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Sample records for extraction kicker system

  1. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  2. NuMI proton kicker extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.C.; Krafczyk, G.A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    This system extracts up to 9.6 {micro}s of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than {+-} 1% with a field rise time of 1.52 {micro}s. New kicker magnets were built based on the successful traveling wave magnets built for the Main Injector. Two of these magnets are in series which places a serious constraint on the rise time of the pulser. A forced cooling system using Fluorinert{reg_sign} was designed for the magnet termination resistors to maintain the field flatness and amplitude stability.

  3. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. KURENNOY; D. DAVINO; Y. LEE

    2001-06-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction system [1] includes 14 modules of window-frame ferrite pulsing kicker magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  4. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.; Davino, D.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction system includes 14 modules of windowframe ferrite pulsing kicker magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  5. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI,J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply.

  6. PSR switchyard kicker system improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Hardek, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A switchyard kicker system which allows time sharing of beam between the Los Alamos WNR/LANSCE complex and other LAMPF users was redesigned as part of the Proton Storage Ring addition. The system consists of two pulsers providing 1750-ampere, 1-msec pulses to a pair of 1 meter long ferrite magnets. The system was designed to operate at 24-Hz maximum repetition rate. In 1986 a modification was made to the equipment to allow operation at 40 Hz. While the system operated reliably this way some difficulties were observed. A desire on the part of the users to operate the system at 60 Hz coupled with a major system failure led to design changes to load resistors, drive cables, charging system, and cooling system. These changes are described along with an analysis of the difficulties encountered with the original hardware. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Design of fast kickers for the ISABELLE beam abort system

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Montemurro, P.A.; Baron, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ISA beam abort (extraction) system must be highly efficient, in the sense of producing minimum beam loss, and reliable to prevent serious damage to accelerator components by the circulating high-energy beams. Since the stored beams will be debunched, the low-loss requirement can be met only with ultra-thin extraction septa and/or fast-acting kickers. This paper examines the design of the ISA extraction kickers subject to a set of extraction channel constraints and a given maximum working voltage. Expressions are derived for determining system parameters for both a lumped parameter magnet and a delay-line magnet. Using these relationships, design parameters are worked out for several possible system configurations. The paper also describes the construction of a full-scale prototype module of the kicker and summarizes the preliminary test results obtained with the module.

  8. Resonant Kicker System Development at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, Tony; Krzaszczak, John; Larrus, Marc; Lira, Antonio de; /SLAC

    2009-04-27

    The design and installation of the Linear Coherent Light Source [1] at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has included the development of a kicker system for selective beam bunch dumping. The kicker is based on an LC resonant topology formed by the 50 uF energy storage capacitor and the 64 uH air core magnet load which has a sinusoidal pulse period of 400us. The maximum magnet current is 500 A. The circuit is weakly damped, allowing most of the magnet energy to be recovered in the energy storage capacitor. The kicker runs at a repetition rate of 120Hz. A PLC-based control system provides remote control and monitoring of the kicker via EPICS protocol. Fast timing and interlock signals are converted by discrete peak-detect and sample-hold circuits into DC signals that can be processed by the PLC. The design and experimental characterization of the system are presented.

  9. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    KURENNOY,S.S.; DAVINO,D.; LEE,Y.Y.

    2001-06-18

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction kickers [1] consists of 14 modules of windowframe ferrite pulsing magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  10. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  11. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  12. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  13. Design Considerations of Fast Kicker Systems for High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W; Sandberg, J; Parson, W M; Walstrom, P; Murray, M M; Cook, E; Hartouni, E

    2001-06-12

    In this paper, we discuss the specific issues related to the design of the Fast Kicker Systems for high intensity proton accelerators. To address these issues in the preliminary design stage can be critical since the fast kicker systems affect the machine lattice structure and overall design parameters. Main topics include system architecture, design strategy, beam current coupling, grounding, end user cost vs. system cost, reliability, redundancy and flexibility. Operating experience with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron injection and extraction kicker systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their future upgrade is presented. Additionally, new conceptual designs of the extraction kicker for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge and the Advanced Hydrotest Facility at Los Alamos are discussed.

  14. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.

    1999-03-29

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED.

  15. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, De-Tai; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  16. Status of the SLC damping ring kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gough, D.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.; Hutchinson, D.; Nguyen, M.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must meet extreme requirements on rise and fall time, flatness, time and amplitude jitter and drift, voltage, repetition rate, and reliability. After several generations of improvements to the pulsers, magnets, and controls, and evolution in the understanding of the requirements, the kicker systems are no longer a serious constraint on SLC performance. Implications for future linear colliders are discussed. 14 refs.

  17. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 ..mu..s. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 ..mu..s needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Stripline design for the extraction kicker of Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Toral, F.; Barnes, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of the design study of future linear colliders, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims for electron-positron collisions with high luminosity at a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. To achieve the luminosity requirements, predamping rings (PDRs) and damping rings (DRs) are required: they reduce the beam emittance before the beam is accelerated in the main linac. Several kicker systems are needed to inject and extract the beam from the PDRs and DRs. In order to achieve both low beam coupling impedance and reasonable broadband impedance matching to the electrical circuit, striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. In this paper, we present the complete design of the striplines for the DR extraction kicker, since it is the most challenging from the field homogeneity point of view. The excellent field homogeneity required, as well as a good transmission of the high voltage pulse through the electrodes, has been achieved by choosing a novel electrode shape. With this new geometry, it has been possible to benefit from all the advantages that the most common shapes introduce separately. Furthermore, a detailed study of the different operating modes of a stripline kicker allowed the beam coupling impedance to be reduced at low frequencies: this cannot be achieved by tapering the electrodes. The optimum design of the striplines and their components has been based on studies of impedance matching, field homogeneity, power transmission, beam coupling impedance, and manufacturing tolerances. Finally, new ideas for further improvement of the performance of future striplines are reported.

  19. Control System for the LLNL Kicker Pulse Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A

    2002-06-18

    A solid-state high voltage pulse generator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. A control system calculates a desired waveform to be applied to the kicker based on measured electron beam displacement then adjusts the pulse generators to provide the desired waveform. This paper presents the design of the control system and measure performance data from operation on the ETA-11 accelerator at LLNL.

  20. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.AHRENS,L.MI,J.OERTER,B.SANDBERG,J.WARBURTON,D.

    2003-05-12

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge.

  1. Review of stripline beam impedance: application to the extraction kicker for the CLIC damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Barnes, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    The beam coupling impedance of the stripline kicker for beam extraction from the CLIC Damping Rings (DRs) has been studied analytically, numerically with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Particle Studio (PS) and measured in the laboratory, although not all the results were previously understood. In order to have a better knowledge about the beam coupling impedance of a stripline kicker, a simple model has now been studied, with flat electrodes and a cylindrical beam pipe. From this preliminary study, a new approach for the dipolar component of the horizontal impedance has been derived, when considering both odd and even operating modes of the striplines. This new approach has been used to understand the differences found between the predicted transverse impedance and the two wires measurements carried out in the laboratory for the prototype CLIC DR striplines. Future tests of beam coupling impedance with beam in the ALBA Synchrotron Light Source will complete this study.

  2. The Coupling Impedance of the RHIC Injection Kicker System

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1996-08-30

    The RHIC injection kicker is configured as a "C" cross section magnet with interspersed ferrite (Nickel-Zinc ferrite with high permeability and resistivity for use at frequencies up to ~100 MHz) and dielectric (sintered mixture of Magnesium Titanat and Calcium Titanat with high dielectric constant ε~100) blocks as shown in Fig. 1. The deflection properties of the kicker are dominated (~85%) by the magnetic field and thus by the ferrite properties and its geometrical configuration. The dielectric block provide the capacitance required to achieve a transmission line kicker (<50 nsec current rise time) and to reduce the characteristic impedance so as to match the 50/Ω of the Blumlein pulser. The dielectric blocks impose the de-facto voltage limit of the kicker and represent one of the primary design limitations.

  3. A waveguide overloaded cavity kicker for the HLS II longitudinal feedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wu-Bin; Zhou, Ze-Ran; Sun, Bao-Gen; Wu, Fang-Fang; Xu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-03-01

    In the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS II), a new digital longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system will be developed to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities in the storage ring effectively. We design a new waveguide overloaded cavity longitudinal feedback kicker as the feedback actuator. The beam pipe of the kicker is a racetrack shape so as to avoid a transition part to the octagonal vacuum chamber. The central frequency and the bandwidth of the kicker have been simulated and optimized to achieve design goals by the HFSS code. A higher shunt impedance can be obtained by using a nose cone to reduce the feedback power requirement. Before the kicker cavity was installed in the storage ring, a variety of measurements were carried out to check its performance. All these results of simulation and measurement are presented.

  4. The Abort Kicker System for the PEP-II Storage Rings at SLAC.

    SciTech Connect

    Delamare, Jeffrey E

    2003-06-20

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of election beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 {micro}S (the beam transit time around the ring). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% while there is no beam in the kicker magnet. Originally the kicker system was designed for a rise time of 370nS [1], but because the ion clearing gap was reduced in half, so was the rise time requirement for the kicker. This report discusses the design of the system interlocks, diagnostics, and modulator with the modifications necessary to accommodate an ion clearing gap of 185nS.

  5. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    Armett, Donald W.

    2002-08-20

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  6. Development of a Fast High-Power Pulser and ILC DR Injection/Extraction Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2007-10-16

    Kicker is an efficient HOM power extractor. Peak HOM voltage and average power at the feeder may be sufficient to act on the kicker pulser. Feeder imperfections (real cable, feedthroughs, kicker electrodes, loads) is one source of residual energy between bunches. HOM spectrum is broad.

  7. Some fast beam kicker magnet systems at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Genova, L.F.; Grant, J.A.; Mihalka, A.M.; Sukiennick, B.A.; Tomlin, W.T.; Veldhuizen, F.T.; Walz, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires very fast rise and fall times from its kicker magnets. The damping rings and positron source need either one or two bunches deflected from two or three that are separated in time by about 59 ns. The final focus region kicker magnets need a rise time of less than 700 ns and each one deflects only one bunch. This paper discusses the design and characteristics of a thyratron-switched, castor-oil-filled, coaxial, Blumlein line used for one bunch kicking. It discharges a 118 ns (at the base), 50 kV, 3 kA pulse into a 33 cm long, ferrite-loaded, kicker magnet of rectangular coaxial-line geometry, which in turn is terminated by a matched load. Reference is made to a Fermilab (FNAL) designed magnet and a dual-thyratron pulsar that will deflect two serial bunches in or out of the electron ring. Also, a brief description of the final focus magnet is given. Work is continuing on the various subsystem components to decrease the pulse rise and fall time, flattop ripple and jitter and to reduce some of the sources of noise and hv breakdown.

  8. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE SNS RING AND DESIGN OF EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS, N.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LEE, Y.Y.; MI, J.L.; SOUKAS, A.; WANG, J.G.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

    2000-06-30

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] will accumulate a proton beam, injected from a LINAC, into a single bunch containing {approximately} 2.1 x 10{sup 14} protons at a maximum energy of 1.3 GeV. The single bunch with length {approximately}650 nsec and a gap of {approximately}290 nsec will circulate into the accumulator ring for {approximately}1.0 msec before it is extracted into the RTBT transfer line. The accumulation, extraction frequency is set at 60 Hz. This paper discusses the extraction process and the requirements of the fast beam extraction system.

  9. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  10. ALL-FERRITE RHIC INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; FISCHER,W.; PTITSYN,V.I.; TUOZZOLO,J.E.

    2001-06-18

    Ion beams are transferred from the AGS into RHIC in boxcar fashion as single bunches. The nominal design assumes 60 bunches per ring but increasing the number of bunches to gain luminosity is possible, thereby requiring injection kickers with a shorter rise time. The original injection system consists of traveling-wave dielectric loaded kicker magnets and a Blumlein pulser with a rise time adequate for the present operation. Voltage breakdown in the dielectric kickers suggested the use of all-ferrite magnets. In order to minimize the conversion cost, the design of the all-ferrite kicker uses the same components as the dielectric loaded units. The all-ferrite kickers showed in bench measured good breakdown properties and a current rise time of < 50 ns. A prototype kicker has been installed in the blue ring and was tested with beam. Beam measurements indicate suitability of all-ferrite kicker magnets for upgraded operation.

  11. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  12. Accelerator Fast Kicker R&D with Ultra Compact 50MVA Nano-Second FID Pulse Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    overall length of magnet or deflector . This demands a faster kicker system. To inject a 24 GeV beam into RHIC, the rise time of the kicker...kicker magnet or deflector length. In order to maintaining the same overall strength, six kicker modules, instead of four, will be used with shorter...individual kicker magnets or deflector length. This reduces the electrical pulse rise time constraint. The main parameters of injection kicker

  13. Dual Power Supplies for PEP-II Injection Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, J; Decker, F.-J.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, C.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    Originally the PEP-II injection kickers were powered by one power supply. Since the kicker magnets where not perfectly matched, the stored beam got excited by about 7% of the maximum kicker amplitude. This led to luminosity losses which were especially obvious for trickle injection when the detector is on for data taking. Therefore two independent power supplies with thyratrons in the tunnel next to the kicker magnet were installed. This also reduces the necessary power by about a factor of four since there are no long cables that have to be charged. The kickers are now independently adjustable to eliminate any non-closure of the kicker system and therefore excitation of the stored beam. Setup, commissioning and fine tuning of this system are discussed.

  14. Tevatron anti-proton injection kicker waveform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, B.; Finley, D.; /Fermilab

    1996-08-01

    This note describes the measurements of the waveform of the Tevatron antiproton injection kicker using the 150 Gev proton beam. This new horizontal kicker was installed at D48 during the summer of 1995 shutdown. These measurements were taken in two sessions [1] starting on October 10 and October 18, 1995. The measurements use the Tevatron BPM and flying wire systems. This note is a companion to the Tevatron proton injection kicker note published recently [2]. The design specifications for the kicker are given in Dinkel et al. [3].

  15. H5 fast-kicker-magnet pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, W.; Ghoshroy, S.; Cottingham, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The fast extraction kicker magnet for the AGS is powered by a novel pulse generator. A pulse forming network (PFN) is discharged into nearly 100% mismatched load. The pulser delivers a current pulse of 3000 amperes peak pulse with a 2% flat-top ripple into a 1.4 ..mu.. H single turn ferrite core magnet. The pulse is 2.8 ..mu..sec wide with a 180 nsec rise time, at a 0.5 to 1.5 pps repetition rate. The pulse rise time is required to provide clean extraction of the 28 GeV proton beam by bringing the kicker magnet field up to 1.25 kG within the 220 nsec space between proton bunches in the machine. The pulser is mounted adjacent to the kicker magnet in the AGS ring. The thyratron's characteristics are not affected by the ionizing radiation environment during operation of the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron).

  16. RHIC Injection Kicker Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.

    1997-01-02

    Injecting beam from the AGS to RHIC is performed by single-bunch transfer. The RHIC injection kicker system provides a vertical deflection of 1.86 mrad for beams with a B p = 100 Tm. The available free space for the four kickers limits their effective length to 1.12 m each. Neglecting any contribution from the electric field, the deflecting magnetic field is required to be 415 G inside the beam tube. This leads, with the horizontal aperture of 4.84 cm, to the current requirement of 1.6kA. The magnetic field then becomes 2.13 kG in the back ferrite. In this report, computation studies directed at reducing the electric peak fields, without significant reduction of the capacitance and concomitant increase of the characteristic impedance, are presented.

  17. Very fast kicker for accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Podgorny, F.V.; Ruemmler, J.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a very fast counter traveling wave kicker with a full pulse width of about 7 ns. Successful test experiment has been done with hi-tech semiconductor technology FET pulse generator with a MHz- range repetition rates and maximum kick strength of the order of 3 G{center_dot}m. Further. increase of the strength seems to be quite possible with the FET pursers, that makes the kicker to be very useful tool for bunch-by-bunch injection/extraction and other accelerator applications.

  18. AGS new fast extraction system and the single bunch extraction test

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    For the neutrino physics program and for the CBA injection, a new fast extraction system has been implemented to improve the extraction efficiency and the quality of the extracted beam. Central to the new system is a new fast kicker, placed at the H5 straight section, capable of rising between bunches, t/sub r/ < 170 nsec, and staying constant for 2.6 ..mu..sec with flat top ripple less than +-1.5%. So far, the system has been operated for longer than 3000 hours and routinely extracts 10/sup 13/ ppp at 99% efficiency. Experiment 745 on QCD test requires a single AGS bunch of 40 nsec. For this purpose another fast kicker was placed at the E5 straight section and powered by a new pulser to produce a half sinusoidal pulse with both a rise and fall time of 200 nsec. A single AGS bunch was extracted through the slow beam channel at 22 GeV/c leaving the remaining 11 bunches undisturbed which continued to be accelerated to 29.4 GeV/c and extracted by the H5 kicker through the fast beam channel. Because the ring circumference ratio of CBA to the AGS is 4-3/4, some of the injected beam from the AGS has to contain 11 bunches instead of 12; consequently, this single bunch extraction mode will also be used for CBA injection.

  19. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Edward W.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Kimber, Andrew J.

    2013-06-01

    The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling electron bunch up to 100 times to cool the ion beams. This cooler requires a fast kicker system for injecting and extracting individual bunches in the circulator ring. Such a kicker must work at a high repetition rate, up to 7.5 to 75 MHz depending on the number of turns in the recirculator ring. It also must have a very short rise and fall time (of order of 1 ns) such that it will kick an individual bunch without disturbing the others in the ring. Both requirements are orders of magnitude beyond the present state-of-the-art as well as the goals of other on-going kicker R&D programs such as that for the ILC damping rings. In this paper we report a scheme of creating this fast, high repetition rate kicker by combining RF waveforms at multiple frequencies to create a kicker waveform that will, for example, kick every eleventh bunch while leaving the other ten unperturbed. We also present a possible implementation of this scheme as well as discuss its limitations.

  20. Notes on the RHIC Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, E. B.

    1995-03-01

    The basic design of the RHIC injection kicker has been completed. However a good deal more must be done before the system is operational in RHIC. The purpose of this note is to discuss the outstanding issues and offer guidance on solutions.

  1. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  2. Longitudinal and transverse feedback kickers for the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the development of electromagnetic kickers for coupled-bunch feedback systems at the ALS. Transverse kickers are of a stripline design with one kicker per plane, operating in the baseband, 10 kHz to 250 MHz. Longitudinal lockers are of a coaxial design with electrodes paired in series operating over the band 1.00 to 1.25 GHz. Operating-band measurements and parasitic impedance measurements are presented. Power levels from beam induced signals are presented. Fabrication techniques are discussed.

  3. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  4. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  5. Precision fast kickers for kiloampere electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Weir, J.T.

    1999-10-06

    These kickers will be used to make fast dipoles and quadrupoles which are driven by sharp risetime pulsers to provide precision beam manipulations for high current kA electron beams. This technology will be used on the 2nd axis of the DARHT linac at LANL. It will be used to provide 4 micropulses of pulse width 20 to 120 nsec. selected from a 2 {micro}sec., 2kA, 20MeV macropulse. The fast pulsers will have amplitude modulation capability to compensate for beam-induced steering effects and other slow beam centroid motion to within the bandwidth of the kicker system. Scaling laws derived from theory will be presented along with extensive experimental data obtained on the test bed ETA-II.

  6. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; ...

    2016-08-01

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  7. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  8. Automated System Calibration and Verification of the Position Measurements for the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility and the Switchyard Kicker Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Martinez, D.; Shurter, R. B.

    2004-11-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has constructed both an Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and a Switchyard Kicker (XDK) as additions to the H+ and H- accelerator. These additions contain eleven Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) that measure the beam's position throughout the transport. The analog electronics within each processing module determines the beam position using the log-ratio technique. For system reliability, calibrations compensate for various temperature drifts and other imperfections in the processing electronics components. Additionally, verifications are periodically implemented by a PC running a National Instruments LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) to verify continued system and cable integrity. The VI communicates with the processor cards via a PCI/MXI-3 VXI-crate communication module. Previously, accelerator operators performed BPM system calibrations typically once per day while beam was explicitly turned off. One of this new measurement system's unique achievements is its automated calibration and verification capability. Taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the LANSCE-facility beams, the integrated electronics hardware and VI perform calibration and verification operations between beam pulses without interrupting production beam delivery. The design, construction, and performance results of the automated calibration and verification portion of this position measurement system will be the topic of this paper.

  9. Numerical Simulations of the PEP-II Longitudinal Feedback Kicker.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zenghai; Lin, Xintian; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Ko, Kwok; Corlett, John; Byrd, John

    1997-05-01

    The feedback system in PEP-II will employ a drift-tube type kicker to supplement cavity damping in suppressing longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities. In addition to prototyping, numerical modeling has been used to verify the kicker performance and to study related design issues such as beam impedance and parasitic heating. The simulations have been carried out in the time domain using a realistic MAFIA model that includes the coaxial feedthroughs and the delay lines between the electrodes. The calculated shunt impedance and beam impedance are in good agreement with measurements performed on a prototype.

  10. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.

  11. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  12. Kicker thyratron experience from SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cassel, R.L.; Mattison, T.S. ); Reginato, L.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has five fast kickers for the damping ring injectors, extractors, and the electron extractor for the positron target that use multi-gap Deuterium-filled thyratrons. The thyratrons operate with 30 to 70 kV anode voltages and 1 to 5 kA currents, to deliver pulses to kicker magnets with {approx} 30 ns rise times, up to {approx} 150 ns pulse widths, at 120 Hz. Operating and lifetime experience with several types of thyratrons and support electronics are discussed. Floating driver and power supply electronics were replaced by a ferrite choke isolator to allow grounding of the cathode support electronics with a commensurate increase in operating reliability. The construction of a 100 ns Blumlein enabled detailed measurements of the switching times for all SLC thyratrons under similar conditions. In the final focus area, the kickers dump the SLC beams after the e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} collisions. These thyratrons function with 15 kV anode voltages and up to 2 kA currents to produce 1/2 sine pulses with {approx} 300 ns rise times, {approx} 550 ns FWHM, at 120 Hz. Operating experience with these thyratrons will also be presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. LHC Kicker Beam-Impedance Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1998-10-01

    Longitudinal and transverse beam impedances are calculated for the injection kickers designed for use in the CERN large hadron col- Iider. These combine the contributions of a ceramic beam tube with conducting stripes and a traveling-wave kicker magnet. The results show peak impedances of 1300 ohm longitudinal and 8 Mfl/m trans- verse for four units per ring.

  14. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Hahn, H.; Meng, W.; Severance, Michael; McMahan, Brandon

    2014-08-26

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x1011 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point; as a result, the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite’s temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker, and we compare these results with those of a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.

  15. Installation and Measurement of the ATF Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Piotr

    2003-05-16

    An injection kicker system of the same type as SLC North Damping Ring (NDR, for e-injection) is used at ATF DR for future linear collider development in KEK. The magnet and the power supply have been constructed at SLAC and installed to the ATF DR at June 1996. The system has been operated from the beginning of commissioning, January 1997, to the present operation, July 1997, with single bunch injection mode. The construction and the operation has been done as a part of the collaboration program of the ATF project. The operation characteristics of the injection kicker were measured using beam. The system configuration and the result are described in this paper.

  16. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam's surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the surroundings'' are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the outside world''), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  17. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam`s surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the ``surroundings`` are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the ``outside world``), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  18. RF Modeling of a Helical Kicker for Fast Chopping

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, Mohamed; Chen, Alex; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Saewert, Gregory; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav

    2015-06-01

    High intensity proton particle accelerators that supports several simultaneous physics experiments requires sharing the beam. A bunch by bunch beam chopper system located after the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is required in this case to structure the beam in the proper bunch format required by the several experiments. The unused beam will need to be kicked out of the beam path and is disposed in a beam dumb. In this paper, we report on the RF modeling results of a proposed helical kicker. Two beam kickers constitutes the proposed chopper. The beam sequence is formed by kicking in or out the beam bunches from the streamline. The chopper was developed for Project X Injection Experiment (PXIE).

  19. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  20. Stripline kicker for integrable optics test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey A.; Didenko, Alexander; Lebedev, Valeri; Valishev, Alexander

    2016-06-30

    We present a design of a stripline kicker for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). For its experimental program IOTA needs two full-aperture kickers, capable to create an arbitrary controllable kick in 2D. For that reason their strengths are variable in a wide range of amplitudes up to 16 mrad, and the pulse length 100 ns is less than a revolution period for electrons. In addition, the kicker should have a physical aperture of 40 mm for a proposed operation with proton beam, and an outer size of 70 mm to fit inside existing quadrupole magnets to save space in the ring. Computer simulations using CST Microwave Studio show high field uniformity and wave impedance close to 50 {\\Omega}.

  1. The design improvement of horizontal stripline kicker in TPS storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, P. J.; Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Hsu, K. T.; Hu, K. H.; Kuan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.

    2017-07-01

    We plan to replace the existing horizontal stripline kicker of the transverse feedback system with an improved design. Large reflected power was observed at the downstream port of stripline kicker driven by the feedback amplifier. A rapid surge of vacuum pressure was observed when we tested the high current operation in TPS storage ring in April 2016. A burned feedthrough of the horizontal stripline kicker was discovered during a maintenance shutdown. The improved design is targeted to reduce the reflection of driving power from feedback system and to reduce beam induced RF heating. This major modification of the design is described. The results of RF simulation performed with the electromagnetic code GdfidL are reported as well.

  2. GAS DISCHARGE SWITCH EVALUATION FOR RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; SHELDRAKE,R.; PIRRIE,C.

    2002-06-30

    A gas discharge switch EEV HX3002 is being evaluated at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a possible candidate of RHIC Beam Abort Kicker modulator main switch. At higher beam energy and higher beam intensity, the switch stability becomes very crucial. The hollow anode thyratron used in the existing system is not rated for long reverse current conduction. The reverse voltage arcing caused thyratron hold-off voltage de-rating has been the main limitation of the system operation. To improve the system reliability, a new type of gas discharge switch has been suggested by Marconi Applied Technology for its reverse conducting capability.

  3. Some calculations for the RHIC kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper starts with a brief discussion of the design of the RHIC injection kicker magnets which calls for longitudinal and capacitive sections of the same order as the aperture, not much larger nor much smaller. This makes accurate analytical prediction of their behavior very difficult. In order to gain at least some qualitative insight of that behavior, the author preformed calculations which are based on the actual dimensions of the kickers but which neglect the end effects of the individual sections. The effects of the sectionalization are therefore exaggerated relative to reality in the results.

  4. BEAM DYNAMICS ANALYSIS FOR THE ULTRA-FAST KICKER IN CIRCULAR COOLER RING OF JLEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2016-05-01

    An ultra-fast kicker system consisting of four quarter wavelength resonator based deflecting cavities was developed that simultaneously resonates at 10 subharmonic modes of the 476.3MHz bunch repetition frequency. Thus every 10th bunch in the bunch train will experience a transverse kick while all the other bunches are undisturbed. This fast kicker is being developed for the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based electron Circular Cooler Ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously MEIC). The electron bunches can be reused 10-30 turns thus the beam current in the ERL can be reduced to 1/10 - 1/30 (150mA - 50mA) of the cooling bunch current (1.5A). In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform and the comparison made by the beam dynamics tracking in Elegant will be discussed.

  5. Dump system concepts for the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Atanasov, M.; Barnes, M. J.; Borburgh, J.; Burkart, F.; Goddard, B.; Kramer, T.; Lechner, A.; Ull, A. Sanz; Schmidt, R.; Stoel, L. S.; Ostojic, R.; Rodziewicz, J.; van Trappen, P.; Barna, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) beam dump system must provide a safe and reliable extraction and dilution of the stored beam onto a dump absorber. Energy deposition studies show that damage limits of presently used absorber materials will already be reached for single bunches at 50 TeV. A fast field rise of the extraction kicker is required in order to sufficiently separate swept single bunches on the extraction protection absorbers in case of an asynchronous beam dump. In line with this demand is the proposal of a highly segmented extraction kicker system which allows for accepting a single kicker switch erratic and thus, significantly reduces the probability of an asynchronous beam dump. Superconducting septa are foreseen to limit the overall system length and power consumption. Two extraction system concepts are presented and evaluated regarding overall system length, energy deposition on absorbers, hardware requirements, radiation issues, and layout flexibility.

  6. The AGS new fast extraction system for the g-2 experiment and RHIC injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS requires a new fast extraction beam (NewFEB) system for the muon g-2 experiment and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The proposed NewFEB system will consist of a new fast multi-pulsing kicker placed at straight section G10 and an ejector septum magnet at H10, together will local orbit bumps generated by powering backleg windings on the AGS main magnets. The new system is capable of performing single bunch multiple extraction as often as every 8 ms up to 12 times per AGS cycle, in addition to the standard single turn fast extraction. The conceptual design of the NewFEB system will be discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Mi, J.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Pai, C.; Sandberg, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Zhang, W.

    2015-05-03

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  8. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of the RHIC Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1997-04-09

    The RHIC Injection Kicker was conceived as a transmission line magnet in order to achieve the required rise time of <95 nsec. Using a CERN-type "plate-kicker" is the quasi-standard solution to achieve fast rise times. However, following concepts contemplated at SLAC, a kicker configuration in which the lumped capacitors are replaced by high-permittivity ceramic blocks was adopted since it promised to be simpler, more compact, and more economical. The original design for the RHIC injection kicker was generated by Forsyth, et al, and a kicker R&d program was started in 1993. After implementing minor engineering changes to improve the high-voltage performance and the suppress coupling impedance resonances, four production kicker units, each with 1.12m effective length, were fabricated in 1996 and successfully operated at ~32 kV and 1.6 kA in the "Sextant test" to deflect the gold beam.

  9. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, of the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.

  10. Transmission Line Analysis of Dielectric-Loaded Ferrite Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1994-02-03

    The RHIC injection kicker is constructed as a C-shaped ferrite kicker in which the ferrite blocks are spaced apart and the interstice is filled with high-permittivity ceramic. Due to this ferrite-dielectric composite structure, the kicker behaves like a transmission line rather than a lumped inductor. The electric properties of the kicker, nota bene characteristic impedance and propagation velocity, have been analyzed by Forsyth and his colleagues, Claus and Zhang, as a low pass filter with lumped L and C elements.

  11. Equivalent circuit analysis of the RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1997-07-01

    The RHIC injection kicker is built as a traveling wave structure in order to assure the required 95 nsec risetime in the deflection strength. The kicker is constructed from 14 cells, each 7.5 cm long, with alternating ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections. The cell structure permits an analysis of the electrical properties of the kicker using lumped L, C, and R circuit elements. Their values are obtained directly from impedance measurements of the full-length kicker, the inductance and shunt capacitance values by measuring the input impedance at 1 MHz with the output shorted and open, respectively. A lossy series resonance circuit in each cell is found to reproduce the measured input impedance of the terminated kicker up to {approximately}100 MHz. The validity of the equivalent circuit was confirmed by comparing the measured output current pulse shape time with that computed by the P-Spice program.

  12. Design and Testing of a Fast, 50 kV Solid-State Kicker Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Gower, E J; Allen, F V; Walstrom, P L

    2002-06-24

    The ability to extract particle beam bunches from a ring accelerator in arbitrary order can greatly extend an accelerator's capabilities and applications. A prototype solid-state kicker pulser capable of generating asynchronous bursts of 50 kV pulses has been designed and tested into a 50{Omega} load. The pulser features fast rise and fall times and is capable of generating an arbitrary pattern of pulses with a maximum burst frequency exceeding 5 MHz If required, the pulse-width of each pulse in the burst is independently adjustable. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. Test data, capabilities, and limitations of the prototype pulser are described.

  13. AN ENGINEERING SOLUTION TO THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.ROSER,T.SANDBERG,J.TAN,Y.ET AL.

    2004-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the world largest superconducting accelerator for nuclear energy research. Particle beams traveling in opposite directions in two accelerator rings, Blue and Yellow, collide at six interaction regions to create phenomena of the early universe. There are more than 1700 superconducting magnets and very sophisticate and delicate large detectors inside the RHIC tunnel. With high beam intensity and ultra high beam energy, an inadvertent loss of beam can result severe damage to the superconducting magnets and detectors. Beam abort kickers are used to remove beam safely from the ring. The large inductive load, high current capability, short beam gap, and high reliability are the challenging issues of this system design. With high intensity and high momentum beam operation, it is desirable to have all high voltage modulators located outside of RHIC tunnel. However, to generate 22 kA output current per modulator with fast rise time, a conventional low impedance PFN and matched transmission cable design can push the operation voltage easily into 100 kV range. The large quantity of high voltage pulse transmission cables required by conventional design is another difficult issue. Therefore, the existing system has all ten high voltage modulators located inside RHIC tunnel. More than a hundred plastic packaged mineral oil filled high voltage capacitors raise serious concerns of fire and smoking threats. Other issues, such as kicker misfire, device availability in the future, and inaccessibility during operation, also demand an engineering solution for the future upgrade. In this paper, we investigate an unconventional approach to meet the technical challenges of RHIC beam abort system. The proposed design has all modulators outside of the RHIC tunnel. It will transmit output pulse through high voltage cables. The modulators will utilize solid-state switches, and operate at a maximum voltage in 30 to

  14. Design of an Inductive Adder for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woog, D.; Barnes, M. J.; Ducimetière, L.; Holma, J.; Kramer, T.

