 180°C for 7 min. During the process of holding back the combustion, HPA behaves the excellent properties of FR for cotton fabric.

  8. Long-term purification efficiency of a wetland constructed to treat runoff from peat extraction.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Satu M; Heikkinen, Kaisa; Ihme, Raimo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Peat extraction increases the phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter, suspended solids, and iron concentrations in runoff, resulting in negative effects on downstream water bodies. Wetlands are commonly used as natural cost-effective solutions to mitigate these negative effects. This study analyzed changes in the quality of runoff water from peat extraction areas and the long-term efficiency of constructed wetlands. The results indicate that the quality of runoff water changed after the initial drainage and during peat extraction. Nitrogen leached at high concentrations in the early stages of peat extraction following drainage, whereas the leaching of iron and phosphorus increased after peat extraction from deeper layers. Comparison of water quality and impurities retained immediately after treatment wetland construction and 14 years later showed that the treatment wetland remained functional, with good retention capacity, over a long period.

  9. Long-term purification efficiency of a wetland constructed to treat runoff from peat extraction.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Satu M; Heikkinen, Kaisa; Ihme, Raimo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Peat extraction increases the phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter, suspended solids, and iron concentrations in runoff, resulting in negative effects on downstream water bodies. Wetlands are commonly used as natural cost-effective solutions to mitigate these negative effects. This study analyzed changes in the quality of runoff water from peat extraction areas and the long-term efficiency of constructed wetlands. The results indicate that the quality of runoff water changed after the initial drainage and during peat extraction. Nitrogen leached at high concentrations in the early stages of peat extraction following drainage, whereas the leaching of iron and phosphorus increased after peat extraction from deeper layers. Comparison of water quality and impurities retained immediately after treatment wetland construction and 14 years later showed that the treatment wetland remained functional, with good retention capacity, over a long period. PMID:26809932

  10. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion. PMID:26428115

  11. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  12. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD.

  13. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  14. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  15. Antioxidant components and properties of dry heat treated clove in different extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Nikousaleh, Azadeh; Prakash, Jamuna

    2016-04-01

    The effects of heat treatment and extraction solvents (pure/aqueous acetone, ethanol, methanol) on antioxidant activity (AA) and components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) were studied. Clove was subjected to dry heat treatment (microwave and roasting) and the AA measured by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), reducing power (RP), and phospho-molybdenum assay (TAA). Unheated samples served as controls. The antioxidant components estimated were total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Using RP and FRSA, highest AA was observed in 80 % acetone extract of all samples (1.778-1448 and 84.5-86.0 %). TAA showed higher value in 80 % methanolic extract for all samples in the range 303.595-307.941 mmol ascorbic acid/g. Heated samples exhibited higher AA in all assays. Highest amount of phenols and flavonoids were extracted in 80 % acetone (4053-4064 mg/100 g) and 80 % methanol (11,271-11,370 mg/100 g) respectively. For tannins, maximum extraction was in 80 % acetone (control, 16441 mg/100 g), 80 % ethanol (microwave, 19,558 mg/100 g), and pure methanol (roasted, 15,823 mg/100 g). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were positively associated with AA determined using RP and FRSA. In conclusion, clove exhibited powerful AA in different extraction solvents which increased on dry heat treatments and correlated positively with antioxidant components. Hence, clove can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems. PMID:27413226

  16. Antioxidant components and properties of dry heat treated clove in different extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Nikousaleh, Azadeh; Prakash, Jamuna

    2016-04-01

    The effects of heat treatment and extraction solvents (pure/aqueous acetone, ethanol, methanol) on antioxidant activity (AA) and components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) were studied. Clove was subjected to dry heat treatment (microwave and roasting) and the AA measured by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), reducing power (RP), and phospho-molybdenum assay (TAA). Unheated samples served as controls. The antioxidant components estimated were total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Using RP and FRSA, highest AA was observed in 80 % acetone extract of all samples (1.778-1448 and 84.5-86.0 %). TAA showed higher value in 80 % methanolic extract for all samples in the range 303.595-307.941 mmol ascorbic acid/g. Heated samples exhibited higher AA in all assays. Highest amount of phenols and flavonoids were extracted in 80 % acetone (4053-4064 mg/100 g) and 80 % methanol (11,271-11,370 mg/100 g) respectively. For tannins, maximum extraction was in 80 % acetone (control, 16441 mg/100 g), 80 % ethanol (microwave, 19,558 mg/100 g), and pure methanol (roasted, 15,823 mg/100 g). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were positively associated with AA determined using RP and FRSA. In conclusion, clove exhibited powerful AA in different extraction solvents which increased on dry heat treatments and correlated positively with antioxidant components. Hence, clove can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems.

  17. The effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and morphology of naturally colored cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Lee, I.; Woodward, J.; Fox, S.V.

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and structure of natural colored cotton (Foxfibre{reg_sign}). Compared to the white cotton and palo verde (sage green) varieties, buffalo (mocha brown) and coyote (reddish brown) varieties were quite resistant to hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei celluclast and purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) under the conditions of the assay, but binding of CBH I to buffalo cotton was unaffected. Sodium hydroxide extracts of all the colored cotton varieties were found to be strong inhibitors of cellulase activity and the buffalo cotton was labile in that the inhibitory effect decreased over time in the presence of cellulase; incubation of {beta}-glucosidase with the extract also decreased the inhibition. The chemical composition of the inhibitor is currently under investigation. Atomic force microscopy of the colored cotton fibers with bound cellulase components should prove useful in the context of elucidating the effect of binding on the morphology of cellulose fibers.

  18. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  19. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  5. Cytokine profile and natural killer cell activity in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice treated orally with Petiveria alliacea extract.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M L; Quadros, M R; Santos, L M

    2000-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of Petiveria alliacea extract on the production of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines and on NK cells activity in normal and Listeria monocytogenes infected mice. Our results demonstrated that in normal/non-infected mice P. alliacea administration led to increased levels of Interleukin-2 (IL-2). The infection alone enhanced INF-gamma levels and NK cell activity at 48 and 72 hours of infection. The treatment with five consecutive doses of 1000 mg/kg/day of P. alliacea extract, given previously to infection, led to further increases in IL-2 levels, in relation to normal/non-infected/P. alliacea treated controls, and in INF-gamma levels at 72 h of infection, compared to infected mice. On the other hand, the production of IL-4 and IL-10 were not altered either by the infection or by the treatment with P. alliacea extract. NK cells activity increased at 48 h and 72 h following the inoculation of the bacteria. When mice were treated with P. alliacea previously to infection, NK activity was higher than that observed at 48 h, 72 h and 120 h of infection in the infected animal. Based on these findings we suggest that P. alliacea up-regulates anti-bacterial immune response by enhancing both Th1 function and the activity of NK cells.

  6. Propolis induced antibacterial activity and other technical properties of cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, S; Higazy, A; Hebeish, A

    2013-08-01

    Propolis is a gum gathered by honey bees from various plants; the honey bees use propolis to seal holes in their honey combs, smooth out the internal wall and protect the entrance against intruders. It is composed of 50% resin (flavonoids and related phenolic acid), 30% wax, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% various organic components. As a natural mixture, propolis is widely used in medicine, cosmetics and food. So far no attempts have been yet made to make use of propolis in the realm of textile finishing. Current work presents the first systemic study targeted to build up a scientific basis for production of cotton textiles having antibacterial activity and other useful properties by making use of propolis as eco-friendly finish within the scope of green strategy. Propolis extract solution (70/30 ethanol/water) of 10% concentration was prepared as the stock. Different amounts of the latter were used along with a crosslinking agent and catalyst for treatment of cotton fabrics as per pad-dry-cure technique. Antibacterial activity of the so treated fabrics was obtained through monitoring the efficiency of the interaction of propolis with cotton cellulose. This interaction was expressed as inhibition zone diameter after the treated fabrics were exposed to (G+ve) and (G-ve) bacteria. Other properties include crease recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. Factors affecting these properties such as type, nature and concentration of the crosslinking agent, concentration of propolis, and conditions of curing were investigated. In addition characterization of the propolis containing modified cotton fabrics including demonstration of the antibacterial activity, SEM, FTIR, durability to washing, UV protection and water repellency were performed. Based on results obtained, it is concluded that application of propolis along with glyoxal and Al2(SO4)3catalyst using pad-dry (3min/80°C), cure (5/140°C) bring about cotton textile with superior antibacterial

  7. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. Metabolic and biochemical changes in streptozotocin induced obese-diabetic rats treated with Phyllanthus niruri extract.

    PubMed

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Maulidiani, M; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Shaari, Khozirah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, N H

    2016-09-01

    Herbal medicine has been proven to be an effective therapy offering a variety of benefits, such as moderate reduction in hypoglycemia, in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. Phyllanthus niruri has been used as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. Herein, the induction of type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25mg/kgbw). Here, we evaluated the in vivo antidiabetic properties of two concentrations (250 and 500mg/kg bw) of P. niruri via metabolomics approach. The administration of 500mg/kgbw of P. niruri extract caused the metabolic disorders of obese diabetic rats to be improved towards the normal state. The extract also clearly decreased the serum glucose level and improved the lipid profile in obese diabetic rats. The results of this study may contribute towards better understanding the molecular mechanism of this medicinal plant in managing diabetes mellitus. PMID:27318080

  9. Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed. PMID:24620597

  10. Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed.

  11. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  12. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  13. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  14. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  15. Antidiabetic potential of Citrus sinensis and Punica granatum peel extracts in alloxan treated male mice.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2007-01-01

    An investigation on the effects of four different concentrations of peel extract from Citrus sinensis (CS) or Punica granatum (PG) in male mice revealed the maximum glucose lowering and antiperoxidative activities at 25 mg/kg of CS and 200 mg/kg of PG. In a separate experiment their potential was evaluated with respect to the regulation of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. While a single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) increased the serum levels of glucose and alpha-amylase activity, rate of water consumption and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues with a parallel decrease in serum insulin level, administration of 25 mg/kg of CS or 200 mg/kg of PG was found to normalize all the adverse changes induced by alloxan, revealing the antidiabetic and anti peroxidative potential of test fruit peel extracts. Subsequent phytochemical analysis indicated that the high content of total polyphenols in the test peels might be related to the antidiabetic and antiperoxidative effects of the test peels. PMID:18806305

  16. Protective effect of extracts of Perilla frutescens treated with sucrose on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Hong, Chung-Oui; Lee, Hojoung; Park, Sang-Yul; Park, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2012-07-15

    Perilla frutescens leaves are often used in East Asian gourmet food. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of P. frutescens leaves grown in different concentrations of sucrose (0, 115, 175 and 235 mM sucrose) leading to four samples of perilla leaf extracts (PLEs). Based on caffeic acid level and antioxidant activities, further experiments were conducted using perilla leaf extracts treated with 6% sucrose compared with non-treated perilla leaf extracts as a control. Oral intubation with non-treated perilla leaf extracts or perilla leaf extracts treated with 6% sucrose (1000 mg/kg b.w. rat) for 5 days was conducted before treatment with a single dose of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.5 mmol/kg b.w., i.p.) led to a significant reduction of hepatic toxicity in the perilla leaf extracts treated with 6% sucrose. We demonstrated that P. frutescens with higher contents of caffeic acid was produced, and that sucrose could play a role in the induction of this secondary metabolite. Sucrose-treated perilla leaves, which had better antioxidant activities than untreated leaves, can be used as a potential dietary source.

  17. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method.

  18. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method. PMID:25498635

  19. Class I malocclusion with severe double rotrusion treated with first premolars extraction*

    PubMed Central

    Moresca, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Angle Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion is characterized by severe buccal tipping of incisors, which causes upper and lower lip protrusion. First premolars extraction is recommended to reduce facial convexity as a result of anterior teeth retraction, which keeps canines and first molars in key to occlusion. In order to yield orthodontic results that are compatible with ideal esthetic and cephalometric outcomes, the space closure phase needs to be carried out with overbite and incisors torque control. The majority of cases also requires maximum anchorage of posterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25162577

  20. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:17487597

  1. [Genotoxic effects of pesticide-treated vegetable extracts using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests].