    2017-07-01

    The injection system for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass collider is an important part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. Due to issues with conventional kicker systems, such as self-triggering and long term availability of thyratrons and limitations of HV-cables, innovative design changes are planned for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator. An inductive adder (IA) based on semiconductor (SC) switches is a promising technology for kicker systems. Its modular design, and the possibility of an active ripple suppression are significant advantages. Since the IA is a complex device, with multiple components whose characteristics are important, a detailed design study and construction of a prototype is necessary. This paper summarizes the system requirements and constraints, and describes the main components and design challenges of the prototype IA. It outlines the results from simulations and measurements on different magnetic core materials as well as on SC switches. The paper concludes on the design choices and progress for the prototype to be built at CERN.

  15. Design and optimization of a longitudinal feedback kicker cavity for the HLS-II storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Z. Wu, W.; He, Duo-Hui; K. Wu, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In the Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring, multibunch operation is used to obtain a high luminosity. Multibunch instabilities can severely limit light source performance with a variety of negative impacts, including beam loss, low injection efficiency, and overall degradation of the beam quality. Instabilities of a multibunch beam can be mitigated using certain techniques including increasing natural damping (operating at a higher energy), lowering the beam current, and increasing Landau damping. However, these methods are not adequate to stabilize a multibunch electron beam at a low energy and with a high current. In order to combat beam instabilities in the HLS storage ring, active feedback systems including a longitudinal feedback system (LFB) and a transverse feedback system (TFB) will be developed as part of the HLS upgrade project, the HLS- II storage ring project. As a key component of the longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system, an LFB kicker cavity with a wide bandwidth and high shunt impedance is required. In this paper we report our work on the design of the LFB kicker cavity for the HLS- II storage ring and present the new tuning and optimization techniques developed in designing this high performance LFB kicker.

  16. RF kicker cavity to increase control in common transport lines

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method of controlling e-beam transport where electron bunches with different characteristics travel through the same beam pipe. An RF kicker cavity is added at the beginning of the common transport pipe or at various locations along the common transport path to achieve independent control of different bunch types. RF energy is applied by the kicker cavity kicks some portion of the electron bunches, separating the bunches in phase space to allow independent control via optics, or separating bunches into different beam pipes. The RF kicker cavity is operated at a specific frequency to enable kicking of different types of bunches in different directions. The phase of the cavity is set such that the selected type of bunch passes through the cavity when the RF field is at a node, leaving that type of bunch unaffected. Beam optics may be added downstream of the kicker cavity to cause a further separation in phase space.

  17. Recent advances in kicker pulser technology for linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Cook, E; Davis, B; Dehope, W J; Yen, B

    1999-06-01

    Recent progress in the development and understanding of linear induction accelerator have produced machines with 10s of MeV of beam energy and multi-kiloampere currents. Near-term machines, such as DARHT-2, are envisioned with microsecond pulselengths. Fast beam kickers, based on cylindrical electromagnetic stripline structures, will permit effective use of these extremely high-energy beams in an increasing number of applications. In one application, radiography, kickers were an essential element in resolving temporal evolution of hydrodynamic events by cleaving out individual pulses from long, microsecond beams. Advanced schemes are envisioned where these individual pulses are redirected through varying length beam lines and suitably recombined for stereographic imaging or tomographic reconstruction. Recent advances in fast kickers and their pulsed power technology are described. Kicker pulsers based on both planar triode and all solid-state componentry are discussed and future development plans are presented.

  18. High-Temperature Kicker Electrodes for High-Beam-Current Operation of PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, U.

    2005-04-11

    The strip line electrodes of the kickers used in the transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback systems see significant power deposition by beam and HOM-induced currents. This leads to elevated temperatures of the aluminum electrodes and will ultimately become a limit for the beam current in the Low Energy Ring. Heat is transported to the environment primarily by radiation from the blackened surface of the electrodes. In order to extend the beam-current range of these kickers, new electrodes have been fabricated from molybdenum which are able to run at significantly higher temperature, thus greatly increasing the efficiency of the radiative cooling of the electrodes. Blackening of the electrodes is achieved by oxidation in air at 530 C (1000 F) using a recipe first applied in aviation research for supersonic aircraft. Emissivity was measured on coupons and a whole electrode to be about 0.6. In addition, the match at the terminations of the electrodes is improved following field calculations and measurements on a model of the kicker.

  19. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  20. Design of kicker magnet and power supply unit for synchrotron beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ju

    1991-03-01

    To inject beams from the positron accumulator ring (PAR) into the synchrotron, a pulsed kicker magnet is used. The specifications of this kicker magnet and the power supply unit are listed and discussed in this report.

  1. Development of an Adder-Topology ILC Damping Ring Kicker Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao; Burkhart, Craig; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    The ILC damping ring injection and extraction kickers will require high availability modulators that can deliver {+-}5 kV pulses into 50 {Omega} with a 2 ns flattop ({approx}1 ns rise and fall time) at up to 6 MHz. An effort is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to meet these requirements using a transmission line adder topology to combine the output of an array of {approx}1 kV modules. The modules employ an ultra-fast hybrid MOSFET/driver that can switch 33 A in 1.2 ns. Experimental results for a scale adder structure are presented.

  2. Wake properties of a stripline beam kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B. R.

    1997-05-27

    The transport of a high current relativistic electron beam in a stripline beam kicker is strongly dependent on the wake properties of the structure. The effect of the beam-induced fields on the steering of the beam must be determined for a prescribed trajectory within the structure. A 3-D time domain electromagnetic code is used to determine the wake fields and the resultant Lorentz force on the beam both for an ultra-relativistic electron beam moving parallel to the beamline axis as well as a beam that follows a curved trajectory through the structure. Usually in determining the wake properties of the structure, a wake impedance is found for a beam that is moving parallel to the beamline axis. However, we extend this concept to curved trajectories by calculating beam induced forces along the curved trajectory. Comparisons are made with simple transmission line models of the structure. The wake properties are used in models to transport the beam self-consistently through the structure.

  3. HUMINT Extraction and Fusion System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2005-12 Final Technical Report January 2005 HUMINT EXTRACTION AND FUSION SYSTEM General Dynamics...January 2005 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED FINAL Aug 02 – Sep 04 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMINT EXTRACTION AND FUSION SYSTEM 6...The objective of this effort was to develop the HUMINT Processing Subsystem (HPS) which extracts and exploits information from text documents to

  4. Ion extraction system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, Marco

    2013-07-18

    The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

  5. Design of the 0.5 - 1 GHz Planar Recycler Pickup and Kicker Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    The stochastic cooling system in the Recycler ring at Fermilab required the addition of a 0.5-1 GHz cooling system. This requirement dictated the design of a new antenna for this band of the system. The design problem is defined, method of design is illustrated, and the measurement data are reported. The Recycler is a storage ring comprised of mostly permanent magnets located in the tunnel of the Main Injector at Fermilab. The goal for the construction of the Recycler is to collect and store unused antiprotons from collisions in the Tevatron for use in future collisions in the Tevatron. It will both stochastically and electron cool these unused antiprotons before another collision experiment is possible in the Tevatron. By reusing the antiprotons the luminosity of the experiment can be increased faster. The Recycler will use three bands for its stochastic cooling system. It will reuse the existing designs from the Antiproton Source for the 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz systems, and it requires a new design for an additional lower frequency band for the 0.5-1 GHz system. Since the existing designs were fabricated using a microstrip topology it was desired that the new design use a similar topology so that the vacuum tank designs and supporting hardware be identical for all three bands. A primary difference between the design of the pickups/kickers of the Antiproton Source and the Recycler is a different aperture in the machine itself. The Recycler has a bigger aperture and consequently reusing the designs for the existing Antiproton Source pickups/kickers is not electrically optimal but is cost efficient. Measurements will be shown later in this paper for the design of the 0.5-1 GHz system showing the effect of the aperture on the antenna performance. A mockup of the Recycler tank was manufactured for designing and testing the 0.5-1 GHz pickups/kickers. The design procedure was an iterative process and required both a constant dialogue and also a strong relationship with a

  6. Inertial extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Balepin, Vladimir; Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Girlea, Florin; Robertson, Andrew; Sforza, Pasquale

    2016-03-15

    Disclosed herein are supersonic separation systems that can be used for the removal of CO.sub.2 from a mixed gas stream. Also disclosed are methods for the separation and subsequent collection of solidified CO.sub.2 from a gas stream.

  7. Injection/Extraction Studies In The Non-scaling FFAG For The Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J. Scott; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.

    2011-10-06

    The Neutrino Factory is under intensive study in the framework of the International Design Study for future precision neutrino oscillation physics. According to the current baseline the major part of muon acceleration is foreseen to take part in the non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring. The NS-FFAG lattice design was recently modified to accommodate long straight sections necessary for the injection/extraction systems. The length of the long drift was optimized minimizing the necessary septum field, which according to present studies needs to be below 2 T. The injection/extraction schemes allowing to reuse the kickers for both signs of muons are presented. The design of the kicker system based on current technology is discussed. The preliminary design of a septum magnet focused on minimization of the stray field leakage is studied.

  8. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  9. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G. J.

    1998-10-27

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1].

  10. Solid-State Kicker Pulser for DARHT-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Sullivan, J S; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-07

    To replace a hard tube design, a solid-state kicker pulser for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-2) has been designed and tested. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. The modulator features very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility and a high pulse-repetition rate in burst mode. The modulator can drive a 50{Omega} load with voltages up to 20 kV and can be easily configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include test and operational data.

  11. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR)-based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  12. Overview of high voltage dielectric material for traveling wave kicker magnet application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang,; Sandberg,; Tuozzolo,; Cassel,

    2002-06-01

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas.

  13. Operational experience of the upgraded LHC injection kicker magnets during Run 2 and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M. J.; Adraktas, A.; Bregliozzi, G.; Goddard, B.; Ducimetière, L.; Salvant, B.; Sestak, J.; Vega Cid, L.; Weterings, W.; Vallgren, C. Yin

    2017-07-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, one of the injection kicker magnets caused occasional operational delays due to beam induced heating with high bunch intensity and short bunch lengths. In addition, there were also sporadic issues with vacuum activity and electrical flashover of the injection kickers. An extensive program of studies was launched and significant upgrades were carried out during Long Shutdown 1 (LS 1). These upgrades included a new design of beam screen to reduce both beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnet and the electric field associated with the screen conductors, hence decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown in this region. This paper presents operational experience of the injection kicker magnets during the first years of Run 2 of the LHC, including a discussion of faults and kicker magnet issues that limited LHC operation. In addition, in light of these issues, plans for further upgrades are briefly discussed.

  14. A Solid-State Modulator for High Speed Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Cook, E G; Chen, Y J; Anaya, R M; Lee, B S; Sullivan, J S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-11

    An all solid-state modulator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high-speed beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. It provides a nominal 18kV pulse with {+-} 10% amplitude modulation on the order of several MHz, rise times on the order of 10nS, and can be configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include measured performance data.

  15. Operational experience with SLC damping ring kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must provide 7 mrad kicks to 1.2 GeV beams with 60 nsec rise and fall times and fit in a 50 cm length around a 21 mm diameter ceramic beam pipe. This requires that they operate at up to 40 KV. The construction and operation of two types of quasi-coaxial ferrite magnet potted with RTV silicone rubber is discussed. Production yield has been improved by changes in RTV degassing, transfer, and cure. Operation lifetime is dominated by voltage, radiation, and thermal cycling. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  16. An IGBT Driven Slotted Beam Pipe Kicker for SPEAR III Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, Richard

    2002-08-21

    The SPEAR III injection kicker system is composed of three kicker magnets, K1, K2, and K3. These magnets, along with the power modulators to drive them constitute an injection system which will be used to deflect an incoming electron beam with an energy of 3.3 GeV by an angle of 2.5 mrad for K1 and K3, and 1 mrad for K2. The pulse shape of the magnetic field in the three magnets must be matched in order to preserve a closed orbit. The pulse duration is required to be less than 780 ns, with rise and fall times of less than 375 ns, and a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The aperture of all three magnets is 60 x 34 mm in an 8 inch vacuum vessel. The magnetic length is 1.2 m for K1 and K3, and 0.6 m for K2 [1]. The magnet design employs a slotted beam pipe which is shorted at one end. A solid state IGBT based, induction type of modulator drives the magnets. Modulators for K1 and K3 consist of eight 4.5 kV, 600 A IGBTs, and eight Finemet magnet cores with four 22.5 Ohm output cables to drive 2381 A into the magnets. The modulator for K2 uses four IGBTs and cores, and 8 output cables to produce a 2619 A pulse. Cables of length greater than one half the pulse width must be used in order to avoid reflections from the shorted magnet. The design charge voltage for the modulators is 20 kV for K1 and K3. This paper describes the magnet and modulator design, as and presents test data from a prototype system.

  17. PRINCIPLE DESIGN OF 300KHZ MECO RF KICKER BIPOLAR SOLID STATE MODULATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; KOTLYAR,Y.

    2004-05-23

    A high speed, high repetition rate, bipolar solid-state high voltage modulator is under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory for Muon Electron Conversion (MECO) Experiment. The modulator will be used to drive a RF kicker consisting a pair of parallel deflecting plates. The principle design is based on the inductive-adder topology. This system requires a fast pulse rise and fall time about 20ns, a pulse width of 100ns, a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz, and a 60 kHz sine-wave amplitude modulation. The fast high voltage MOSFETs are used as main switching devices.Different magnetic materials are being investigated for adder core magnets. The main circuit design, critical subsystems, and major technical issues will be discussed. The circuit simulation, components selection and evaluation, and preliminary test results will be presented.

  18. Research and development of RHIC injection kicker upgrade with nano second FID pulse generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Hahn, H.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.J.; Pai, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2012-05-20

    Our recent effort to test a 50 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse width, 10 ns pulse rise time FID pulse generator with a 250 ft transmission cable, resistive load, and existing RHIC injection kicker magnet has produced unparalleled results. This is the very first attempt to drive a high strength fast kicker magnet with a nano second high pulsed power (50 MVA) generator for large accelerator and colliders. The technology is impressive. We report here the result and future plan of RHIC Injection kicker upgrade.

  19. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10/sup -10/ torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  1. Compressive Information Extraction: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-24

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0097 Compressive Information Extraction A Dynamical Systems Approach Mario Sznaier NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Final Report 02/09...Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Compressive Information Extraction A Dynamical Systems ... information extraction, hybrid system identification 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a.  NAME OF

  2. An overview of high voltage dielectric material for traveling wave kicker magnet application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang et al.

    2002-08-19

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed L-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined.

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR TRAVELING WAVE KICKER MAGNET APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TUOZZOLO,J.; CASSEL,R.; DUCIMETIERE,L.; JENSEN,C.; BARNES,M.; WAIT,G.; WANG,J.

    2002-06-30

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined.

  4. Fast and reliable kicker magnets for the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.S.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Gross, G.

    1995-06-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a kicker magnet with superior electromagnetic performance and greatly improved radiation tolerance is described. A short flux return of high mu ferrite improves the field strength and linearity with current, and novel metallic field-confining structures minimize the inductance. An 8-cell structure with capacitance integrated into each cell makes the magnet a nearly perfect transmission line. The capacitor dielectric is 1 cm thick alumina-loaded epoxy, processed to eliminate air voids, and cast in a multiple step procedure developed to circumvent epoxy shrinkage. The magnet operates with pulses of up to 40 kV and 3.2 kA at 120 Hz, with magnet transit times of less than 35 nsec and field rise and fall times of less than 60 nsec.

  5. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Junichiro Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yasuda, Yuichi

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  6. Investigation of an Ultrafast Harmonic Resonant RF Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu

    2016-10-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based multi-turn electron Circulator Cooler Ring (CCR) is envisaged in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) to cool the ion bunches with high energy (55 MeV), high current (1.5 A), high repetition frequency (476.3 MHz), high quality magnetized electron bunches. A critical component in this scheme is a pair of ultrafast kickers for the exchange of electron bunches between the ERL and the CCR. The ultrafast kicker should operate with the rise and fall time in less than 2.1 ns, at the repetition rate of ~10s MHz, and should be able to run continuously during the whole period of cooling. These -and-fall time being combined together, are well beyond the state-of-art of traditional pulsed power supplies and magnet kickers. To solve this technical challenge, an alternative method is to generate this high repetition rate, fast rise-and-fall time short pulse continuous waveform by summing several finite number of (co)sine waves at harmonic frequencies of the kicking repetition frequency, and these harmonic modes can be generated by the Quarter Wave Resonater (QWR) based multifrequency cavities. Assuming the recirculator factor is 10, 10 harmonic modes (from 47.63 MHz to 476.3 MHz) with proper amplitudes and phases, plus a DC offset are combined together, a continuous short pulse waveform with the rise-and-fall time in less than 2.1 ns, repetition rate of 47.63 MHz waveform can be generated. With the compact and matured technology of QWR cavities, the total cost of both hardware development and operation can be reduced to a modest level. Focuse on the technical scheme, three main topics will be discussed in this thesis: the synthetization of the kicking pulse, the design and optimization of the deflecting QWR multi-integer harmonic frequency resonator and the fabrication and bench measurements of a half scale copper prototype. In the kicking pulse synthetization part, we begin with the Fourier Series expansion of an ideal

  7. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  8. Injuries to kickers in American football: the National Football League experience.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Powell, John W; Matava, Matthew J

    2010-06-01

    Very little information is available regarding the incidence, causative mechanisms, and expected duration of time lost after injuries to kickers (placekickers and punters) in American football. Lower extremity musculotendinous injuries are the most common type of injury in American football kickers. The injuries related to punting differ from injuries related to placekicking. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective review of all documented injuries to kickers in the National Football League over a 20-year period (1988-2007) was performed using the League's injury surveillance database. The data were analyzed from multiple perspectives, with emphasis on the type of kick or activity at the time of injury and the factors that affect return to play after injury. There were 488 total injuries over the 20-year period: 72% involved the lower extremity, 9% involved the lumbosacral spine, and 7% involved the head. Muscle-tendon injuries (49%) were the most common, followed by ligamentous injuries (17%). There was a significantly higher risk of injury in games (17.7 per 1000) than during practice (1.91 per 1000). Most injuries (93%) did not require surgery, and the mean time to return to play was 15 days if no surgery was necessary. Kickers over 30 years of age took longer to return to play (mean, 21 days) than younger kickers (mean, 12 days) after nonsurgical injuries (P = .03). Mean return to play after injuries that required surgery was 121 days. Lumbosacral soft tissue injury, lateral ankle sprains, and shoulder injuries were more likely to occur in punters than placekickers. Kicking athletes face a low risk of injury in professional American football. Injuries most commonly involve the lower extremities. Training and injury prevention efforts should reflect that punting is associated with different injuries than placekicking, and that older kickers take longer to recuperate than younger kickers after certain injuries.

  9. Extracting Data From Integrated Student Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    An integrated student information system (ISIS) at Trinity University (Texas) is described with attention to how data are entered and how data are extracted for purposes of institutional research. The structure of the original ISIS files, the extract files, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) files is examined. An outline is…

  10. ROBODEXS; Multi-robot Deployment & Extraction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-03

    Deployment & Extraction System (ROBODEXS) is a result of our development research to improve marsupial robotic deployment at safe standoff distances. The...Keywords: ROBODEXS, Marsupial , Deployment, Extraction, Multiple UGV, Modular, Scalable, Robot, Unmanned 1. INTRODUCTION Until recently, small...down to the ground level for deployment.. Research has shown commercial robotics developers have also experimented with marsupial capabilities, allowing

  11. Reducing the extraction loss via laser notching the H- beam at the Booster injection revolution frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    With the requirement for more protons per hour from Booster, the radiation is a limiting factor. Laser notching the H{sup -} beam at the Booster injection revolution frequency and properly aligning those notches on top of each other at the injection and relative to the trigger of firing extraction kickers can remove most of the extraction loss caused by the slow rise time of the kicker field.

  12. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  13. Kicker field simulation and measurement for the muon g-2 experiment at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Pyo; Kim, Young Im; Choi, Jihoon; Semertzidis, Yannis; muon g-2 experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the Muon g-2 experiment, muon beam is injected to the storage ring in a slightly tilted orbit whose center is 77 mm away from the center of the ring. The kicker is needed to send the muon beam to the central orbit. The magnetic kicker is designed for the experiment and about 0.1 Tm field integral is needed. The peak current pulse is 4200 A to make this field integral. This strong kicker pulse could make unwanted eddy current occur. This eddy current could spoil the main magnetic field of the storage ring. This could be a critical threat to the precision of experiment. The kicker field simulation has done using OPERA to estimate the effects. Also the kicker field should be measured based on Faraday effect. The measurement has tested in the lab before install the experiment area. In this presentation, the simulation and measurement results will be discussed. This work was supported by IBS-R017-D1-2016-a00.

  14. Extractive microbial fermentation in cloud point system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilong; Dai, Zewen

    2010-05-05

    Extractive microbial fermentation of organic compounds in liquid-liquid two-phase systems is a potential strategy to overcome the limitations of microbial fermentation in an aqueous solution, such as low substrate solubility, substrate/product inhibition and product further degradation. A conventional aqueous-organic solvent two-phase system is inaccessible to extractive fermentation of a relatively high polar bioproduct as the confliction between the biocompatibility and the extraction ability of the corresponding organic solvent. An exploitation of cloud point system as a novel medium engineering method for extractive microbial fermentation is reviewed in present work. The relationship between phase separation of nonionic surfactant aqueous solution forming cloud point system and its corresponding biocompatibility to microorganisms, and the relationship between solubilization and bioavailability of organic compounds in a cloud point system are discussed. Paradigms of extractive microbial fermentation in cloud point system are highlighted with some cases in our lab. The downstream processing for nonionic surfactant recovery and product separation with microemulsion extraction is also presented.

  15. Amplitude Control of Solid-State Modulators for Precision Fast Kicker Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Caporaso, G C; Chen, Y J; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, A

    2002-11-15

    A solid-state modulator with very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and multi-pulse burst and intra-pulse amplitude adjustment capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Amplitude adjustment is provided by controlling individual modules in the adder, and is used to compensate for transverse e-beam motion as well as the dynamic response and beam-induced steering effects associated with the kicker structure. A control algorithm calculates a voltage based on measured e-beam displacement and adjusts the modulator to regulate beam centroid position. This paper presents design details of amplitude control along with measured performance data from kicker operation on the ETA-II accelerator at LLNL.

  16. Eliminating the Spot Dilution Due to Kicker Switching in DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J; Chambers, F W; Paul, A C; Watson, A; Weir, J T

    2003-05-06

    To produce four short x-ray pulses for radiography, the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II) will use a fast kicker to select current pulses out of the 2-ms duration beam provided by the accelerator. Beam motion during the kicker voltage switching could lead to dilution of the time integrated beam spot and make the spot elliptical. A large elliptical x-ray source produced by those beams would degrade the resolution and make radiographic analysis difficult. We have developed a tuning strategy to eliminate the spot size dilution, and tested the strategy successfully on ETA-II with the DARHT-II kicker hardware.

  17. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-12-01

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes, four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Finally, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.

  18. Position measurements for the isotope production facility and the switchyard kicker upgrade projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D. S.; O'Hara, J. F.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.; Martinez, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is installing two beam lines to both improve operational tuning and provide new capabilities within the facility. The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) will provide isotopes for medical purposes by using the H' beam spur at 100 MeV and the Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK) will allow the LANSCE 800-MeV H beam to be rapidly switched between various beam lines within the facility. The beam position measurements for both of these beam lines uses a standard micro-stripline beam position monitor (BPM) with both a 50-mm and 75-mm radius. The cable plant is unique in that it unambiguously provides a method of verifying the operation of the complete position measurement. The processing electronics module uses a log ratio technique with error corrections such that it has a dynamic range of -12 dBm to -85 dBm with errors less than 0.15 dB within this range. This paper will describe the primary components of these measurement systems and provide initial data of their operation.

  19. ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS MODIFICATIONS FOR A SECOND TARGET STATION AT THE OAK RIDGE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Plum, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    A second target station is planned for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. The ion source will be upgraded to increase the peak current from 38 to 49 mA, additional superconducting RF cavities will be added to the linac to increase the H beam energy from 938 to 1300 MeV, and the accumulator ring will receive modifications to the injection and extraction systems to accommodate the higher beam energy. After pulse compression in the storage ring one sixth of the beam pulses (10 out of 60 Hz) will be diverted to the second target by kicker and septum magnets added to the existing Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. No further modifications will be made to the RTBT so that when the kicker and septum magnets are turned off the original beam transport lattice will be unaffected. In this paper we will discuss these and other planned modifications and upgrades to the accelerator facility.

  20. Fast superconducting kicker magnet. Final technical report, November 1994--October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.; Mahale, N.K.

    1998-05-01

    Fast kicker magnets are needed in accelerators to deflect the beam out of the storage ring and into experimental targets and beam dumps. The work reported here is on a new type of fast kicker magnet. The basic idea is to transport the beam along the axis of a tube made of Type I superconductor. An ordinary magnet is used to create a field, B{sub o} perpendicular to the axis of the tube. If B{sub o}kicker field to the beam, B{sub o} is increased such that B{sub o}>B{sub c}. The tube of superconductor then goes normal. The field which had been shielded from the beam can now penetrate to the beam. This concept is applicable as a fast magnetic switch. DOE has been granted a patent on this device, which was disclosed to DOE by N.K. Mahale and D. Goren while they were at SSC. A feasibility study of this new form of kicker magnet is reported here.

  1. Extraction systems for the study of dubnium

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Ali, M.N.; Calvert, M.G.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P.A.; Garcia, M.A.; Gharibyan, N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Nelson, S.L.; Neumann, S.H.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    The chemistry of transactinide elements (Z {ge} 104) is a topic of great interest in current nuclear chemistry research. The chemical systems that can be used in these studies are limited by the short half-lives of the isotopes and the small production rates of atoms per minute or even atoms per week. In the initial investigations, the chemistry used had to be very selective to the periodic group of interest to separate the transactinide atom from all the other unwanted nuclear reaction products, e.g., transfer products. By using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) as a physical pre-separator, we are able concentrate on systems that are selective between the members of the group of interest, because all other interfering products and the beam are being suppressed by the BGS [1]. We are developing suitable extraction systems for the study of element 105, dubnium. For this purpose we have studied the extraction of niobium and tantalum, the lighter homologs of dubnium, from mineral acids with different organophosphorus compounds. All studies were performed online, using short-lived niobium and tantalum produced in the {sup 124}Sn({sup 51}V,5n){sup 170}Ta and {sup 74}Se({sup 18}O,p3n){sup 88}Nb reactions. This allowed for the study of the lighter homologues at metal concentrations of 10{sup -16} M. At these low metal concentrations, the formation of polymeric species is largely prohibited. As seen in Fig. 1, by varying the extractant and the hydrochloric acid concentration from 1 to 11 M, we are able to see a difference in extraction behavior between niobium and tantalum. While the system is suitable for determining chemical differences between the lighter homologues, the extraction of tantalum from hydrochloric acid shows slow kinetics. Figure 2 shows that after 90 seconds of mixing, the system is not in equilibrium. However, experiments indicate that equilibrium is reached faster at higher acid concentrations. We have studied the influence of hydrogen ion

  2. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, Shaoheng; ...

    2016-12-09

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes,more » four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Lastly, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.« less

  3. 1400, +/- 900V PEAK PULSE SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES FOR SNS INJECTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBIASE,R.ENG,W.SANDBERG,J.DEWAN,S.HOLMES,R.RUST,K.ZENG,J.

    2004-03-10

    This paper describes simulation and experimental results for a 1400A, {+-} 900V peak rated, switch mode power supply for SNS Injection Kicker Magnets. For each magnet (13 m{Omega}, 160{micro}H), the power supply must supply controlled pulses at 60 Hz repetition rate. The pulse current must rise from zero to maximum in less than 1 millisec in a controlled manner, flat top for up to 2 millisec, and should fall in a controlled manner to less than 4A within 500{micro}s. The low current performance during fall time is the biggest challenge in this power supply. The simulation results show that to meet the controlled fall of the current and the current ripple requirements, voltage loop bandwidth of at least 10 kHz and switching frequency of at least 100 kHz are required. To achieve high power high frequency switching with IGBT switches, a series connected topology with three phase shifted (O{sup o}, 60{sup o} & 120{sup o}) converters each with 40 kHz switching frequency (IGBT at 20kHz), has been achieved. In this paper, the circuit topology, relevant system specifications and experimental results that meet the requirements of the power supply are described in detail. A unique six pulse SCR rectifier circuit with capacitor storage has been implemented to achieve minimum pulse width to meet required performance during current fall time below 50A due to the very narrow pulse width and non-linearity from IGBT turn-on/off times.

  4. Modeling of an inductive adder kicker pulser for DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Cook, E G

    2000-09-25

    An all solid-state kicker pulser for a high current induction accelerator (the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility DARHT-2) has been designed and fabricated. This kicker pulser uses multiple solid state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss. Voltage from each modulator is inductively added by a voltage summing stalk and delivered to a 50 ohm output cable. A lumped element circuit model of the inductive adder has been developed to optimize the performance of the pulser. Results for several stalk geometries will be compared with experimental data.

  5. Measurement of the coupling impedances of the kickers in the SIS and ESR at GSI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blell, U.

    1997-05-01

    At high particle intensities coherent transverse beam oscillations may be excited due to the coupling of the beam to individual accelerators structures. The characteristic values to describe these beam instabilities are the longitudinal- and transverse coupling impedances. One reason for this beam instability is the inductive interaction between the beam and the kicker magnets. The type of the magnet, e.g. window-frame magnet or C-magnet, and its external electrical network are the most important quantities to identify the coupling impedances below the cut-off frequency of the beam pipe. For the kicker modules in the SIS and ESR accelerators at GSI the mathematical basis, theory and measured results will be presented.

  6. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-03

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  7. Mechanical design of ceramic beam tube braze joints for NOvA kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Reilly, R.E.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NO?A Experiment will construct a detector optimized for electron neutrino detection in the existing NuMI neutrino beam. The NuMI beam line is capable of operating at 400 kW of primary beam power and the upgrade will allow up to 700 kW. Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed. The most challenging aspect of fabricating kicker magnets in recent years have been making hermetic vacuum seals on the braze joints between the ceramic and flange. Numerous process variables can influence the robustness of conventional metal/ceramic brazing processes. The ceramic-filler metal interface is normally the weak layer when failure does not occur within the ceramic. Differences between active brazing filler metal and the moly-manganese process will be discussed along with the applicable results of these techniques used for Fermilab production kicker tubes.

  8. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  9. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  10. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  11. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  12. [DNA extraction from bones and teeth using AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Xu, Nian-Lai; Xie, Wei; Ding, Shao-Cheng; Wang, Dong-Jing; Ma, Li-Qin; Li, You-Ying

    2013-04-01

    To explore a new method in order to extract DNA from bones and teeth automatically. Samples of 33 bones and 15 teeth were acquired by freeze-mill method and manual method, respectively. DNA materials were extracted and quantified from the triturated samples by AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. DNA extraction from bones and teeth were completed in 3 hours using the AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. There was no statistical difference between the two methods in the DNA concentration of bones. Both bones and teeth got the good STR typing by freeze-mill method, and the DNA concentration of teeth was higher than those by manual method. AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system is a new method to extract DNA from bones and teeth, which can be applied in forensic practice.

  13. Extracting the Information Backbone in Online System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Information overload is a serious problem in modern society and many solutions such as recommender system have been proposed to filter out irrelevant information. In the literature, researchers have been mainly dedicated to improving the recommendation performance (accuracy and diversity) of the algorithms while they have overlooked the influence of topology of the online user-object bipartite networks. In this paper, we find that some information provided by the bipartite networks is not only redundant but also misleading. With such “less can be more” feature, we design some algorithms to improve the recommendation performance by eliminating some links from the original networks. Moreover, we propose a hybrid method combining the time-aware and topology-aware link removal algorithms to extract the backbone which contains the essential information for the recommender systems. From the practical point of view, our method can improve the performance and reduce the computational time of the recommendation system, thus improving both of their effectiveness and efficiency. PMID:23690946

  14. Extracting archaeal populations from iron oxidizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, L. M.; Hutchison, J.; Chrisler, W.; Jay, Z.; Moran, J.; Inskeep, W.; Kreuzer, H.