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; De Fusco, R; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Izzo, C; Esposito, V; Nardi, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    The presence of chemical residues in vegetables and fruit is a source of human exposure to toxic and genotoxic chemicals. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is already known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause adverse health effects and that many pesticides are mutagenic/carcinogenic. In the present research we monitored concurrently the presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and 8 types of grapes sampled from the markets of a region in Southern Italy. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas-chromatography and HPLC, and for genotoxicity with two plant tests in Allium cepa roots: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test. We found 33 pesticides, some of which are outlawed. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests were sensitive for monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:15049565

  2. Modulation of hepatocarcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treated Balb/c mice by mushroom extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Verma, Shalini; Kumar, Ashok; Bharty, Rahul Kumar; Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan Kumar; Huzar Futty Beejan, Priya; Kyung-Sun, Kang; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2016-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of edible mushrooms from Mauritius, namely Pleurotus sajor-caju and Agaricus bisporus was evaluated using an N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis Balb/c mice model. Mushroom extracts restored normal weight in MNU treated mice over a 3 month supplementation period. Blood parameter analyses indicated a clear modulation of hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte, platelet, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil counts in MNU-induced mice (p < 0.05). Mushroom extract supplementation effectively reduced oxidative damage in MNU-primed mice, which was marked by a significant decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) and a concomitant increase in the enzymatic antioxidant levels, primarily catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase, and FRAP values (p < 0.05). DNA protective effects of the extracts were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, where, the MNU-DNA interaction, as evidenced by an intense peak at 1254 cm(-1), was normalized. The findings demonstrate hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-carcinogenic effects and suggest the use of mushrooms as potential dietary prophylactics in cancer chemoprevention.

  3. Cotton, fleece, and beads

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-05-22

    Texas researchers are exploring two types of environmentally friendly spilled oil-cleanup products. These new nontoxic products not only sop up oil but also facilitate the breakdown of that oil. One group is looking at microscopic glass bubbles coated with titanium dioxide, which functions as a photocatalyst for the breakdown of chemical including hydrocarbons. The surface reactions yield far fewer toxic material and a more complete breakdown than sunlight-only decomposition. Another group is looking at cotton fiber. In its raw form poor quality cotton, rejected by fabric manufactures and weavers, makes a superior mop for spilled oil and, unlike synthetic materials, is biodegradable. The oil absorbed on cotton fibers could also be recovered for further fermentation or reuse. Relatively little oil-cleanup research is being done worldwide. The USA, a world leader in this area, recent federal spending on R D has averaged only about $30 million.

  4. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K

    2010-05-01

    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  5. Gene expression profiling of Lucilia sericata larvae extraction/secretion-treated skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Polat, Erdal; Aksöz, İlayda; Arkan, Hülya; Coşkunpınar, Ender; Akbaş, Fahri; Onaran, İlhan

    2014-10-25

    The larvae of Lucilia sericata have been successfully used as medicinal maggots in the healing of wounds. The excretion/secretion (ES) products of the larvae have been shown to efficiently debride wounds and help the healing process. The mechanisms underlying ES-induced wound healing are not yet completely understood. One of the intriguing questions is the role of ESs in modulating gene expression at the transcriptional level in the skin wound environment during the healing process. To address this question, a study was conducted in which the ES-induced gene expression profile in wound biopsies and ES-treated wounds of rat skin in comparison with control group was analyzed at the molecular level by monitoring the expression of genes associated with wound healing. The expression levels of 82 genes at 4, 7, and 10 days after wounding were determined using a PCR array system following cDNA synthesis. A comparison from wounds revealed that 38 mRNAs (≥5-fold expression) were differentially expressed in the ES-treated skin. For 27 genes, the multiple-test corrected p-value was statistically significant (p≤0.00061). The expression pattern of these mRNAs was also altered during a period of 10 days. Many of the upregulated or downregulated mRNAs with therapy were extracellular matrix, cell adhesion-related proteins and growth factors. The genes that have the highest fold change (>1000-fold) were Col1a2, Col4a1, Ctsk, Ccl7, Angpt1, Cd40lg, Egf and Itgb5. Several of these gene products might play key roles in ES-induced wound healing. These findings may provide new insight for an understanding of the therapeutic potential of ESs for wound healing.

  6. Pectinase-treated Panax ginseng extract (GINST) rescues testicular dysfunction in aged rats via redox-modulating proteins.

    PubMed

    Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Yoo, Sung-Kwang; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2014-05-01

    The root of Panax ginseng improves testicular function both in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism by which ginseng exerts this effect has not been elucidated. Changes in protein expression in the rat testis in response to a pectinase-treated P. ginseng extract (GINST) were identified using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Number of sperm, Sertoli cells and germ cells, and the Sertoli Cell Index decrease in the testis of aged rats (AR) relative to young control rats (YCR). However, those parameters were completely restored in GINST-treated AR (GINST-AR). A proteomic analysis identified 14 proteins that were differentially expressed between vehicle-treated AR (V-AR) and GINST-AR. Out of these, the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) mu5 and phospholipid hydroperoxide (PH) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly up-regulated in GINST-AR compared to V-AR. The activity of GPx and GST, as well as the expression of glutathione, in the testis of GINST-AR was higher than that in V-AR. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased in AR compared with YCR, but this change was reversed by GINST-AR. These results suggest that the administration of GINST enhances testicular function by elevating GPx and GST activity, thus resulting in increased glutathione, which prevents LPO in the testis.

  7. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  8. Withania somnifera root extract prolongs analgesia and suppresses hyperalgesia in mice treated with morphine.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Alessandro; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Kasture, Sanjay; Cottiglia, Filippo; Acquas, Elio; Mascia, Maria Paola; Anzani, Nicola; Ruiu, Stefania

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), a safe medicinal plant, prevents the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. In the present study, we investigated whether WS extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg, i.p.) may also modulate the analgesic effect induced by acute morphine administration (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the tail-flick and in the hot plate tests, and if it may prevent the development of 2.5 mg/kg morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test. Further, to characterize the receptor(s) involved in these effects, we studied, by receptor-binding assay, the affinity of WSE for opioid (μ, δ, k), cannabinoid (CB1, CB2), glutamatergic (NMDA), GABAergic (GABAA, GABAB), serotoninergic (5HT2A) and adrenergic (α2) receptors. The results demonstrated that (i) WSE alone failed to alter basal nociceptive threshold in both tests, (ii) WSE pre-treatment significantly protracted the antinociceptive effect induced by 5 and 10 mg/kg of morphine only in tail-flick test, (iii) WSE pre-treatment prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test, and (iv) WSE exhibited a high affinity for the GABAA and moderate affinity for GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. WSE prolongs morphine-induced analgesia and suppresses the development of morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia probably through involvement of GABAA, GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of WSE as a valuable adjuvant agent in opioid-sparing therapies.

  9. Histological, ultrastructural and biochemical studies on the kidney of mice treated with Carthamus tinctorius L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Louei Monfared, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Carthamus tinctorius L. (C. tinctorius) is used as a food additive but also has medicinal applications. The present work was designed to investigate its probable side effects on the histology and function of the kidney in the mice. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult Balb/C mice were randomly distributed into one control and three experimental groups. The control group received only distilled water, while experimental groups were administered intraperitoneally C. tinctorius at doses of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 mg/kg for 49 consecutive days. In the end of experiments after blood sampling, the biochemical analyses of plasma were performed. Tissue samples were also taken and structural alterations were examined using light and electron microscopes. Results: There were histological changes included decreasing in the diameter of glomerules, increase of proximal tubular lumen, tubular necrosis, leuckocyte infiltration, and massive congestion in the kidney of the 1.4 and 2.8 mg/kg C. tinctorius groups. Moreover, ultrastructural study revealed destruction of the glomerular basement membrane, shrinkage of podocyte΄s nucleus, and reduction in the number and size of microvilli in epithelial cells of renal tubules. Furthermore, the levels of creatinine in the plasma of 1.4 and 2.8 mg/kg C. tinctorius groups showed a significant increase in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that C. tinctorius extract exposure at doses of 1.4 and 2.8 mg/kg has harmful effects on the renal tissue and therefore, popular consumption of this plant should be reconsidered. PMID:25050283

  10. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  20. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  1. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  2. Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation of a 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural derivative, asfural, from enzyme-treated asparagus extract.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Sato, Atsuya; Ono, Tomoko; Goto, Kazunori; Maeda, Takahiro; Takanari, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2013-09-25

    A novel 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF; 1) derivative, which is named asfural (compound 2), was isolated from enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) along with HMF (1) as a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inducible compound. The structure of compound 2 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data from HREIMS and NMR, whereas the absolute configuration was determined using chiral HPLC analysis, compared to two synthesized compounds, (S)- and (R)-asfural. As a result, compound 2 derived from ETAS was assigned as (S)-(2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate. When compound 2, synthesized (S)- and (R)-asfural, and HMF (1) were evaluated in terms of HSP70 mRNA expression-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells, compound 2 and (S)-asfural significantly increased the expression level in a concentration-dependent manner. HMF (1) also showed significant activity at 0.25 mg/mL.

  3. ETAS, an enzyme-treated asparagus extract, attenuates amyloid beta-induced cellular disorder in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Junetsu; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Sakurai, Takuya; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Izawa, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ishida, Hitoshi; Takabatake, Ichiro; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    One of the pathological characterizations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in cerebral cortical cells. The deposition of Abeta in neuronal cells leads to an increase in the production of free radicals that are typified by reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby inducing cell death. A growing body of evidence now suggests that several plant-derived food ingredients are capable of scavenging ROS in mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS), which is rich in antioxidants, is one of these ingredients. The pre-incubation of differentiated PC 12 cells with ETAS significantly recovered Abeta-induced reduction of cell viability, which was accompanied by reduced levels of ROS. These results suggest that ETAS may be one of the functional food ingredients with anti-oxidative capacity to help prevent AD.

  4. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Plants Used Traditionally in South Africa to Treat Tuberculosis and Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Madikizela, Balungile; Ndhlala, Ashwell Rungano; Finnie, Jeffrey Franklin; Staden, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory ailments are major human killers, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease causing a threat to human healthcare. Many South African plants are used in the traditional treatment of TB and related symptoms, but there has not been a sufficient focus on evaluating their antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of plants used traditionally to treat TB and related symptoms against microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium aurum A+) associated with respiratory infections using the microdilution assay. Ten plants were selected based on a survey of available literature of medicinal plants used in South Africa for the treatment of TB and related symptoms. The petroleum ether, dichloromethane, 80% ethanol, and water extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for antibacterial activity. Out of 68 extracts tested from different parts of the 10 plant species, 17 showed good antimicrobial activities against at least one or more of the microbial strains tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL. The good antimicrobial properties of Abrus precatorius, Terminalia phanerophlebia, Indigofera arrecta, and Pentanisia prunelloides authenticate their traditional use in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thus, further pharmacological and phytochemical analysis is required. PMID:23533527

  6. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice. PMID:24660475

  7. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time. PMID:25297618

  8. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time.

  9. Effect of Plasma on the Zeta Potential of Cotton Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, A.; Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Dalalsharifi, S.; Wiener, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the effect of a low-temperature plasma on the zeta potential of cotton fabric was studied. The silver particle absorption on cotton fabric when modified by a low-temperature plasma was also investigated. The modification consisted of plasma pre-functionalization followed by a one-step wet treatment with silver nitrate solution. The process was performed in a low-temperature plasma medium, using a magnetron sputtering device. Oxygen and nitrogen were used as working gases in the system, and the results were compared. After preparing the samples, the zeta potentials of the untreated and plasma-treated cotton under a constant pH value solution were estimated and compared. Also, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to examine the functional groups of the corresponding samples. The amounts of silver absorption on plasma treated and untreated cotton were examined using the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) method. The results show that the amount of zeta potential for the nitrogen plasma treated sample is less and the absorption of silver particles by cotton can be increased strongly with nitrogen plasma treatment.

  10. Cotton cellulose: enzyme adsorption and enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, P.L.; Carniti, P.; Focher, B.; Marzetti, A.; Cattaneo, M.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of a crude cellulase complex from Trichoderma viride on variously pretreated cotton cellulose samples was studied in the framework of the Langmuir approach at 2-8 degrees. The saturation amount of adsorbed enzyme was related to the susceptibility of the substrates to hydrolysis. In every case the adsorption process was faster by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the hydrolysis step to give end products. For ZnCl/sub 2/-treated cotton cellulose the Langmuir parameters correlated fairly well with the value of the Michaelis constant, measured for its enzymic hydrolysis, and the adsorptive complex was indistinguishable from the complex of the Michaelis-Menten model for the hydrolysis.

  11. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  12. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  13. Cotton Fabric Properties with Water-Repellent Finishing via Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaoxia; Li, Mao; Wu, Min; Chen, Li

    The properties of the cotton fabric with water-repellence finishing by sol method with the hexadecyltrimethoxysilane as additive were observed. The cotton fabrics were immersed in the prepared sols with double dip and double nip dried at 90°C, annealed at 160°C for 3 min. The water repellence and the physical properties such as gas permeability, bending properties, beetling properties, tensile strength, elongation at break, abrasion resistance, and anti-crease properties of the cotton fabrics were investigated. The results showed that anti-crease and tensile strength were improved. However, the abrasion resistance of the cotton fabrics decreased in some way. Both the bending and beetling properties measurement proved that the handle of the treated cotton fabrics changed stiffness. For the dyed fabrics by the water-repellent finishing, the hue was slightly changed, the deeper color was achieved. There is no adverse effect for treated fabric by water-repellent finishing on the fastness.

  14. Experimental Research on Therapeutic Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Shengjing Capsule Extracts in Treating Spermatogenesis Impairment Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaohu; Weng, Zhiwei; Liang, Aijun; Zhang, Shuting

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate antioxidant effects of traditional Chinese Shengjing capsule extracts (sperm-producing capsule, with functions of tonifying kidney and invigorating kidney essence) on testes, epididymides, and sperms of rats. Material/Methods We randomly divided 50 rats into 5 groups. G1: normal control group (treated with saline); G2: cadmium chloride group; G3: cadmium chloride+ low doses of drugs; G4: cadmium chloride + medium doses of drugs; and G5: cadmium chloride + high doses of drugs (equivalent dose: 0.45 g/kg). In addition to the normal control group, the other 4 groups started receiving intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Testicular glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde aldehyde (MDA) were measured by ELISA; epididymis histopathological examination was performed; testis serum testosterone (T) was measured; specimens of the epididymal semen were analyzed for sperm concentration, morphology, vitality, and DNA fragmentation rate. Results Sperm count and activity of rats in the model control group decreased significantly; their MDA concentration of testicular and epididymal homogenates increased greatly; while the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px dropped sharply. All indexes mentioned above were significantly different from those of the blank control group (P<0.05); the sperm count and activity of rats treated with Shengjing capsule (sperm-producing capsule) decreased, but were still significantly higher than those of the model group (P<0.05). MDA level of rats treated with Shengjing capsule were significantly lower than that of the model group (P<0.05), while their SOD and GSH-Px activity were significantly higher than the model group (P<0.05). The normal morphology rate and DNA integrity rate of groups treated with Shengjing capsule were significantly higher than those of the model group (P<0.05). Conclusions Shengjing can enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes and inhibit

  15. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity.

  16. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  17. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  18. Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with an extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (Eupolin), an herbal remedy for treating wounds.

    PubMed

    Phan, T T; Hughes, M A; Cherry, G W

    1998-03-01

    Burns are a major problem in many developing countries. Eupolin ointment is a topical agent used in the treatment of soft-tissue wounds and burns in Vietnam and is made from an aqueous extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (formerly Eupatorium odoratum). Clinical studies using this extract have shown antimicrobial and anticoagulation effects as well as the promotion of tissue remodeling in the wound healing process. However, the mechanism by which this agent affects cells involved in the wound healing process is unknown. In our research, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, two cell types that play a crucial role in wound healing, were used to investigate some of the effects of Eupolin extract in vitro. Cell growth was estimated by a colorimetric assay at different time intervals. Enhanced growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells was found at concentrations of 10 microg/ml and 100 microg/ml of Eupolin extract. This was particularly evident in medium supplemented with only 0.5% fetal calf serum where the cells were quiescent. Toxicity of the extract to fibroblasts was observed at 250 microg/ml in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/0.5% fetal calf serum, but there was no significant damage at this dose to the endothelial cells. The results of the study demonstrated that Eupolin extract increased fibroblast and endothelial cell growth, and this could explain in part the beneficial clinical effects that have been observed.

  19. Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. and Benzothiadiazole Protect Cotton Seedlings Against Rhizoctonia Damping-Off and Alternaria Leaf Spot in Cotton.

    PubMed

    Jabaji-Hare, Suha; Neate, Stephen M

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have shown induction of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot using nonpathogenic strains of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR). This study evaluates the biocontrol ability of several np-BNR isolates against root and foliar diseases of cotton in greenhouse trials, provides evidence for induced systemic resistance (ISR) as a mechanism in this biocontrol, and compares the disease control provided by np-BNR with that provided by the chemical inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH). Pretreatment of cotton seedlings with np-BNR isolates provided good protection against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4). Seedling stand of protected cotton was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of nonprotected seedlings. Several np-BNR isolates significantly reduced disease severity. The combination of BTH and np-BNR provided significant protection against seedling rot and leaf spot in cotton; however, the degree of disease reduction was comparable to that obtained with np-BNR treatment alone. Significant reduction in leaf spot symptoms caused by Alternaria macrospora occurred on cotyledons pretreated with np-BNR or sprayed with BTH, and the np- BNR-treated seedlings had significantly less leaf spot than BTH-treated seedlings. The results demonstrate that np-BNR isolates can protect cotton from infections caused by both root and leaf pathogens and that disease control was superior to that observed with a chemical inducer.

  20. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement.

  1. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation. PMID:25580402

  2. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. PMID:24910383

  3. Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Antiproliferative and Proteomics Analyses of the Differential Expression of Apoptotic Proteins in MCF-7 Cells Treated with Acetone Leaf Extract of Diospyros lycioides (Ebenaceae).

    PubMed

    Pilane, M C; Bagla, V P; Mokgotho, M P; Mbazima, V; Matsebatlela, T M; Ncube, I; Mampuru, L

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in South Africa. The acetone leaf extract of Diospyros lycioides was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for its antioxidant potential using DPPH assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging effect, while the viability of MCF-7 cells was evaluated using the MTT. MCF-7 treated cells were stained with Hoechst 335258 dye and annexin-V-FITC to be evaluated for apoptotic effect of the extract, while mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and deferential protein expression levels using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results revealed presence of antioxidant constituents in the extract. Extract was shown to be cytotoxic in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was demonstrated to be due to apoptosis, with 70% of the extract-treated cells being annexin-V-positive/PI negative at 48 hours. The extract was also shown to upregulate the expression of p53 gene with concomitant downregulation of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic gene while differentially expressed proteins were identified as enolase, pyruvate kinase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The extract in this study was shown to induce apoptosis at an early stage which makes it an ideal source that can be explored for compounds that may be used in the treatment and management of cancer. PMID:26457109

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Antiproliferative and Proteomics Analyses of the Differential Expression of Apoptotic Proteins in MCF-7 Cells Treated with Acetone Leaf Extract of Diospyros lycioides (Ebenaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pilane, M. C.; Bagla, V. P.; Mokgotho, M. P.; Mbazima, V.; Matsebatlela, T. M.; Ncube, I.; Mampuru, L.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in South Africa. The acetone leaf extract of Diospyros lycioides was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for its antioxidant potential using DPPH assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging effect, while the viability of MCF-7 cells was evaluated using the MTT. MCF-7 treated cells were stained with Hoechst 335258 dye and annexin-V-FITC to be evaluated for apoptotic effect of the extract, while mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and deferential protein expression levels using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results revealed presence of antioxidant constituents in the extract. Extract was shown to be cytotoxic in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was demonstrated to be due to apoptosis, with 70% of the extract-treated cells being annexin-V-positive/PI negative at 48 hours. The extract was also shown to upregulate the expression of p53 gene with concomitant downregulation of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic gene while differentially expressed proteins were identified as enolase, pyruvate kinase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The extract in this study was shown to induce apoptosis at an early stage which makes it an ideal source that can be explored for compounds that may be used in the treatment and management of cancer. PMID:26457109

  5. Development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using herb loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Radhai, R; Kotresh, T M; Csiszar, Emilia

    2013-01-16

    In the present work ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were screened for their anti-microbial activity by using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also measured. The methanol extracts O. sanctum proved to have the maximum antimicrobial effect were loaded inside the sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles by cation induced controlled gelification method and finished on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated using dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of the fabrics was assessed by using the standard AATCC technique (AATCC 100). The quantitative tests proved that cotton fabrics finished with the methanol extract of O. sanctum loaded nanoparticles possessed remarkable antibacterial activities with excellent wash durability. The study revealed that the herb encapsulated nanoparticle could act as a biocontrol agent against bacteria in fabrics. PMID:23121954

  6. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unbleached (grey) cotton needle punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate-nitrogen based fire-retardant (FR) formulations, SRRC-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the flame retardant chemical along with urea and d...

  7. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  10. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  12. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  13. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  14. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  15. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  16. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F.; McGaw, Lyndy J.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium–based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90–100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  18. Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by Ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ce; Fan, Qing; Chen, Shu-Liang; Ma, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and phenytoin (PHT) sodium as a dose regimen simulating the clinical treatment of patients with epilepsy, on P-glycoprotein (P-GP) overexpression in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled mouse model of epilepsy. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (40 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by intragastric administration of PHT (40 mg/kg) for 14 days. Thirty mice that developed seizures were randomly divided into three groups and administered PHT as well as the following treatments: saline (negative control); verapamil (20 mg/kg, positive control); and G. biloba (30 mg/kg). Seizure severity was recorded 30 minutes after treatment on Day 4 of drug administration, after which the mice were euthanized, and their brains isolated. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of P-GP and caspase-3, respectively, in the brain tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of PHT in the brains of the treated mice. After 4 consecutive days of treatment, the seizure severity in the mice in the G. biloba extract group was more significantly reduced than the seizure severity in the saline control group, and a significant difference was observed between the G. biloba extract and verapamil control groups (p < 0.05). P-GP expression in the brain more significantly decreased in the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil than it did in the saline-treated control group (p < 0.05). Compared with the saline-treated control group, the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil showed significantly increased brain PHT concentrations (p < 0.05). Furthermore, caspase-3 expression in the brain tissue of the G. biloba extract group was significantly lower than that in the vehicle control group (p < 0.05); this finding demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of G. biloba. Therefore, this

  19. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  9. Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.

    PubMed

    Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes.

  10. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Chicory and Milk Thistle on Serum Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Tamoxifen-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Behrouj, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Some medications may change trace element levels in the body. Extracts of various plants, due to having the several elements, can have beneficial effects. Consumption of herbal extracts with chemical drugs may reduce adverse effects of medication. The goal of this study was to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in serum of rats treated with tamoxifen, chicory, and/or milk thistle extracts. Therefore, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, chicory control, milk thistle control, tamoxifen, tamoxifen-chicory, and tamoxifen-milk thistle. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected and sera isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cu, Zn, and Mn levels. The Zn concentration increased in milk thistle-supplemented groups. The Cu level increased in the chicory control group only. Tamoxifen had no affect on Cu, Zn, and Mn levels, but seed extract of milk thistle increased Zn concentration, and chicory root extract increased Cu concentration. Although elevated levels of Cu in rats receiving tamoxifen-chicory were milder than rats treated only with chicory, it seems that the extract and tamoxifen impact on the Cu are in conflict with each other. PMID:26875177

  11. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Chicory and Milk Thistle on Serum Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Tamoxifen-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Behrouj, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Some medications may change trace element levels in the body. Extracts of various plants, due to having the several elements, can have beneficial effects. Consumption of herbal extracts with chemical drugs may reduce adverse effects of medication. The goal of this study was to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in serum of rats treated with tamoxifen, chicory, and/or milk thistle extracts. Therefore, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, chicory control, milk thistle control, tamoxifen, tamoxifen-chicory, and tamoxifen-milk thistle. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected and sera isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cu, Zn, and Mn levels. The Zn concentration increased in milk thistle-supplemented groups. The Cu level increased in the chicory control group only. Tamoxifen had no affect on Cu, Zn, and Mn levels, but seed extract of milk thistle increased Zn concentration, and chicory root extract increased Cu concentration. Although elevated levels of Cu in rats receiving tamoxifen-chicory were milder than rats treated only with chicory, it seems that the extract and tamoxifen impact on the Cu are in conflict with each other.