    2013-12-01

    Unique environments in Yellowstone National Park offer exceptional conditions for studying microorganisms in extreme and constrained systems. However, samples from some extreme systems often contain inorganic components that pose complications during microbial and molecular analysis. Several archaeal species are found in acidic, geothermal ferric-oxyhydroxide mats; these species have been shown to adhere to mineral surfaces in flocculated colonies. For optimal microbial analysis, (microscopy, flow cytometry, genomic extractions, proteomic analysis, stable isotope analysis, and others), improved techniques are needed to better facilitate cell detachment and separation from mineral surfaces. As a requirement, these techniques must preserve cell structure while simultaneously minimizing organic carryover to downstream analysis. Several methods have been developed for removing sediments from mixed prokaryotic populations, including ultra-centrifugation, nycodenz gradient, sucrose cushions, and cell straining. In this study we conduct a comparative analysis of mechanisms used to detach archaeal cell populations from the mineral interface. Specifically, we evaluated mechanical and chemical approaches for cell separation and homogenization. Methods were compared using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry analyses, and real-time PCR detection. The methodology and approaches identified will be used to optimize biomass collection from environmental specimens or isolates grown with solid phases.

  15. Investigation of the skin depth effect of a metallic coating on a ceramic beampipe inside a kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Inside a kicker magnet, metallic beampipe cannot be used because it will screen off the rapid rising of the kicker's magnetic field. When a ceramic beampipe is used, one usually coats the inside with a thin layer of metal so as to carry at least part of the beam's image current and to prevent static charge buildup. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether such a coating will alter the risetime constant of the magnetic field significantly, whether such a coating can withstand the strong transient current induced by the fast rising magnetic field, and whether the back magnetic field generated by this transient current is strong enough to upset the designed risetime of the kicker.

  16. Solar System Object Extraction for Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T. G.; Duran, F. R.

    Astronomy archives cover at different wavelengths all possible types of astronomical sources, including many dedicated and also serendipitous observations of solar system objects (SSO). It is difficult to handle SSOs in a ``typical'' archive way due to their apparent movement in the sky, ranging from a fraction of an arcsec/hour for Trans-Neptunian objects up to a few degrees for Near-Earth objects, and their enormous brightness change. To locate known SSOs in astronomical images, one needs to calculate highly accurate observatory-centric ephemeris for the image epochs. In crowed fields also rough brightness estimates are required for SSO identifications. The current data base includes, additionally to the planets and their satellites, about 200 comets and more than 100 000 asteroids. These constraints usually limit search procedures either to a small number of objects or to only a few frames. We present a possible solution to handle SSOs with known orbits in a systematic way for large numbers of sky frames. Our first attempts consisted in cross correlating about 5 Million 3'×3' sky fields, taken by the Infrared Space Observatory, against the data base of SSOs. The final source identification was based on reliable N-body ephemeris calculations and infrared brightness estimates. We aimed for the following goals: (1) ``Cleaning'' of stellar, galactic and extragalactic catalogue lists from SSOs; (2) Identifying serendipitously seen well-known SSOs for calibration purposes; (3) Extracting asteroids and comets for further scientific investigations; We believe that our experience in solving these problems might also be helpful for future developements of ``Virtual Observatories''.

  17. Mesoscopic aspects of phase transitions in a solvent extraction system.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ross J; Audras, Matthieu; Antonio, Mark R

    2012-11-06

    In liquid-liquid extraction, organic phase splitting arises when high concentrations of polar solutes (acids/metal ions) are extracted. Herein, we investigate the mesoscopic roots that underpin phase splitting in alkane phases containing mixed amphiphiles, of contemporary interest in solvent extraction separation systems, by extracting various oxoacids. The oxoacids exhibited individual macroscopic (extractive and physical) behaviors, inducing phase splitting into heavy and light domains under markedly different conditions. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data analyzed using the generalized indirect Fourier transform (GIFT) method, we showed that, in all cases, acid extraction drove the self-assembly of reverse micelles into rods. These grew with increased acid extraction until reaching a critical length of 20 nm, at which point interactions produced interconnected cylinders or lamellar sheets that prelude phase splitting into heavy and light domains. In all cases, the heavy phase contained the same surfactant ratio-TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) and CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide)-even though the concentrations of acid, water, and amphiphiles were markedly different. The remarkable similarities in structure and amphiphile stoichiometries underpinning phase splitting across the macroscopically different acid extraction series allude to the mesoscopic roots of organic phase behavior in solvent extraction. Our studies show that the structures underpinning phase splitting in solvent extraction systems are more complex than previously thought and are reminiscent of phase transitions in soft matter.

  18. A hybrid system for temporal information extraction from clinical text

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Buzhou; Wu, Yonghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Yukun; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive temporal information extraction system that can identify events, temporal expressions, and their temporal relations in clinical text. This project was part of the 2012 i2b2 clinical natural language processing (NLP) challenge on temporal information extraction. Materials and methods The 2012 i2b2 NLP challenge organizers manually annotated 310 clinic notes according to a defined annotation guideline: a training set of 190 notes and a test set of 120 notes. All participating systems were developed on the training set and evaluated on the test set. Our system consists of three modules: event extraction, temporal expression extraction, and temporal relation (also called Temporal Link, or ‘TLink’) extraction. The TLink extraction module contains three individual classifiers for TLinks: (1) between events and section times, (2) within a sentence, and (3) across different sentences. The performance of our system was evaluated using scripts provided by the i2b2 organizers. Primary measures were micro-averaged Precision, Recall, and F-measure. Results Our system was among the top ranked. It achieved F-measures of 0.8659 for temporal expression extraction (ranked fourth), 0.6278 for end-to-end TLink track (ranked first), and 0.6932 for TLink-only track (ranked first) in the challenge. We subsequently investigated different strategies for TLink extraction, and were able to marginally improve performance with an F-measure of 0.6943 for TLink-only track. PMID:23571849

  19. Hybrid kicker presents the best of both worlds

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, V.

    1980-01-01

    This system uses a sunspace or passive gain area in tandem with an active collector array. The basic operation takes stratified warm air from the top of the sunspace and runs it up through the collector array. This allows the temperature in the sunspace to be kept at a controlled level and the air to then be boosted to a higher temperature for storage and retrieval purposes. (MHR)

  20. Availability assessment of a centrifugal contactor solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J; Grady, M S; Jubin, R T

    1985-08-01

    A systematic and detailed reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment was made of the preconceptual design of the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test solvent extraction system. Initially, the computed availability for the five cycles of solvent extraction was less than the goal for the facility. Contributions to the downtime were identified. Improvements in specifications, design, and equipment configurations that raise the predicted availability are recommended.

  1. A Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, S.T.; Blair, G.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Deacon, L.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; Kamps, T.; Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.F.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Senanayake, R.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    A new laser-wire (LW) system has been installed at the ATF extraction line at KEK, Tsukuba. The system aims at a micron-scale laser spot size and employs a mode-locked laser system. The purpose-built interaction chamber, light delivery optics, and lens systems are described, and the first results are presented.

  2. Electron beam extraction on plasma cathode electron sources system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwadi, Agus; Taufik, M., Lely Susita R.; Suprapto, Saefurrochman, H., Anjar A.; Wibowo, Kurnia; Aziz, Ihwanul; Siswanto, Bambang

    2017-03-01

    ELECTRON BEAM EXTRACTION ON PLASMA CATHODE ELECTRON SOURCES SYSTEM. The electron beam extraction through window of Plasma Generator Chamber (PGC) for Pulsed Electron Irradiator (PEI) device and simulation of plasma potential has been studied. Plasma electron beam is extracted to acceleration region for enlarging their power by the external accelerating high voltage (Vext) and then it is passed foil window of the PEI for being irradiated to any target (atmospheric pressure). Electron beam extraction from plasma surface must be able to overcome potential barrier at the extraction window region which is shown by estimate simulation (Opera program) based on data of plasma surface potential of 150 V with Ueks values are varied by 150 kV, 175 kV and 200 kV respectively. PGC is made of 304 stainless steel with cylindrical shape in 30 cm of diameter, 90 cm length, electrons extraction window as many as 975 holes on the area of (15 × 65) cm2 with extraction hole cell in 0.3 mm of radius each other, an cylindrical shape IEP chamber is made of 304 stainless steel in 70 cm diameter and 30 cm length. The research result shown that the acquisition of electron beam extraction current depends on plasma parameters (electron density ne, temperature Te), accelerating high voltage Vext, the value of discharge parameter G, anode area Sa, electron extraction window area Se and extraction efficiency value α.

  3. A High-Efficiency Cellular Extraction System for Biological Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dhabaria, Avantika; Cifani, Paolo; Reed, Casie; Steen, Hanno; Kentsis, Alex

    2015-08-07

    Recent developments in quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry have led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical analyses of cellular reactions, protein-protein interactions, and small-molecule-drug discovery. These approaches depend on cellular proteome extraction that preserves native protein activities. Here, we systematically analyzed mechanical methods of cell lysis and physical protein extraction to identify those that maximize the extraction of cellular proteins while minimizing their denaturation. Cells were mechanically disrupted using Potter-Elvehjem homogenization, probe- or adaptive-focused acoustic sonication, and were in the presence of various detergents, including polyoxyethylene ethers and esters, glycosides, and zwitterions. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical assays, and mass spectrometry proteomics, we identified the combination of adaptive focused acoustic (AFA) sonication in the presence of a binary poloxamer-based mixture of octyl-β-glucoside and Pluronic F-127 to maximize the depth and yield of the proteome extraction while maintaining native protein activity. This binary poloxamer extraction system allowed for native proteome extraction comparable in coverage to the proteomes extracted using denaturing SDS or guanidine-containing buffers, including the efficient extraction of all major cellular organelles. This high-efficiency cellular extraction system should prove useful for a variety of cell biochemical studies, including structural and functional proteomics.

  4. Thermal analysis of the LHC injection kicker magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, L.; Abánades, A.; Barnes, M. J.; Vlachodimitropoulos, V.; Weterings, W.

    2017-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider LHC is equipped with two fast pulsed magnet systems (MKIs) that inject particle beams coming from the injector chain. Operation with high intensity beams for many hours can lead to significant beam induced heating of the ferrite yokes of the MKIs. When the ferrite exceeds the Curie temperature of 125°C it loses its magnetic properties, preventing further injection until the ferrite cools down, potentially causing a delay of several hours. Hence important upgrades of the beam-screen were implemented after Run 1 of LHC. However, the High-Luminosity (HL) LHC will be operated with significantly higher intensity beams and hence additional measures are required to limit the ferrite temperature. These magnets operate under ultra-high vacuum conditions: convection is negligible and, as a result of low emissivity of the inside of the vacuum tanks, thermal radiation is limited. A detailed study of the thermal behaviour of these magnets is reported and compared with measurements. In addition several options to improve cooling of the ferrites are presented and analysed.

  5. Accel-decel extraction system for PIG sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spädtke, P.; Heymach, F.; Hollinger, R.; Leible, K. D.; Mayr, R.; Shi, L. Q.

    2002-02-01

    Increasing the brightness of the ion beam is a typical demand for any accelerator. In order to fill the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) up to the space charge limit, higher pulse currents are necessary. The UNILAC is operated with a pulse length up to 6 ms and a repetition rate up to 50 s-1. For the injection into the SIS a pulse length of 300 μs at 0.3 s-1 is required. The transverse acceptance of the RFQ is 138 π mm mrad. According to Child's law, the ion current density which can be extracted from a plasma source is for the space charge limited flow proportional to Φ1.5/d2. With Φ and d denoting the extraction voltage and the width of the extraction gap. One approach to generate higher ion currents is to increase the extraction voltage in the regularly used extraction system. However, the required beam velocity is fixed by the RFQ structure with 2.2 keV/u. The mass-to-charge ratio which is to be accelerated can be between 1 and 65, resulting in a total voltage drop from 2.2 up to 143 kV (extraction and postacceleration voltage). The other approach is to decrease the gap width in the extraction system, but there is an optimum in the aspect ratio. To generate an ion beam with a higher current at low energy, a triode extraction system operated in accel-decel (Uacc,Udec) mode is a possible solution. By applying a negative potential at the second electrode a higher extraction field strength can be achieved. The effects of extraction field, arc current, and ion energy on the extracted ion beam current and its emittance were investigated.

  6. Effects of providing advance cues during a soccer penalty kick on the kicker's rate of success.

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Javier; Oño, Antonio; Raya, Antonio; Bilbao, Alfonso

    2010-12-01

    The effect of explicitly providing goalkeeper's movement advanced cue to the kicker during a real penalty kick task was assessed. 32 expert soccer players (M age= 23.2 yr.), who were divided into four groups: an experimental group, a discovery group, a placebo group, and a control group, participated. Rate of success in the task was assessed, as well as goals, decision times, and ball flight times. Providing an advance cue significantly improved the players' rate of success relative to players without the advance cue; this difference was still present after 1 and 7 days without training. The experimental group adapted better to the time range within which the response could be effective, while the discovery group showed adaptations. Explicit instructions about the advance cues available from goalkeepers' actions before the dive during practice can improve penalty kick performance.

  7. A Pulsed Modulator Power Supply for the g-2 Muon Storage Ring Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Mi,J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Morse, W. M.; Pai, C.; Pappas, G.; Sanders, R.; Semertzidis, Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the g-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95 kV. the damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. this paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  8. A PULSED MODULATOR POWER SUPPLY FOR THE G-2 MUON STORAGE RING INJECTION KICKER.

    SciTech Connect

    MI,J.LEE,Y.Y.MORSE,W.M.PAI,C.I.PAPPAS,G.C.SANDERS,Y.SEMERTIZIDIS,Y.,ET AL.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the 8-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, a damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95kV. The damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. This paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  9. Coffee extraction kinetics in a well mixed system.

    PubMed

    Moroney, Kevin M; Lee, William T; O'Brien, Stephen Bg; Suijver, Freek; Marra, Johan

    The extraction of coffee solubles from roasted and ground coffee is a complex operation, the understanding of which is key to the brewing of high quality coffee. This complexity stems from the fact that brewing of coffee is achieved through a wide variety of techniques each of which depends on a large number of process variables. In this paper, we consider a recent, experimentally validated model of coffee extraction, which describes extraction from a coffee bed using a double porosity model. The model incorporates dissolution and transport of coffee in the coffee bed. The model was shown to accurately describe extraction of coffee solubles from grains in two situations: extraction from a dilute suspension of coffee grains and extraction from a packed coffee bed. The full model equations can only be solved numerically. In this work we consider asymptotic solutions, based on the dominant mechanisms, in the case of coffee extraction from a dilute suspension of coffee grains. Extraction in this well mixed system, can be described by a set of ordinary differential equations. This allows analysis of the extraction kinetics from the coffee grains independent of transport processes associated with flow through packed coffee beds. Coffee extraction for an individual grain is controlled by two processes: a rapid dissolution of coffee from the grain surfaces in conjunction with a much slower diffusion of coffee through the tortuous intragranular pore network to the grain surfaces. Utilising a small parameter resulting from the ratio of these two timescales, we construct asymptotic solutions using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical solutions and data from coffee extraction experiments. The asymptotic solutions depend on a small number of dimensionless parameters, so the solutions facilitate quick investigation of the influence of various process parameters on the coffee extraction curves.

  10. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth; Pham, Huyen Thanh; Dinh, Long Doan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the application of medicinal

  11. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  12. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  13. A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically <5% for concentrations of 100 ?? 103 atoms g-1 or more. The new system is relatively small and easy to construct, costs significantly less than the original in situ 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  14. ChemEx: information extraction system for chemical data curation.

    PubMed

    Tharatipyakul, Atima; Numnark, Somrak; Wichadakul, Duangdao; Ingsriswang, Supawadee

    2012-01-01

    Manual chemical data curation from publications is error-prone, time consuming, and hard to maintain up-to-date data sets. Automatic information extraction can be used as a tool to reduce these problems. Since chemical structures usually described in images, information extraction needs to combine structure image recognition and text mining together. We have developed ChemEx, a chemical information extraction system. ChemEx processes both text and images in publications. Text annotator is able to extract compound, organism, and assay entities from text content while structure image recognition enables translation of chemical raster images to machine readable format. A user can view annotated text along with summarized information of compounds, organism that produces those compounds, and assay tests. ChemEx facilitates and speeds up chemical data curation by extracting compounds, organisms, and assays from a large collection of publications. The software and corpus can be downloaded from http://www.biotec.or.th/isl/ChemEx.

  15. Abu Dhabi's strategic tunnel enhancement programme: odour extraction system approaches.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Scott; Witherspoon, Jay; Orakzai, Shahzad; Krause, T

    2012-01-01

    The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has experienced tremendous growth since the mid-1970s resulting in significant overloading of its existing sewerage system. Master planning determined that the best long-term wastewater collection and conveyance solution was construction of a deep tunnel sewer system. Implementation of this massive project faced numerous challenges, including the goal of no odours and limited odour control facilities. To accomplish this, the consultant team examined a unique approach of a single odour control system installed at the proposed downstream tunnel pumping station. Rigorous analysis utilising computer-based models confirmed the viability of this approach. However, other approaches including multiple satellite (localised or regional) odour extraction systems were considered. To better understand entrained air forces at vortex drops, and to confirm the preferred odour extraction approach, physical modelling of drop structures and overall tunnel system was implemented. Results and findings concluded that a regional odour extraction system approach was preferred over a single (centralised) extraction approach. This paper focuses on the process of selecting the preferred odour extraction approach and preliminary capacity sizing of regional systems.

  16. MODELING AND BIOPHARMACEUTICAL EVALUATION OF SEMISOLID SYSTEMS WITH ROSEMARY EXTRACT.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Zilius, Modestas; Kancauskas, Marius; Juskaite, Vaida; Cizinauskas, Vytis; Inkeniene, Asta; Petrikaite, Vilma; Rimdeika, Rytis; Briedis, Vitalis

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature provides a great deal of studies supporting antioxidant effects of rosemary, protecting the body's cells against reactive oxygen species and their negative impact. Ethanol rosemary extracts were produced by maceration method. To assess biological activity of rosemary extracts, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity tests were performed. Antimicrobial activity tests revealed that G+ microorganisms are most sensitive to liquid rosemary extract, while G-microorganisms are most resistant to it. For the purposes of experimenting, five types of semisolid systems were modeled: hydrogel, oleogel, absorption-hydrophobic ointment, oil-in-water-type cream and water-in-oil-type cream, which contained rosemary extract as an active ingredient. Study results show that liquid rosemary extract was distributed evenly in the aqueous phase of water-in-oil-type system, forming the stable emulsion systems. The following research aim was chosen to evaluate the semisolid systems with rosemary exctract: to model semisolid preparations with liquid rosemary extract and determine the influence of excipients on their quality, and perform in vitro study of the release of active ingredients and antimicrobial activity. It was found that oil-in-water type gel-cream has antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and Candida albicans fungus, while hydrogel affected only Candida albicans. According to the results of biopharmaceutical study, modeled semisolid systems with rosemary extract can be arranged in an ascending order of the release of phenolic compounds from the forms: water-in-oil-type cream < absorption-hydrophobic ointment < Pionier PLW oleogel < oil-in-water-type eucerin cream < hydrogel < oil-in-water-type gel-cream. Study results showed that oil-in-water-type gel-cream is the most suitable vehicle for liquid rosemary extract used as an active ingredient.

  17. Smart Extraction and Analysis System for Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Ali, Taqdir; Jamshed, Arif; Lee, Sungyoung

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs), there is a growing need to expand the utilization of EHR data to support clinical research. The key challenge in achieving this goal is the unavailability of smart systems and methods to overcome the issue of data preparation, structuring, and sharing for smooth clinical research. We developed a robust analysis system called the smart extraction and analysis system (SEAS) that consists of two subsystems: (1) the information extraction system (IES), for extracting information from clinical documents, and (2) the survival analysis system (SAS), for a descriptive and predictive analysis to compile the survival statistics and predict the future chance of survivability. The IES subsystem is based on a novel permutation-based pattern recognition method that extracts information from unstructured clinical documents. Similarly, the SAS subsystem is based on a classification and regression tree (CART)-based prediction model for survival analysis. SEAS is evaluated and validated on a real-world case study of head and neck cancer. The overall information extraction accuracy of the system for semistructured text is recorded at 99%, while that for unstructured text is 97%. Furthermore, the automated, unstructured information extraction has reduced the average time spent on manual data entry by 75%, without compromising the accuracy of the system. Moreover, around 88% of patients are found in a terminal or dead state for the highest clinical stage of disease (level IV). Similarly, there is an ∼36% probability of a patient being alive if at least one of the lifestyle risk factors was positive. We presented our work on the development of SEAS to replace costly and time-consuming manual methods with smart automatic extraction of information and survival prediction methods. SEAS has reduced the time and energy of human resources spent unnecessarily on manual tasks.

  18. SNS INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS ? ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Beam loss is higher than expected in the Ring injection section and in the injection dump beam line. The primary causes are fairly well understood, and we have made some equipment modifications to reduce the loss. In the ring extraction beam line the beam distribution exhibits cross-plane coupling (tilt), and the cause has been traced to a large skew-quadrupole component in the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we will discuss the issues surrounding the ring injection and extraction systems, the solutions we have implemented to date, and our plans for future improvements.

  19. Models Extracted from Text for System-Software Safety Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes extraction and integration of requirements information and safety information in visualizations to support early review of completeness, correctness, and consistency of lengthy and diverse system safety analyses. Software tools have been developed and extended to perform the following tasks: 1) extract model parts and safety information from text in interface requirements documents, failure modes and effects analyses and hazard reports; 2) map and integrate the information to develop system architecture models and visualizations for safety analysts; and 3) provide model output to support virtual system integration testing. This presentation illustrates the methods and products with a rocket motor initiation case.

  20. GLODAPv2 data exploration and extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, Misha; Kozyr, Alex; Boden, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort of investigators funded for ocean synthesis and modeling projects by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Energy (DOE), and National Science Foundation (NSF). Cruises conducted as part of the WOCE, JGOFS, and NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) over the decade of the 1990s generated oceanographic data of unparalleled quality and quantity. GLODAPv2 is a uniformly calibrated open-ocean data product containing inorganic carbon and carbon-relevant variables. This new product includes data from approximately one million individual seawater samples collected from over 700 cruises during the period 1972-2013. Extensive quality control and subsequent calibration were carried out for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, pH, and chlorofluorocarbon data. The Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC), serving as the primary DOE disseminator for climate data and information, developed database and web accessible systems that permit users worldwide to query and retrieve data from the GLODAPv2 collection. This presentation will showcase this new system, discuss technologies used to build the GLODAPv2 resource, and describe integration with a metadata search engine provided by CDIAC as well.

  1. Extractive text summarization system to aid data extraction from full text in systematic review development.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hurdle, John F; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    Extracting data from publication reports is a standard process in systematic review (SR) development. However, the data extraction process still relies too much on manual effort which is slow, costly, and subject to human error. In this study, we developed a text summarization system aimed at enhancing productivity and reducing errors in the traditional data extraction process. We developed a computer system that used machine learning and natural language processing approaches to automatically generate summaries of full-text scientific publications. The summaries at the sentence and fragment levels were evaluated in finding common clinical SR data elements such as sample size, group size, and PICO values. We compared the computer-generated summaries with human written summaries (title and abstract) in terms of the presence of necessary information for the data extraction as presented in the Cochrane review's study characteristics tables. At the sentence level, the computer-generated summaries covered more information than humans do for systematic reviews (recall 91.2% vs. 83.8%, p<0.001). They also had a better density of relevant sentences (precision 59% vs. 39%, p<0.001). At the fragment level, the ensemble approach combining rule-based, concept mapping, and dictionary-based methods performed better than individual methods alone, achieving an 84.7% F-measure. Computer-generated summaries are potential alternative information sources for data extraction in systematic review development. Machine learning and natural language processing are promising approaches to the development of such an extractive summarization system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Investigation of Aggregation in Synergistic Solvent Extraction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy Steven

    With an increasing focus on anthropogenic climate change, nuclear reactors present an attractive option for base load power generation with regard to air pollution and carbon emissions, especially when compared with traditional fossil fuel based options. However, used nuclear fuel (UNF) is highly radiotoxic and contains minor actinides (americium and curium) which remain more radiotoxic than natural uranium ore for hundreds of thousands of years, presenting a challenge for long-term storage . Advanced nuclear fuel recycling can reduce this required storage time to thousands of years by removing the highly radiotoxic minor actinides. Many advanced separation schemes have been proposed to achieve this separation but none have been implemented to date. A key feature among many proposed schemes is the use of more than one extraction reagent in a single extraction phase, which can lead to the phenomenon known as "synergism" in which the extraction efficiency for a combination of the reagents is greater than that of the individual extractants alone. This feature is not well understood for many systems and a comprehensive picture of the mechanism behind synergism does not exist. There are several proposed mechanisms for synergism though none have been used to model multiple extraction systems. This work examines several proposed advanced extractant combinations which exhibit synergism: 2-bromodecanoic acid (BDA) with 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (TERPY), tri-n-butylphosphine oxide (TPBO) with 2-thenoyltrifluoro acetone (HTTA), and dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) with 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-dodecan-6-oxime (LIX). We examine two proposed synergistic mechanisms involving and attempt to verify the ability of these mechanisms to predict the extraction behavior of the chosen systems. These are a reverse micellar catalyzed extraction model and a mixed complex formation model. Neither was able to effectively predict the synergistic behavior of the systems. We further examine

  3. A Risk Assessment System with Automatic Extraction of Event Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Philippe; Delavallade, Thomas; Nakamura, Takuya; Sandor, Agnes; Tarsitano, Cedric; Voyatzi, Stavroula

    In this article we describe the joint effort of experts in linguistics, information extraction and risk assessment to integrate EventSpotter, an automatic event extraction engine, into ADAC, an automated early warning system. By detecting as early as possible weak signals of emerging risks ADAC provides a dynamic synthetic picture of situations involving risk. The ADAC system calculates risk on the basis of fuzzy logic rules operated on a template graph whose leaves are event types. EventSpotter is based on a general purpose natural language dependency parser, XIP, enhanced with domain-specific lexical resources (Lexicon-Grammar). Its role is to automatically feed the leaves with input data.

  4. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  5. Actively controlled multiple-sensor system for feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, Michael J.; Silberberg, Teresa M.

    1991-08-01

    Typical vision systems which attempt to extract features from a visual image of the world for the purposes of object recognition and navigation are limited by the use of a single sensor and no active sensor control capability. To overcome limitations and deficiencies of rigid single sensor systems, more and more researchers are investigating actively controlled, multisensor systems. To address these problems, we have developed a self-calibrating system which uses active multiple sensor control to extract features of moving objects. A key problem in such systems is registering the images, that is, finding correspondences between images from cameras of differing focal lengths, lens characteristics, and positions and orientations. The authors first propose a technique which uses correlation of edge magnitudes for continuously calibrating pan and tilt angles of several different cameras relative to a single camera with a wide angle field of view, which encompasses the views of every other sensor. A simulation of a world of planar surfaces, visual sensors, and a robot platform used to test active control for feature extraction is then described. Motion in the field of view of at least one sensor is used to center the moving object for several sensors, which then extract object features such as color, boundary, and velocity from the appropriate sensors. Results are presented from real cameras and from the simulated world.

  6. Portable blood extraction device integrated with biomedical monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumpuang, S.; Horade, M.; Fujioka, K.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Painless and portable blood extraction device has been immersed in the world of miniaturization on bio-medical research particularly in manufacturing point-of-care systems. The fabrication of a blood extraction device integrated with an electrolyte-monitoring system is reported in this paper. The device has advantages in precise controlled dosage of blood extracted including the slightly damaged blood vessels and nervous system. The in-house blood diagnostic will become simple for the patients. Main components of the portable system are; the blood extraction device and electrolyte-monitoring system. The monitoring system consists of ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) for measuring the concentration level of minerals in blood. In this work, we measured the level of 3 ions; Na+, K+ and Cl-. The mentioned ions are frequently required the measurement since their concentration levels in the blood can indicate whether the kidney, pancreas, liver or heart is being malfunction. The fabrication of the whole system and experimentation on each ISM (Ion Sensitive Membrane) will be provided. Taking the advantages of LIGA technology, the 100 hollow microneedles fabricated by Synchrotron Radiation deep X-ray lithography through PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique have been consisted in 5x5 mm2 area. The microneedle is 300 μm in base-diameter, 500 μm-pitch, 800 μm-height and 50 μm hole-diameter. The total size of the blood extraction device is 2x2x2 cm 3. The package is made from a plastic socket including slots for inserting microneedle array and ISFET connecting to an electrical circuit for the monitoring. Through the dimensional design for simply handling and selection of disposable material, the patients can self-evaluate the critical level of the body minerals in anywhere and anytime.

  7. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  8. Microscale solid-phase extraction system for explosives.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; Collins, Greg E; Wang, Joseph

    2003-04-04

    A simple, semi-automated, microcolumn solid-phase extraction (SPE) system is optimized for the extraction, preconcentration and HPLC analysis of seven different explosives and explosive derivatives contaminating seawater, river water and well water samples. The microcolumns were constructed from 1/16 in. O.D. PTFE tubing (1 in.=2.54 cm) packed with 0.5-1.5 mg of SPE material. LiChrolut EN or Porapak R. The extraction system consisted of two syringe pumps and several solenoid valves. Optimal detection limits were realized when the sample water flow-rate was maximally increased within the limits of the pump, 5-10 ml/min (despite exceeding the breakthrough threshold of the SPE microcolumn), and when the eluate volume collected from the column was minimized, <5 microl (despite very low recovery percentages).

  9. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE CF SYSTEMS ORGANIC EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CF Systems Organic Extraction Process was used to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged from the New Bedford Harbor. This work was done as part of a field demonstration under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of the SITE p...

  11. MBA: a literature mining system for extracting biomedical abbreviations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Wang, ZhiHao; Lei, YiMing; Zhao, YuZhong; Xue, Yu

    2009-01-09

    The exploding growth of the biomedical literature presents many challenges for biological researchers. One such challenge is from the use of a great deal of abbreviations. Extracting abbreviations and their definitions accurately is very helpful to biologists and also facilitates biomedical text analysis. Existing approaches fall into four broad categories: rule based, machine learning based, text alignment based and statistically based. State of the art methods either focus exclusively on acronym-type abbreviations, or could not recognize rare abbreviations. We propose a systematic method to extract abbreviations effectively. At first a scoring method is used to classify the abbreviations into acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations, and then their corresponding definitions are identified by two different methods: text alignment algorithm for the former, statistical method for the latter. A literature mining system MBA was constructed to extract both acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations. An abbreviation-tagged literature corpus, called Medstract gold standard corpus, was used to evaluate the system. MBA achieved a recall of 88% at the precision of 91% on the Medstract gold-standard EVALUATION Corpus. We present a new literature mining system MBA for extracting biomedical abbreviations. Our evaluation demonstrates that the MBA system performs better than the others. It can identify the definition of not only acronym-type abbreviations including a little irregular acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ), but also non-acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ).

  12. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  13. REVIEW OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR EVALUATING SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a commonly used remedial technology at sites contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC5) such as chlorinated solvents and hydrocarbon fuels. Modeling tools are available to help evaluate the feasibility, design, and performance of SVE system...

  14. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE CF SYSTEMS ORGANIC EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CF Systems Organic Extraction Process was used to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged from the New Bedford Harbor. This work was done as part of a field demonstration under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of the SITE p...

  15. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  16. Transfiguration of extracting mirror in synchrotron radiation system at SSRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Huang, GuoQing; Zhou, WeiMin; Ye, KaiRong; Leng, YongBin

    2011-12-01

    The first extracting mirror is very important for synchrotron radiation monitor (SRM). The SRM system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) should extract the visible light with low optical distortion. The analysis of SR power spectrum and heat transfiguration based on Matlab is introduced in this paper, which will be used in calibration. One beryllium mirror with water-cooling is used to transmit X-ray and reflect visible light to satisfy the measurement request. The existing system suffers from a dynamic problem in some beam physics study. The system includes optics, image acquisition and interferometers. One of the instruments is a digital camera providing the image of the beam transverse profile. The hardware configuration will be summarized. The synchrotron radiation measurement system has been in operation in SSRF for more than one year.