  12. Antimicrobial cotton containing N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups by grafting copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yin; Ren, Xuehong; Huang, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The monomer (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (APTMAC) was used to treat cotton fibers by grafting copolymerization. The grafted cotton fabrics were characterized by SEM image and FTIR spectra. The treated samples with quaternary ammonium groups could decrease 96.08% of Staphylococcus aureus and 48.74% of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 30 min. After chlorination with dilute sodium hypochlorite, the treated cotton fabrics containing both N-halamine and quaternary ammonium groups effectively inactivated 100% (log reduction 5.82) of S. aureus and 100% (log reduction 6.26) of E. coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time. The grafting process of cotton fabric has small effect on the thermal stability and tensile strength, which favors the practical application. Compared to the traditional pad-dry-cure method to produce antibacterial materials, the radical grafting copolymerization method occurred in water without any organic solvents involved in the whole treatment.

  13. Effects of TiO₂ and curing temperatures on flame retardant finishing of cotton.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chin-Kuen; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-05-01

    The performance of flame retardancy of cotton cellulose can be influenced by curing conditions. In this study, cotton cellulose was imparted durable flame retardant properties by a reaction between a flame retardant agent (Pyrovatex CP New) and a cross linking agent (Knittex CHN), in the presence of catalysts phosphoric acid and titanium dioxide (TiO2). After treating cotton fabrics at different curing temperatures for different curing time, its flame retardant performance was evaluated by 45° fabric flammability standard test method. For cotton fabrics cured at 150 and 170°C, good flame retardant characteristics were retained even after three home laundering cycles. The use of TiO2 as a co-catalyst in the treatment improved the flame retardant properties and reduced the loss of tearing strength of cotton fabrics. No significant negative effect in the whiteness index was observed, as compared with conventional flame retardant treatment. PMID:25659721

  14. Effects of TiO₂ and curing temperatures on flame retardant finishing of cotton.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chin-Kuen; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-05-01

    The performance of flame retardancy of cotton cellulose can be influenced by curing conditions. In this study, cotton cellulose was imparted durable flame retardant properties by a reaction between a flame retardant agent (Pyrovatex CP New) and a cross linking agent (Knittex CHN), in the presence of catalysts phosphoric acid and titanium dioxide (TiO2). After treating cotton fabrics at different curing temperatures for different curing time, its flame retardant performance was evaluated by 45° fabric flammability standard test method. For cotton fabrics cured at 150 and 170°C, good flame retardant characteristics were retained even after three home laundering cycles. The use of TiO2 as a co-catalyst in the treatment improved the flame retardant properties and reduced the loss of tearing strength of cotton fabrics. No significant negative effect in the whiteness index was observed, as compared with conventional flame retardant treatment.

  15. Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Popović, Mira; Kaurinović, Biljana; Trivić, Svetlana; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bursać, Marija

    2006-07-01

    Extracts of celery leaves and roots in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w[sol ]v) solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments crude methanol extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free OH* and DPPH* radicals, as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx). Analogous experiments were also carried out with the extracts of celery root, for comparison. The results obtained show that both the extracts of root and leaves are good scavengers of OH* and DPPH* radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant) activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of celery leaves, or in combination with CCl4. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts showed a certain protective effect. Of all the extracts the n-butanol extract showed the highest protective effect. Combined treatments with CCl4 and extracts showed both positive and negative synergism - inducing or suppressing the impact of CCl4 alone. The differences observed in the action of particular extracts are probably due to the different contents of flavonoids and some other antioxidant compounds.

  16. Reflectance measurements of cotton leaf senescence altered by mepiquat chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric reflectance measurements were made on plant-attached leaves to evaluate growth chamber-grown cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum L.) senescence (chlorophyll degradation as criterion) that was delayed by mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) rates of 0, 10, 40, 70, and 100 g a.i./ha. Mepiquat chloride (MC increased both chlorophyll and leaf water contents as compared with that of untreated leaves. Reflectance was inversely and linearly correlated (r = -0.873**) with eater content at the 1.65 micrometer wavelength and was inversely correlated (r = -0.812**) with chlorophyll concentration at the 0.55 micrometer wavelength but best fit a quadratic equation. Either wavelength measurement might be useful to remotely detect cotton leaf senescence or fields of MC-treated cotton plants.

  17. Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

    2012-01-01

    The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated.

  18. Concentrations and antioxidative activity of anserine and carnosine in poultry meat extracts treated with demineralization and papain.

    PubMed

    Huang, S C; Kuo, J C

    2000-10-01

    Anserine and carnosine found in animal skeletal muscle are capable of inhibiting the catalysis of lipid oxidation by heme and non-heme iron. A demineralization technique and a proteolytic enzyme (papain) were used in this research in order to reduce the levels of proxidants while maintaining high levels of anserine and camosine in poultry (chicken, duck and turkey) meat extracts. Undemineralized poultry meat extracts contained larger amounts of anserine, camosine, heme and non-heme iron (p < 0.05) than did demineralized poultry meat extracts. Both undemineralized and demineralized breast meat extracts of chicken, duck and turkey contained higher concentrations of anserine and camosine, but lower amounts of heme and non-heme iron than did thigh meat extracts. In chicken, duck and turkey meat (breast and thigh) extracts (undemineralized and demineralized), the anserine concentrations were greater (p < 0.05) than the camosine concentrations. The hydrogen-donating ability of undemineralized and demineralized chicken breast meat extracts was not significantly different (p > 0.05): however, demineralized chicken breast meat extracts showed higher (p < 0.05) ferrous chelating ability than did undemineralized meat extracts. The concentrations of anserine, camosine, heme and non-heme iron in chicken breast meat extracts increased (p < 0.05) with the addition of papain (1%) to the meat mixture before extraction. Heme and non-heme iron in the chicken breast meat extracts increased as the reaction time for papain increased from 30 to 120 min, but the concentrations of anserine and camosine were not significantly affected by the longer reaction time for papain. The hydrogen-donating ability and ferrous chelating ability of demineralized chicken breast meat extracts were not significantly affected by papain. The ratios of carnosine/anserine were very specific in the chicken, duck and turkey meat extracts (breast and thigh); and the turkey meat extracts had lower (p < 0

  19. Investigation into the supramolecular properties of fibres regenerated from cotton based waste garments.

    PubMed

    Haule, L V; Carr, C M; Rigout, M

    2016-06-25

    This paper investigated the supramolecular properties and accessibility of fibres regenerated from cotton-based waste garments and compared to typical lyocell fibres. The supramolecular and accessibility properties of the cotton-based waste garments fibres regenerated from three sources (waste denim garments, easy care finished cotton fabrics and a blend of cotton-based waste garment with wood pulp) were analysed and compared to the lyocell fibres. The Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) analyses indicated that the fibres from cotton waste garments had supramolecular properties similar to the typical lyocell fibres. The exception was spun from the cotton pulp reclaimed from easy care treated cotton fabrics and maybe related to increased amorphous cellulose content in its structure. The fibre's accessibility by reagents behaviour correlated well with the supramolecular properties. The results indicate that the waste garment purification process may affect the properties of the pulp and hence the supramolecular properties of the resultant fibres. Further research on the purification and regeneration of fibres from waste garments may lead to the use of cotton waste garments as an alternative feedstock source to the lyocell process. PMID:27083802

  20. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts on hydrogen peroxide- and lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Jan-Jeng; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-12-01

    Chronic inflammation has been linked to a wide range of progressive diseases, including cancer, neurological disease, metabolic disorder, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have provided convincing evidence that natural dietary compounds, which humans consume as food, possess many biological activities, including chemopreventative activities against various chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea, as well as its major component, cyanidin-3-monoglucoside, an anthocyanin, on DNA damage, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and free radical scavenging capacity in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. High-pressure liquid chromatography results indicated that 2 mg of the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea contained 45 μg of cyanidin-3-monoglucoside. A comet assay indicated that 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea (2 mg mL(-1)) and of cyanidin-3-monoglucoside (10 μM) protected RAW264.7 cells from DNA damage induced by a 24 h H(2)O(2) treatment. These results can be attributed to the prevention of reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in H(2)O(2)-treated murine RAW264.7 macrophages by the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea. Moreover, as there is an active interplay between oxidative stress and inflammation, we also evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea and cyanidin-3-monoglucoside in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea and of cyanidin-3-monoglucoside suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, in these macrophages. These results imply that pigeon pea could be developed as a functional food by the food industry, or could be utilized for the commercial production of anthocyanins as antioxidants.

  1. Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-Healing Wound

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, N.; Goheen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton, as it is used in wound dressings is composed of nearly pure cellulose. During the wound-healing process, cotton is exposed to various blood components including water, salts, cells, and blood proteins. Albumin is the most prominent protein in blood. Elastase is an enzyme secreted by white blood cells and takes an active role in tissue reconstruction. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase is often over-expressed such that this enzyme digests tissue and growth factors, and interferes with the normal healing process. Our goal is to design a cotton wound dressing that will sequester elastase or assist in reducing elastase activity in the presence of other blood proteins such as albumin. The ability of cotton and various cotton derivatives to sequester elastase and albumin has been studied by examining the adsorption of these two proteins separately. We undertook the present work to confirm the binding of albumin to cotton and to quantify the activity of elastase in the presence of various derivatives of cotton. We previously observed a slight increase in elastase activity when exposed to cotton. We also observed a continuous accumulation of albumin on cotton using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. In the present study, we used an open-column-absorption technique coupled with a colorimetric protein assay to confirm losses of albumin to cotton. We have also confirmed increased elastase activity after exposure to cotton. The results are discussed in relation to the porosity of cotton and the use of cotton for treating chronic non-healing wounds.

  2. Down-modulation of nitric oxide production in murine macrophages treated with crude plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, D R; Mineo, J R; de Souza, M A; de Paula, J E; Espindola, L S; Espindola, F S

    2005-05-13

    Several plant species from the Cerrado biome in Brazil are popularly used as herbal medicines for its reputed analgesic, anti-acid, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties, among others. It has been reported that some plant extracts interfere in the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important inflammatory mediator. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexanic and ethanolic extracts from three plant species on NO production by LPS/IFN-gamma-activated J774 macrophages based on traditional use. The cytotoxic effect of the crude extracts was determined by the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) to measure cell viability. Serjania lethalis stem extracts and Cupania vernalis leaf extracts significantly inhibited NO production, while extracts from Casearia sylvestris var. lingua were inactive or showed low activity on NO production, or were very cytotoxic. The ethanolic stem bark and leaf extracts of Serjania lethalis and Cupania vernalis, respectively, almost completely inhibited the production of NO by J774 macrophages. It can be concluded that the selected extracts are potential sources of active compounds that might be used as anti-inflammatory agents.

  3. Antiquity of American Polyploid Cotton.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Macneish, R S

    1964-02-14

    Fragments of a boll of Gossypium hirsutum L. from archeological excavations near Tehuacán, Mexico, prove that this species existed in 5800 B. C. No doubt remains that American tetraploid cotton species originated through natural hiybridization.

  4. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  5. Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

    2008-01-01

    Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

  6. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  7. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton.

  8. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications.

  9. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  11. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  12. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  13. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  14. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  15. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  16. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  17. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  2. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  3. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  4. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  5. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  6. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  7. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  9. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  11. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  12. Thin air-plasma-treated alkali fluoride layers for improved hole extraction in copper phthalocyanine/C70-based solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Cai, Min; Liu, Rui; Anderegg, James W.; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2012-03-12

    Alkali fluorides, mostly LiF and CsF, are well-known to improve electron injection/extraction in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells (OSCs). They are also utilized, though to a lesser extent, for hole injection in OLEDs. Here we demonstrate a new role for such fluorides in enhancing OSCs’ hole extraction.We show that an ultrathin air-plasmatreated alkali fluoride layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the active layer in copper phthalocyanine ðCuPcÞ∕C70-based OSCs increases the short circuit current by up to ∼17% for cells with LiF and ∼7% for cells with NaF or CsF. The effects of the fluoride layer thickness and treatment duration were evaluated, as were OSCs with oxidized and plasma-treated Li and UV-ozone treated LiF. Measurements included current voltage, absorption, external quantum efficiency (EQE), atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed the presence of alkali atoms F and O at the treated ITO/fluoride surface. The EQE of optimized devices with LiF increased at wavelengths >560 nm, exceeding the absorption increase. Overall, the results indicate that the improved performance is due largely to enhanced hole extraction, possibly related to improved energy-level alignment at the fluorinated ITO/CuPc interface, reduced OSC series resistance, and in the case of LiF, improved absorption.

  13. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  14. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  15. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development. PMID:25204070

  16. Detection of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in rats by radioisotopic footpad assay with sodium deoxycholate extract and mitomycin-C-treated tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Mizushima, Y; Hosokawa, M; Kobayashi, H

    1978-08-01

    Immune response in WKA rats immunized with methylcholanthrene-induced KMT-17 tumor was measured by radioisotopic footpad assay. The assay was specific, quantitative, and objective compared with the ordinary method of measuring the thickness of footpads. The strongest footpad reaction was observed 24 hr after injection of the antigens. The reaction was transferred by lymphoid cells but not by serum. These results indicate that the footpad assay manifests delayed-type hypersensitivity to tumor antigens. In order to obtain more reliable antigen preparation for the footpad assay, antigens prepared by several methods were compared. Solubilized antigen extracted with sodium deoxycholate (DOC) showed the strongest reaction in the immunized host and weak reaction in the control non-immunized host. This marked difference between the immunized and control groups indicates that DOC-extracted antigen was better antigen than tumor cells treated with mitomycin-C (40 microgram/ml), formaldehyde solution (0.2%, 0.01%), X-irradiation (3,500, 10,000 rad), non-treated whole-cell antigen, crude membrane, cell homogenates, or antigens extracted by hypotonic sonication and 3M KCl method. The DOC-extracted antigen was well preserved at -20 degrees for 1 month. PMID:81787

  17. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  18. Propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), an innovative chemically and biologically reproducible pharmaceutical compound for treating wounds.

    PubMed

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF(®)), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition.

  19. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging that are...

  20. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  2. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  3. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  4. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  5. A kinetic study of trace element leachability from abandoned-mine-polluted soil treated with SS-MSW compost and red mud. Comparison with results from sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Brunori, C; Cremisini, C; D'Annibale, L; Massanisso, P; Pinto, V

    2005-04-01

    The effect of adding treated red mud, a by-product of alumina production, to soil polluted by an abandoned mine and characterised by high concentrations of heavy metals, relatively low reaction grade, and low organic carbon content, was investigated. Also studied was addition of both red mud and compost (produced from source-separated municipal solid waste)--the synergistic action of red mud and compost could be exploited to achieve both metal trapping and an increase in organic carbon content. Leaching batch tests were performed on four different systems: soil, soil and treated red mud, soil and compost, soil and compost plus treated red mud. Dilute sulfuric acid and EDTA solution (liquid/solid ratio 10:1) were used in the tests--sulfuric acid to "mimic" acid rain and EDTA in accordance with general methods for estimating "plant-available" metals. Sequential extraction was also applied to the same samples. The use of relatively non-specific extractant reagents in the leaching tests led to a kinetic approach (already proposed in literature), because measurements of trace elements extracted at equilibrium cannot be related to their speciation. Comparison of information obtainable by the kinetic approach to evaluation of data from leaching tests with results from sequential extraction enabled evaluation whether the "kinetic fractionation method", a relatively rapid and simple procedure, furnishes adequate information about the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements. Especially interesting results were obtained for Mn, Zn, and Ni, present in large amounts in the soil studied--their leachability was significantly reduced by addition of red mud and compost, suggesting interesting perspectives in soil-remediation activity.

  6. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  7. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  8. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P = 0.0698); there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P > 0.8115). However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P < 0.0001), and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001); metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P < 0.0001) and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001). Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:25548560

  9. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  10. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Y; Pero, R W; Amiri, A; Bryngelsson, C

    1998-01-01

    Growth inhibitory activities of novel water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (C-Med-100) were examined in vitro using two human leukemic cell lines (K562 and HL60) and one human EBV-transformed B lymphoma cell line (Raji). The proliferative capacities of HL60 and Raji cells were strongly suppressed in the presence of the C-Med-100 while K562 was more resistant to the inhibition. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect was confirmed using the clonogenic assay, which showed a very close correlation between C-Med-100 concentration and the surviving fraction. The suppressive effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on tumor cell growth appears to be mediated through induction of apoptosis which was demonstrated by characteristic morphological changes, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation after agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA fragmentation quantification. C-Med-100 induced a delayed type of apoptosis becoming most dose-dependently prominent after 48 hours of exposure. Both DNA single and double strand breaks were increased 24 hours after C-Med-100 treatment, which suggested a well-established linkage between the DNA damage and apoptosis. The induction of DNA strand breaks coupled to apoptosis may explain the growth inhibition of the tumor cells by Uncaria tomentosa extracts. These results provide the first direct evidence for the antitumor properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts to be via a mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis.

  11. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1-46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  12. [Cloning and characterization of D-113 gene promoter from cotton].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Ming; Guo, Yu-Long; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan

    2002-02-01

    To study the expression of late embryogenesis abundant gene in seeds, the 1,024 bp 5' flanking sequence of D-113 gene, a late embryogenesis abundant gene of Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312, was cloned by PCR. The similarity compared with the sequence of Lea protein gene family published was 92.50%. There are three putative ABREs and one enhancer-like which riches A/T in the promoter. The promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene to form pLD II. Via a particle bombardment, pLD II was introduced into embryogenic calli of cotton and seeds of Brassica napus which were all treated with abscisic acid for 3d before bombardment, also into roots, stems and leafs of cotton. Transient expression was measured histochemically as spot number 24 h after bombardment. GUS sexpression was observed in the seeds of Brassica napus and the embryogenic calli of cotton, but not found in roots and leaves of cotton. Those results indicated that the expression of D-113 gene promoter was embryo specific. PMID:11902000

  13. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (<1.26 mg kg(-1)), with a TF value (the ratio of Cd concentration in stem to root) above 1. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicated cotton leaf transpiration played a key role in extracting soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  14. Using an In Vitro Cell Line to Assess Source and Treated Drinking Water Extracts for Estrogenic Activity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While in vitro assays have been used to determine presence of estrogenic activity in many types of water, few studies have evaluated the potential estrogenic activity in source and treated drinking water samples. In a collaborative research study the U.S. Environmental Protection...

  15. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  16. Sudden hearing loss and vertigo after tooth extraction successfully treated with combined therapy including HBO2: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Huseyin Baki; Erdogan, Raziye Banu Atalay; Paksoy, Mustafa; Sanli, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a decrease in hearing of at least 30 dB that occurs within three days and which affects at least three consecutive frequencies in either ear or both ears. This case report describes a woman who had sudden hearing loss and vertigo in the right ear after tooth extraction. As the first-line therapy, systemic and intratympanic steroid injections were used this led to a slight improvement; however, the majority of improvement in hearing was not observed until hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy was instituted on the 20th day of hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss and vertigo after tooth extraction is an otologic emergency and early evaluation and treatment are effective. HBO2, although employed beyond the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society's recommended initial 14 days of symptom onset, very was effective for this particular case.

  17. In situ sonosynthesis of nano TiO2 on cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Akhavan Sadr, Farid; Montazer, Majid

    2014-03-01

    Here, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) were sonosynthesized and loaded simultaneously onto the cotton fabric. Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and ultrasonic irradiation was utilized as a tool for synthesis of TiO2 in low temperature with anatase structure and loading nanoparticles onto the cotton fabric. TiO2 loaded cotton fabric was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, and XRF. Moreover, several properties of the treated cotton fabrics such as self-cleaning, UV protection, washing durability, and tensile strength were studied. The effect of variables, including TTIP concentration and sonication time, was investigated based on central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The results confirmed formation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with 3-6 nm crystalline size loaded onto the cotton fabric at low temperature (75 °C) that led to good self-cleaning and UV-protection properties. The excellent UV-protection rating of the treated fabric maintained even after 25 home launderings indicating an excellent washing durability. Interestingly, sonochemical method had no negative influence on the cotton fabric structure. The statistical analysis indicated significant effect of both TTIP concentration and sonication time on the content of the loaded TiO2 on the fiber and self-cleaning properties of the fabric. PMID:24152573

  18. Enhancing the functionality of cotton fabric by physical and chemical pre-treatments: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gargoubi, Sondes; Tolouei, Ranna; Chevallier, Pascale; Levesque, Lucie; Ladhari, Neji; Boudokhane, Chedly; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-08-20

    Recently, antimicrobial and decontaminating textiles, such as cotton a natural carbohydrate polymer, are generating more attention. Plant materials used for natural dyes are expected to impart biofunctional properties and high added valued functional textiles. In the current study, surface modification of cotton to maximize the dye amount on the surface has been investigated. Physical modification using nitrogen-hydrogen plasma, chemical modification using chitosan and chemical modification using dopamine as biopolymers imparting amino groups were explored. Furthermore, dye exhaustion of curcumin, as a natural functional dye has been studied. Dye stability tests were also performed after fabric washing using hospital washing protocol to predict the durability of the functionalizations. The results demonstrated that cotton surfaces treated with dopamine exhibit a high level of dye uptake (78%) and a good washing fastness. The use of non-toxic and natural additives during cotton finishing process could give the opportunity of cradle to cradle design for antimicrobial textile industries.

  19. Use of ultrasonic energy in the enzymatic treatment of cotton fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Yachmenev, V.G.; Blanchard, E.J.; Lambert, A.H.

    1998-10-01

    Application of enzymes in the textile industry is becoming increasingly popular because of mild processing conditions and the capability for replacing harsh organic/inorganic chemicals. The combination of ultrasound with conventional enzymatic treatment of cotton offers significant advantages such as less consumption of expensive enzymes, shorter processing time, less fiber damage, and better uniformity of enzymatic treatment. Laboratory research has shown that introduction of ultrasonic energy during enzymatic treatment resulted in significant improvement in the performance of cellulase enzyme (CELLUSOFT L). It was established that ultrasound does not inactivate the complex structure of the enzyme molecules and weight loss of cotton fabric sonicated and treated with cellulase enzyme increased up to 25--35%. The experimental data indicate that the maximum benefit provided by sonification occurs at relatively low enzyme concentrations. Ultrasonic energy significantly intensified the enzymatic treatment of the cotton fabrics but did not contribute to a decrease in tensile strength of the cotton textiles.

  20. Enhancing the functionality of cotton fabric by physical and chemical pre-treatments: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gargoubi, Sondes; Tolouei, Ranna; Chevallier, Pascale; Levesque, Lucie; Ladhari, Neji; Boudokhane, Chedly; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-08-20

    Recently, antimicrobial and decontaminating textiles, such as cotton a natural carbohydrate polymer, are generating more attention. Plant materials used for natural dyes are expected to impart biofunctional properties and high added valued functional textiles. In the current study, surface modification of cotton to maximize the dye amount on the surface has been investigated. Physical modification using nitrogen-hydrogen plasma, chemical modification using chitosan and chemical modification using dopamine as biopolymers imparting amino groups were explored. Furthermore, dye exhaustion of curcumin, as a natural functional dye has been studied. Dye stability tests were also performed after fabric washing using hospital washing protocol to predict the durability of the functionalizations. The results demonstrated that cotton surfaces treated with dopamine exhibit a high level of dye uptake (78%) and a good washing fastness. The use of non-toxic and natural additives during cotton finishing process could give the opportunity of cradle to cradle design for antimicrobial textile industries. PMID:27178905

  1. Uterine histoarchitecture during pre and post-implantation periods of rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A O; Pathak, S; Shukla, S; Mathur, R

    1987-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (roots) has been studied on histoarchitecture of the uterus during pre and post-implantation stages in rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. The histoarchitecture of the uterus of control pregnant rat had revealed a clear-cut close apposition of the uterine endometrium with reduced lumen and loose stroma. There was a prominent appearance of deciduoma and the uterine glands were enlarged. Glandular cells showed hypertrophy and in the endometrium the leucocytic infiltration was increased. When the aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. was administered, no deciduoma was observed on day 5th of pregnancy and the luminal epithelium remained unstimulated. The lumen was enlarged and the uterus was non-oedematous. It has been concluded that the administration of aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. to pregnant rats could not stimulate the uterus which remained non-receptive throughout the period of treatment, therefore, the fertilized eggs may not be welcomed by the unprepared uterus. PMID:3630576

  2. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  3. The Phytotoxin Coronatine Induces Abscission-Related Gene Expression and Boll Ripening during Defoliation of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  4. The phytotoxin coronatine induces abscission-related gene expression and boll ripening during defoliation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingwei; Li, Yi; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  5. The phytotoxin coronatine induces abscission-related gene expression and boll ripening during defoliation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingwei; Li, Yi; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ.