  17. Recent experience in the fabrication and brazing of ceramic beam tubes for kicker magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Jensen, C.; Reilly, R.; Snee, D.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil (titanium/incusil) alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed in the furnace at 1000 C. The ceramic specified is 99.8% Alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a strong recrystallized high-alumina fabricated by slip casting. Recent experience at Fermilab with the fabrication and brazing of these tubes has brought to light numerous problems including tube breakage and cracking and also the difficulty of brazing the tube to produce a leak-tight joint. These problems may be due to the ceramic quality, voids in the ceramic, thinness of the wall, and micro-cracks in the ends which make it difficult to braze because it cannot fill tiny surface cracks which are caused by grain pullout during the cutting process. Solutions which are being investigated include lapping the ends of the tubes before brazing to eliminate the micro-cracks and also metallization of the tubes.

  18. A fast "kicker" using a two-channel rectangular dielectric wakefield accelerator structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2017-03-01

    A method is proposed to select and eject bunches of electrons or positrons from a high energy train of charged bunches, based on proven dielectric wakefield accelerator technology. The kicker structure, consisting of a pair of adjacent rectangular dielectric-lined waveguides, permits the coupling of the wakefield that is generated from a train of low-energy (˜6 MeV) "drive bunches" moving in one waveguide to the adjacent waveguide where a portion of a train of high energy "witness bunches" needs to be diverted. A very fast response time (˜1 ns) for bunch deflection is estimated, and a structure as short as 10-30 cm would suffice to impart to the diverted bunches a transverse kick of an interest to high-energy accelerator application, e.g. 150 keV/c. The witness bunch width must be less than 0.2 - 0.3 mm to have an emittance dilution that makes the deflected bunch suitable for e.g. FEL applications.

  19. Design, analysis and measurement of very fast kicker magnets at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.N.; Bowden, G.B.; Bulos, F.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Harvey, A.; Kulikov, A.V.; Nguyen, M.N.; Odian, A.; Price, V.G.

    1989-03-01

    Recent experience with SLC has shown that very fast, ferrite-loaded, transmission-line, beam-kicker magnets can cause significant and undesirable distortion of a 1.5-2.5 kA, 20-4- kV pulse as it travels through the magnet. In general, there is a net lengthening of the pulse, with increases in its rise and fall times, a decrease in amplitude, and an unsymmetrical rounding of the flattop. In this partially tutorial treatise, a number of practical design considerations are discussed in terms of equivalent circuits, magnet circuit dispersion and dissipation, undesired circuit shunting and coupling, high-voltage breakdown problems and high-order-mode losses that lead to beam tube heating. These effects are linked to the properties of the materials, the presence of radiation and realizable magnet topologies. Measurements and calculations of some of these characteristics for several magnet designs are reviewed. The results presented come from a truly eclectic effort. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  20. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  1. ROBODEXS: multi-robot deployment and extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jeremy P.; Mason, James R.; Patterson, Michael S.; Skalny, Matthew W.

    2012-06-01

    The importance of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV's) in the Military's operations is continually increasing. All Military branches now rely on advanced robotic technologies to aid in their missions' operations. The integration of these technologies has not only enhanced capabilities, but has increased personnel safety by generating larger standoff distances. Currently most UGV's are deployed by an exposed dismounted Warfighter because the Military possess a limited capability to do so remotely and can only deploy a single UGV. This paper explains the conceptual development of a novel approach to remotely deploy and extract multiple robots from a single host platform. The Robotic Deployment & Extraction System (ROBODEXS) is a result of our development research to improve marsupial robotic deployment at safe standoff distances. The presented solution is modular and scalable, having the ability to deploy anywhere from two to twenty robots from a single deployment mechanism. For larger carrier platforms, multiple sets of ROBODEXS modules may be integrated for deployment and extraction of even greater numbers of robots. Such a system allows mass deployment and extraction from a single manned/unmanned vehicle, which is not currently possible with other deployment systems.

  2. [A digital filtering system for extracting crackles from lung sounds].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Harashima, H; Ono, M; Mori, M

    1989-06-01

    A nonlinear digital filter system is proposed for automatic extraction of crackles which are discontinuous adventitious sounds in lung sounds. This system is composed of two nonlinear digital filters; one is a stationary nonstationary separating filter, and the other is a width-discriminating filter. The former separates nonstationary signals from stationary ones in the lung sounds, using the prediction error to the input lung sound signal. If the prediction error is small enough, the lung sound is considered to be stationary, but if the error is large, a nonstationary signal is considered to occur and the nonstationary part is separated. The latter, the width-discriminating filter, performs signal extraction by considering the signal wave form of the crackles, simply realized by logical algebra. This filter extracts an impulsive signal, which is a small-width wave, and its succeeding waves; such wave form is typical of that of crackles. First, crackles are roughly separated by the stationary-nonstationary separating filter as nonstationary signals, and then are more precisely extracted from the nonstationary output by the width-discriminating filter. Some examples of processing actual lung sound data by this system show its high performance.

  3. ChemEx: information extraction system for chemical data curation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manual chemical data curation from publications is error-prone, time consuming, and hard to maintain up-to-date data sets. Automatic information extraction can be used as a tool to reduce these problems. Since chemical structures usually described in images, information extraction needs to combine structure image recognition and text mining together. Results We have developed ChemEx, a chemical information extraction system. ChemEx processes both text and images in publications. Text annotator is able to extract compound, organism, and assay entities from text content while structure image recognition enables translation of chemical raster images to machine readable format. A user can view annotated text along with summarized information of compounds, organism that produces those compounds, and assay tests. Conclusions ChemEx facilitates and speeds up chemical data curation by extracting compounds, organisms, and assays from a large collection of publications. The software and corpus can be downloaded from http://www.biotec.or.th/isl/ChemEx. PMID:23282330

  4. Arduino-based automation of a DNA extraction system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Won; Lee, Mi-So; Ryu, Mun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies to detect infectious diseases with the molecular genetic method. This study presents an automation process for a DNA extraction system based on microfluidics and magnetic bead, which is part of a portable molecular genetic test system. This DNA extraction system consists of a cartridge with chambers, syringes, four linear stepper actuators, and a rotary stepper actuator. The actuators provide a sequence of steps in the DNA extraction process, such as transporting, mixing, and washing for the gene specimen, magnetic bead, and reagent solutions. The proposed automation system consists of a PC-based host application and an Arduino-based controller. The host application compiles a G code sequence file and interfaces with the controller to execute the compiled sequence. The controller executes stepper motor axis motion, time delay, and input-output manipulation. It drives the stepper motor with an open library, which provides a smooth linear acceleration profile. The controller also provides a homing sequence to establish the motor's reference position, and hard limit checking to prevent any over-travelling. The proposed system was implemented and its functionality was investigated, especially regarding positioning accuracy and velocity profile.

  5. Adaptable, high recall, event extraction system with minimal configuration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical event extraction has been a major focus of biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) research since the first BioNLP shared task was held in 2009. Accordingly, a large number of event extraction systems have been developed. Most such systems, however, have been developed for specific tasks and/or incorporated task specific settings, making their application to new corpora and tasks problematic without modification of the systems themselves. There is thus a need for event extraction systems that can achieve high levels of accuracy when applied to corpora in new domains, without the need for exhaustive tuning or modification, whilst retaining competitive levels of performance. Results We have enhanced our state-of-the-art event extraction system, EventMine, to alleviate the need for task-specific tuning. Task-specific details are specified in a configuration file, while extensive task-specific parameter tuning is avoided through the integration of a weighting method, a covariate shift method, and their combination. The task-specific configuration and weighting method have been employed within the context of two different sub-tasks of BioNLP shared task 2013, i.e. Cancer Genetics (CG) and Pathway Curation (PC), removing the need to modify the system specifically for each task. With minimal task specific configuration and tuning, EventMine achieved the 1st place in the PC task, and 2nd in the CG, achieving the highest recall for both tasks. The system has been further enhanced following the shared task by incorporating the covariate shift method and entity generalisations based on the task definitions, leading to further performance improvements. Conclusions We have shown that it is possible to apply a state-of-the-art event extraction system to new tasks with high levels of performance, without having to modify the system internally. Both covariate shift and weighting methods are useful in facilitating the production of high recall systems

  6. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used.

  7. Self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungsup; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2016-01-07

    Over the past few decades, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have played a great role in revolutionizing the way in vitro medical diagnostics are conducted and transforming bulky and expensive laboratory instruments and labour-intensive tests into easy to use, cost-effective miniaturized systems with faster analysis time, which can be used for near-patient or point-of-care (POC) tests. Fluidic pumps and valves are among the key components for LOC systems; however, they often require on-line electrical power or batteries and make the whole system bulky and complex, therefore limiting its application to POC testing especially in low-resource setting. This is particularly problematic for molecular diagnostics where multi-step sample processing (e.g. lysing, washing, elution) is necessary. In this work, we have developed a self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system (SSNES). The main components of SSNES are a powerless vacuum actuator using two disposable syringes and a switchgear made of PMMA blocks and an O-ring. In the vacuum actuator, an opened syringe and a blocked syringe are bound together and act as a working syringe and an actuating syringe, respectively. The negative pressure in the opened syringe is generated by a restoring force of the compressed air inside the blocked syringe and utilized as the vacuum source. The Venus symbol shape of the switchgear provides multiple functions including being a reagent reservoir, a push-button for the vacuum actuator, and an on-off valve. The SSNES consists of three sets of vacuum actuators, switchgears and microfluidic components. The entire system can be easily fabricated and is fully disposable. We have successfully demonstrated DNA extraction from a urine sample using a dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)-based extraction method and the performance of the DNA extraction has been confirmed by genetic (HRAS) analysis of DNA biomarkers from the extracted DNAs using the SSNES. Therefore, the SSNES can be widely

  8. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; ...

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  9. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rg is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.

  10. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rg is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.

  11. Extraction of metal ions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-inorganic salt two-phase systems in the presence of inorganic extractants: correlation between extraction behaviour and stability constants of extracted species.

    PubMed

    Bulgariu, Laura; Bulgariu, Dumitru

    2008-07-04

    The use of aqueous polyethylene glycol-inorganic salt two-phase systems for the extraction of metal ions has a great potential due to their durability, non-toxicity and relative low cost. The aqueous phases can be easily separated by centrifugation, and the operation is possible in a range of experimental conditions. The experimental results have shown that for a given aqueous two-phase system, the extraction behaviour of metal ions in presence of inorganic extractants is mainly dependent on the stability of extracted species. In this paper we review our results obtained at metal ion extraction using inorganic extractants and discuss three major types of extraction behaviours.

  12. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  13. MBA: a literature mining system for extracting biomedical abbreviations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yun; Wang, ZhiHao; Lei, YiMing; Zhao, YuZhong; Xue, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Background The exploding growth of the biomedical literature presents many challenges for biological researchers. One such challenge is from the use of a great deal of abbreviations. Extracting abbreviations and their definitions accurately is very helpful to biologists and also facilitates biomedical text analysis. Existing approaches fall into four broad categories: rule based, machine learning based, text alignment based and statistically based. State of the art methods either focus exclusively on acronym-type abbreviations, or could not recognize rare abbreviations. We propose a systematic method to extract abbreviations effectively. At first a scoring method is used to classify the abbreviations into acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations, and then their corresponding definitions are identified by two different methods: text alignment algorithm for the former, statistical method for the latter. Results A literature mining system MBA was constructed to extract both acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations. An abbreviation-tagged literature corpus, called Medstract gold standard corpus, was used to evaluate the system. MBA achieved a recall of 88% at the precision of 91% on the Medstract gold-standard EVALUATION Corpus. Conclusion We present a new literature mining system MBA for extracting biomedical abbreviations. Our evaluation demonstrates that the MBA system performs better than the others. It can identify the definition of not only acronym-type abbreviations including a little irregular acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ), but also non-acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ). PMID:19134199

  14. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  15. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-07-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  16. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  17. Design and evaluation of an ontology based information extraction system for radiological reports.

    PubMed

    Soysal, Ergin; Cicekli, Ilyas; Baykal, Nazife

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an information extraction system that extracts and converts the available information in free text Turkish radiology reports into a structured information model using manually created extraction rules and domain ontology. The ontology provides flexibility in the design of extraction rules, and determines the information model for the extracted semantic information. Although our information extraction system mainly concentrates on abdominal radiology reports, the system can be used in another field of medicine by adapting its ontology and extraction rule set. We achieved very high precision and recall results during the evaluation of the developed system with unseen radiology reports.

  18. Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakera, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Margaria,Tiziana; Hinchey, Mike; Vassev, Emil; Steffen, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Rich and multifaceted domain specific specification languages like the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) help to design reliable systems with self-healing capabilities. The GEAR game-based Model Checker has been used successfully to investigate properties of the ESA Exo- Mars Rover in depth. We show here how to enable GEAR s game-based verification techniques for ASSL via systematic model extraction from a behavioral subset of the language, and illustrate it on a description of the Voyager II space mission.

  19. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  20. Modeling soil vapor extraction to evaluate performance of a system

    SciTech Connect

    Struttman, T.J. ); Zachary, S.P. )

    1992-01-01

    The site described, located in northeast Ohio, originally had a 5,000 gallon UST that was used to supply gasoline. The tank was determined to be leaking from the fill port. Soil borings were augured to depth of 35 feet to determine the extent of soil contamination. At 20 to 30 feet in depth, contamination extended radially 50 to 60 feet. The estimated 1,600 cubic yard volume, as well as the proximity of existing buildings, made excavation, removal and disposal not cost effective. The depth of contaminated soils made bioremediation impractical. It was determined that sufficient information was available to install a vapor extraction system. The system includes 4 wells that can be individually drafted, a common vapor demister, and a 200 scfm induced draft fan. Vapor probes were installed to monitor both vacuum pressure and vapor concentration. The remediation was streamlined by focusing on installation of equipment and optimization of the system dynamics (operation). Data are collected monthly on individual well pressures, gas concentrations and mass loading in the exhaust. Analysis of these data yields radius of influence and contaminant mass withdrawal values. The draft to individual wells can be adjusted when needed to optimize system withdrawals. A model was developed, based on MODFLOW, and adapted to vapor extraction using known gas flow equations. The model was verified with known observed data. The results of this model were compared with data from the above site to determine appropriateness of using the model to design SVE system.

  1. Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Short, Anthony J.; Popescu, Sandu

    2014-06-01

    Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a ‘weight’ that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

  2. Technology Demonstration Summary: CF Systems Organics Extraction System, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program demonstration of CF Systems' organics extraction technology was conducted to obtain specific operating and cost information that could be used in evaluating the potential applicability of the technology to Superfund sites. The demonstration was conducted concurr...

  3. Technology Demonstration Summary: CF Systems Organics Extraction System, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program demonstration of CF Systems' organics extraction technology was conducted to obtain specific operating and cost information that could be used in evaluating the potential applicability of the technology to Superfund sites. The demonstration was conducted concurr...

  4. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  5. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project employs an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn s moon, Titan.

  6. Reversible work extraction in a hybrid opto-mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elouard, Cyril; Richard, Maxime; Auffèves, Alexia

    2015-05-01

    With the progress of nano-technology, thermodynamics also has to be scaled down, calling for specific protocols to extract and measure work. Usually, such protocols involve the action of an external, classical field (the battery) of infinite energy, that controls the energy levels of a small quantum system (the calorific fluid). Here we suggest a realistic device to reversibly extract work in a battery of finite energy : a hybrid optomechanical system. Such devices consist of an optically active two-level quantum system interacting strongly with a nano-mechanical oscillator that provides and stores mechanical work, playing the role of the battery. We identify protocols where the battery exchanges large, measurable amounts of work with the quantum emitter without getting entangled with it. When the quantum emitter is coupled to a thermal bath, we show that thermodynamic reversibility is attainable with state-of-the-art devices, paving the road towards the realization of a full cycle of information-to-energy conversion at the single bit level.

  7. Buried telemetry system for in-situ energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D. E.; Caffey, T. W.H.

    1980-01-01

    During an in-situ energy extraction process, a continuous knowledge of the temperature profile through the combustion area is desirable for analysis and control. To provide this data, a telemetry system has been developed that will monitor the thermocouples from beneath the process bed, digitize the data into 12 bit words and store them into memory. Every six hours, the stored data is transmitted laterally through the earth to a receiver outside of the high temperature zone and then sent to the surface by wire where it is stored on magnetic tape and processed and displayed on a Texas Instruments Silent 700 terminal.

  8. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  9. Adanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES). Preconceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.O.; Bronson, M.C.; Dennison, D.K.; Flamm, B.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the preliminary conceptual design of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES). The ARIES is an overall processing system for the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries. The program will demonstrate dismantlement of nuclear weapons and retrieval of the plutonium into a form that is compatible with long-term storage and that is inspectable in an unclassified form appropriate for the application of traditional international safeguards. The purpose of the ARIES process is to receive weapon pits, disassemble them, and provide a product of either a plutonium metal button or plutonium oxide powder appropriately canned to meet all requirements for long-term storage. This demonstration is a 24-month program, with full operation planned during the last three-six months to gain confidence in the system`s flexibility and reliability. The ARIES system is modular in design to offer credible scaling and the ability to incorporate modifications or new concepts. This report describes the preconceptual design of each of the ARIES modules, as well as the integration of the overall system.

  10. Road marking features extraction using the VIAPIX® system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaddah, W.; Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.; Gutierrez, C.

    2016-07-01

    Precise extraction of road marking features is a critical task for autonomous urban driving, augmented driver assistance, and robotics technologies. In this study, we consider an autonomous system allowing us lane detection for marked urban roads and analysis of their features. The task is to relate the georeferencing of road markings from images obtained using the VIAPIX® system. Based on inverse perspective mapping and color segmentation to detect all white objects existing on this road, the present algorithm enables us to examine these images automatically and rapidly and also to get information on road marks, their surface conditions, and their georeferencing. This algorithm allows detecting all road markings and identifying some of them by making use of a phase-only correlation filter (POF). We illustrate this algorithm and its robustness by applying it to a variety of relevant scenarios.

  11. A Bayesian approach to extracting meaning from system behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1998-08-01

    The modeling relation and its reformulation to include the semiotic hierarchy is essential for the understanding, control, and successful re-creation of natural systems. This presentation will argue for a careful application of Rosen`s modeling relationship to the problems of intelligence and autonomy in natural and artificial systems. To this end, the authors discuss the essential need for a correct theory of induction, learning, and probability; and suggest that modern Bayesian probability theory, developed by Cox, Jaynes, and others, can adequately meet such demands, especially on the operational level of extracting meaning from observations. The methods of Bayesian and maximum Entropy parameter estimation have been applied to measurements of system observables to directly infer the underlying differential equations generating system behavior. This approach by-passes the usual method of parameter estimation based on assuming a functional form for the observable and then estimating the parameters that would lead to the particular observed behavior. The computational savings is great since only location parameters enter into the maximum-entropy calculations; this innovation finesses the need for nonlinear parameters altogether. Such an approach more directly extracts the semantics inherent in a given system by going to the root of system meaning as expressed by abstract form or shape, rather than in syntactic particulars, such as signal amplitude and phase. Examples will be shown how the form of a system can be followed while ignoring unnecessary details. In this sense, the authors are observing the meaning of the words rather than being concerned with their particular expression or language. For the present discussion, empirical models are embodied by the differential equations underlying, producing, or describing the behavior of a process as measured or tracked by a particular variable set--the observables. The a priori models are probability structures that

  12. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    PubMed

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  13. Use of reverse micellar systems for the extraction and purification of bromelain from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Umesh Hebbar, H; Sumana, B; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2008-07-01

    Reverse micellar systems of CTAB/isooctane/hexanol/butanol and AOT/isooctane are used for the extraction and primary purification of bromelain from crude aqueous extract of pineapple wastes (core, peel, crown and extended stem). The effect of forward as well as back extraction process parameters on the extraction efficiency, activity recovery and purification fold is studied in detail for the pineapple core extract. The optimized conditions for the extraction from core resulted in forward and back extraction efficiencies of 45% and 62%, respectively, using reverse micellar system of cationic surfactant CTAB. A fairly good activity recovery (106%) and purification (5.2-fold) of bromelain is obtained under these conditions. Reverse micellar extraction from peel, extended stem and crown using CTAB system resulted in purification folds of 2.1, 3.5, and 1.7, respectively. Extraction from extended stem using anionic surfactant AOT in isooctane did not yield good results under the operating conditions employed.

  14. Systemic oxygen extraction during exercise at high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D. S.; Cobb, A.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Edsell, M.; Mythen, M. G.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Adams, Tom; Biseker, Lindsay; Booth, Adam; Burdall, Oliver; Cobb, Alexandra; Cumpstey, Andrew; Dauncey, Steve; Edsell, Mark; Farrant, James; Feelisch, Martin; Fernandez, Bernadette; Firth, Oliver; Gilbert, Edward; Grant, Daniel; Grocott, Michael; Hennis, Phil; Jackson, Laura; Jenner, Will; van der Kaaij, Jildou; Khosravi, Maryam; Kortekaas, Edith; Levett, Denny; Mahomed, Zeyn; Martin, Daniel; Meale, Paula; Milledge, Jim; Mitchell, Kay; Mole, Damian; Moses, Oliver; Mythen, Michael; Rigat, Fabio; O'Doherty, Alasdair; Salam, Alex; Sanborn, Matt; Sheperdigian, Adam; Shrubb, Fiona; Simpson, Jo; Talbot, Nick; Wandrag, Liesel; Wijesingha, Savini; Williamson, Wilby; Woolley, Tom; Yow, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Background Classic teaching suggests that diminished availability of oxygen leads to increased tissue oxygen extraction yet evidence to support this notion in the context of hypoxaemia, as opposed to anaemia or cardiac failure, is limited. Methods At 75 m above sea level, and after 7–8 days of acclimatization to 4559 m, systemic oxygen extraction [C(a−v)O2] was calculated in five participants at rest and at peak exercise. Absolute [C(a−v)O2] was calculated by subtracting central venous oxygen content (CcvO2) from arterial oxygen content (CaO2) in blood sampled from central venous and peripheral arterial catheters, respectively. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2) was determined from expired gas analysis during exercise. Results Ascent to altitude resulted in significant hypoxaemia; median (range) SpO2 87.1 (82.5–90.7)% and PaO2 6.6 (5.7–6.8) kPa. While absolute C(a−v)O2 was reduced at maximum exercise at 4559 m [83.9 (67.5–120.9) ml litre−1 vs 99.6 (88.0–151.3) ml litre−1 at 75 m, P=0.043], there was no change in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) [C(a−v)O2/CaO2] between the two altitudes [0.52 (0.48–0.71) at 4559 m and 0.53 (0.49–0.73) at 75 m, P=0.500]. Comparison of C(a−v)O2 at peak V˙O2 at 4559 m and the equivalent V˙O2 at sea level for each participant also revealed no significant difference [83.9 (67.5–120.9) ml litre1 vs 81.2 (73.0–120.7) ml litre−1, respectively, P=0.225]. Conclusion In acclimatized individuals at 4559 m, there was a decline in maximum absolute C(a−v)O2 during exercise but no alteration in OER calculated using central venous oxygen measurements. This suggests that oxygen extraction may have become limited after exposure to 7–8 days of hypoxaemia. PMID:25501722

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the M-Area extraction system September 1985 to October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D. |

    1987-03-01

    A groundwater extraction system designed to remove volatile organic compounds from groundwater has been in operation in the M-Area at the Savannah river Plant since September 1985. This extraction system has been operated at a rate of approximately 410 gallons per minute during the past year, and about 55,000 lbs of volatile organic compounds have been removed from groundwater during the first year of operation. The Raw Materials Engineering and Technology Department at the Savannah River Plant is currently evaluating the operation of the extraction system. In support of the effort, S. S. Papadopulos and Associates, Inc. was requested to: (1) evaluate the performance of the extraction system in terms of its capability to prevent migration of volatile organic chemicals from the M-Area; (2) evaluate the length of time required to remove groundwater from the capture zones of the extraction wells; (3) evaluate long-term effects of the extraction system; and (4) evaluate alternative extraction strategies. The performance of the groundwater extraction system was evaluated by calculating where the groundwater that is pumped from the extraction system enters the groundwater table as recharge, and by calculating the flow paths and travel times for this groundwater from the recharge area to the extraction wells. The groundwater flow paths that end in the extraction wells encompass the volume of groundwater captured by the extraction system.

  16. Extracting Depth By Binocular Stereo In A Robot Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marapane, Suresh B.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    1988-12-01

    New generation of robotic systems will operate in complex, unstructured environments utilizing so-phisticated sensory mechanisms. Vision and range will be two of the most important sensory modalities such a system will utilize to sense their operating environment. Measurement of depth is critical for the success of many robotic tasks such object recognition and location; obstacle avoidance and navigation; and object inspection. In this paper we consider the development of a binocular stereo technique for extracting depth information in a robot vision system for inspection and manipulation tasks. Ability to produce precise depth measurements over a wide range of distances and the passivity of the approach, make binocular stereo techniques attractive and appropriate for range finding in a robotic environment. This paper describes work in progress towards the development of a region-based binocular stereo tech-nique for a robot vision system designed for inspection and manipulation and presents preliminary experiments designed to evaluate performance of the approach. Results of these studies show promise for the region-based stereo matching approach.

  17. Extracting depth by binocular stereo in a robot vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Marapane, S.B.; Trivedi, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    New generation of robotic systems will operate in complex, unstructured environments utilizing sophisticated sensory mechanisms. Vision and range will be two of the most important sensory modalities such a system will utilize to sense their operating environment. Measurement of depth is critical for the success of many robotic tasks such as: object recognition and location; obstacle avoidance and navigation; and object inspection. In this paper we consider the development of a binocular stereo technique for extracting depth information in a robot vision system for inspection and manipulation tasks. Ability to produce precise depth measurements over a wide range of distances and the passivity of the approach make binocular stereo techniques attractive and appropriate for range finding in a robotic environment. This paper describes work in progress towards the development of a region-based binocular stereo technique for a robot vision system designed for inspection and manipulation and presents preliminary experiments designed to evaluate performance of the approach. Results of these studies show promise for the region-based stereo matching approach. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  18. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    DOEpatents

    Busche, Frederick D [Highland Village, TX; Rollins, John B [Southlake, TX; Noyes, Harold J [Golden, CO; Bush, James G [West Richland, WA

    2011-04-12

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  19. The A0 abort system for the Tevatron upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    1989-03-01

    The installation of electrostatic separator modules at B48 and C17 in the Tevatron necessitates changes to the Tevatron abort system. There will no longer be room for either the proton or antiproton kicker magnets used in the present system. The kickers at C17 will be permanently removed. The kickers at B48 will be temporarily removed for collider operation and will be replaced for fixed target operation. The existing proton abort system will remain unchanged during fixed target operation. This note describes a proposed abort system for operation in the collider mode for 22 on 22 bunches and provides details of specifications for the required components. In certain cases, for example in the case of the pulsers for the magnets and the absorber assembly, system components are designed with the option of upgrading to 44 on 44 bunch operation in mind. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  1. Analytical and simulation studies for diode and triode ion beam extraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Abdelrahman, M.; I. Basal, N.; G. Zakhary, S.

    2012-04-01

    This work is concerned with ion beam dynamics and compares the emittance to aberration ratios of two-and three-electrode extraction systems. The study is conducted with the aid of Version 7 of SIMION 3D ray-tracing software. The beam dependence on various parameters of the extraction systems is studied and the numerical results lead to qualitative conclusions. Ion beam characteristics using diode and triode extraction systems are investigated with the aid of the computer code SIMION 3 D, Version 7.0. The diode (two electrode extraction system) and triode (three-electrode extraction, acceleration-deceleration system) extraction systems are designed and optimized with different geometric parameters of the electrode system, voltage applied to the extraction electrode, and plasma parameters inside the ion source chamber, as well as by the ion beam space charge. This work attempts to describe the importance of the acceleration-deceleration extraction system. It shows that besides an increase of the beam energy, the ion beam has lower emittance than the two-electrode extraction system. Ion beams of the highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence is minimum for which the perveance current intensity and the extraction gap have optimum value. Knowing the electron temperature of the plasma is necessary to determine plasma potential and the exact beam energy.

  2. Fully Automated Electro Membrane Extraction Autosampler for LC-MS Systems Allowing Soft Extractions for High-Throughput Applications.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, David; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Jensen, Henrik; Rand, Kasper D; Honoré Hansen, Steen; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob

    2016-07-05

    The current work describes the implementation of electro membrane extraction (EME) into an autosampler for high-throughput analysis of samples by EME-LC-MS. The extraction probe was built into a luer lock adapter connected to a HTC PAL autosampler syringe. As the autosampler drew sample solution, analytes were extracted into the lumen of the extraction probe and transferred to a LC-MS system for further analysis. Various parameters affecting extraction efficacy were investigated including syringe fill strokes, syringe pull up volume, pull up delay and volume in the sample vial. The system was optimized for soft extraction of analytes and high sample throughput. Further, it was demonstrated that by flushing the EME-syringe with acidic wash buffer and reverting the applied electric potential, carry-over between samples can be reduced to below 1%. Performance of the system was characterized (RSD, <10%; R(2), 0.994) and finally, the EME-autosampler was used to analyze in vitro conversion of methadone into its main metabolite by rat liver microsomes and for demonstrating the potential of known CYP3A4 inhibitors to prevent metabolism of methadone. By making use of the high extraction speed of EME, a complete analytical workflow of purification, separation, and analysis of sample could be achieved within only 5.5 min. With the developed system large sequences of samples could be analyzed in a completely automated manner. This high degree of automation makes the developed EME-autosampler a powerful tool for a wide range of applications where high-throughput extractions are required before sample analysis.

  3. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  4. Computational Design Studies for an Ion Extraction System for a ''volume-type'' ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zaim, H.

    2001-11-05

    Numerical studies have been performed for optimally extracting high-intensity, space-charged-limited multi-charged ion beams from an all-permanent-magnet, ''volume-type'' ECR ion source, equipped with a three-electrode extraction system. These studies clearly demonstrate the importance of being able to adjust the extraction gap in order to ensure high quality, minimum divergence (highly transportable) ion beams. Optimum extraction conditions are reached whenever the plasma meniscus has an optimum curvature for a given current density. Optimum perveance (optimum current) values are found to closely agree with those derived from elementary analytical theory for extraction of space-charge-dominated beams. Details of the electrode system design as well as angular divergence and RMS emittance versus extraction parameter data (e.g., perveance and extraction gap) are provided for ion beams of varying charge-state and mass, extracted under the influence of a mirror-geometry plasma confinement magnetic field.

  5. Using A Natural Language Processing System to Extract and Code Family History Data from Admission Reports

    PubMed Central

    Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a rule-based natural language processing (NLP) system for extracting and coding clinical data from free text reports. We studied the systems ability to accurately extract and code family history data from hospital admission notes. The system searches the family history for 12 diseases (and relative degree). It achieved a sensitivity of .96 and a PPV of .97 for disease extraction, and .96 and .93 respectively for relative categorization. PMID:17238544

  6. A proposed SSC damper system

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E.; Dugan, G.; Lopez, G.; Meinke, R.; Nexson, W.; Talman, R. )

    1994-02-01

    A transverse beam damper system for providing stability against ground motion, resistive wall instabilities, and other effects is the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined. Use of two monitors, as in existing designs, provides phase insensitivity. The novel feature is the use of two kickers, which permits almost exact orbit compensation within one turn. Bunch-by-bunch stabilization requires fast computation.

  7. 46 CFR 161.002-15 - Sample extraction smoke detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sample extraction smoke detection systems. 161.002-15...-15 Sample extraction smoke detection systems. The smoke detecting system must consist of a means for... smoke, together with visual and audible alarms for indicating the presence of smoke. ...

  8. 46 CFR 161.002-15 - Sample extraction smoke detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample extraction smoke detection systems. 161.002-15...-15 Sample extraction smoke detection systems. The smoke detecting system must consist of a means for... smoke, together with visual and audible alarms for indicating the presence of smoke. ...

  9. 46 CFR 161.002-15 - Sample extraction smoke detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sample extraction smoke detection systems. 161.002-15...-15 Sample extraction smoke detection systems. The smoke detecting system must consist of a means for... smoke, together with visual and audible alarms for indicating the presence of smoke....

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-15 - Sample extraction smoke detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sample extraction smoke detection systems. 161.002-15...-15 Sample extraction smoke detection systems. The smoke detecting system must consist of a means for... smoke, together with visual and audible alarms for indicating the presence of smoke....