  6. Caffeic acid and glycerol are constituents of the suberin layers in green cotton fibres.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, A; Jenny, T; Amrhein, N; Ryser, U

    1993-03-01

    The fibres of the green-lint mutant (Lg) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are suberized and contain a large proportion of wax. The unidentified components of the wax were separated into a colourless fluorescent fraction and a yellow pigmented fraction. Using ultraviolet spectroscopy and nuclear-magneticresonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy, esterified trans-caffeic acid was identified as the only phenolic component in the colourless fraction. This fraction was further purified and was shown to contain caffeic acid esterified to fatty acids (mainly ω-hydroxy fatty acids), and glycerol in molar ratios of 4∶5∶5. When 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4. 3. 1. 5.) was added to ovules cultured in vitro, at the beginning of secondary wall formation, the fibres remained white and the colourless caffeic-acid derivative and the yellow compounds could no longer be detected by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Fibres grown in the presence of AIP were also examined in the electron microscope. Secondary cell walls were present in the treated fibres, but the electron-opaque suberin layers were replaced by apparently empty spaces. This result indicates that cinnamic-acid derivatives are covalently linked to suberin and have a structural role within the polymer or are involved in anchoring the polymer to the cellulosic secondary wall. Purified cell walls of green cotton fibres contained about 1% (of the dry weight) of bound glycerol, 0.9% of the glycerol being extractable with the wax fraction and 0.1% remaining in the cell-wall residue. The corresponding values for white fibres were 0.03% (total), 0.02% (wax), and 0.01% (cell-wall residue). Fibres synthesizing their secondary walls in the presence of AIP contained about normal amounts of bound glycerol in the wax fraction, but glycerol accumulation in the cell-wall residue was inhibited by about 95%. These observations indicate that glycerol is an important constituent of cotton

  7. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Leaf Extract of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell. Arg.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Mahadi; Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Md. Rakib; Islam, A. F. M. Mahmudul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Rahman, Akib Bin; Hossain, Md. Sazzad; Chowdhury, Ishtiaque Ahmed; Rana, Md. Sohel

    2014-01-01

    In folk medicine Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell. Arg. is used to treat muscle pain, itching, fever, rheumatic arthritis, snake bite, hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive as well as the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of leaf. The leaves were extracted with methanol following hot extraction and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, xylene induced ear edema, cotton pellet induced granuloma, and tail immersion methods at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins was identified in the extract. The extract exhibited considerable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities against four classical models of pain. In acetic acid induced writhing, xylene induced ear edema, and cotton pellet granuloma models, the extract revealed dose dependent activity. Additionally, it increased latency time in tail immersion model. It can be concluded that M. repandus possesses significant antinociceptive potential. These findings suggest that this plant can be used as a potential source of new antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory candidates. The activity of methanol extract is most likely mediated through central and peripheral inhibitory mechanisms. This study justified the traditional use of leaf part of this plant. PMID:25629031

  8. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  9. Eco-friendly finishing agent for cotton fabrics to improve flame retardant and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    El-Shafei, A; ElShemy, M; Abou-Okeil, A

    2015-03-15

    This research work deals with flame retardant and antibacterial finishing agent for cellulosic fabrics using TiO2 nanoparticles and chitosan phosphate. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide. The size of TiO2 nanoparticles was characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The application of nano TiO2 onto cellulosic fabrics (cotton 100%) was achieved in presence of polycarboxylic acid [1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)] with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst and chitosan phosphate through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The effect of the finishing on the physical properties, flammability and antibacterial properties of cross-linked fabrics are investigated. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal decomposition behaviour of the treated samples. Limited oxygen indexes (LOI) of the treated cotton fabrics were investigated. The treated cotton fabric also reveals excellent antibacterial properties. PMID:25542111

  10. Cotton moisture – its importance, measurements and impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton moisture impacts cotton from field to fabric. The proper control, and measurement to allow for control, of cotton moisture is essential to maintaining and preserving fiber quality. Cotton color, length and strength; as well as other properties, are all impacted by cotton moisture content. ...

  11. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  12. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  13. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  18. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  19. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  20. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  1. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  2. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  6. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  7. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  10. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  12. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  15. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  18. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  19. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  20. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  1. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  3. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  5. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  8. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  11. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  12. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  14. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  16. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  18. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  19. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  20. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  2. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  8. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  10. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  12. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  13. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  14. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  17. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  18. Maintenance of Multipotency in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Treated with Xenopus laevis Egg Extract Requires Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor-2

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Denis; Ambady, Sakthikumar; Page, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Direct reprogramming of a differentiated somatic cell into a developmentally more plastic cell would offer an alternative to applications in regenerative medicine that currently depend on either embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we report the potential of select Xenopus laevis egg extract fractions, in combination with exogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), to affect life span, morphology, gene expression, protein translation, and cellular localization of OCT4 and NANOG transcription factors, and the developmental potential of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. A gradual change in morphology is accompanied by translation of embryonic transcription factors and their nuclear localization and a life span exceeding 60 population doublings. Cells acquire the ability to follow adipogenic, neuronal, and osteogenic differentiation under appropriate induction conditions in vitro. Analysis of active extract fractions reveals that Xenopus egg protein and RNAs as well as exogenously supplemented FGF2 are required and sufficient for induction and maintenance of this phenotypic change. Factors so far identified in the active fractions include FGF2 itself, transforming growth factor-β, maskin, and nucleoplasmin. Identification of critical factors needed for reprogramming may allow for nonviral, chemically defined derivation of human-induced multipotent cells that can be maintained by exogenous FGF2. PMID:24405062

  19. New insights into an ancient antibrowning agent: formation of sulfophenolics in sodium hydrogen sulfite-treated potato extracts.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-09-28

    The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid. With S, their 2'-sulfo-adducts were found instead, the structures of which were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Also, for minor caffeoyl derivatives and quercetin glycosides, the corresponding sulfo-adducts were observed. Feruloyl and sinapoyl derivatives were not chemically affected by the presence of S. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was thought to be responsible for the formation of the sulfo-adducts. This was confirmed by preparing 2'-sulfo-5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in a model system using 5-CQA, sodium hydrogen sulfite, and PPO. This sulfo-adduct exhibited a small bathochromic shift (λmax 329 nm) as compared to 5-CQA (λmax 325 nm) and a strong hypochromic shift with an extinction coefficient of 9357±395 M(-1) cm(-1) as compared to 18494±196 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The results suggest that whenever S is used as an antibrowning agent, the O-quinone formed with PPO reacts with S to produce sulfo-O-diphenol, which does not participate in browning reactions. PMID:21854040

  20. Medical Plant Extracts for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: a Snapshot of Recent Clinical Trials and Their Biological Background.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Sonja M; Weinmann, Daniela; Toegel, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In light of the growing global health problem associated with osteoarthritis, herbal remedies have become an important research focus in the scientific and medical community, and numerous studies have been published to identify their biological effects and mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. This review is a snapshot of the most recent clinical trials on the efficacy of medical plant extracts in knee osteoarthritis patients, and provides relevant background information on the biological mechanisms that may underlie the clinical observations. Therefore, we performed a PubMed literature survey and discussed a selection of clinical trials in the field, with special attention being drawn to the design and outcome measures of the studies. We further spotlighted on issues relating to the efficacy and safety of the plant extracts and discussed major challenges for upcoming studies in the field, which include the need for rigorously designed in vivo and in vitro studies, as well as the elucidation of potential additive effects and structure-modifying activities beyond symptom relief. PMID:26163305

  1. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding.

  2. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  3. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  4. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  5. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  6. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  7. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  8. Dielectric properties of the plasma membrane of cultured murine fibroblasts treated with a nonterpenoid extract of Azadirachta indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Bonincontro, Adalberto; Di Ilio, Vincenzo; Pedata, Osvaldo; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2007-02-01

    Neem oil is a natural product obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. In this report, we investigate the alterations of the biophysical properties of the plasma membrane caused by treatment with the nonterpenoid fraction of neem oil that we defined as methanolic extract (MEX). The dose-response effect was evaluated and a MEX-dependent cytoxicity evidenced. The effect of MEX on the plasma membrane was studied by a well-established dielectric spectroscopy technique: electrorotation, which allows single-cell analysis. Our results show a structural/functional alteration of the plasma membrane with an evident increase of specific capacitance and conductance. The biological implications of this effect are discussed. PMID:17437145

  9. Application of NaClO-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as solid phase extraction sorbents for preconcentration of trace 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Deng, Dayi; Ni, Xiaodan

    2012-09-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized by oxidation of original multiwalled carbon nanotubes with NaClO were prepared and their application as solid phase extraction sorbent for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was investigated systemically, and a new method was developed for the determination of trace 2,4-D in water samples based on extraction and preconcentration of 2,4-D with solid phase extraction columns packed with NaClO-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes prior to its determination by HPLC. The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of 2,4-D, including the column activating conditions, the amount of the sorbent, pH of the sample, elution composition, and elution volume, were investigated. The results indicated 2,4-D could be quantitatively retained by 100 mg NaClO-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes at pH 5, and then eluted completely with 10 mL 3:1 (v/v) methanol-ammonium acetate solution (0.3 mol/L). The detection limit of this method for 2,4-D was 0.15 μg/L, and the relative standard deviation was 2.3% for fortified tap water samples and 2.5% for fortified riverine water sample at the 10 μg/L level. The method was validated using fortified tap water and riverine water samples with known amount of 2,4-D at the 0.4, 10, and 30 μg/L levels, respectively.

  10. Effect of Nd:YAG laser light on post-extractive socket healing in rats treated with zoledronic acid and dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Merigo, Elisabetta; Passerini, Pietro; Corradi, Domenico; Maestri, Roberta; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sala, Roberto; Govoni, Paolo; Namour, Samir; Vescovi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Introduction The effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing process could be useful for the prevention of post-extractive Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of LLLT on the post-extractive socket healing in rats treated with zoledronic acid and dexamethasone. Material and Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in 4 groups: control group (C, n = 5), laser group (L, n = 5), treatment group (T, n = 10) and treatment plus laser group (T+L, n = 10). Rats of group T and T+L received zoledronate 0,1 mg/Kg and dexamethasone 1 mg/Kg every 2 days for 10 weeks. Rats of group C and L were infused with vehicle. After 9 weeks the first maxillary molars were extracted in all rats. Rats of groups L and T+L received laser therapy (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm, 1.25W, 15Hz, 5 min, 14.37 J/cm2) in the socket area at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 after surgery. At 8 days from extraction, the sockets were clinically assessed with a grading score and the wound area was measured with a dedicate software. Histomorphometric evaluation and western blot analysis of osteopontin and osteocalcin expression were performed. Results Group T+L showed a trend toward a better clinical grading score compared to group T (grade I 22% Vs 28 % - grade II 56% Vs 28% - grade III 22% Vs 44%, respectively). The average wound area was similar among the groups. Inhibition of osteoclastic alveolar bone resorption was found in groups T and T+L (P<0.001). Rats of groups L and T+L showed a significant higher expression of osteocalcin compared to rats of groups C and T (C=0.3993; L=1.394; T=0.2922; T+L=1.156; P=0.0001). The expression of osteopontin did not show significant differences in the groups treated with Nd:YAG compared to the ones that did not receive laser irradiation. Conclusion Our findings suggest that laser irradiation after tooth extraction can promote osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by the higher expression of

  11. Use of a Digital Camera to Monitor the Growth and Nitrogen Status of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Biao; He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Diao, Ming; Jiang, Guiying; Zheng, Zhong; Cui, Jin; Fan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method for monitoring cotton growth and N status using a digital camera. Digital images were taken of the cotton canopies between emergence and full bloom. The green and red values were extracted from the digital images and then used to calculate canopy cover. The values of canopy cover were closely correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio vegetation index and were measured using a GreenSeeker handheld sensor. Models were calibrated to describe the relationship between canopy cover and three growth properties of the cotton crop (i.e., aboveground total N content, LAI, and aboveground biomass). There were close, exponential relationships between canopy cover and three growth properties. And the relationships for estimating cotton aboveground total N content were most precise, the coefficients of determination (R2) value was 0.978, and the root mean square error (RMSE) value was 1.479 g m−2. Moreover, the models were validated in three fields of high-yield cotton. The result indicated that the best relationship between canopy cover and aboveground total N content had an R2 value of 0.926 and an RMSE value of 1.631 g m−2. In conclusion, as a near-ground remote assessment tool, digital cameras have good potential for monitoring cotton growth and N status. PMID:24723817

  12. Understanding the Relationship between Cotton Fiber Properties and Non-Cellulosic Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William G. T.; Meulewaeter, Frank; Selbig, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength, elongation and micronaire were measured. The relationship between the two datasets was established in an integrative manner using linear regression methods. In the conducted analysis, we demonstrated the usefulness of regression based approaches in establishing a relationship between glycan measurements and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan probes. Moreover, homogalacturonan and callose were shown to be significant predictors for fiber length. The role of these polysaccharides was already pointed out in previous cell wall elongation studies. Additional relationships were predicted for fiber strength and elongation which will need further experimental validation. PMID:25383868

  13. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine.