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-15 - Sample extraction smoke detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sample extraction smoke detection systems. 161.002-15...-15 Sample extraction smoke detection systems. The smoke detecting system must consist of a means for... smoke, together with visual and audible alarms for indicating the presence of smoke....

  12. Simulation and optimization of continuous extractive fermentation with recycle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Rofiqah, Umi; Airlangga, Bramantyo

    2017-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is continuous fermentation method which is believed to be able to substitute conventional fermentation method (batch). The recovery system and ethanol refinery will be easier. Continuous process of fermentation will make the productivity increase although the unconverted sugar in continuous fermentation is still in high concentration. In order to make this process more efficient, the recycle process was used. Increasing recycle flow will enhance the probability of sugar to be re-fermented. However, this will make ethanol enter fermentation column. As a result, the accumulated ethanol will inhibit the growth of microorganism. This research aims to find optimum conditions of solvent to broth ratio (S:B) and recycle flow to fresh feed ratio in order to produce the best yield and productivity. This study employed optimization by Hooke Jeeves method using Matlab 7.8 software. The result indicated that optimum condition occured in S: B=2.615 and R: F=1.495 with yield = 50.2439 %.

  13. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  14. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the M-Area extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D. |

    1986-07-01

    The effect of the M-Area extraction system on groundwater flow patterns in the vicinity of the M-Area was investigated using the groundwater flow model of the A- and M-Areas developed by S. S. Papadopulos and Associates, Inc. The purpose of this investigation was to: (1) evaluate the performance of the extraction system, in terms of its capability to prevent migration of volatile organic chemicals from the M-Area, and (2) evaluate the length of time required to remove groundwater from the capture zones of the extraction wells. The effectiveness of the groundwater extraction system was evaluated by calculating where the groundwater that is pumped from the extraction system enters the groundwater table as recharge, and by calculating the flow paths and travel times for this groundwater from the recharge area to the extraction wells. If the groundwater flow paths to the extraction wells encompass the zones containing the chemicals of concern, the extraction system, if operated long enough, will prevent migration of the chemicals from the M-Area. The time required to reduce the concentrations of the chemicals of concern, the nature of the source of the chemicals, and the interaction of the chemicals with the groundwater environment. This investigation focused on the patterns of groundwater velocity created by the extraction systems, the zones of capture for the extraction wells, and the rate of groundwater evacuation from the capture zones.

  16. Numerical Capacitance Extraction for Large-Area Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoan Huu

    is to provide an alternative to the current methods for N-body problems involving millions of particles. (iii) A new formulation is proposed for the charge density problem. It yields integral equations of the second kind, for which efficient numerical algorithms are available. The resultant discretization matrices have improved conditioning and the convergence rate is faster. (iv) A simulator is designed and implemented for numerically extracting capacitance of multi-layered dielectric multi-conductor systems. It is used for studying capacitance associated with amorphous silicon thin-film transistors and imaging arrays.

  17. Application of hydrophobic extractant in aqueous two-phase systems for selective extraction of cobalt, nickel and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; da Silva, Maria C Hespanhol

    2013-03-01

    This work developed a new and efficient method of extracting and separating Co(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) composed of triblock copolymer (L64)+Na(2)C(4)H(4)O(6)+water and L64+Li(2)SO(4)+water using the hydrophobic extractant 1-nitroso-2-naphtol, which complexes the metal ions and partitions in the triblock copolymer micelles in the ATPS top phase. Metal extraction from the salt-rich phase to the copolymer - rich phase is strongly affected by the fine-tuning of the following parameters: amount of added extractant, type of electrolyte, pH, and tie-line length. Excellent separation factors (S(i,j)) between the metals were obtained at pH=3.00 (S(Co,Cd)=1550 and S(Ni,Cd)=16,700) and pH=1.00 (S(Co,Ni)=826). In the interference study, Co(II) was selectivity extracted in the top phase in the presence of Ni(II) and Cd(II) in a concentration of up to 20 times the cobalt level in the system.

  18. Autonomous gas chromatograph system for Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) proof of concept demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, F.J.; Laguna, G.R.

    1996-09-01

    An autonomous gas chromatograph system was designed and built to support the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration. TEVES is a remediation demonstration that seeks to enhance an existing technology (vacuum extraction) by adding a new technology (soil heating). A pilot scale unit was set up at one of the organic waste disposal pits at the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) in Tech Area 3. The responsibility for engineering a major part of the process instrumentation for TEVES belonged to the Manufacturing Control Subsystems Department. The primary mission of the one-of-a-kind hardware/software system is to perform on-site gas sampling and analysis to quantify a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various sources during TEVES operations. The secondary mission is to monitor a variety of TEVES process physical parameters such as extraction manifold temperature, pressure, humidity, and flow rate, and various subsurface pressures. The system began operation in September 1994 and was still in use on follow-on projects when this report was published.

  19. AutoMate Express™ forensic DNA extraction system for the extraction of genomic DNA from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Y; Zhong, Chang; Holt, Allison; Lagace, Robert; Harrold, Michael; Dixon, Alan B; Brevnov, Maxim G; Shewale, Jaiprakash G; Hennessy, Lori K

    2012-07-01

    The AutoMate Express™ Forensic DNA Extraction System was developed for automatic isolation of DNA from a variety of forensic biological samples. The performance of the system was investigated using a wide range of biological samples. Depending on the sample type, either PrepFiler™ lysis buffer or PrepFiler BTA™ lysis buffer was used to lyse the samples. After lysis and removal of the substrate using LySep™ column, the lysate in the sample tubes were loaded onto AutoMate Express™ instrument and DNA was extracted using one of the two instrument extraction protocols. Our study showed that DNA was recovered from as little as 0.025 μL of blood. DNA extracted from casework-type samples was free of detectable PCR inhibitors and the short tandem repeat profiles were complete, conclusive, and devoid of any PCR artifacts. The system also showed consistent performance from day-to-day operation. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  20. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F.

    2008-07-01

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  1. Direct Sampling and Analysis from Solid Phase Extraction Cards using an Automated Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Matthew J; ElNaggar, Mariam S; Stankovich, Joseph J; WitkowskiII, Charles E.; Norris, Jeremy L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Direct liquid extraction based surface sampling, a technique previously demonstrated with continuous flow and autonomous pipette liquid microjunction surface sampling probes, has recently been implemented as the Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) mode on the commercially available Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system. In the present paper, the LESA mode was applied to the analysis of 96-well format custom solid phase extraction (SPE) cards, with each well consisting of either a 1 or 2 mm diameter monolithic hydrophobic stationary phase. These substrate wells were conditioned, loaded with either single or multi-component aqueous mixtures, and read out using the LESA mode of a TriVersa NanoMate or a Nanomate 100 coupled to an ABI/Sciex 4000QTRAPTM hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a Thermo LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Extraction conditions, including extraction/nanoESI solvent composition, volume, and dwell times, were optimized in the analysis of targeted compounds. Limit of detection and quantitation as well as analysis reproducibility figures of merit were measured. Calibration data was obtained for propranolol using a deuterated internal standard which demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A 10x increase in signal and cleanup of micromolar Angiotensin II from a concentrated salt solution was demonstrated. Additionally, a multicomponent herbicide mixture at ppb concentration levels was analyzed using MS3 spectra for compound identification in the presence of isobaric interferences.

  2. FAST INJECTION SYSTEM R&D FOR THE APS UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.; Carwardine, J.; Cours, A.; Decker, G.; Morrison, L.; Sun, X.; Westferro, F.; Yao, C. Y.; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    The MBA upgrade for the APS will operate with bunch swap out and on axis injection. The planned 324 bunch fill pattern places difficult demands on the injection and extraction kickers. The present concept uses dual stripline kickers driven by high Voltage pulsers. Minimizing perturbation on adjacent bunches requires very fast rise and fall times with relatively narrow ~20 nsec, 15 kV pulses. To achieve these requirements we have initiated a multifaceted R&D program. The R&D includes the HV pulser, stripline kicker and HV feedthrough. We have purchased a commercial dual channel HV pulser and are evaluating its performance and reliability. In addition, we are investigating the feasibility of using nonlinear ferrite loaded coaxial cables (shockwave transmission line) to sharpen the leading and trailing edges of high voltage pulses. We are also developing a prototype kicker and high voltage feedthrough. The requirements for injection and extraction, progress on prototype development and results of our HV pulser investigations will be reported.

  3. Effects of Petroleum Ether Extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Tuber on Central Nervous System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, S. S.; Sen, Malini; Dey, Y. N.; De, S.; Ghosh, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system activity of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber was examined in mice, fed normal as well as healthy conditions. The petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg showed significant central nervous system activity in mice. PMID:20376218

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES: A SURVEY OF SYSTEMS IN THE SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction of contaminated soils, sludges and sediments has been successfully completed at a number ofSuperfund sites. Each commercialized process uses a unique operating system to extract organic contaminants from solids. These operating systems may be classified by the ...

  5. New reactive extraction systems for separation of bio-succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Tanja; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnologically produced succinic acid has the potential to displace maleic acid and its uses and to become an important feedstock for the chemical industry. In addition to optimized production strains and fermentation processes, an efficient separation of succinic acid from the aqueous fermentation broth is indispensable to compete with the current petrochemical production processes. In this context, high molecular weight amines are known to be effective extractants for organic acids. For this reason, as a first step of isolation and purification, the reactive extraction of succinic acid was studied by mixing aqueous succinic acid solutions with 448 different amine-solvent mixtures as extraction agents (mixer-settler studies). The extraction agents consist either of one amine and one solvent (208 reactive extraction systems) or two amines and two solvents (240 reactive extraction systems). Maximum extraction yields of succinic acid from an aqueous solution with 423 mM succinic acid at pH 2.0 were obtained with more than 95% yield with trihexylamine solved in 1-octanol or with dihexylamine and diisooctylamine solved in 1-octanol and 1-hexanol. Applying these optimized reactive extraction systems with Escherichia coli fermentation broth resulted in extraction yields of 78-85% due to the increased ionic strength of the fermentation supernatant and the co-extraction of other organic acids (e.g., lactic acid and acetic acid), which represent typical fermentation byproducts.

  6. [Application of micro-power system in the surgery of tooth extraction].

    PubMed

    Kaijin, Hu; Yongfeng, Li

    2015-02-01

    Tooth extraction is a common operation in oral surgery. Traditional-extraction instruments, such as bone chisel, elevator, and bone hammer, lead to not only severe trauma but also unnecessary complications, and patients easily become nervous and apprehensive if tooth extraction is performed using these violent instruments. In recent years, with the develop- ment of minimally invasive concept and technology, various micro-power instruments have been used for tooth extraction. This innovative technology can reduce the iatrogenic trauma and complications of tooth extraction. Additionally, this technology can greatly decrease the patient's physical and mental pressure. The new equipment compensates for the deficiency of traditional tooth extraction equipment and facilitates the gradual replacement of the latter. Diverse micro-power systems have distinct strengths and weaknesses, so some auxiliary instruments are still needed during tooth extraction. This paper focuses on the various micro-power systems for tooth extraction and tries to compare the advantages and disadvantages of these systems. Selection and usage of auxiliary equipment are also introduced. Thus, this paper provides reference for the proper application of the micro-power systems in tooth extraction.

  7. Oil extraction from Scenedesmus obliquus using a continuous microwave system--design, optimization, and quality characterization.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Allen, James D; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-02-01

    A 1.2 kW, 2450 MHz resonant continuous microwave processing system was designed and optimized for oil extraction from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus). Algae-water suspension (1:1 w/w) was heated to 80 and 95°C, and subjected to extraction for up to 30 min. Maximum oil yield was achieved at 95°C and 30 min. The microwave system extracted 76-77% of total recoverable oil at 20-30 min and 95°C, compared to only 43-47% for water bath control. Extraction time and temperature had significant influence (p<0.0001) on extraction yield. Oil analysis indicated that microwaves extracted oil containing higher percentages of unsaturated and essential fatty acids (indicating higher quality). This study validates for the first time the efficiency of a continuous microwave system for extraction of lipids from algae. Higher oil yields, faster extraction rates and superior oil quality demonstrate this system's feasibility for oil extraction from a variety of feedstock.

  8. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  9. A construction scheme of web page comment information extraction system based on frequent subtree mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Bingfeng

    2017-08-01

    Based on the frequent sub-tree mining algorithm, this paper proposes a construction scheme of web page comment information extraction system based on frequent subtree mining, referred to as FSM system. The entire system architecture and the various modules to do a brief introduction, and then the core of the system to do a detailed description, and finally give the system prototype.

  10. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems. Progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  11. Knowledge based system for runtime controlling of multiscale model of ion-exchange solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macioł, Piotr; Gotfryd, Leszek; Macioł, Andrzej

    2012-09-01

    The hereby paper concerns the issue of solution of runtime controlling of multiscale model of ion-exchange solvent extraction. It is based on cooperation of a framework applying Agile Multiscale Modeling Methodology (AM3), and the REBIT Knowledge Based System. Ion-exchange solvent extraction has been shortly introduced. Design assumptions of AM3 and theoretical basis of REBIT have been described. Designed workflows and rules for simple laminar/ turbulent flow and extraction processes have been shown.

  12. Development of a blood extraction device for a miniature SMBG system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yoshimitsu; Uenoya, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a vacuum driven blood extraction device for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was newly developed. The health monitoring system (HMS) for SMBG consists of a blood extracting system and a drug delivery system (DDS). Our HMS extracts the blood through a micro-needle and measures the blood sugar level accurately. The main purpose of this work in HMS development are, 1) minimally invasive blood extraction, 2) a handy type automatic blood extraction, and 3) a continuous measurement of the blood sugar level. We adopted a vacuum driven type blood extraction mechanism. The vacuum driven blood extraction unit consists of a) a puncture part to open the vacuum part, b) an extraction part, and c) a measurement part. The puncture and extraction parts consist of a minimally invasive micro-needle, whose inner diameter is less than 100μm and made of titanium alloy, and a vacuum chamber, which is covered by a very thin membrane. A SMA spring and two bias springs are employed to penetrate the blood vessel through the skin with the micro-needle, and to execute the punctuation to slash the membrane in order to open the vacuum chamber. The blood is extracted into the vacuum chamber, seeps into the unwoven cloth according to the capillary principle, and is finally deposited on the blood sugar level sensor. Results show, our vacuum driven blood extraction device succeeded in extracting 12.7μl of human blood within 2 seconds. The blood sugar level was measured successfully by using a glucose enzyme sensor. Finally, the availability of our HMS device was confirmed.

  13. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  14. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    PubMed

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed.

  15. System for high throughput water extraction from soil material for stable isotope analysis of water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process m...

  16. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  17. Degassing of the AGS extraction magnets with uv light

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Trabocchi, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of degassing sources, a uv lamp and in Infrared (IR) radiant heat lamp, were tested in spare AGS kicker magnets and septum magnets. This paper reports our study of the degassing treatment during pumpdowns of two kicker magnets.

  18. Semantic information extracting system for classification of radiological reports in radiology information system (RIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liehang; Ling, Tonghui; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists currently use a variety of terminologies and standards in most hospitals in China, and even there are multiple terminologies being used for different sections in one department. In this presentation, we introduce a medical semantic comprehension system (MedSCS) to extract semantic information about clinical findings and conclusion from free text radiology reports so that the reports can be classified correctly based on medical terms indexing standards such as Radlex or SONMED-CT. Our system (MedSCS) is based on both rule-based methods and statistics-based methods which improve the performance and the scalability of MedSCS. In order to evaluate the over all of the system and measure the accuracy of the outcomes, we developed computation methods to calculate the parameters of precision rate, recall rate, F-score and exact confidence interval.

  19. Extraction, Preconcentration and Isolation of Flavonoids from Apocynum venetum L. Leaves Using Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Coupled with an Aqueous Biphasic System.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhijian; Yi, Yongjian; Wang, Hongying; Zhou, Wanlai; Wang, Chaoyun

    2016-03-04

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as green solvents, and widely applied for the extraction of various compounds. The present research focuses on the extraction of flavonoids from Apocynum venetum L. leaves by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Several major influencing factors were optimized. Then, an aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was applied for further isolation of flavonoids. The flavonoids were mainly distributed in the top phase, while impurities were extracted to the bottom phase. The parameters influencing the extraction, namely type and concentration of salt, temperature, and pH, were studied in detail. Under optimized conditions (72.43% IL extract, 28.57% (NH4)2SO4, 25 °C temperature, pH 4.5), the preconcentration factor and extraction efficiency were found to be 3.78% and 93.35%, respectively. This simple and efficient methodology is expected to see great use in the extraction and isolation of pharmaceutically active components from medicinal plant resources.

  20. Multielement extraction system for the determination of 18 trace elements in geochemical samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.R.; Viets, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system has been developed for use in geochemical exploration which separates a maximum number of trace elements from interfering matrices. Extraction curves for 18 of these trace elements are presented: Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ga, In, Tl, Sa, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te. The acid normality of the aqueous phase controls the extraction into the organic phase, and each of these 18 elements has a broad range of HCl normality over which H is quantitatively extracted, making H possible to determine all 18 trace elements from a single sample digestion or leach solution. The extract can be analyzed directly by flame atomic absorption or inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Most of these 18 elements can be determined by Nameless atomic absorption after special treatment of the organic extract.

  1. Extraction systems using bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate and polyoxonium compounds for lanthanide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Vanura, P.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V. )

    1992-12-01

    The extraction of rare earths (lanthanides, Y, Sc) by voluminous bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate anions dissolved in nitrobenzene and in a nitrobenzene - carbon tetrachloride mixture has been investigated and the exchange extraction constants for both solvents, individual extraction constants and [Delta]G[sup 0] for ion transfer across the water - nitrobenzene phase boundary has been determined. Extraction decreases with increasing atomic number of the lanthanide. The influence of several polyoxonium compounds on the distribution ratios and the extraction selectivity has been investigated. In the extraction systems with bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate - 18-crown-6 in nitrobenzene, synergism was found for the light lanthanides but antagonism was observed for the heavy ones. The overall separation factor is [alpha][sub La/Lu] [approx]10 compared to [alpha][sub La/Lu] [approx]2 in the absence of crown. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Two-phase systems: potential for in situ extraction of microalgal products.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-01-01

    Algae are currently used for production of niche products and are becoming increasingly interesting for the production of bulk commodities, such as biodiesel. For the production of these goods to become economically feasible, production costs will have to be lowered by one order of magnitude. The application of two-phase systems could be used to lower production costs. These systems circumvent the costly step of cell harvesting, whilst the product is extracted and prepared for downstream processing. The mechanism of extraction is a fundamental aspect of the practical question whether two-phase systems can be applied for in situ extraction, viz, simultaneous growth, product formation and extraction, or as a separate downstream processing step. Three possible mechanisms are discussed; 1) product excretion 2) cell permeabilization, and 3) cell death. It was shown that in the case of product excretion, the application of two-phase systems for in situ extraction can be very valuable. With permeabilization and cell death, in situ extraction is not ideal, but the application of two-phase systems as downstream extraction steps can be part of a well-designed biorefinery process. In this way, processing costs can be decreased while the product is mildly and selectively extracted. Thus far none of the algal strains used in two-phase systems have been shown to excrete their product; the output has always been the result of cell death. Two-phase systems can be a good approach as a downstream processing step for these species. For future applications of two-phase in situ extraction in algal production processes, either new species that show product excretion should be discovered, or existing species should be modified to induce product excretion.

  3. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  4. A hybrid system for emotion extraction from suicide notes.

    PubMed

    Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Emadzadeh, Ehsan; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2012-01-01

    The reasons that drive someone to commit suicide are complex and their study has attracted the attention of scientists in different domains. Analyzing this phenomenon could significantly improve the preventive efforts. In this paper we present a method for sentiment analysis of suicide notes submitted to the i2b2/VA/Cincinnati Shared Task 2011. In this task the sentences of 900 suicide notes were labeled with the possible emotions that they reflect. In order to label the sentence with emotions, we propose a hybrid approach which utilizes both rule based and machine learning techniques. To solve the multi class problem a rule-based engine and an SVM model is used for each category. A set of syntactic and semantic features are selected for each sentence to build the rules and train the classifier. The rules are generated manually based on a set of lexical and emotional clues. We propose a new approach to extract the sentence's clauses and constitutive grammatical elements and to use them in syntactic and semantic feature generation. The method utilizes a novel method to measure the polarity of the sentence based on the extracted grammatical elements, reaching precision of 41.79 with recall of 55.03 for an f-measure of 47.50. The overall mean f-measure of all submissions was 48.75% with a standard deviation of 7%.

  5. Pineapple Waste Extract for Preventing Oxidation in Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Segovia Gómez, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is consumed in the form of chunks (canned), cubes, fruit salad, and also in juices, concentrates, and jams. In the processes to produce these products, the waste generated represents a high percentage of the total fruit. Some studies have shown that residues of certain fruits, such as pineapple, have the same antioxidant activity as the fruit pulp. So although these residues are discarded, they could be used as an alternative source of polyphenols, as natural antioxidants. This study is focused on the antioxidant activity of wastes obtained in the production of pineapple products and their application. The polyphenols' scavenging activity was determined by the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity assay. The antioxidant potential was determined in emulsions (o/w) and in muffins, where the primary oxidation products (by peroxide value, PV) and the secondary oxidation products (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were analyzed. In addition the muffins were analyzed by means of a triangular sensory test. The PV method showed that pineapple waste extracts caused a reduction in oxidation products of 59% in emulsions and 91% in the muffins. The reduction in TBARs values for emulsions were 27% and for muffins were 51%. The triangular sensory test showed that the samples containing the extract were not distinguished from the control (α = 0.05). © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. The Mechanical Design and Preliminary Testing Results of Beam Position Monitors for the LANSCE Isotope Production Facility and Switchyard Kicker Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, J. F.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Ledford, J. E.; Shurter, R. B.; Roybal, R. J.; Bentley, B. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE-1) Beam Diagnostic Team is providing Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to the LANSCE Facility for use in two on-going projects: The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) and The Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK). The BPM designs for both projects are very similar. The BPMs are classic, four, micro-stripline units having one end terminated in a 50-ohm load. This paper will discuss the position measurement requirements, mechanical design, fabrication, and alignment issues encountered for both sets of BPMs, as well as report the results obtained from the initial taught wire testing of the IPF BPMs.

  7. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  8. CFD Study of the Hydrocarbon Boost Low-Pressure Inducer and Kicker in the Presence of a Circumferential Groove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study done in support of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) sub-scale water flow experiments of the Hydrocarbon Boost (HCB) Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Aerojet. A circumferential groove may be added to the pump to reduce synchronous cavitation and subsequent bearing loads at a minimal performance cost. However, the energy may reappear as high order cavitation (HOC) that spans a relatively large frequency range. Thus, HOC may have implications for the full-scale OTP inducer in terms of reduced structural margin at higher mode frequencies. Simulations using the LOCI/Stream CFD program were conducted in order to explore the fluid dynamical impact of the groove on the low-pressure inducer and kicker. It was found that the circumferential groove has minimal head performance impact, but causes back-flowing high-swirl fluid to interact with the nearly-axial incoming fluid just above the inducer blades. The high-shear interface between the fluids is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, resulting in trains of low pressure regions or 'pearls' forming near the upstream edge of the groove. When the static pressure in these regions becomes low enough and they get cut by the blade leading edge, HOC is thought to occur. Although further work is required, the numerical models indicate that HOC will occur in the runbox of the AFRL/Aerojet HCB OTP. Comparisons to the ongoing water flow experiments will be discussed, as well as possible designs that may mitigate HOC while continuing to reduce synchronous cavitation. December 2011 MSS/LPS/SPS Joint Subcommittee Meeting ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL FORM

  9. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html.

  10. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A. |; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit.

  11. Zeolite membrane cascade for tritium extraction and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borisevich, O.; Demange, D.; Lefebvre, X.; Kind, M.

    2015-03-15

    Membrane separation by zeolite membranes has been proposed as a pre-concentration stage for the tritium extraction from the purge helium of the breeding blanket combined with a final recovery by the catalytic membrane reactor PERMCAT. This fully continuous operation improves the tritium management in fusion machines, minimizing the tritium inventory. For the first time, the permeation measurements for H{sub 2} - He mixtures through a MFI-alumina hollow fibre membrane has been measured for different compositions (0.1 - 20% H{sub 2}) and temperatures. Such a highly permeable membrane, although it shows a limited selectivity, appears attractive for tritium recovery in the blanket. This will imply its operation in a membrane cascade, for which simulation work is ongoing. Mathematically the process is modeled using mass balance equations that can be transformed into the matrix form and solved iteratively assuming a permeate concentration on the first step of iteration, until the separation requirements are fulfilled.

  12. Extraction of Nb(v) by quaternary ammonium-based solvents: toward organic hexaniobate systems.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Chagnes, Alexandre; Roux, Marie-Aude; Weigel, Valérie; Cote, Gérard

    2016-12-06

    Solvent extraction of Nb(v) from alkaline aqueous media using quaternary ammonium solutions, especially Aliquat® 336 diluted in an aliphatic diluent, was investigated. The hexaniobate ions (HxNb6O19(x-8)) were extracted into the organic phase with very high yields at room temperature and within a few minutes, affording easy access to organic solutions of hexaniobates. Several parameters were found to influence the extraction of HxNb6O19(x-8) including the nature and concentration of alkali cations, confirming subtle effects previously described for polyoxoniobates such as ion-pairing with alkali ions. The extraction of HxNb6O19(x-8) with Aliquat® 336 is also influenced if competing anions are present in the aqueous phase (NO3(-), Cl(-), C2O4(2-), SO4(2-) and CO3(2-)) and varies with the pH mainly due to the competitive extraction of hydroxide ions at high pH. The co-extraction of sodium ions with HxNb6O19(x-8) was observed as well as the co-extraction of water molecules, suggesting a self-association of the extractant. The proposed liquid-liquid extraction generic system paves the way for innovative niobium (and potentially tantalum) hydrometallurgical processes and it may also afford more direct routes for exploring the chemistry of hexaniobates in organic solvents.

  13. A micro hot test of the Chalmers-GANEX extraction system on used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bauhn, L.; Hedberg, M.; Aneheim, E.; Ekberg, C.; Loefstroem-Engdahl, E.; Skarnemark, G.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, a 'micro hot test' has been performed using the Chalmers-GANEX (Group Actinide Extraction) system for partitioning of used nuclear fuel. The test included a pre-extraction step using N,N-di-2- ethylhexyl-butyramide (DEHBA) in n-octanol to remove the bulk part of the uranium. This pre-extraction was followed by a group extraction of actinides using the mixture of TBP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP in cyclohexanone as suggested in the Chalmers-GANEX process, and a three stage stripping of the extracted actinides. Distribution ratios for the extractions and stripping were determined based on a combination of γ- and α-spectrometry, as well as ICP-MS measurements. Successful extraction of uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium was achieved. However, measurements also indicated that co-extraction of europium occurs to some extent during the separation. These results were expected based on previous experiments using trace concentrations of actinides and lanthanides. Since this test was only performed in one stage with respect to the group actinide extraction, it is expected that multi stage tests will give even better results. (authors)

  14. Multielement extraction system for determining 19 trace elements in gold exploration samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J. Robert; Viets, John G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A multielement extraction system is being used successfully to provide essentially interference-free geochemical analyses to aid in gold exploration. The Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system separates Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, and Zn from interfering geological matrices. Quantitative extraction of these elements is accomplished over a broad range of acid normality making it possible to economically determine all 19 elements from a single digestion or leach solution. The resulting organic extracts are amenable to analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). For many years the principal shortcoming of ICP-AES was the complex spectral and stray-light interferences that were caused by the extreme variability of components such as Fe, Na, and Ca in common geological matrices. The MAGIC extraction allows determination of the extracted elements with enhanced sensitivity, from a virtually uniform matrix, by ICP-AES and FAAS. Because of its simultaneous multichannel capabilities, ICP-AES is the ideal instrumental technique for determining these 19 extracted elements. Ultratrace (sub-part-per-billion) determinations of Au and many of the other extracted elements can be made by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS), following back stripping of the extracts. The combination of the extraction followed by stripping of the organic phase eliminates 99.999% of potential interferences for Au. Gold determination by GFAAS from these extracts under the specified conditions yields a fourfold improvement in sensitivity over conventional GFAAS methods. This sensitivity enhancement and the interference-free matrix allow highly reliable determinations well into the parts-per-trillion range.

  15. Extraction behavior of divalent metal cations in ionic liquid chelate extraction systems using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imides and thenoyltrifluoroacetone.

    PubMed

    Kidani, Keiji; Hirayama, Naoki; Imura, Hisanori

    2008-10-01

    The extraction behavior of several divalent metal cations (M(2+)) in ionic liquid chelate extraction systems was investigated using several 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquids ([Rmim][Tf(2)N]) as extraction solvent and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) as extractant. The behavior was compared with that using less hydrophobic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphates ([Rmim][PF(6)]). The extracted species in the [Rmim][Tf(2)N] systems were neutral M(tta)(2) for M = Cu and anionic M(tta)(3)(-) for M = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Cd. Conversion of ionic liquid anion from PF(6)(-) to more hydrophobic Tf(2)N(-) resulted in changing the species extracted for Ni(2+) from hydrated neutral complex to hydrophobic anionic one. Furthermore, the extractability for these metals was governed by the hydrophobicity of ionic liquid ions. Thus, in the ionic liquid chelate extraction system, selection of a suitable ionic liquid as extraction phase seems to be an important factor for enhancement of extraction selectivity.

  16. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-07

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.

  17. Worldwide Interlaboratory Comparison of Cryogenic Water Extraction Systems for Soil Water Stable Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, N.; Breuer, L.; McDonnell, J.

    2016-12-01

    For more than two decades, research groups from around the world have performed cryogenic water extractions for the analysis of 2H and 18O isotopes of soil water. Here we present results from a worldwide round robin lab intercomparison test. We test the null hypothesis that with identical soils, standards, and isotope analyses, cryogenically extracted stable water isotope across all labs are identical. We shipped 16 laboratories two different standard soils along with reference water of known isotopic composition. Participants oven-dried and rewetted the soils to two different gravimetric water contents with reference water. One batch of soil samples was extracted via predefined extraction conditions common to all laboratories and the second batch via conditions considered routine in the respective laboratory. Extracted water was isotopically analyzed using both a laser spectroscope and a mass spectrometer. Our results indicate large differences among participating laboratories and applied extraction approaches, soil types, and water contents. Mean differences from the added reference water range from 18.1 to -108.4 for δ2H and 11.8 to -14.9 for δ18O. While recent studies have shown that extraction conditions (time, temperature, vacuum) along with physicochemical soil properties can affect extracted soil water isotope composition, our results show that lab-to-lab differences can be an even greater factor. While the type of cryogenic extraction set-up varied from manifold systems to single chambers, we did not see any clear trends between facility construction and extraction efficiency. Our results generate questions regarding the usefulness of cryogenic extraction as a standard for water extraction since results are difficult to compare across labs. Correction factors for labs to get back to known standards may be one approach, but our preliminary analysis suggests that this may be too complex and too multi-faceted to be useful.

  18. Extracting Process and Mapping Management for Heterogennous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagara, Igor; Tanuška, Pavol; Duchovičová, Soňa

    2013-12-01

    A lot of papers describe three common methods of data selection from primary systems. This paper defines how to select the correct method or combinations of methods for minimizing the impact of production system and common operation. Before using any method, it is necessary to know the primary system and its databases structures for the optimal use of the actual data structure setup and the best design for ETL process. Databases structures are usually categorized into groups, which characterize their quality. The classification helps to find the ideal method for each group and thus design a solution of ETL process with the minimal impact on the data warehouse and production system.

  19. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  20. [Analytic study of juices obtained by pressure, by cold extraction and warm extraction (the DDS system) of marc from apples of the Golden Delicious variety].

    PubMed

    Tanner, H

    1978-01-01

    The cold water extraction of apple press residues to increase the juice yield has found much interest in recent years. Such a process has been developed by a Swiss company, but the food legislation does not permit it yet. Juice yield is increased up to 91 p. 100 (w.). Therefore we investigated the chemical and sensorical properties of pressed juice, cold water extract of press residues and warm water extract (System DDS) of identical raw material. The water extract differs from the pressed juice mainly by an increased amount of non-sugar extract and changes of the pigment and polyphenole content. The cold water extract had more and the better aroma than the warm extract.

  1. The setup of an extraction system coupled to a hydrogen isotopes distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Zamfirache, M.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I.; Bidica, N.; Balteanu, O.; Bucur, C.