  14. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

  15. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future.

  16. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  17. Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

    2010-12-01

    Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp.

  18. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved. PMID:25978652

  19. Synthesis of nano Cu2O on cotton: morphological, physical, biological and optical sensing characterizations.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Ali; Montazer, Majid; Samadi, Nasrin

    2014-09-22

    In this paper, Cu2O nanoparticles were in situ synthesized on cotton fabric through a new simple and cost-effective chemical reduction method using copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Cotton fabric participates as a reducing agent in reduction of copper sulfate and facilitates synthesis of cuprous oxide in nano-scale as a stabilizer. The produced cotton/nano Cu2O composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Interaction of Cu2O with cotton fabric in addition to alteration of cotton functional groups were studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate solution, copper-amine complex, was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the cotton/nano Cu2O composite were studied using Instron indicated a higher tensile strain. The antibacterial activity of the fabric samples showed considerable behavior against S. aureus and E. coli. Further, the treated fabric became highly hydrophobic and sensed ammonia and hydrogen peroxide chromatically. PMID:24906783

  20. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved.

  1. Effects of 1,3-Dicliloropropene for Meloidogyne incognita Management on Cotton Produced under Furrow Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S. H.; Smith, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    Field trials were conducted during 1990 to evaluate the effects of preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) on yield and fiber quality of furrow-irrigated cotton cultivars subjected to high population densities of Meloidogyne incognita. We measured the responses of eight upland cotton cultivars with different levels of root-knot nematode resistance and compared the responses of upland and Pima cottons. Reductions in lint weight ranged from 10 to 52% among cultivars grown in soil without 1,3-D fumigation compared with those grown in treated soil. Meloidogyne incognita reduced yields primarily by reducing the number of bolls on each plant, rather than by decreasing boll size. Cotton fiber quality varied among cultivars but was unaffected by M. incognita in either study. Upland cotton cultivar Acala 1517-88 and M-315/240 sustained less than half the yield reductions observed with M. incognita-susceptible cultivars Deltapine 41 and Paymaster 145. Sixty days after cotton emergence, fewer M. incognita second-stage juveniles were recovered from M-315/240 than all other cultivars. PMID:19279835

  2. Synthesis of nano Cu2O on cotton: morphological, physical, biological and optical sensing characterizations.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Ali; Montazer, Majid; Samadi, Nasrin

    2014-09-22

    In this paper, Cu2O nanoparticles were in situ synthesized on cotton fabric through a new simple and cost-effective chemical reduction method using copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Cotton fabric participates as a reducing agent in reduction of copper sulfate and facilitates synthesis of cuprous oxide in nano-scale as a stabilizer. The produced cotton/nano Cu2O composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Interaction of Cu2O with cotton fabric in addition to alteration of cotton functional groups were studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate solution, copper-amine complex, was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the cotton/nano Cu2O composite were studied using Instron indicated a higher tensile strain. The antibacterial activity of the fabric samples showed considerable behavior against S. aureus and E. coli. Further, the treated fabric became highly hydrophobic and sensed ammonia and hydrogen peroxide chromatically.

  3. Direct growth inhibition assay of total airborne fungi with application of biocide-treated malt extract agar.

    PubMed

    Er, Chin Ming; Sunar, N M; Leman, A M; Othman, N

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution by airborne fungi has risen to become a common issue all over the world and it is hazardous to indoor occupants' health as it is associated with a series of respiratory-related and skin-related diseases. Selected bioactive compounds from the food industry have been suggested to be effective against individual fungus isolated from indoor environment. However, the techniques used to evaluate these compounds were lengthy and unsuitable against total airborne fungi. Therefore, this paper describes an assay to assess the effectiveness of a bioactive compound to inhibit growth of total airborne fungi.•A combination and modification of previous methods and the NIOSH Manual Analytical Standard Method (NMAM 0800) is proposed.•This method concurrently samples the total airborne fungi and evaluates the ability of bioactive compounds (potassium sorbate in this paper), as a biocide, to treat these indoor airborne fungi.•The current method shortens the time of evaluation from 30 days to only 5 days and employs the counting of colony forming units (CFUs) to ease the measurement of the growth of fungi. PMID:27077051

  4. Direct growth inhibition assay of total airborne fungi with application of biocide-treated malt extract agar

    PubMed Central

    Er, Chin Ming; Sunar, N.M.; Leman, A.M.; Othman, N.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution by airborne fungi has risen to become a common issue all over the world and it is hazardous to indoor occupants’ health as it is associated with a series of respiratory-related and skin-related diseases. Selected bioactive compounds from the food industry have been suggested to be effective against individual fungus isolated from indoor environment. However, the techniques used to evaluate these compounds were lengthy and unsuitable against total airborne fungi. Therefore, this paper describes an assay to assess the effectiveness of a bioactive compound to inhibit growth of total airborne fungi.•A combination and modification of previous methods and the NIOSH Manual Analytical Standard Method (NMAM 0800) is proposed.•This method concurrently samples the total airborne fungi and evaluates the ability of bioactive compounds (potassium sorbate in this paper), as a biocide, to treat these indoor airborne fungi.•The current method shortens the time of evaluation from 30 days to only 5 days and employs the counting of colony forming units (CFUs) to ease the measurement of the growth of fungi. PMID:27077051

  5. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official...

  6. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  7. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  8. Effect of dyeing on antibacterial efficiency of silver coated cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, Sheila; Rezaee, Sahar; Hezavehi, Emadaldin

    2014-04-01

    Despite numerous investigations during recent decades in the field of antimicrobial treating textile fibers using silver, many obscurities remain regarding the durability and dyeing ability and the influences of dyeing on the antimicrobial effectiveness of silver-treated fibers. In this research work, the cotton fabrics were sputtered using DC magnetron sputtering system for different times of exposure by silver. Then the silver coated samples were dyed by different classes of synthetic and natural dyes. The dye ability of coated samples was compared with untreated cotton. The reflective spectrophotometer was used for this purpose. The morphology of the cotton fabrics before and after dyeing was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of samples before and after dyeing, were investigated and compared. For antibacterial investigation, the antibacterial counting tests were used. It was concluded that, dyeing does not have any negative effect on antibacterial activity of coated samples and very good antibacterial activity was achieved after dyeing.

  9. Three-dimensional evaluation of tooth movement in Class II malocclusions treated without extraction by orthodontic mini-implant anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Dler; Mohammed, Hnd; Koo, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze tooth movement and arch width changes in maxillary dentition following nonextraction treatment with orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) anchorage in Class II division 1 malocclusions. Methods Seventeen adult patients diagnosed with Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated by nonextraction with OMIs as anchorage for distalization of whole maxillary dentition. Three-dimensional virtual maxillary models were superimposed with the best-fit method at the pretreatment and post-treatment stages. Linear, angular, and arch width variables were measured using Rapidform 2006 software, and analyzed by the paired t-test. Results All maxillary teeth showed statistically significant movement posteriorly (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the vertical position of the maxillary teeth, except that the second molars were extruded (0.86 mm, p < 0.01). The maxillary first and second molars were rotated distal-in (4.5°, p < 0.001; 3.0°, p < 0.05, respectively). The intersecond molar width increased slightly (0.1 mm, p > 0.05) and the intercanine, interfirst premolar, intersecond premolar, and interfirst molar widths increased significantly (2.2 mm, p < 0.01; 2.2 mm, p < 0.05; 1.9 mm, p < 0.01; 2.0 mm, p < 0.01; respectively). Conclusions Nonextraction treatment with OMI anchorage for Class II division 1 malocclusions could retract the whole maxillary dentition to achieve a Class I canine and molar relationship without a change in the vertical position of the teeth; however, the second molars were significantly extruded. Simultaneously, the maxillary arch was shown to be expanded with distal-in rotation of the molars. PMID:27668191

  10. Three-dimensional evaluation of tooth movement in Class II malocclusions treated without extraction by orthodontic mini-implant anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Dler; Mohammed, Hnd; Koo, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze tooth movement and arch width changes in maxillary dentition following nonextraction treatment with orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) anchorage in Class II division 1 malocclusions. Methods Seventeen adult patients diagnosed with Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated by nonextraction with OMIs as anchorage for distalization of whole maxillary dentition. Three-dimensional virtual maxillary models were superimposed with the best-fit method at the pretreatment and post-treatment stages. Linear, angular, and arch width variables were measured using Rapidform 2006 software, and analyzed by the paired t-test. Results All maxillary teeth showed statistically significant movement posteriorly (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the vertical position of the maxillary teeth, except that the second molars were extruded (0.86 mm, p < 0.01). The maxillary first and second molars were rotated distal-in (4.5°, p < 0.001; 3.0°, p < 0.05, respectively). The intersecond molar width increased slightly (0.1 mm, p > 0.05) and the intercanine, interfirst premolar, intersecond premolar, and interfirst molar widths increased significantly (2.2 mm, p < 0.01; 2.2 mm, p < 0.05; 1.9 mm, p < 0.01; 2.0 mm, p < 0.01; respectively). Conclusions Nonextraction treatment with OMI anchorage for Class II division 1 malocclusions could retract the whole maxillary dentition to achieve a Class I canine and molar relationship without a change in the vertical position of the teeth; however, the second molars were significantly extruded. Simultaneously, the maxillary arch was shown to be expanded with distal-in rotation of the molars.

  11. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p < 0.01) in goats fed 16% CP diets than those fed 14% CP diets, regardless of PBE supplementation. Supplementation of PBE tended to decrease (p = 0.09) rumen NH3 -N concentration regardless of the level of CP in the diet. Supplementation of PBE tended (p = 0.09) to decrease total purine derivatives regardless of the level of CP in the diet with no significant change in microbial nitrogen supply. Efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) had a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease in PBE supplemented diets. There was also a tendency (p = 0.10) for more EMNS in 14% CP fed goats than those fed 16% CP diets. Therefore, AS supplemented with PBE may lead to less concentration of ruminal NH3 -N because of decreased degradation of CP by rumen micro-organisms in response to pistachio by-products tannins. PMID:26336063

  12. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p < 0.01) in goats fed 16% CP diets than those fed 14% CP diets, regardless of PBE supplementation. Supplementation of PBE tended to decrease (p = 0.09) rumen NH3 -N concentration regardless of the level of CP in the diet. Supplementation of PBE tended (p = 0.09) to decrease total purine derivatives regardless of the level of CP in the diet with no significant change in microbial nitrogen supply. Efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) had a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease in PBE supplemented diets. There was also a tendency (p = 0.10) for more EMNS in 14% CP fed goats than those fed 16% CP diets. Therefore, AS supplemented with PBE may lead to less concentration of ruminal NH3 -N because of decreased degradation of CP by rumen micro-organisms in response to pistachio by-products tannins.