    2008-07-15

    Among the most difficult problems of cryogenic distillation one stands apart: the extraction of the heavy fraction. By an optimal design of the cycle scheme, this problem could be avoided. A 'worst case scenario' is usually occurring when the extracted fraction consists of one prevalent isotope such as hydrogen and small amounts of the other two hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). This situation is further complicated by two parameters of the distillation column: the extraction flow rate and the hold-up. The present work proposes the conceptual design of an extraction system associated to the cryogenic distillation column used in hydrogen separation processes. During this process, the heavy fraction (DT, T{sub 2}) is separated, its concentration being the highest at the bottom of the distillation column. From this place the extraction of the gaseous phase can now begin. Being filled with adsorbent, the extraction system is used to temporarily store the heavy fraction. Also the extraction system provides samples for the gas Chromatograph. The research work is focused on the existent pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation from our institute to validate the experiments carried out until now. (authors)

  2. Extracting equilibrium constants from kinetically limited reacting systems.

    PubMed

    Correia, John J; Stafford, Walter F

    2009-01-01

    It has been known for some time that slow kinetics will distort the shape of a reversible reaction boundary. Here we present a tutorial on direct boundary fitting of sedimentation velocity data for a monomer-dimer system that exhibits kinetic effects. Previous analysis of a monomer-dimer system suggested that rapid reaction behavior will persist until the relaxation time of the system exceeds 100 s (reviewed in Kegeles and Cann, 1978). Utilizing a kinetic integrator feature in Sedanal (Stafford and Sherwood, 2004), we can now fit for the k(off) values and measure the uncertainty at the 95% confidence interval. For the monomer-dimer system the range of well determined k(off) values is limited to 0.005 to 10(-5) s(-1) corresponding to relaxation times (at a loading concentration of the Kd) of approximately 70 to approximately 33,000 s. For shorter relaxation times the system is fast and only the equilibrium constant K but not k(off) can be uniquely determined. For longer relaxation times the system is irreversibly slow, and assuming the system was at initial equilibrium before the start of the run, only the equilibrium constant K but not k(off) can be uniquely determined.

  3. Extraction characteristics of a low-energy ion beam system with a remote plasma chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. R.; Wada, M.

    2016-02-15

    Low-energy argon beams were extracted from a dual-chamber ion source system. The first chamber is a quartz cylinder where dense inductively coupled plasmas were produced using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. The discharge was driven into an adjacent chamber which acts as a reservoir for ion beam extraction using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. Extraction of ions from the second chamber with energies in the 100 eV range was achieved while minimizing fluctuations induced by the rf signal. A custom-built retarding potential analyzer was used to analyze the effectiveness of ion beam transport using the remote plasma chamber. Well-defined beams were extracted between 60 and 100 V extraction potentials at 50–100 W rf powers. An increase in rf power resulted in an increase in average ion energy, increase in ion current density while the energy spread remains constant.

  4. Effects of agarwood extracts on the central nervous system in mice.

    PubMed

    Okugawa, H; Ueda, R; Matsumoto, K; Kawanishi, K; Kato, A

    1993-02-01

    Agarwood (Jinkoh in Japanese) is an Oriental medicine for use as a sedative. Neuropharmacological studies have been conducted with the extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and water from agarwood (Aquilaria sp.; probably Aquilaria malaccensis Benth.) in mice. The benzene extract showed a reducing effect in spontaneous motility, a prolonging effect on hexobarbiturate-induced sleeping time, a hypothermic effect in terms of rectal temperature, and a suppressive effect on acetic acid-writhing by oral administration. Fr. 1 of the three fractions which were obtained from the benzene extract by column chromatography was found to produce more positive effects on these neuropharmacological tests than the original benzene extract. These facts suggest that the benzene extractable compounds of agarwood possess potent central nervous system depressant activities.

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  7. A fully automated liquid–liquid extraction system utilizing interface detection

    PubMed Central

    Maslana, Eugene; Schmitt, Robert; Pan, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    The development of the Abbott Liquid-Liquid Extraction Station was a result of the need for an automated system to perform aqueous extraction on large sets of newly synthesized organic compounds used for drug discovery. The system utilizes a cylindrical laboratory robot to shuttle sample vials between two loading racks, two identical extraction stations, and a centrifuge. Extraction is performed by detecting the phase interface (by difference in refractive index) of the moving column of fluid drawn from the bottom of each vial containing a biphasic mixture. The integration of interface detection with fluid extraction maximizes sample throughput. Abbott-developed electronics process the detector signals. Sample mixing is performed by high-speed solvent injection. Centrifuging of the samples reduces interface emulsions. Operating software permits the user to program wash protocols with any one of six solvents per wash cycle with as many cycle repeats as necessary. Station capacity is eighty, 15 ml vials. This system has proven successful with a broad spectrum of both ethyl acetate and methylene chloride based chemistries. The development and characterization of this automated extraction system will be presented. PMID:18924693

  8. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins.

  9. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples.

  10. Design of painless microneedle for blood extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Isobata, Keisuke; Sato, Miho; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji; Kajiwara, Kagemasa; Kimura, Minoru

    2007-12-01

    The microneedle size mimicking a female mosquito's labium which almost collects blood painless is effective to mitigate the injection pain for patients. The author has produced the microneedle production technique which can produce arbitrary size. The microneedle production technique is to deposit the microneedle material on a rotating wire substrate by a sputtering deposition method and etch the wire substrate by a chemical solution after a heat treatment. In the result, a titanium microneedle was produced (outer and inner diameter : 50 μm and 25μm) in the size mimicking that of female mosquito's labium. The inner diameter for the needle is decreased when outer diameter is decreased, hence, the rigidity of the needle is decreased and the pressure drop by pipe friction is increased. Therefore, microneedles to be able to mitigate the pain for the patient and decrease the pressure drop by pipe friction should be designed. In this study, the outer and inner diameters of 50 μm and 25 μm are defined as the basic dimension of the microneedle. Those rigidity and pressure drop by pipe friction in "n" polygonal shape circumscribed and inscribed for basic dimension in the microneedle are calculated. The best shape with "n" polygonal shape to satisfy conditions that needle has rigidity enough to inject the skin without buckling and to decrease the pressure drop by pipe friction to be able to extract blood was searched. The pressure loss became small more than the negative pressure generated with SMA micro pump in n=6. Therefore, the microneedle with sexanglular shape(n=6) made by titanium(E=110.6GPa) can be injected into the skin without buckling and decreased the pressure drop by pipe friction.

  11. Effects of plum extract on skeletal system of fetal and newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Parvin, Fatemeh; Farzaneh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Prunus domestica L. extracts on fetuses and neonatal skeletal systems. A total of 32 pregnant mice (Mus musculus) received vehicle and plum hydroalcoholic extract at gestational days 1-18 and during the entire gestational period as well as 10 days postpartum, respectively. A total of 30 nonpregnant mice were fed plum hydroalcoholic extract and plum juice extract for 30 days. Bone calcium content and serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase were measured. The skeletal systems of their fetuses and neonates were stained with Alcian blue and alizarin red S and the length of femur, tibia, and their ossification center were measured. Crown-rump length of the newborn mice from mothers treated with plum extract (4.61 ± 0.25 mm) was higher compared to the control group (4.48 ± 0.31 mm, p = 0.001), and the femur osteogenesis index of newborn mice from mothers treated with plum extract was also higher (0.87 ± 0.09) compared to the control group (0.81 ± 0.06, p = 0.007). The findings showed that pregnant mice treated with plum extract had fetuses and newborn mice with higher osteogenesis index than those of the controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature. PMID:27563433

  13. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 {+-} 1.1 and -16.8 {+-} 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  14. Applications of fractured continuum model to enhanced geothermal system heat extraction problems.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Elena A; Klise, Katherine A; McKenna, Sean A; Hadgu, Teklu; Lowry, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the applications of the fractured continuum model to the different enhanced geothermal systems reservoir conditions. The capability of the fractured continuum model to generate fracture characteristics expected in enhanced geothermal systems reservoir environments are demonstrated for single and multiple sets of fractures. Fracture characteristics are defined by fracture strike, dip, spacing, and aperture. The paper demonstrates how the fractured continuum model can be extended to represent continuous fractured features, such as long fractures, and the conditions in which the fracture density varies within the different depth intervals. Simulations of heat transport using different fracture settings were compared with regard to their heat extraction effectiveness. The best heat extraction was obtained in the case when fractures were horizontal. A conventional heat extraction scheme with vertical wells was compared to an alternative scheme with horizontal wells. The heat extraction with the horizontal wells was significantly better than with the vertical wells when the injector was at the bottom.

  15. Method and system for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moor, Kenneth S.; Shook, G. Michael; Barker, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for extraction of chemicals from an groundwater remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  16. Behavior of several lanthanide and actinide elements in a molten salt/liquid metal extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Jun; Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu; Maeda, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Masafumi; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki

    1988-06-01

    The extraction behavior of several lanthanide and actinide elements in the reductive-oxidative extraction process in a molten salt/liquid metal system is described. The equilibrium distributions of the elements are affected by metal composition as well as by salt composition. The effect of salt composition is due to the formation of complex compounds in the salt phase. The influence of metal composition is the result of intermetallic compounds in the metal phase. The extraction rates of the elements from the salt phase to the metal phase were also studied from the standpoint of mass transfer and chemical reaction at the interface between the two phases.

  17. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Seth W.; Lin, Yupo J.; Hestekin' Jamie A.; Henry, Michael P.; Pujado, Peter; Oroskar, Anil; Kulprathipanja, Santi; Randhava, Sarabjit

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  18. Integrated system for extraction, purification, and digestion of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-05-01

    An integrated system was developed for directly processing living cells into peptides of membrane proteins. Living cells were directly injected into the system and cracked in a capillary column by ultrasonic treatment. Owing to hydrophilicity for broken pieces of the cell membrane, the obtained membranes were retained in a well-designed bi-filter. While cytoplasm proteins were eluted from the bi-filter, the membranes were dissolved and protein released by flushing 4% SDS buffer through the bi-filter. The membrane proteins were subsequently transferred into a micro-reactor and covalently bound in the reactor for purification and digestion. As the system greatly simplified the whole pretreatment processes and minimized both sample loss and contamination, it could be used to analyze the membrane proteome samples of thousand-cell-scales with acceptable reliability and stability. We totally identified 1348 proteins from 5000 HepG2 cells, 615 of which were annotated as membrane proteins. In contrast, with conventional method, only 233 membrane proteins were identified. It is adequately demonstrated that the integrated system shows promising practicability for the membrane proteome analysis of small amount of cells.

  19. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 6: Extractable Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  20. Development of the Rocket Extraction Escape System for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langsmith, Owen; Nagel, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Six tests have been successfully conducted for a Space Shuttle Rocket Extraction Escape System (REES) for astronauts, using a modified Convair 240 aircraft with a simulated Shuttle Orbiter hatch. All escape trajectories are judged to have been able to clear the Orbiter by an acceptable margin, and the crew-extraction loads were found to be within accepted physiological tolerances. The REES concept can be applied to numerous other aircraft configurations for crew escape.

  1. Extractive fermentation in cloud point system for lipase production by Serratia marcescens ECU1010.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Wu, Zhenqiang; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-02-01

    Extractive microbial fermentation for production of lipase by Serratia marcescens ECU1010 has been carried out in cloud point system. The cloud point system is composed of mixture nonionic surfactants with a ratio of Triton X-114 to Triton X-45 4:1 in aqueous solution. The lipase prefers to partition into the surfactant rich phase (coacervate phase) whereas the cells and other hydrophilic proteins retain in the dilute phase of cloud point system. Thus, a concentration factor 4.2-fold and a purification factor 1.3-fold of the lipase have been achieved in the extractive fermentation process. This is the first report about extractive fermentation of proteins in cloud point system.

  2. Counter current extraction system for tritium recovery from /sup 17/Li-/sup 83/Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1985-02-01

    A counter current extraction system is proposed here to recover tritium from /sup 17/Li-/sup 83/Pb. The multiple stage extraction system is used to reduce the resistance to the molecular diffusion in the liquid phase, while a counter current helium purge gas is used to reduce the resistance in the gas phase. To reduce the purge gas requirement and alleviate the tritium containment problem, hydrogen is added to the purge gas. An isotope separation system is designed to separate the hydrogen from the tritium.

  3. TIGER5---Extraction of geographic information from the TIGER system

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.K.

    1992-03-01

    The need for geographic information in digital form is becoming apparent in many areas, including Emergency Response Planning and Management. The Bureau of Census recognized this need and developed an automated geographic data base, known as Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System, to produce the geographic products for the 1990 census. The Bureau makes the information available to the public on CD-ROM disks. As distributed, the geographic information is not directly visible, and a program is needed to display the information in a graphic form. MapInfo is a commercially available program that has the capability to display maps and allows the user to perform certain geographic analyses. MapInfo runs on a variety of low-cost platforms that may be found in an average office environment, as well as on high-performance work stations. The TIGER5 program developed by the Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reads files directly from the Census Bureau TIGER/Line CD-ROM and creates MapInfo Exchange Format Files that can be directly imported into MapInfo. The standard default values for scaling parameters are used, and the resulting map is in the same coordinate system as the world and state maps distributed with MapInfo.

  4. TIGER5---Extraction of geographic information from the TIGER system

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.K.

    1992-03-01

    The need for geographic information in digital form is becoming apparent in many areas, including Emergency Response Planning and Management. The Bureau of Census recognized this need and developed an automated geographic data base, known as Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System, to produce the geographic products for the 1990 census. The Bureau makes the information available to the public on CD-ROM disks. As distributed, the geographic information is not directly visible, and a program is needed to display the information in a graphic form. MapInfo is a commercially available program that has the capability to display maps and allows the user to perform certain geographic analyses. MapInfo runs on a variety of low-cost platforms that may be found in an average office environment, as well as on high-performance work stations. The TIGER5 program developed by the Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reads files directly from the Census Bureau TIGER/Line CD-ROM and creates MapInfo Exchange Format Files that can be directly imported into MapInfo. The standard default values for scaling parameters are used, and the resulting map is in the same coordinate system as the world and state maps distributed with MapInfo.

  5. Application of raisin extracts as preservatives in liquid bread and bread systems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q; Wolf-Hall, C; Hall, C A

    2009-01-01

    Interest in natural ingredients with multifunctions in food has led to the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of raisins, a traditional baking ingredient. Water and 60% ethanol extracts, and raisin juice concentrate (RJC, a commercial food ingredient) were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of ropy-bread-causing Bacillus species. The ability of these additives and raisin paste were tested for antifungal activity in liquid bread model system and bread. In the liquid bread model, concentrations as low as 20 and 36 mg crude extract or RJC per gram media significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the populations of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, respectively. A significant reduction in the population of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum was achieved at 80 and 470 mg crude extract per gram media, respectively. Bread formulas containing 7.5% of a water extract (equivalent to 70 mg extract per gram dough) or RJC (70 mg/g dough) produced bread that had equivalent mold-free shelf life. The mean mold-free shelf life of the bread containing 7.5% water extract was 18.1 +/- 3.3 d at room temperature while the negative control was mold free for 9.4 +/- 2.4 d. The antifungal efficacy of the extracts in bread was equivalent to 0.24% calcium propionate in 21 d of storage. Doubling the concentration of the extract did not improve the mold-retarding property in bread. The bread containing raisin paste, the percentage of which in dough was equivalent to 15% raisin extract, exhibited a stronger antifungal activity than did the extracts in bread.

  6. Liquid-liquid extraction of some lanthanide metal ions by polyoxyalkylene systems.

    PubMed

    Jaber, A M; Al-Naser, A E

    1997-10-01

    Polyoxyalkylene systems, namely, polypropylene glycol (PPG-1025), polyethylene glycol (PEG-600) and polybutadieneoxide (PBDO-700) dissolved in either nitrobenzene or 1,2-dichloroethane have been tested as prospective extractants for some lanthanide metal ions (Eu(3+), Pr(3+) and Er(3+)) from their aqueous solutions in the presence of picrate anions. The metal ions were quantified before and after extraction using the inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry technique. The percent extraction and the distribution coefficients have indicated that pH of the aqueous phase, picrate concentration and the organic solvent are the major parameters that affect the extraction efficiency of the metal ions. The optimum pH range was found to be 3.5-5.5 and the picrate concentration should be as high as possible; however, a picrate concentration of about 0.05 M proved to be adequate for a near quantitative extraction. In all cases, nitrobenzene enhanced a higher percent extraction compared to 1,2-dichloroethane. The efficiency of the polyoxyalkylene systems to extract certain lanthanide metal ions was in the order PBDO-700>PPG-1025>PEG-600 when nitrobenzene was the organic solvent and in the order PPG-1025>PBDO-700 approximately PEG-600 when 1,2-dichloroethane used as the solvent in the organic phase. The extractability of PPG-1025 towards the lanthanide metal ions was in the order Pr(3+)>Eu(3+)>Er(3+) irrespective of the organic solvent used. The stoichiometry of the extracted polyoxyalkylene ion-pairs with the lanthanide metal ions has been estimated. Each mole of metal ions is associated with three moles of picrate anions and 13 to 14 moles of propyleneoxide units in the case of PPG-1025, and about 9 to 10 moles of ethyleneoxide units in the case of PEG-600 and 10 moles of butadieneoxide units in the case of PBDO-700.

  7. Compaction and Circuit Extraction in the MAGIC IC Layout System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    the extractor. Thariks are also due to Randy Katz of UC Berkeley and the Fall 1Q84 VLSI design class, for their willingness to use the extractor...34Q-353. [McC84] S. P. McCormick, "EXCL: A Circuit Extractor for IC Designs", Proceedings of the £1st Design Automation Conference, 1Q84 , 624-628...Conference, 1Q84 , 137-143. (Mos81] R. C. Mosteller, "REST: A Leaf Cell Design System", in VLSI81, J. P. Gray (editor), Academic Press, 1Q81, 163-172

  8. Antidepressant-like effect of Tagetes lucida Cav. extract in rats: involvement of the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gabriela, Guadarrama-Cruz; Javier, Alarcón-Aguilar Francisco; Elisa, Vega-Avila; Gonzalo, Vázquez-Palacios; Herlinda, Bonilla-Jaime

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the decoction of the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida Cav. produces an antidepressant effect during the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different organic extracts and one aqueous extract of the aerial parts of T. lucida on the FST. In addition, the possible involvement of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of T. lucida in the FST was evaluated, as was its potential toxicological effect. The different extracts of T. lucida (methanol, hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous, 10 and 50 mg/kg), as well as fluoxetine (FLX, 5 mg/kg), were administered per os (p.o.) to rats for 14 days. All animals were subjected to the FST. Only the aqueous extract of T. lucida at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility behavior and increased swimming in the FST, similar to FLX. Later, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (50mg/kg) was administered for 1, 7 and 14 days. An antidepressant effect was observed after 7 days of treatment. To evaluate the participation of the serotoninergic system, the animals were pretreated with PCPA, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (100 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days). The animals were treated with the aqueous extract of T. lucida (50 mg/kg) and FLX (5 mg/kg) 24 h after the final injection and were then subjected to the FST. Pretreatment with PCPA inhibited the antidepressant effect of both T. lucida and FLX. Finally, T. lucida was administered p.o. and intraperitoneal route to evaluate its acute toxicological effect. The aqueous extract of T. lucida, administered p.o., did not produce lethality or any significant changes in behavior. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of T. lucida manifested an antidepressant-like effect in the FST mediated by the serotonergic system, with no adverse effects when administered p.o.

  9. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition.

    PubMed

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Tuske, O

    2014-02-01

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011-2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  10. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-01

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011-2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  11. Systems studies on the extraction of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.; Best, F.R.

    1981-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done at MIT during FY 1981 on the overall system design of a uranium-from-seawater facility. It consists of a sequence of seven major chapters, each of which was originally prepared as a stand-alone internal progress report. These chapters trace the historical progression of the MIT effort, from an early concern with scoping calculations to define the practical boundaries of a design envelope, as constrained by elementary economic and energy balance considerations, through a parallel evaluation of actively-pumped and passive current-driven concepts, and thence to quantification of the features of a second generation system based on a shipboard-mounted, actively-pumped concept designed around the use of thin beds of powdered ion exchange resin supported by cloth fiber cylinders (similar to the baghouse flyash filters used on power station offgas). An assessment of the apparently inherent limitations of even thin settled-bed sorber media then led to selection of an expanded bed (in the form of an ion exchange wool), which would permit an order of magnitude increase in flow loading, as a desirable advance. Thus the final two chapters evaluate ways in which this approach could be implemented, and the resulting performance levels which could be attained. Overall, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production costs under 200 $/lb appear to be within reach if a high capacity (several thousand ppM U) ion exchange wool can be developed.

  12. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  13. Evaluation of methods for the extraction of DNA from drinking water distribution system biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Andersen, Gary L; LeChevallier, Mark W; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2012-01-01

    While drinking water biofilms have been characterized in various drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), little is known about the impact of different DNA extraction methods on the subsequent analysis of microbial communities in drinking water biofilms. Since different DNA extraction methods have been shown to affect the outcome of microbial community analysis in other environments, it is necessary to select a DNA extraction method prior to the application of molecular tools to characterize the complex microbial ecology of the DWDS. This study compared the quantity and quality of DNA yields from selected DWDS bacteria with different cell wall properties using five widely used DNA extraction methods. These were further selected and evaluated for their efficiency and reproducibility of DNA extraction from DWDS samples. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis and the 454 pyrosequencing technique were used to interpret the differences in microbial community structure and composition, respectively, from extracted DNA. Such assessments serve as a concrete step towards the determination of an optimal DNA extraction method for drinking water biofilms, which can then provide a reliable comparison of the meta-analysis results obtained in different laboratories.

  14. Evaluation of Methods for the Extraction of DNA from Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Andersen, Gary L.; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2012-01-01

    While drinking water biofilms have been characterized in various drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), little is known about the impact of different DNA extraction methods on the subsequent analysis of microbial communities in drinking water biofilms. Since different DNA extraction methods have been shown to affect the outcome of microbial community analysis in other environments, it is necessary to select a DNA extraction method prior to the application of molecular tools to characterize the complex microbial ecology of the DWDS. This study compared the quantity and quality of DNA yields from selected DWDS bacteria with different cell wall properties using five widely used DNA extraction methods. These were further selected and evaluated for their efficiency and reproducibility of DNA extraction from DWDS samples. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis and the 454 pyrosequencing technique were used to interpret the differences in microbial community structure and composition, respectively, from extracted DNA. Such assessments serve as a concrete step towards the determination of an optimal DNA extraction method for drinking water biofilms, which can then provide a reliable comparison of the meta-analysis results obtained in different laboratories. PMID:22075624

  15. Work extraction from quantum systems with bounded fluctuations in work

    PubMed Central

    Richens, Jonathan G.; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    In the standard framework of thermodynamics, work is a random variable whose average is bounded by the change in free energy of the system. This average work is calculated without regard for the size of its fluctuations. Here we show that for some processes, such as reversible cooling, the fluctuations in work diverge. Realistic thermal machines may be unable to cope with arbitrarily large fluctuations. Hence, it is important to understand how thermodynamic efficiency rates are modified by bounding fluctuations. We quantify the work content and work of formation of arbitrary finite dimensional quantum states when the fluctuations in work are bounded by a given amount c. By varying c we interpolate between the standard and minimum free energies. We derive fundamental trade-offs between the magnitude of work and its fluctuations. As one application of these results, we derive the corrected Carnot efficiency of a qubit heat engine with bounded fluctuations. PMID:27886177

  16. Inverting chaos: Extracting system parameters from experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. L.; Gollub, J. P.; Blackburn, J. A.

    1996-12-01

    Given a set of experimental or numerical chaotic data and a set of model differential equations with several parameters, is it possible to determine the numerical values for these parameters using a least-squares approach, and thereby to test the model against the data? We explore this question (a) with simulated data from model equations for the Rossler, Lorenz, and pendulum attractors, and (b) with experimental data produced by a physical chaotic pendulum. For the systems considered in this paper, the least-squares approach provides values of model parameters that agree well with values obtained in other ways, even in the presence of modest amounts of added noise. For experimental data, the ``fitted'' and experimental attractors are found to have the same correlation dimension and the same positive Lyapunov exponent.

  17. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Xiaoling

    2013-07-02

    A system for biosensor-based detection of toxins includes providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  18. Work extraction from quantum systems with bounded fluctuations in work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richens, Jonathan G.; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-11-01

    In the standard framework of thermodynamics, work is a random variable whose average is bounded by the change in free energy of the system. This average work is calculated without regard for the size of its fluctuations. Here we show that for some processes, such as reversible cooling, the fluctuations in work diverge. Realistic thermal machines may be unable to cope with arbitrarily large fluctuations. Hence, it is important to understand how thermodynamic efficiency rates are modified by bounding fluctuations. We quantify the work content and work of formation of arbitrary finite dimensional quantum states when the fluctuations in work are bounded by a given amount c. By varying c we interpolate between the standard and minimum free energies. We derive fundamental trade-offs between the magnitude of work and its fluctuations. As one application of these results, we derive the corrected Carnot efficiency of a qubit heat engine with bounded fluctuations.

  19. Resource targets for advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J. H.; Whipple, D. W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems are identified. A comprehensive examination of conventional and unconventional coals with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry was made. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions of subregions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  20. Work extraction from quantum systems with bounded fluctuations in work.

    PubMed

    Richens, Jonathan G; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-11-25

    In the standard framework of thermodynamics, work is a random variable whose average is bounded by the change in free energy of the system. This average work is calculated without regard for the size of its fluctuations. Here we show that for some processes, such as reversible cooling, the fluctuations in work diverge. Realistic thermal machines may be unable to cope with arbitrarily large fluctuations. Hence, it is important to understand how thermodynamic efficiency rates are modified by bounding fluctuations. We quantify the work content and work of formation of arbitrary finite dimensional quantum states when the fluctuations in work are bounded by a given amount c. By varying c we interpolate between the standard and minimum free energies. We derive fundamental trade-offs between the magnitude of work and its fluctuations. As one application of these results, we derive the corrected Carnot efficiency of a qubit heat engine with bounded fluctuations.

  1. Rapid metal extractability tests from polluted mining soils by ultrasound probe sonication and microwave-assisted extraction systems.

    PubMed

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic probe sonication (UPS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used for rapid single extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica Mine, Bustarviejo, NW Madrid, Spain), using 0.01 mol L(-1) calcium chloride (CaCl2), 0.43 mol L(-1) acetic acid (CH3COOH), and 0.05 mol L(-1) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 7 as extracting agents. The optimum extraction conditions by UPS consisted of an extraction time of 2 min for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min for CH3COOH extraction, at 30% ultrasound (US) amplitude, whereas in the case of MAE, they consisted of 5 min at 50 °C for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min at 120 °C for CH3COOH extraction. Extractable concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proposed methods were compared with a reduced version of the corresponding single extraction procedures proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). The results obtained showed a great variability on extraction percentages, depending on the metal, the total concentration level and the soil sample, reaching high values in some areas. However, the correlation analysis showed that total concentration is the most relevant factor for element extractability in these soil samples. From the results obtained, the application of the accelerated extraction procedures, such as MAE and UPS, could be considered a useful approach to evaluate rapidly the extractability of the metals studied.

  2. BELMiner: adapting a rule-based relation extraction system to extract biological expression language statements from bio-medical literature evidence sentences.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, K E; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-01-01

    Extracting meaningful relationships with semantic significance from biomedical literature is often a challenging task. BioCreative V track4 challenge for the first time has organized a comprehensive shared task to test the robustness of the text-mining algorithms in extracting semantically meaningful assertions from the evidence statement in biomedical text. In this work, we tested the ability of a rule-based semantic parser to extract Biological Expression Language (BEL) statements from evidence sentences culled out of biomedical literature as part of BioCreative V Track4 challenge. The system achieved an overall best F-measure of 21.29% in extracting the complete BEL statement. For relation extraction, the system achieved an F-measure of 65.13% on test data set. Our system achieved the best performance in five of the six criteria that was adopted for evaluation by the task organizers. Lack of ability to derive semantic inferences, limitation in the rule sets to map the textual extractions to BEL function were some of the reasons for low performance in extracting the complete BEL statement. Post shared task we also evaluated the impact of differential NER components on the ability to extract BEL statements on the test data sets besides making a single change in the rule sets that translate relation extractions into a BEL statement. There is a marked improvement by over 20% in the overall performance of the BELMiner's capability to extract BEL statement on the test set. The system is available as a REST-API at http://54.146.11.205:8484/BELXtractor/finder/. http://54.146.11.205:8484/BELXtractor/finder/.

  3. Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

    2014-09-02

    In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has lesser impact on the performance of an electromebrane extraction system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. BELMiner: adapting a rule-based relation extraction system to extract biological expression language statements from bio-medical literature evidence sentences

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-01-01

    Extracting meaningful relationships with semantic significance from biomedical literature is often a challenging task. BioCreative V track4 challenge for the first time has organized a comprehensive shared task to test the robustness of the text-mining algorithms in extracting semantically meaningful assertions from the evidence statement in biomedical text. In this work, we tested the ability of a rule-based semantic parser to extract Biological Expression Language (BEL) statements from evidence sentences culled out of biomedical literature as part of BioCreative V Track4 challenge. The system achieved an overall best F-measure of 21.29% in extracting the complete BEL statement. For relation extraction, the system achieved an F-measure of 65.13% on test data set. Our system achieved the best performance in five of the six criteria that was adopted for evaluation by the task organizers. Lack of ability to derive semantic inferences, limitation in the rule sets to map the textual extractions to BEL function were some of the reasons for low performance in extracting the complete BEL statement. Post shared task we also evaluated the impact of differential NER components on the ability to extract BEL statements on the test data sets besides making a single change in the rule sets that translate relation extractions into a BEL statement. There is a marked improvement by over 20% in the overall performance of the BELMiner’s capability to extract BEL statement on the test set. The system is available as a REST-API at http://54.146.11.205:8484/BELXtractor/finder/ Database URL: http://54.146.11.205:8484/BELXtractor/finder/ PMID:28365720

  5. Central nervous system activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Sida acuta in rats.

    PubMed

    Ibironke, G F; Umukoro, A S; Ajonijebu, D C

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated the pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Sida acuta leaves on central nervous system activities in mice. Adult male mice (18 - 25g) were used for the study. The extract was administered orally in male mice and evaluated in the following tests: forced swimming, tail suspension, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid--induced mouse writhing and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. The results revealed a reduction in the frequency of abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, decreased licking times in both phases of the formalin test, reduction in immobility times in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. However, the extract produced no effect on apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviour. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of Sida acuta contains psychoactive substances with analgesic and antidepressant-like properties which may be beneficial in the management of pain.

  6. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection.

  7. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug–disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed from http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr. The online CD-REST demonstration system is available at http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL: http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr; http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html PMID:27016700

  8. Multiple-Feature Extracting Modules Based Leak Mining System Design

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing. PMID:24453892

  9. Multiple-feature extracting modules based leak mining system design.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing.

  10. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  11. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  12. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf water extract on rat antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Somparn, Nuntiya; Saenthaweesuk, Suphaket; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn

    2014-08-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf(CCS) is commonly known as lemon grass. Previous studies showed that it has a strong antioxidant property and have been traditionally used as analgesic, antipyretic, antiseptic in SoutheastAsia. However, the effect of CCS on antioxidant defense system has not been demonstrated. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of CCS water extract on rat antioxidant defense system, especially on the expression of y-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The CCS water extract was screenedfor its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged eight weeks (250±20 g) were orally administered with CCS at 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg/day for one month. The extract contained flavonoids (496.17 mg gallic acid/g CCS extract) and phenolic compounds (4,020.18 mg catechin/g CCS extract). The scavenging activity (DPPH assay) of the extract was demonstrated by EC50 of 917.76±86.89 μg/ ml whereas the EC50 of the potent antioxidant, vitamin C was 31.22±1.84 μg/ml. In the animals, the protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, γGCL and HO-1 was significantly increased in the high dose-treated animals (1,000 mg/kg/day). This was consistent with elevation ofserum total antioxidant capacity. Taken together the present study provides evidence that CCS water extract exhibits antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzymes induction in vivo.

  13. Modeling of heat extraction from variably fractured porous media in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgu, Teklu; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Lowry, Thomas Stephen

    2016-01-30

    Modeling of heat extraction in Enhanced Geothermal Systems is presented. The study builds on recent studies on the use of directional wells to improve heat transfer between doublet injection and production wells. The current study focuses on the influence of fracture orientation on production temperature in deep low permeability geothermal systems, and the effects of directional drilling and separation distance between boreholes on heat extraction. The modeling results indicate that fracture orientation with respect to the well-pair plane has significant influence on reservoir thermal drawdown. As a result, the vertical well doublet is impacted significantly more than the horizontal well doublet

  14. Modeling of heat extraction from variably fractured porous media in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Hadgu, Teklu; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Lowry, Thomas Stephen

    2016-01-30

    Modeling of heat extraction in Enhanced Geothermal Systems is presented. The study builds on recent studies on the use of directional wells to improve heat transfer between doublet injection and production wells. The current study focuses on the influence of fracture orientation on production temperature in deep low permeability geothermal systems, and the effects of directional drilling and separation distance between boreholes on heat extraction. The modeling results indicate that fracture orientation with respect to the well-pair plane has significant influence on reservoir thermal drawdown. As a result, the vertical well doublet is impacted significantly more than the horizontal wellmore » doublet« less

  15. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  16. New method to enhance the extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica using a novel ultrasonic extraction system by determining optimum ultrasonic frequency.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin

    2015-11-01

    A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future.

  17. Optimization and numerical simulation for the extraction system of the H- multicusp ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, M.; Afarideh, H.

    2014-05-01

    A new ion source has been designed and manufactured for the CYCLONE30 accelerator, which has a much advanced performance compared with the original. It is expected that the newly designed ion source extraction system will transport a very large percentage of the beam without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver an H- beam at 30 keV. The accelerator assembly consists of three circular aperture electrodes made of copper. The simulation study was focused on finding parameter sets that raise the beam perveance as large as possible and which reduce the beam divergence as low as possible. Ion beams of the highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence is minimum, for which the perveance current intensity and the extraction gap have optimum values. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that it is possible to achieve this goal by decreasing the thickness of the plasma electrode, shortening the first gap, and adjusting the acceleration electrode voltage.

  18. Energy extraction from a large-scale microbial fuel cell system treating municipal wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zheng; Wu, Liao; Zhang, Fei; He, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Development of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology must address the challenges associated with energy extraction from large-scale MFC systems consisting of multiple modules. Herein, energy extraction is investigated with a 200-L MFC system (effective volume of 100 L for this study) treating actual municipal wastewater. A commercially available energy harvesting device (BQ 25504) is used successfully to convert 0.8-2.4 V from the MFCs to 5 V for charging ultracapacitors and running a DC motor. Four different types of serial connection containing different numbers of MFC modules are examined for energy extraction and conversion efficiency. The connection containing three rows of the MFCs has exhibited the best performance with the highest power output of ∼114 mW and the conversion efficiency of ∼80%. The weak performance of one-row MFCs negatively affects the overall performance of the connected MFCs in terms of both energy production and conversion. Those results indicate that an MFC system with balanced performance among individual modules will be critical to energy extraction. Future work will focus on application of the extracted energy to support MFC operation.

  19. Perpetual extraction of work from a nonequilibrium dynamical system under Markovian feedback control.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Taichi

    2013-09-01

    By treating both control parameters and dynamical variables as probabilistic variables, we develop a succinct theory of perpetual extraction of work from a generic classical nonequilibrium system subject to a heat bath via repeated measurements under a Markovian feedback control. It is demonstrated that a problem for perpetual extraction of work in a nonequilibrium system is reduced to a problem of Markov chain in the higher-dimensional phase space. We derive a version of the detailed fluctuation theorem, which was originally derived for classical nonequilibrium systems by Horowitz and Vaikuntanathan [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061120 (2010)], in a form suitable for the analyses of perpetual extraction of work. Since our theory is formulated for generic dynamics of probability distribution function in phase space, its application to a physical system is straightforward. As simple applications of the theory, two exactly solvable models are analyzed. The one is a nonequilibrium two-state system and the other is a particle confined to a one-dimensional harmonic potential in thermal equilibrium. For the former example, it is demonstrated that the observer on the transitory steps to the stationary state can lose energy and that work larger than that achieved in the stationary state can be extracted. For the latter example, it is demonstrated that the optimal protocol for the extraction of work via repeated measurements can differ from that via a single measurement. The validity of our version of the detailed fluctuation theorem, which determines the upper bound of the expected work in the stationary state, is also confirmed for both examples. These observations provide useful insights into exploration for realistic modeling of a machine that extracts work from its environment.

  20. Perpetual extraction of work from a nonequilibrium dynamical system under Markovian feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Taichi

    2013-09-01

    By treating both control parameters and dynamical variables as probabilistic variables, we develop a succinct theory of perpetual extraction of work from a generic classical nonequilibrium system subject to a heat bath via repeated measurements under a Markovian feedback control. It is demonstrated that a problem for perpetual extraction of work in a nonequilibrium system is reduced to a problem of Markov chain in the higher-dimensional phase space. We derive a version of the detailed fluctuation theorem, which was originally derived for classical nonequilibrium systems by Horowitz and Vaikuntanathan [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061120 82, 061120 (2010)], in a form suitable for the analyses of perpetual extraction of work. Since our theory is formulated for generic dynamics of probability distribution function in phase space, its application to a physical system is straightforward. As simple applications of the theory, two exactly solvable models are analyzed. The one is a nonequilibrium two-state system and the other is a particle confined to a one-dimensional harmonic potential in thermal equilibrium. For the former example, it is demonstrated that the observer on the transitory steps to the stationary state can lose energy and that work larger than that achieved in the stationary state can be extracted. For the latter example, it is demonstrated that the optimal protocol for the extraction of work via repeated measurements can differ from that via a single measurement. The validity of our version of the detailed fluctuation theorem, which determines the upper bound of the expected work in the stationary state, is also confirmed for both examples. These observations provide useful insights into exploration for realistic modeling of a machine that extracts work from its environment.

  1. Comparisons of Three Automated Systems for Genomic DNA Extraction in a Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Han; Park, Yongjung; Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The extraction of nucleic acid is initially a limiting step for successful molecular-based diagnostic workup. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of three automated DNA extraction systems for clinical laboratory use. Materials and Methods Venous blood samples from 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed using QIAamp® Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen), MagNA Pure LC Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche), and Magtration-Magnazorb DNA common kit-200N (PSS). The concentration of extracted DNAs was measured by NanoDrop ND-1000 (PeqLab). Also, extracted DNAs were confirmed by applying in direct agarose gel electrophoresis and were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human beta-globin gene. Results The corrected concentrations of extracted DNAs were 25.42 ± 8.82 ng/µL (13.49-52.85 ng/µL) by QIAamp® Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen), and 22.65 ± 14.49 ng/µL (19.18-93.39 ng/µL) by MagNA Pure LC Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and 22.35 ± 6.47 ng/µL (12.57-35.08 ng/µL) by Magtration-Magnazorb DNA common kit-200N (PSS). No statistically significant difference was noticed among the three commercial kits (p > 0.05). Only the mean value of DNA purity through PSS was slightly lower than others. All the extracted DNAs were successfully identified in direct agarose gel electrophoresis. And all the product of beta-globin gene PCR showed a reproducible pattern of bands. Conclusion The effectiveness of the three automated extraction systems is of an equivalent level and good enough to produce reasonable results. Each laboratory could select the automated system according to its clinical and laboratory conditions. PMID:20046522

  2. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  3. Recognition of a Phase-Sensitivity OTDR Sensing System Based on Morphologic Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Feng, Hao; Yan, Xueying; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for intrusion event recognition within a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) sensing system. Feature extraction of time domain signals in these systems is time-consuming and may lead to inaccuracies due to noise disturbances. The recognition accuracy and speed of current systems cannot meet the requirements of Φ-OTDR online vibration monitoring systems. In the method proposed in this paper, the time-space domain signal is used for feature extraction instead of the time domain signal. Feature vectors are obtained from morphologic features of time-space domain signals. A scatter matrix is calculated for the feature selection. Experiments show that the feature extraction method proposed in this paper can greatly improve recognition accuracies, with a lower computation time than traditional methods, i.e., a recognition accuracy of 97.8% can be achieved with a recognition time of below 1 s, making it is very suitable for Φ-OTDR system online vibration monitoring. PMID:26131671

  4. Development of a natural preservative system using the mixture of chitosan-Inula helenium L. extract.

    PubMed

    Seo, S-B; Ryu, C-S; Ahn, G-W; Kim, H-B; Jo, B-K; Kim, S-H; Lee, J-D; Kajiuchi, T

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new natural preservative system making up for the weak points of chitosan as a preservative. As reported in a previous manuscript (20th IFSCC Congress, Cannes, France, 1998), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of water-soluble chitosan against bacteria and yeast were 0.9-3.0 mg mL(-1), whereas MICs of chitosan against Aspergillus niger were over 5.0 mg mL(-1). However, the result of recent study showed that the MICs of Inula helenium L. extract against A. niger were below 1.0 mg mL(-1). Thus, we could develop a new preservative system containing both chitosan and I. helenium L. extract named CI-mixture. MICs of CI-mixture against bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould) were 2.0-4.0 mg mL(-1). When 10.0% of the mixture (the ratio of chitosan to I. helenium L. extract = 7.5% : 2.5%) was applied to cosmetic formulae such as skin lotion, milk lotion, cream and pack, it revealed appropriate preservative efficacy. Our result of the patch test also showed that this preservative system reduced skin irritation by about 30-50%, as compared to the organic preservative system. Therefore, the good natural preservative system including chitosan and Inula helenium L. extract could be incorporated in cosmetic formulations.

  5. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  6. Recognition of a Phase-Sensitivity OTDR Sensing System Based on Morphologic Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Feng, Hao; Yan, Xueying; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2015-06-29

    This paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for intrusion event recognition within a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) sensing system. Feature extraction of time domain signals in these systems is time-consuming and may lead to inaccuracies due to noise disturbances. The recognition accuracy and speed of current systems cannot meet the requirements of Φ-OTDR online vibration monitoring systems. In the method proposed in this paper, the time-space domain signal is used for feature extraction instead of the time domain signal. Feature vectors are obtained from morphologic features of time-space domain signals. A scatter matrix is calculated for the feature selection. Experiments show that the feature extraction method proposed in this paper can greatly improve recognition accuracies, with a lower computation time than traditional methods, i.e., a recognition accuracy of 97.8% can be achieved with a recognition time of below 1 s, making it is very suitable for Φ-OTDR system online vibration monitoring.

  7. A neuro-fuzzy system for extracting environment features based on ultrasonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Marichal, Graciliano Nicolás; Hernández, Angela; Acosta, Leopoldo; González, Evelio José

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method to extract features of the environment based on ultrasonic sensors is presented. A 3D model of a set of sonar systems and a workplace has been developed. The target of this approach is to extract in a short time, while the vehicle is moving, features of the environment. Particularly, the approach shown in this paper has been focused on determining walls and corners, which are very common environment features. In order to prove the viability of the devised approach, a 3D simulated environment has been built. A Neuro-Fuzzy strategy has been used in order to extract environment features from this simulated model. Several trials have been carried out, obtaining satisfactory results in this context. After that, some experimental tests have been conducted using a real vehicle with a set of sonar systems. The obtained results reveal the satisfactory generalization properties of the approach in this case.

  8. A Neuro-Fuzzy System for Extracting Environment Features Based on Ultrasonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Marichal, Graciliano Nicolás; Hernández, Angela; Acosta, Leopoldo; González, Evelio José

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method to extract features of the environment based on ultrasonic sensors is presented. A 3D model of a set of sonar systems and a workplace has been developed. The target of this approach is to extract in a short time, while the vehicle is moving, features of the environment. Particularly, the approach shown in this paper has been focused on determining walls and corners, which are very common environment features. In order to prove the viability of the devised approach, a 3D simulated environment has been built. A Neuro-Fuzzy strategy has been used in order to extract environment features from this simulated model. Several trials have been carried out, obtaining satisfactory results in this context. After that, some experimental tests have been conducted using a real vehicle with a set of sonar systems. The obtained results reveal the satisfactory generalization properties of the approach in this case. PMID:22303160

  9. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products.

  10. Design of a Prototype Positive Ion Source with Slit Aperture Type Extraction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Vattilli, Prahlad; Choksi, Bhargav; Punyapu, Bharathi; Sidibomma, Rambabu; Bonagiri, Sridhar; Aggrawal, Deepak; Baruah, Ujjwal K.

    2017-04-01

    The neutral beam injector group at IPR aims at developing an experimental positive ion source capable of delivering H+ ion beam having energy of 30 - 40 keV and carrying an ion beam current of 5 A. The slit aperture based extraction system is chosen for extracting and accelerating the ions so as to achieve low divergence of the ion beam (< 0.5°). For producing H+ ions a magnetic multi-pole bucket type plasma chamber is selected. We calculated the magnetic field due to cusp magnets and trajectories (orbits) of the primary electrons to investigate the two magnetic configurations i.e. line cusp and checker board. Numerical simulation is also carried out by using OPERA-3D to study the characteristic performance of the slit aperture type extraction-acceleration system. We report here the results of the studies carried out on various aspects of the design of the slit aperture type positive ion source.

  11. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth.

  12. Integrated extraction and purification of soy isoflavones by using aqueous micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Cordisco, Estefanía; Haidar, Carla N; Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Nerli, Bibiana B; Malpiedi, Luciana P

    2016-12-15

    In this work, an integration of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems was evaluated as potential tool to purify soy isoflavones. Additionally, the proposed methodology aimed to preserve the protein content of the processed soy flour. The extractive assays were performed in AMTPS formed by Triton X-114 and sodium tartrate. In order to optimize the purification process, temperature and time were evaluated as independent variables. Under optimal working conditions, i.e. 100min and 33°C of incubation, IF were purified with a recovery percentage of 93 and a purification factor of almost 10. More importantly, the obtained sample presented an aglycone proportion superior to the reported by other methodologies. These results open perspectives to the use of aqueous micellar two-phase systems as an integrative methodology to extract, concentrate and purify isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of hawthorn seed and pulp extracts on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Can, Ozgür Devrim; Ozkay, Umide Demir; Oztürk, Nilgün; Oztürk, Yusuf

    2010-08-01

    Investigating potential central nervous system (CNS) activities of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae), hawthorn, fruit extracts. Evaluating CNS effects and analgesic activities of hawthorn fruit extracts based on the traditional uses of the plant for neurosedative and pain killer actions. Effects of hawthorn pulp (HPE) and seed extracts (HSE) at the dose range of 1-1000 mg/kg were examined on anxiety level, spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination, and nociceptive perception of mice. Morphine was used as a reference drug. HPE (100-1000 mg/kg) and HSE (10-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased not only the exploratory behaviors in hole-board experiments, but also the spontaneous locomotor activities in activity cage tests. The same doses of extracts were found to be ineffective in Rota-Rod tests of mice. In tail-clip, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests, quite potent and dose-dependent analgesic activities were seen at 100-1000 mg/kg doses of HPE and 10-1000 mg/kg doses of HSE. Analgesic effects observed in all analgesia tests were antagonized by naloxone. Significant and dose-dependent decreases in spontaneous locomotor activities and exploratory behaviors of animals suggested CNS depressant activities of both extracts. Complete naloxone antagonism in all applied analgesia tests indicated opioid-related analgesic activities of both extracts. These findings seem to support the traditional use of this plant to treat stress, nervousness, sleep disorders, and pain control.

  14. Can extractive reserves save the rain forest: A ecological and socioeconomic comparison of non-timber forest product extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Salafsky, N.; Dugelby, B.L.; Terborgh, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Extractive reserves in tropical rain forests, in which only non-timber products are harvested, have been heralded by some conservationists as a means of maintaining biodiversity while providing income for local people. The study of extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, leads to a more tempered conclusion, for while the Peten program was quite successful, the Kalimantan program was not. The study finds the success of an extractive reserve to be contingent on: (1) ecological conditions, and (2) socioeconomic and political factors. Although the study focuses on market-oriented extractive reserves, many of the issues discussed apply as well to other land uses such as the collection of non-timber forest products for household consumption or small-scale timber extraction.

  15. The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix on systemic exposure of verapamil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Suad M; Irshaid, Yacoub M; Gharaibeh, Munir N; Arafat, Tawfiq A

    2011-04-01

    The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo fruit on systemic exposure of verapamil was explored in rabbits. Two groups each of 8 locally-inbred New Zealand male rabbits were used. The first group was used for single-dose treatment (both verapamil and pomelo extract). The second group was used for multiple-dose treatment, pomelo extract (once daily for 14 days) and verapamil single doses (at days 7 and 14). A verapamil dose of 30 mg/kg and a pomelo extract dose of 45 mg/kg were used. Single-dose treatment with pomelo extract resulted in a minor change in mean C(max) of verapamil in plasma, while a decrease of 37.8% in AUC(0-24) and 28.3% in AUC(0-∞) was observed but did not reach statistical significance. After the first period of multiple dose treatment (pomelo extract for 7 days), the combination increased the concentration of verapamil in plasma with a significant increase in mean C(max), AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-∞) by 461.9%, 299.7%, and 261.1%, respectively (p values were 0.005, 0.002, and 0.006, respectively). In contrast, after the second period (day 14 of pomelo extract use), the combination decreased the concentration of verapamil in the plasma with a substantial decrease in mean C(max), AUC(0-24), and AUC(0-∞), by 68.2%, 69.7% and 58.3%, respectively. This decrease did not reach statistical significance (p values were 0.073, 0.081 and 0.083, respectively). The T(max) was not affected significantly in both studies. The study illustrates a complex time-dependent interaction between verapamil and the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix. More intensive studies are needed to further understand the nature of the interaction. ©2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  16. A pilot scale ultrasonic system to enhance extraction processes with dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Blasco, M.; Tornero, A.; Casas, E.; Roselló, C.; Simal, S.; Acosta, V. M.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    The use of dense gases (supercritical fluids) as extracting agents has been attracting wide interest for years. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered nowadays as a green and very useful solvent. Nevertheless, the extraction process has a slow dynamics. Power ultrasound represents an efficient way for accelerating and enhancing the kinetics of the process by producing strong agitation and turbulence, compressions and decompressions, and heating in the media. For this purpose, a device prototype for using ultrasound in supercritical media was developed, tested and validated in extraction processes of oil from grounded almonds (55% oil content, wet basis and 3-4 mm particle size) in a 5 L extraction unit. An amount of 1500 g of grounded almonds was placed in a cylindrical basket during the trials inside the dense gas extractor (DGE) where solvent was introduced at different flow rates, pressures and temperatures. In all cases the ultrasonic energy confirmed the enhancement and acceleration of the almond oil extraction kinetics using supercritical CO2. Presently the power ultrasound effect in such a process is being deeply analyzed in a 5 L extraction unit before scaling-up a new ultrasonic system. This technology, still under development, has been designed for a bigger dense gas pilot-plant consisting of two extractors (20 L capacity), two separation units and has the possibility of operating at a pressure up to 50 MPa. The goal of this work is to study the effect of high-power ultrasound coupled to dense gas extraction inside the basket with the product, and to present a prototype for the use of power ultrasound in extraction processes with dense gases inside a new 20 L extractor unit.

  17. Antioxidant efficacy of Nasturtium officinale extracts using various in vitro assay systems.

    PubMed

    Bahramikia, Seifollah; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2010-12-01

    Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress), of the family Brassicaceae, has been long used as a home remedy or a medicinal plant by the people of southeastern Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of N. officinale extract using various in vitro assay systems, including the ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) assays, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating activity, as well as the inhibitory effect on ferrous ion/ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation, in rat liver homogenate. The results revealed that N. officinale extract possesses potent reducing power in a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, concentration-dependent scavenging ability on 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radicals, and hydrogen peroxide, as well as chelating ability on ferrous ions. Furthermore, N. officinale extract prevented thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation in ferrous ion/ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, this N. officinale extract had the phenolic and flavonoid contents of 96.2 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 63.2 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. The cumulative results clearly indicate that N. officinale extract possesses potent antioxidant properties probably mediated through direct trapping of free radicals, reducing power, and also through metal chelating. Based on its antioxidative potential, N. officinale extract might find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases. Copyright © 2010 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective evaluation of a new automated nucleic acid extraction system using routine clinical respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Mengelle, C; Mansuy, J-M; Sandres-Sauné, K; Barthe, C; Boineau, J; Izopet, J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the MagNA Pure 96™ nucleic acid extraction system using clinical respiratory specimens for identifying viruses by qualitative real-time PCR assays. Three extraction methods were tested, that is, the MagNA Pure LC™, the COBAS Ampliprep™, and the MagNA Pure 96™ with 10-fold dilutions of an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 sample. Two hundred thirty-nine respiratory specimens, 35 throat swabs, 164 nasopharyngeal specimens, and 40 broncho-alveolar fluids, were extracted with the MagNA Pure 96™ and the COBAS Ampliprep™ instruments. Forty COBAS Ampliprep™ positive samples were also tested. Real-time PCRs were used to identify influenza A and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Similar results were obtained on RNA extracted from dilutions of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with the three systems: the MagNA Pure LC™, the COBAS Ampliprep™, and the MagNA Pure 96™. Data from clinical respiratory specimens extracted with the MagNA Pure 96™ and COBAS Ampliprep™ instruments were in 98.5% in agreement (P < 0.0001) for influenza A and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Data for rhinovirus were in 97.3% agreement (P < 0.0001) and in 96.8% agreement for enterovirus. They were in 100% agreement for adenovirus. Data for cytomegalovirus and HSV1-2 were in 95.2% agreement (P < 0.0001). The MagNA Pure 96™ instrument is easy-to-use, reliable, and has a high throughput for extracting total nucleic acid from respiratory specimens. These extracts are suitable for molecular diagnosis with any type of real-time PCR assay.

  19. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  20. Information Extraction for System-Software Safety Analysis: Calendar Year 2008 Year-End Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2009-01-01

    This annual report describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  1. Accuracy improvement in laser stripe extraction for large-scale triangulation scanning measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Fan; Gao, Peng; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale triangulation scanning measurement systems are widely used to measure the three-dimensional profile of large-scale components and parts. The accuracy and speed of the laser stripe center extraction are essential for guaranteeing the accuracy and efficiency of the measuring system. However, in the process of large-scale measurement, multiple factors can cause deviation of the laser stripe center, including the spatial light intensity distribution, material reflectivity characteristics, and spatial transmission characteristics. A center extraction method is proposed for improving the accuracy of the laser stripe center extraction based on image evaluation of Gaussian fitting structural similarity and analysis of the multiple source factors. First, according to the features of the gray distribution of the laser stripe, evaluation of the Gaussian fitting structural similarity is estimated to provide a threshold value for center compensation. Then using the relationships between the gray distribution of the laser stripe and the multiple source factors, a compensation method of center extraction is presented. Finally, measurement experiments for a large-scale aviation composite component are carried out. The experimental results for this specific implementation verify the feasibility of the proposed center extraction method and the improved accuracy for large-scale triangulation scanning measurements.

  2. Evaluation of systemic administration of Boswellia papyrifera extracts on spatial memory retention in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Ali; Hosseini-Sharifabad, Ali; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Yazdinejad, Ali R; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Roghani, Ali; Beyer, Cordian; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Boswellia papyrifera, administered systemically, on spatial memory retention in the Morris water maze were investigated in male rats. A total extract of Boswellia papyrifera (300 mg/kg) was administered every eight hours to three groups of rats by gavage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks. In a separate set of experiments, three doses of a fraction of the extract, called the boswellic acids (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) were administered by gavage to three groups of rats three times a day for 2 weeks. Following these applications, animals were trained for 4 days. Behavioral testing for evaluation of spatial memory retention was performed 48 h after completion of training. Boswellia papyrifera extracts and boswellic acids caused a significant reduction in escape latency and distance traveled but had no influence on swimming speed. These findings provide evidence that Boswellia papyrifera extracts affect spatial memory retention irrespective of the treatment period. In addition our data show that systemic administration of the boswellic acids fraction enhanced spatial memory retention in a dose-dependent manner. These improving effects may be due to some extent to the interactions of these products with inflammatory mediators, neurotransmitter signaling cascades or protein kinase pathways in the brain.

  3. Effective extraction of elastase from Bacillus sp. fermentation broth using aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; He, Guo-qing; Li, Jing-jun

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for extracting elastase produced by Bacillus sp. EL31410. The elastase and cell partition behavior in polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt systems was investigated. The suitable system for elastase extraction was PEG/KH(2)PO(4)-K(2)HPO(4), in which elastase is mainly partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, while the cells remained in the other phase. The influence of defined system parameters (e.g. PEG molecular mass, pH, NaCl addition) on the partitioning behavior of elastase is described. The concentration of phase forming components, PEG and KH(2)PO(4)-K(2)HPO(4), was optimized for elastase recovery by means of response surface methodology, and it was found that they greatly influenced extraction recovery. The optimal ATPS was 23.1% (w/w) PEG 2 000 and 11.7% (w/w) KH(2)PO(4)-K(2)HPO(4). The predicted recovery was about 89.5%, so this process is suggested to be a rapid and convenient method for elastase extraction.

  4. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  5. Immediate fixed partial denture after tooth extraction in patients with systemic diseases: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Sun; Lee, Su Young

    2016-12-01

    For patients with systemic diseases who face difficulties visiting dental clinics, wearing fixed partial denture in the anterior region on the same day of tooth extraction can reduce the total period of treatment and the number of visits, as well as post-treatment psychological effect on the patient.

  6. Immediate fixed partial denture after tooth extraction in patients with systemic diseases: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For patients with systemic diseases who face difficulties visiting dental clinics, wearing fixed partial denture in the anterior region on the same day of tooth extraction can reduce the total period of treatment and the number of visits, as well as post-treatment psychological effect on the patient. PMID:28018570

  7. A Method for Extracting Sensory Motor Skills and Designing a Training System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyo, Daisuke; Ohara, Atushi; Shida, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Toshiyuki; Otomo, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, the rapid retirement of the "baby boomer artisans" in vast numbers threatened to erode the competitiveness of Japanese manufacturers (i.e., the 2007 problem). This study proposes a practical process for extracting skills and designing a training system, to accelerate the learning of skills in production fields by younger…

  8. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  9. Characterization and reactions of a Salix extractive with a unique ring system

    Treesearch

    Lawrence Landucci; Sally Ralph; Kolby Hirth

    2003-01-01

    An extractive compound with a novel ring system was isolated from the wood of Salix alba and was given the name Salucci. The compound was primarily identified from the 1D NMR, 2D NMR and LC-MSMS data and the structure investigated through reactions and derivatizations.

  10. Textractor: a hybrid system for medications and reason for their prescription extraction from clinical text documents.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F; South, Brett R

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe a new medication information extraction system-Textractor-developed for the 'i2b2 medication extraction challenge'. The development, functionalities, and official evaluation of the system are detailed. Textractor is based on the Apache Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UMIA) framework, and uses methods that are a hybrid between machine learning and pattern matching. Two modules in the system are based on machine learning algorithms, while other modules use regular expressions, rules, and dictionaries, and one module embeds MetaMap Transfer. The official evaluation was based on a reference standard of 251 discharge summaries annotated by all teams participating in the challenge. The metrics used were recall, precision, and the F(1)-measure. They were calculated with exact and inexact matches, and were averaged at the level of systems and documents. The reference metric for this challenge, the system-level overall F(1)-measure, reached about 77% for exact matches, with a recall of 72% and a precision of 83%. Performance was the best with route information (F(1)-measure about 86%), and was good for dosage and frequency information, with F(1)-measures of about 82-85%. Results were not as good for durations, with F(1)-measures of 36-39%, and for reasons, with F(1)-measures of 24-27%. The official evaluation of Textractor for the i2b2 medication extraction challenge demonstrated satisfactory performance. This system was among the 10 best performing systems in this challenge.

  11. An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

  12. Prolonged cell-free protein synthesis in a batch system using wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Kawarasaki, Y; Nakano, H; Yamane, T

    1994-10-01

    Reaction conditions of cell-free protein synthesis using wheat germ extract were examined to prolong the period of protein synthesis in a batch reaction. By optimizing conditions for ATP regeneration system involved in the cell-free system, protein synthesis continued about 4 hours, so that about 17 micrograms dihydrofolate reductase protein was obtained in 1 ml of a reaction mixture. It suggests that maintaining ATP concentration is the primary requirement for long-life cell-free protein synthesis.

  13. Research on Far-Field Wavelet's Extraction and Application of Vertical Cable System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangchun; Xiao, Qingsong; Xia, Changliang; Wu, Zhongliang; Xie, Chengliang

    2017-04-01

    In marine seismic exploration, ghost wave and bubble effect reduce the vertical resolution and interpretation accuracy seriously. Here firstly the far-field wavelet including source wavelet, ghost wave and bubble effect recorded by the vertical cable system (VCS) is extracted. Then, filters are designed using the extracted far-field wavelet to eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet. At last, the designed filters are applied to the seismic data of VCS. The results show that this method can eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet effectively and the vertical resolution of the seismic data is improved obviously.

  14. Extraction of shear viscosity in stationary states of relativistic particle systems.

    PubMed

    Reining, F; Bouras, I; El, A; Wesp, C; Xu, Z; Greiner, C

    2012-02-01

    Starting from a classical picture of shear viscosity we construct a stationary velocity gradient in a microscopic parton cascade. Employing the Navier-Stokes ansatz we extract the shear viscosity coefficient η. For elastic isotropic scatterings we find an excellent agreement with the analytic values. This confirms the applicability of this method. Furthermore, for both elastic and inelastic scatterings with pQCD based cross sections we extract the shear viscosity coefficient η for a pure gluonic system and find a good agreement with already published calculations.

  15. Design and multiparticle simulation of the half integer slow extraction system for the Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.; Harrison, M.

    1991-05-01

    One of the roles of the new Main Injector ring, in the second phase of the Fermilab upgrade, is to deliver all year around the slow extracted 120 GeV test beams. The half-integer slow extraction system design and results from a Monte-Carlo simulation of fast spill are presented. The simulation was performed with a computer tracking program based on the TEVLAT program with a large number of particles (up to 1000). Particle tracking included the systematic errors produced by the magnetic multipoles within the dipoles and quadrupoles as well as random multipole errors.

  16. Design of the extraction system and beamline of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Wutte, Daniela C.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2001-05-07

    A new, very high magnetic field superconducting ECR ion source, VENUS, is under construction at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron [1,2]. The paper describes the VENUS extraction system and discusses the ion beam formation in the strong axial magnetic field (3 T) of the ECR ion source. Emittance values as expected from theory, which assumes a uniform plasma density across the plasma outlet hole, are compared with actual measurements from the AECR-U ion source. Results indicate that highly charged heavier ions are concentrated on the source axis. They are extracted from an ''effective'' plasma outlet hole, whose smaller radius must be included in ion optics simulations.

  17. Research on Far-Field Wavelet's Extraction and Application of Vertical Cable System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangchun; Xiao, Qingsong; Xia, Changliang; Wu, Zhongliang; Xie, Chengliang

    2017-03-01

    In marine seismic exploration, ghost wave and bubble effect reduce the vertical resolution and interpretation accuracy seriously. Here firstly the far-field wavelet including source wavelet, ghost wave and bubble effect recorded by the vertical cable system (VCS) is extracted. Then, filters are designed using the extracted far-field wavelet to eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet. At last, the designed filters are applied to the seismic data of VCS. The results show that this method can eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet effectively and the vertical resolution of the seismic data is improved obviously.

  18. Automatic heating and cooling system in a gas purge microsyringe extraction.

    PubMed

    Piao, Xiangfan; Bi, Jinhu; Yang, Cui; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Juan; Li, Donghao

    2011-10-30

    The gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) technique offers quantitative and simultaneous extraction, and rapid gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of volatile and semivolatile chemicals is possible. To simplify the application, a new automatic temperature control system was developed here. Stable heating and cooling over a wide range of temperatures were achieved using a micro-heater and thermoelectric cooler under varying gas flow conditions. Temperatures could be accurately controlled in the range 20-350°C (heating) and 20 to -4°C (cooling). Temperature effects on the extraction performance of the GP-MSE were experimentally investigated by comparing the recoveries of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under various experimental conditions. A sample treatment was completed within 3 min, which is much less than the time required for chromatographic analysis. The recovery of chemicals determined ranged from 81 to 96%. High reproducibility data (RSD ≤ 5%) were obtained for direct extraction of various analytes in spiked complex plant and biological samples. The data show that the heating and cooling system has potential applications in GP-MSE system for the direct determination of various kinds of volatile and semivolatile chemicals from complex matrices without any, or only minor, sample pretreatment.