  13. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  14. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  15. A MULTI-RESIDUE METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INSECTICIDES COLLECTED ON COTTON SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the extraction, clean-up, and analysis of multiple pesticides from cotton wipe media used in human exposure studies to collect residues from residential hard surfaces. Measurements of pesticides are critical for estimating dermal and indirect ingestion ...

  16. Discernment of lint trash in raw cotton using multivariate analysis of excitation-emission luminescence spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excitation-Emission luminescence spectra of basic (pH 12.5) phosphate buffer solution extracts were used to distinguish among botanical components of trash within seed cotton. All components were separated from whole plants removed from a field in southern New Mexico. Unfolded Principal Component An...

  17. Affinity chromatography using 2' fluoro-substituted RNAs for detection of RNA-protein interactions in RNase-rich or RNase-treated extracts.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Ruben; Carstens, Russ

    2009-02-01

    Use of RNA affinity chromatography is commonly used to identify RNA binding proteins that interact with specific RNA cis-elements that function in post-transcriptional gene regulation. These purifications can be complicated by residual RNase activity in cellular extracts that can degrade the RNAs on these affinity columns. Furthermore, some proteins may associate indirectly with the column as a component of multi-protein complexes that are "tethered" through the binding of cellular RNAs. We present a protocol for an RNA affinity procedure that can be used in conjunction with RNase-rich or RNase-treated extracts by using RNAs synthesized with 2' fluoro-substituted cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP). The resulting RNAs are shown to be RNase A-resistant and capable of direct coupling to adipic acid dihydrazide agarose beads. Using an RNA cis-element previously shown to bind hnRNP M, we demonstrated that the substituted RNAs preserve binding capability by a common class of RNA binding proteins. Our results provide a method that may be used more generally for RNA affinity purification or as a validation step to verify more direct binding of a given RNA binding protein to a target RNA. PMID:19317654

  18. Fate of As(V)-treated nano zero-valent iron: determination of arsenic desorption potential under varying environmental conditions by phosphate extraction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haoran; Guan, Xiaohong; Lo, Irene M C

    2012-09-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) offers a promising approach for arsenic remediation, but the spent NZVI with elevated arsenic content could arouse safety concerns. This study investigated the fate of As(V)-treated NZVI (As-NZVI), by examining the desorption potential of As under varying conditions. The desorption kinetics of As from As-NZVI as induced by phosphate was well described by a biphasic rate model. The effects of As(V)/NZVI mass ratio, pH, and aging time on arsenic desorption from As-NZVI by phosphate were investigated. Less arsenic desorption was observed at lower pH or higher As(V)/NZVI mass ratio, where stronger complexes (bidentate) formed between As(V) and NZVI corrosion products as indicated by FTIR analysis. Compared with the fresh As-NZVI, the amount of phosphate-extractable As significantly decreased in As-NZVI aged for 30 or 60 days. The results of the sequential extraction experiments demonstrated that a larger fraction of As was sorbed in the crystalline phases after aging, making it less susceptible to phosphate displacement. However, at pH 9, a slightly higher proportion of phosphate-extractable As was observed in the 60-day sample than in the 30-day sample. XPS results revealed the transformation of As(V) to more easily desorbed As(III) during aging and a higher As(III)/As(V) ratio in the 60-day sample at pH 9, which might have resulted in the higher desorption.

  19. Recovery of tall cotton-grass following real and simulated feeding by snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2 and 4 yr after removal, respectively (n = 10 yr-1). Aerial cover and biomass of common non-forage species such as Carex aquatilis did not increase on treated areas. Removal of cotton-grass by geese likely reduces forage availability at exploited sites for at least 2-4 yr after feeding but probably does not affect long-term community composition. Temporal heterogeneity in forage abundance likely contributes to the large spatial requirement of snow geese during staging.

  20. An Extract from Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry) Effects Glycogenesis and Glycolysis Pathways in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Treated FL83B Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chang, Chiao-Li

    2013-01-01

    FL83B mouse hepatocytes were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance to investigate the effect of a wax apple aqueous extract (WAE) in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes. The uptake of 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2 NBDG), a fluorescent D-glucose derivative, was performed, and the metabolism of carbohydrates was evaluated by examining the expression of glycogenesis or glycolysis-related proteins in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. The results show that WAE significantly improves the uptake of glucose and enhances glycogen content in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The results from Western blot analysis also reveal that WAE increases the expression of glycogen synthase (GS), hexokinase (HXK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and aldolase in TNF-α treated cells, indicating that WAE may ameliorate glucose metabolism by promoting glycogen synthesis and the glycolysis pathways in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. PMID:23389304

  1. Polyploidy Analysis and Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with an Aqueous Extract of Vochysia rufa

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Izabela Barbosa; Manzan-Martins, Camilla; de Gouveia, Neire Moura; Calábria, Luciana Karen; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Moraes, Alberto da Silva; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Due to its hypoglycemic effect Vochysia rufa is frequently used in Uberlandia, Brazil, to treat DM. Despite its popularity, there is little information about its effect on hepatic tissue. Therefore, we evaluated the histoarchitecture, oxidative stress parameters, and polyploidy of liver tissue from streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Vochysia rufa (AEV). Histology was determined by fixing the livers, processing, and staining with HE. Oxidative stress was determined by evaluating CAT, GPx, and SOD activity in liver homogenates and hepatic mitochondria fraction and by measuring GST, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Polyploidy was determined by subjecting isolated hepatocyte nuclei to flow cytometry. In the diabetic group, GST activity and GSH rates decreased whereas liver homogenate analysis showed that GPx, SOD activity and MDA increased. AEV treatment restored all parameters to normal levels. The oxidative stress analysis of hepatic mitochondria fraction showed similar results. Lower polyploid cell populations were found in the diabetic rat livers, even after glibenclamide treatment. Thus, AEV treatment efficiently reduced hepatic oxidative stress caused by STZ-induced diabetes and produced no morphological changes in the histological analysis. PMID:25763088

  2. Ionizing radiation graft polymerized and modified flame retardant cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. R. S.; Agathian, G.; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-03-01

    Halogen free flame retardant cotton (FR cotton) fabric was prepared by grafting 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GMA) on ordinary or untreated cotton (UT cotton) fabric by γ-rays from 60Co source. Epoxy groups present in GMA grafted cotton (GMA-g-cotton) fabric was reacted with ethylene diamine and subsequently modified with orthophosphoric acid solution to convert in to FR cotton fabric. Effects of imparted dose, concentration of monomer on grafting percentage were studied. The changes in thermal properties after treatment were investigated by using Thermo gravimetric analyser. Limiting oxygen index, char length, time after glow and time after flame were also studied as per ASTM D2863 and IS11871, respectively, for both FR cotton and UT cotton fabrics. The FR cotton fabric was found to pass all the above tests. Washing durability of the FR cotton fabric in different cleaning agents was also studied and a washing solution containing organic solvent mixture is suggested.

  3. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (p<0.05) CAT, GSH, SOD, GSH-Px activities, and HDL levels. AME-treated Groups C and D rats showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in elevated blood glucose, ROS, TBARS, TC, TG and LDL. Furthermore, AME treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) antioxidant enzymes' activities, as well as serum insulin levels. The findings of this laboratory animal study

  4. Antimicrobial textile treated with chitosan from Aspergillus niger mycelial waste.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Tras, Wael F; Elguindy, Nihal M; Opwis, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, following citric acid production, was used as a source for fungal chitosan extraction. The produced chitosan was characterized with deacetylation degree of 89.6%, a molecular weight of 25,000 dalton, 97% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution and comparable FT-IR spectra to standard shrimp chitosan. Fungal chitosan was applied as a cotton fabric finishing agent using pad-dry-cure method. The topographical structure of chitosan-treated fabrics (CTF) was much improved compared with control fabrics. CTF, after durability tests, exhibited a powerful antimicrobial activity against both E. coli and Candida albicans, the captured micrographs for E. coli cells contacted with CTF showed a complete lysis of cell walls with the prolonging contact time. The produced antimicrobial CTF could be proposed as a suitable material for many medical and hygienic applications. PMID:21596059

  5. Cyanuric chloride derivatives for cotton textile treatment--synthesis, analysis, and flammability testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a series of experiments, two cyanuric chloride derivatives were synthesized in good yields and analyzed by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as high performance liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Cotton fabric was treated with these compounds and teste...

  6. Flame Retardant Behavior of Polyelectrolyte-Clay Thin Film Assemblies on Cotton Fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fabric was treated with flame-retardant coatings composed of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) and sodium montmorillonite (MMT) clay, prepared via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Four coating recipes were created by exposing fabric to aqueous solutions of BPEI (pH 7 or 10) and MMT(0.2 or 1 wt. ...

  7. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  8. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  9. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  10. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  11. Cotton breeding-challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition with synthetic fibers is one of the greatest challenges facing today’s cotton industry. Improved fiber quality is essential to increase US cotton’s competitiveness in the global market place. Enhanced fiber quality also offers an opportunity to capture more value from cotton production. ...

  12. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  13. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  14. Cotton Classing and Inspection in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese market is important to U.S. cotton. China is the largest cotton producer, consumer and importer. China produced 35.8 million bales in 2007/08 crop year, India produced 21.8 million bales, and the U.S. produced 19.2 million bales. Comparing the production with consumption, China needs to i...

  15. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  16. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  17. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  18. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  19. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  20. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  1. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  2. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  3. Direct bond brackets: cotton roll versus rubber dam isolation.

    PubMed

    Heringer, M; Almeida, M A; Miguel, J A

    1993-01-01

    Forty-four brackets were bonded "in vivo" using cotton roll and rubber dam isolation. Maxillary and mandibular premolars, to be extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. After bonding, the teeth were retained in the mouth for at least 30 days. They were extracted using surgical elevators. After extraction, the teeth were secured in plastic rings using gypsum and kept in water for 7 days until debonding. A Universal Instron Machine was used to produce a shear force at a speed of 0.1 cm/min until each bracket was removed. No statistically significant differences for debonding strength were observed between the two types of isolation, nor between the buccal and palatal surfaces of the teeth. One hundred percent of the failures occurred at the bracket/composite interface.

  4. Detection and Discrimination of Cotton Foreign Matter Using Push-Broom Based Hyperspectral Imaging: System Design and Capability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    Cotton quality, a major factor determining both cotton profitability and marketability, is affected by not only the overall quantity of but also the type of the foreign matter. Although current commercial instruments can measure the overall amount of the foreign matter, no instrument can differentiate various types of foreign matter. The goal of this study was to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to discriminate major types of foreign matter in cotton lint. A push-broom based hyperspectral imaging system with a custom-built multi-thread software was developed to acquire hyperspectral images of cotton fiber with 15 types of foreign matter commonly found in the U.S. cotton lint. A total of 450 (30 replicates for each foreign matter) foreign matter samples were cut into 1 by 1 cm2 pieces and imaged on the lint surface using reflectance mode in the spectral range from 400-1000 nm. The mean spectra of the foreign matter and lint were extracted from the user-defined region-of-interests in the hyperspectral images. The principal component analysis was performed on the mean spectra to reduce the feature dimension from the original 256 bands to the top 3 principal components. The score plots of the 3 principal components were used to examine clusterization patterns for classifying the foreign matter. These patterns were further validated by statistical tests. The experimental results showed that the mean spectra of all 15 types of cotton foreign matter were different from that of the lint. Nine types of cotton foreign matter formed distinct clusters in the score plots. Additionally, all of them were significantly different from each other at the significance level of 0.05 except brown leaf and bract. The developed hyperspectral imaging system is effective to detect and classify cotton foreign matter on the lint surface and has the potential to be implemented in commercial cotton classing offices. PMID:25793990

  5. Climate change and cotton production in modern farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is used every day in the form of clothing made from cotton fiber and products made from cotton-seed oil. Wild ancestors of cotton are found in arid regions, often with high daytime temperatures and cool nights, and are naturally adapted to surviving long periods of hot dry weather. Modern cul...

  6. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  7. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  8. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  10. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  12. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  16. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  17. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  18. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  1. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  2. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  5. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  6. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  7. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  9. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  12. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  14. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  15. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  16. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  17. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  20. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  1. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  2. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  3. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  6. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  8. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  9. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  10. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  12. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  13. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  14. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  15. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  17. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  19. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  20. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...