  19. Comparison of commercial systems for extraction of nucleic acids from DNA/RNA respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genyan; Erdman, Dean E; Kodani, Maja; Kools, John; Bowen, Michael D; Fields, Barry S

    2011-01-01

    This study compared six automated nucleic acid extraction systems and one manual kit for their ability to recover nucleic acids from human nasal wash specimens spiked with five respiratory pathogens, representing Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Legionella pneumophila), DNA viruses (adenovirus), segmented RNA viruses (human influenza virus A), and non-segmented RNA viruses (respiratory syncytial virus). The robots and kit evaluated represent major commercially available methods that are capable of simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from respiratory specimens, and included platforms based on magnetic-bead technology (KingFisher mL, Biorobot EZ1, easyMAG, KingFisher Flex, and MagNA Pure Compact) or glass fiber filter technology (Biorobot MDX and the manual kit Allprep). All methods yielded extracts free of cross-contamination and RT-PCR inhibition. All automated systems recovered L. pneumophila and adenovirus DNA equivalently. However, the MagNA Pure protocol demonstrated more than 4-fold higher DNA recovery from the S. pyogenes than other methods. The KingFisher mL and easyMAG protocols provided 1- to 3-log wider linearity and extracted 3- to 4-fold more RNA from the human influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. These findings suggest that systems differed in nucleic acid recovery, reproducibility, and linearity in a pathogen specific manner. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Using decision-tree classifier systems to extract knowledge from databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Hacke, Keith; Bond, W. E.

    1990-01-01

    One difficulty in applying artificial intelligence techniques to the solution of real world problems is that the development and maintenance of many AI systems, such as those used in diagnostics, require large amounts of human resources. At the same time, databases frequently exist which contain information about the process(es) of interest. Recently, efforts to reduce development and maintenance costs of AI systems have focused on using machine learning techniques to extract knowledge from existing databases. Research is described in the area of knowledge extraction using a class of machine learning techniques called decision-tree classifier systems. Results of this research suggest ways of performing knowledge extraction which may be applied in numerous situations. In addition, a measurement called the concept strength metric (CSM) is described which can be used to determine how well the resulting decision tree can differentiate between the concepts it has learned. The CSM can be used to determine whether or not additional knowledge needs to be extracted from the database. An experiment involving real world data is presented to illustrate the concepts described.

  1. An automated system for liquid-liquid extraction in monosegmented flow analysis

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Ileana; Pasquini, Celio

    1997-01-01

    An automated system to perform liquid-liquid extraction in monosegmented flow analysis is described. The system is controlled by a microcomputer that can track the localization of the aqueous monosegmented sample in the manifold. Optical switches are employed to sense the gas-liquid interface of the air bubbles that define the monosegment. The logical level changes, generated by the switches, are flagged by the computer through a home-made interface that also contains the analogue-to-digital converter for signal acquisition. The sequence of operations, necessary for a single extraction or for concentration of the analyte in the organic phase, is triggered by these logical transitions. The system was evaluated for extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and concentration of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions at pH 9.9 (NH3/NH4Cl buffer) into chloroform containing PAN (1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol) . The results show a mean repeatability of 3% (rsd) for a 2.0 mg l-1 Cd(II) solution and a linear increase of the concentration factor for a 0.5mg l-1 Cd(II) solution observed for up to nine extraction cycles. PMID:18924792

  2. Optimization of pancreatic trypsin extraction in PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rocío L; Loureiro, Dana B; Nerli, Bibiana B; Tubio, Gisela

    2015-02-01

    Enzyme extraction using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) has been increasingly used as a primary recovery technique which integrates the clarification, concentration and partial purification of important biomolecules from their natural source in a single step. The goal of this work was to optimize the extraction of trypsin from pancreas homogenate with polyethylene glycol and sodium citrate (PEG/NaCit) ATPS by using the tools of experimental design. The variables NaCl concentration - added inert salt -, the top/bottom phase volume ratio - Vr - and the biomass loaded into the system - in percentage - were selected as the main factors in the trypsin extraction. The yield (%) and the purification factor of trypsin were considered the responses to be optimized. The central composite design and the response surface analysis proved to be suitable tools for a quick and efficient study. As a result, the optimal extraction conditions in PEG3350/NaCit system were 3.34% wt/wt for NaCl concentration, a biomass load which represented 9.30% wt/wt of the total ATPS mass and 6.37 top/bottom volume ratio giving a purification factor of 2.55 and a yield of 99.7% in top phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) in the system with a membrane contactor.

    PubMed

    Biełuszka, Paweł; Zakrzewska, Grażyna; Chajduk, Ewelina; Dudek, Jakub

    Raising role of the nuclear power industry, including governmental plans for the construction of first nuclear power plant in Poland, creates increasing demand for the uranium-based nuclear fuels. The project implemented by Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology concerns the development of effective methods for uranium extraction from low-grade ores and phosphorites for production of yellow cake-U3O8. The Liqui-Cel(®) Extra-Flow 2.5 × 8 Membrane Contactor produced by CELGARD LLC (Charlotte, NC) company is the main component of the installation for liquid-liquid extraction applied for processing of post leaching liquors. In the process of membrane extraction the uranyl ions from aqueous phase are transported through the membrane into organic phase. The flow of two phases in the system was arranged in co-current mode. The very important element of the work was a selection of extracting agents appropriate for the membrane process. After preliminary experiments comprising tests of membrane resistivity and determination of extraction efficiency, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was found to be most favourable. An important aspect of the work was the adjustment of hydrodynamic conditions in the capillary module. To avoid the membrane wettability by organic solvent and mixing two phases equal pressure drops along the membrane module to minimize the transmembrane pressure, were assumed. Determination of pressure drop along the module was conducted using Bernoulli equation. The integrated process of extraction/re-extraction conducted in continuous mode with application of two contactors was designed.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Hayatul; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Salman, Mohammad Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5(th) day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. During germination, especially in 5(th) day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Hayatul; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Salman, Mohammad Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5th day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. Conclusion: During germination, especially in 5th day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination. PMID:26109765

  6. Assessment of metal bioavailability in the vineyard soil-grapevine system using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Vázquez Vázquez, Francisco A; Pérez Cid, Benita; Río Segade, Susana

    2016-10-01

    This study was focused on the assessment of single and sequential extraction methods to predict the bioavailability of metals in the vineyard soil-grapevine system. The modified BCR sequential extraction method and two single-step extraction methods based on the use of EDTA and acetic acid were applied to differently amended vineyard soils. The variety effect was studied on the uptake of metals by leaves and grapes. Most of the elements studied (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb) were weakly mobilized from vineyard soils, with the exception of Cu and Mn. The determination of total metal content in leaves and grapes showed a different accumulation pattern in the two parts of the vine. A significant relationship was observed, for all the elements studied except for Fe, between the content bioavailable in the soil and the accumulated in both leaves and grapes (R=0.602-0.775, p<0.01).

  7. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  8. PPIExtractor: a protein interaction extraction and visualization system for biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihao; Zhao, Zhehuan; Li, Yanpeng; Hu, Yuncui; Lin, Hongfei

    2013-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell. Knowledge about them unveils the molecular mechanisms of biological processes. However, the amount of biomedical literature regarding protein interactions is increasing rapidly and it is difficult for interaction database curators to detect and curate protein interaction information manually. In this paper, we present a PPI extraction system, termed PPIExtractor, which automatically extracts PPIs from biomedical text and visualizes them. Given a Medline record dataset, PPIExtractor first applies Feature Coupling Generalization (FCG) to tag protein names in text, next uses the extended semantic similarity-based method to normalize them, then combines feature-based, convolution tree and graph kernels to extract PPIs, and finally visualizes the PPI network. Experimental evaluations show that PPIExtractor can achieve state-of-the-art performance on a DIP subset with respect to comparable evaluations.

  9. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells.

  10. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Xumeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Wei, Hailin; Zhu, Xinguang; Peng, Yulin; Li, Ming; Li, Tao; Huang, Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM) for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D) digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i) simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii) computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii) a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv) computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface), and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the optimization of rice

  11. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xumeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Wei, Hailin; Zhu, Xinguang; Peng, Yulin; Li, Ming; Li, Tao; Huang, Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional–structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM) for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D) digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i) simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii) computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii) a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv) computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface), and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional–structural plant models of rice and for the optimization of rice

  12. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Roncada, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Boswellia serrata (BS) is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour). The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B. serrata extracts were employed to compare their AKBA content and in vitro antioxidant power. Furthermore, their ability to modulate the immune system regulatory properties was investigated. Our results showed that the AKBA content varied from 3.83 ± 0.10 to 0.03 ± 0.004%, with one sample in which it was not detectable. The highest antioxidant power and phenolic content were shown by the same extract, which also exhibited the highest AKBA concentration. Finally, the BS extracts showed the ability to influence the regulatory and effector T-cell compartments. Our results suggest that frankincense should be further investigated for its promising potentiality to modulate not only inflammation/oxidative stress but also immune dysregulation, but attention should be paid to the composition of the commercial extracts. PMID:28386311

  13. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts.

    PubMed

    Beghelli, Daniela; Isani, Gloria; Roncada, Paola; Andreani, Giulia; Bistoni, Onelia; Bertocchi, Martina; Lupidi, Giulio; Alunno, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Boswellia serrata (BS) is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour). The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B. serrata extracts were employed to compare their AKBA content and in vitro antioxidant power. Furthermore, their ability to modulate the immune system regulatory properties was investigated. Our results showed that the AKBA content varied from 3.83 ± 0.10 to 0.03 ± 0.004%, with one sample in which it was not detectable. The highest antioxidant power and phenolic content were shown by the same extract, which also exhibited the highest AKBA concentration. Finally, the BS extracts showed the ability to influence the regulatory and effector T-cell compartments. Our results suggest that frankincense should be further investigated for its promising potentiality to modulate not only inflammation/oxidative stress but also immune dysregulation, but attention should be paid to the composition of the commercial extracts.

  14. Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopes usingcrown ethers: A model system for the study of rutherfordium

    SciTech Connect

    Sudowe, Ralf; Calvert, Michael G.; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Farina, Lindsy M.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Gallaher, Sarah E.H.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Phillips, Diana C.; Schwantes,Jon M.; Wilson, Richard E.; Zielinski Peter M.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche Heino

    2005-07-06

    The extraction of zirconium and hafnium from hydrochloric acid media was studied using the crown ethers dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) and dicyclohexano-24-crown-8 (DC24C8) as extractants. The goal was to find an extraction system that exhibits a high selectivity between the members of group 4 of the periodic table and is suitable for the study of rutherfordium. It was found that Zr and Hf are both extracted using DB18C6, DC18C6 and DC24C8. The extraction yield increases with increasing acid concentration and increasing concentration of crown ether. The extracted species most likely consists of an ion-association complex formed between a Zr or Hf chloro complex and a hydronium crown ether complex. Conditions can be found for each extractant that provide for the separation of Zr from Hf. This selective separation between Zr and Hf makes the extraction with crown ethers from HCl well suited to study the extraction behavior of Rf and compare it to the behavior of Zr and Hf. These extraction systems can be used to determine whether the extraction behavior of Rf is similar to Zr, similar to Hf or follows the trend established by the lighter homologs. The extraction kinetics are fast enough for the study of the 78-s isotope {sup 261}Rf.

  15. ICPSEF: a user's manual for the computer mathematical model of the ICPP purex solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, C L

    1982-11-01

    A computer-based mathematical program, ICPSEF, was developed for the first-cycle extraction system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). At the ICPP, spent nuclear fuels are processed to recover unfissioned uranium. The uranium is recovered from aqueous solutions in a pulse column, solvent extraction system using tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent (purex process). A previously developed SEPHIS-MOD4 computer program was added to and modified to provide a model for the ICPP system. Major modifications included addition of: (1) partial theoretical stages to permit more accurate modeling of ICPP columns, (2) modeling ammonium hydroxide neutralization of nitric acid in a scrubbing column, and (3) equilibrium data for 5 to 10 vol % TBP. The model was verified by comparison with actual operating data. Detailed instructions for using the ICPSEF model and sample results of the model are included.

  16. Oscillatory instability development in extraction system of a negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Barminova, H. Y.; Chikhachev, A. S.

    2016-02-15

    Conditions of oscillatory instability development in the extraction system of a negative hydrogen ion source based on a volume-produced plasma are studied. Such an ion source is characterized by the presence of the parent gas in the extraction system due to the leakage from the gas-discharge chamber. The secondary electrons in the area of the ion-optical system become the reason of oscillation appearance and possible beam current modulation. Analytically the range of the stable beam propagation is found. The instability increment is shown to be rather small. Maximum increment of the oscillations corresponds to the beam velocity equal to the thermal velocity of plasma electrons. The group velocity of the oscillations is close to the beam velocity so the oscillations are convective. Simulation of the low energy beam propagation is performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, the beam current modulation being observed.

  17. A groundwater extraction system to control VOCs in a bedrock aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Wessley, D.J.; Weber, R.H.; Otzelberger, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Groundwater quality in the bedrock aquifer at a solid waste landfill has been evaluated since 1984. Since that time, several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in various bedrock monitoring wells at the site. Continued detection of VOCs in the bedrock aquifer led to an investigation and design of a remediation system to address the contaminated aquifer. This paper discusses the site background, geology, hydrogeology, and landfall characteristics; the methods and results of the landfill monitoring and investigations performed; and the groundwater extraction system which was designed and constructed to control further off-site migration of contaminants in the bedrock aquifer. A groundwater extraction system has been designed in a bedrock aquifer at a closed landfill in Southeastern Wisconsin.

  18. Method, system and computer program product for monitoring and optimizing fluid extraction from geologic strata

    DOEpatents

    Medizade, Masoud; Ridgely, John Robert

    2009-12-15

    An arrangement which utilizes an inexpensive flap valve/flow transducer combination and a simple local supervisory control system to monitor and/or control the operation of a positive displacement pump used to extract petroleum from geologic strata. The local supervisory control system controls the operation of an electric motor which drives a reciprocating positive displacement pump so as to maximize the volume of petroleum extracted from the well per pump stroke while minimizing electricity usage and pump-off situations. By reducing the electrical demand and pump-off (i.e., "pounding" or "fluid pound") occurrences, operating and maintenance costs should be reduced sufficiently to allow petroleum recovery from marginally productive petroleum fields. The local supervisory control system includes one or more applications to at least collect flow signal data generated during operation of the positive displacement pump. No flow, low flow and flow duration are easily evaluated using the flap valve/flow transducer arrangement.

  19. Improved GART neural network model for pattern classification and rule extraction with application to power systems.

    PubMed

    Yap, Keem Siah; Lim, Chee Peng; Au, Mau Teng

    2011-12-01

    Generalized adaptive resonance theory (GART) is a neural network model that is capable of online learning and is effective in tackling pattern classification tasks. In this paper, we propose an improved GART model (IGART), and demonstrate its applicability to power systems. IGART enhances the dynamics of GART in several aspects, which include the use of the Laplacian likelihood function, a new vigilance function, a new match-tracking mechanism, an ordering algorithm for determining the sequence of training data, and a rule extraction capability to elicit if-then rules from the network. To assess the effectiveness of IGART and to compare its performances with those from other methods, three datasets that are related to power systems are employed. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of IGART with the rule extraction capability in undertaking classification problems in power systems engineering.

  20. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  1. Extraction of biomolecules using phosphonium-based ionic liquids + K(3)PO(4) aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Louros, Cláudia L S; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Neves, Catarina M S S; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A P

    2010-04-15

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K(3)PO(4) solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K(3)PO(4) at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS.

  2. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, T Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-04-22

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB(-)) was employed within a water|P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. (137)Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6×10(11) at the w|P66614TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ(α), with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ(α) of 2 and 8.2×10(7), respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass spectra obtained by the direct injection of an emulsified water-organic solvent mixture into an electron spray ionization mass spectrometer.

  3. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  4. A method for extracting electronic patient record data from practice management software systems used in veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Jones-Diette, Julie S; Brennan, Marnie L; Cobb, Malcolm; Doit, Hannah; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-10-21

    Data extracted from electronic patient records (EPRs) within practice management software systems are increasingly used in veterinary research. The use of real patient data gives the potential to generate research that can readily be applied to clinical practice. The use of veterinary EPRs for research in the United Kingdom is hindered by the number of different Practice Management System (PMS) providers used by practices, as obtaining and combining data from different systems electronically can be problematic. The use of extensible mark up language (XML) to extract clinical data for research would potentially resolve the compatibility issues between systems. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method for the extraction of small animal patient records from a veterinary PMS that could potentially be used across multiple systems. An XML schema was designed to extract clinical information from EPRs. The schema was tested and validated in a test system, and was then tested in a real small animal practice where data was extracted for 16 weeks. A 10 % sample of the extracted records was then compared to paper copies provided by the practice. All 21 fields encoded by the XML schema, from all of the records in the test system, were extracted with 100 % accuracy. Over the 18 week data collection period 4946 records, from 1279 patients, were extracted from the small animal practice. The 10 % printed records checked and compared with the XML extracted records demonstrated all required data was present. No unrequired, sensitive information e.g. costs or services/products or personal client information was extracted. This is the first time a method for data extraction from EPRs in veterinary practice using an XML schema has been reported in the United Kingdom. This is an efficient and accurate way of extracting data which could be applied to all PMSs nationally and internationally.

  5. Comprehensive study of buffer systems and local pH effects in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Restan, Magnus Saed; Jensen, Henrik; Shen, Xiantao; Huang, Chuixiu; Martinsen, Ørjan Grøttem; Kubáň, Pavel; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2017-09-01

    Different phosphate-, acetate- and formate buffers in the pH range 2.0-6.8 were tested for electromembrane extraction (EME) in a 96-well system. The five basic drugs haloperidol, loperamide, methadone, nortriptyline, and pethidine were selected as model analytes. The EME performance was tested with respect to extraction recovery, extraction current and pH-stability. The analytes were extracted from 200 μL buffer, through a 100 μm thick supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of filters in a 96-well plate, and into 100 μL buffer acceptor phase. The extraction voltage was 50 V and the extraction time was 10 min. The acceptor phase was analyzed by HPLC-UV. The extraction current was ≤6 μA with all buffers, and pH was effectively stabilized during EME using buffers as donor (sample) and acceptor phase. For buffers with pH ≤ 4.8 as acceptor phase, the extraction recoveries were in the range 66-97% and with RSD <15%. With pH in the range 5.8-6.8 in the acceptor phase, the extraction recoveries decreased and were in the range 21-62%. This was attributed to elevated pH conditions in the acceptor/SLM interface. The presence of elevated pH conditions was visualized with phenolphthalein as pH sensitive color indicator. Increasing the buffer strength from 10 to 500 mM in an attempt to offset the elevated pH conditions gave no improvement, and elevated pH conditions remained. Elevated pH conditions in the acceptor/SLM interface were also observed when voltage was increased, and when NPOE was replaced with tributyl phosphate as SLM. The presence of elevated pH conditions close to the SLM in EME was discussed for the first time, and this information is highly important for future development of EME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High Current and High Power Fast Kicker System Conceptual Design and Technology Overview for DeeMe Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    window frame core of the magnet will use CMD 5005 Ni-Zn type ferrite blocks. This type of ferrite has high frequency response, very low eddy...purpose of the strips is to damper beam induced pulsed fields in the ferrite core . High voltage current will be fed from top of each magnet. Due to...conductor from upper sheet to lower sheet will sit in the inner edge of the two core ends. This arrangement will reduce coupling effect between the

  7. Dynamic-Feature Extraction, Attribution and Reconstruction (DEAR) Method for Power System Model Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Lu, Shuai; Zhou, Ning; Lin, Guang; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Pai, M. A.

    2014-09-04

    In interconnected power systems, dynamic model reduction can be applied on generators outside the area of interest to mitigate the computational cost with transient stability studies. This paper presents an approach of deriving the reduced dynamic model of the external area based on dynamic response measurements, which comprises of three steps, dynamic-feature extraction, attribution and reconstruction (DEAR). In the DEAR approach, a feature extraction technique, such as singular value decomposition (SVD), is applied to the measured generator dynamics after a disturbance. Characteristic generators are then identified in the feature attribution step for matching the extracted dynamic features with the highest similarity, forming a suboptimal ‘basis’ of system dynamics. In the reconstruction step, generator state variables such as rotor angles and voltage magnitudes are approximated with a linear combination of the characteristic generators, resulting in a quasi-nonlinear reduced model of the original external system. Network model is un-changed in the DEAR method. Tests on several IEEE standard systems show that the proposed method gets better reduction ratio and response errors than the traditional coherency aggregation methods.

  8. Follicular unit extraction with the Artas robotic hair transplant system system: an evaluation of FUE yield.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rashid M

    2014-04-16

    Hair transplants were developed and championed by dermatologists. However, dermatology literature has few contributions from within our specialty. In this manuscript, we present our evaluation of a specific graft harvesting approach for hair transplants referred to as Follicular unit extraction (FUE). In particular, we sought to evaluate the rate of harvest attempts that did not produce an actual hair folliclular unit graft.

  9. Effects of Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa extracts on immune system disorders within diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Badescu, Magda; Badulescu, Oana; Badescu, Laurentiu; Ciocoiu, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa Elliot (Rosaceae), (black chokeberry), and Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), elderberries are rich in anthocyanins. Many studies have reported that anthocyanins are beneficial in diabetes due to their capacity to stimulate insulin secretion and reduce oxidative stress. The purpose of this study is to prove the biologically active properties of polyphenols extracted from S. nigra and A. melanocarpa fruit. The study also details the influence of plant polyphenols on immune system imbalances within diabetes mellitus. Polyphenolic extract was administered to Wistar rats 0.040 g/kg body every 2 d for 16 weeks. The absorbencies of all the solutions were determined using a V-550 Able Jasco UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The immunomodulatory capacity of vegetal extracts was assessed by studying cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ through the ELISA method and fibrinogen values. At 48 h, the anti-inflammatory effects of S. nigra and A. melanocarpa substances have been revealed by an increase of the TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in the diabetic group protected by these extracts. Seventy-two hours post-administration of both substances in the diabetic groups, the TNF-α level returns to the values read 24 h after substance administration. The vegetal extracts limit the production of fibrinogen in the diabetic rats under polyphenolic protection, the values being highly significant compared with the diabetic group. Natural polyphenols extracted from S. nigra and A. melanocarpa modulate specific and non-specific immune defenses in insulin-deficiency diabetes and reduce the inflammatory status and self-sustained pancreatic insulitis.

  10. Extraction of Salinity-Gradient Energy by a Hybrid Capacitive-Mixing System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Yoon, Hongsik; Lee, Jaehan; Kim, Taeyoung; Yoon, Jeyong

    2017-04-10

    Salinity-gradient energy (SGE) is a renewable energy source available wherever two solutions with different salinity mix. Capacitive-mixing (Capmix) is a technology that directly extracts the SG potential through the movements of ions in high- and low-concentration solutions. However, the energy-harvesting performance of Capmix needs further improvement. Herein, a hybrid Capmix that consists of a battery and capacitive electrodes is proposed. In this system, sodium ions and anions are captured/released by the metal oxide and carbon electrodes, respectively. The hybrid Capmix extracted an energy density that was approximately three times higher (130 J m(-2) ) and exhibited a notable power output (97 mW m(-2) ) compared to the previous Capmix using ion-exchange membranes. Furthermore, the hybrid system operated successfully with real river water and seawater. These results suggest that the hybrid Capmix could be a viable option to harvest energy from salinity gradients.

  11. COMPUTATIONAL BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES FOR IMPROVING THE RING INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS IN SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Plum, Michael A; Wang, Jian-Guang

    2008-01-01

    The ring injection and extraction systems must function as designed in order for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to achieve its specified performance. In commissioning and early operations we have encountered problems that have been traced to these systems. We experienced high beam losses in and around the injection dump, the rectification of which has necessitated ongoing study and development by a multidisciplinary team. Results already include a number of enhancements of existing features and the addition of new elements and diagnostics. The problem in the extraction region stems from tilted beam distributions observed in the ring-to-target beam transport line (RTBT) and on the target, thus complicating the control of the beam-on-target distribution. This indicates the inadvertent introduction of x-y beam coupling somewhere upstream of the RTBT. The present paper describes computational studies, using the ORBIT Code, addressed at the detailed understanding and solution of these problems.

  12. Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-07-25

    An electrokinetic electrode assembly is described for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. An electrode system and method are also revealed for extraction of soil contaminants. The system and method utilize at least two electrode assemblies as described above. 5 figs.

  13. Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    1995-01-01

    There is presented an electrokinetic electrode assembly for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. There is further presented an electrode system and method for extraction of soil contaminants, the system and method utilizing at least two electrode assemblies as described above.

  14. MutationFinder: a high-performance system for extracting point mutation mentions from text.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, J Gregory; Baumgartner, William A; Randolph, David A; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence

    2007-07-15

    Discussion of point mutations is ubiquitous in biomedical literature, and manually compiling databases or literature on mutations in specific genes or proteins is tedious. We present an open-source, rule-based system, MutationFinder, for extracting point mutation mentions from text. On blind test data, it achieves nearly perfect precision and a markedly improved recall over a baseline. MutationFinder, along with a high-quality gold standard data set, and a scoring script for mutation extraction systems have been made publicly available. Implementations, source code and unit tests are available in Python, Perl and Java. MutationFinder can be used as a stand-alone script, or imported by other applications. http://bionlp.sourceforge.net.

  15. Beam transport channels and beam injection and extraction systems of the NICA accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenko, A. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Kolesnikov, S. Yu.; Meshkov, I. N.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Rabtsun, S. V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.; Topilin, N. D.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Fateev, A. A.; Shvetsov, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    A new accelerator complex is being constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research as a part of the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) project. The goal is to conduct experiments with colliding ion beams (at the first stage of the project) and colliding polarized proton/deuteron beams (at the second stage). Transport beam channels and the systems of beam injection and extraction for synchrotrons and collider rings are an important connecting link for the whole accelerator facility. The design of the primary beam-transport channels and injection/extraction systems are presented. Special attention is paid to various aspects of dynamics of beams in their transfer between the NICA accelerators.

  16. Ionic liquids for two-phase systems and their application for purification, extraction and biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Sebastian; Stein, Florian; Kragl, Udo

    2011-02-01

    The development of biotechnological processes using novel two-phase systems based on molten salts known as ionic liquids (ILs) got into the focus of interest. Many new approaches for the beneficial application of the interesting solvent have been published over the last years. ILs bring beneficial properties compared to organic solvents like nonflammability and nonvolatility. There are two possible ways to use the ILs: first, the hydrophobic ones as a substitute for organic solvents in pure two-phase systems with water and second, the hydrophilic ones in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). To effectively utilise IL-based two-phase systems or IL-based ATPS in biotechnology, extensive experimental work is required to gain the optimal system parameters to ensure selective extraction of the product of interest. This review will focus on the most actual findings dealing with the basic driving forces for the target extraction in IL-based ATPS as well as presenting some selected examples for the beneficial application of ILs as a substitute for organic solvents. Besides the research focusing on IL-based two-phase systems, the "green aspect" of ILs, due to their negligible vapour pressure, is widely discussed. We will present the newest results concerning ecotoxicity of ILs to get an overview of the state of the art concerning ILs and their utilisation in novel two-phase systems in biotechnology.

  17. EXEIS Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    problems in their fields of expertise. Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based...immediate site. Methods of modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the...aquifer. Cost of installing and maintaining the different types of artificial barriers varies greatly, as does their reliability. This 2 study

  18. EXEIS - Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    on Artificial Intellegence , Vol. I, pp. 246-249. 7. Johnston, D.M., 1985, Diagnosis of Wastewater Treatment Processes, Computer Applications in Water...Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based techniques and tools. By emulating human...modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the aquifer. Cost of installing and

  19. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Midttun, Ø.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  20. Hydraulic performance analysis of a multiple injection-extraction well system

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jian; Wu, Weimin; Carley, Jack M; Ruan, Chuanmin; Gu, Baohua; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig; Kitanidis, Peter K

    2007-01-01

    Investigating the hydraulic performance of the flow field created by a multiple injection extraction well system for groundwater remediation requires the design of novel strategies for tracer testing and efficient modeling. In this work, we report on tracer tests conducted in a well system comprising two injection and two extraction wells designed for an in situ bioremediation of uranium at Oak Ridge, TN, about 2 years after the start of operation. The domain of the flow field can be divided into an inner cell, an outer cell, and transition zones. To characterize advective dispersive transport, two tracer tests were performed with the injection of bromide solution. The system was operated as during groundwater remediation, and the tracer was partially recirculated. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) were measured in the extraction wells and the multi-level sampling (MLS) ports. The methods of transfer function and temporal moments were implemented to analyze the BTCs. By jointly evaluating the temporal moments of the BTCs in the extraction wells, we can conveniently estimate the recirculating flow fractions in different zones. This approach does not require the detailed characterization of the flow field. The parameters of transfer functions fitted at the MLS wells indicate the flow field may have changed over the tracer test period. This observation indicates that bioremediation influences the flow field even when the well pumping rates are kept constant, which suggests that aquifer characterization may need to be repeated during bioremediation. The methods of transfer functions and temporal moments with tracer tests are flexible, economical, and well-suited to evaluate the performance of the system during long periods of remediation.

  1. Performance evaluation of the Maxwell 16 System for extraction of influenza virus RNA from diverse samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Gan, Yan; Yang, Bo; Weng, Hui; Huang, Chunmei; Yang, Daofeng; Lei, Ping; Shen, Guanxin

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the Maxwell 16 System (Promega) for extraction of influenza virus (flu-v) RNA from diverse samples compared to a classical manual method (QIAamp Kit, QIAGEN). Following extraction by the two methods, all samples were analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that the use of the standard Maxwell 16 protocol (Maxwell 16-S) resulted in good linearity and precision across a wide concentration range and higher sensitivity of detection from flu-v stock suspensions than the manual method. Compared with the latter method, Maxwell 16-S extracted RNA more efficiently (higher RNA yield and/or fewer PCR inhibitors) from throat swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, while both methods performed comparably on fecal samples from human and poultry in terms of overall threshold cycle values and detection rates although the Maxwell 16-S co-purified more inhibitors from fecal samples. The capacity of this system to remove inhibitors from fecal matrix was improved by using a modified Maxwell 16 protocol with a reduced sample input, which eliminated all false-negatives produced by the Maxwell 16-S. These findings suggest that the Maxwell 16 System is suitable for RNA extraction from multiple-source samples for diagnosis of influenza and viral load determination and that a proper reduction in starting sample volume may improve the detection of flu-v from complex matrices such as feces. Additionally, this system allows flexible sample throughput and labor-saving sample processing with little or no risk of cross-contamination.

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Maxwell 16 System for Extraction of Influenza Virus RNA from Diverse Samples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbo; Gan, Yan; Yang, Bo; Weng, Hui; Huang, Chunmei; Yang, Daofeng; Lei, Ping; Shen, Guanxin

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the Maxwell 16 System (Promega) for extraction of influenza virus (flu-v) RNA from diverse samples compared to a classical manual method (QIAamp Kit, QIAGEN). Following extraction by the two methods, all samples were analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that the use of the standard Maxwell 16 protocol (Maxwell 16-S) resulted in good linearity and precision across a wide concentration range and higher sensitivity of detection from flu-v stock suspensions than the manual method. Compared with the latter method, Maxwell 16-S extracted RNA more efficiently (higher RNA yield and/or fewer PCR inhibitors) from throat swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, while both methods performed comparably on fecal samples from human and poultry in terms of overall threshold cycle values and detection rates although the Maxwell 16-S co-purified more inhibitors from fecal samples. The capacity of this system to remove inhibitors from fecal matrix was improved by using a modified Maxwell 16 protocol with a reduced sample input, which eliminated all false-negatives produced by the Maxwell 16-S. These findings suggest that the Maxwell 16 System is suitable for RNA extraction from multiple-source samples for diagnosis of influenza and viral load determination and that a proper reduction in starting sample volume may improve the detection of flu-v from complex matrices such as feces. Additionally, this system allows flexible sample throughput and labor-saving sample processing with little or no risk of cross-contamination. PMID:23144730

  3. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  4. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays. The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  6. Extracting Features from an Electrical Signal of a Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Marisa B.; de Almeida, Ana; Ribeiro, Bernardete; Martins, António

    Improving energy efficiency by monitoring household electrical consumption is of significant importance with the present-day climate change concerns. A solution for the electrical consumption management problem is the use of a non-intrusive load monitoring system (NILM). This system captures the signals from the aggregate consumption, extracts the features from these signals and classifies the extracted features in order to identify the switched on appliances. An effective device identification (ID) requires a signature to be assigned for each appliance. Moreover, to specify an ID for each device, signal processing techniques are needed for extracting the relevant features. This paper describes a technique for the steady-states recognition in an electrical digital signal as the first stage for the implementation of an innovative NILM. Furthermore, the final goal is to develop an intelligent system for the identification of the appliances by automated learning. The proposed approach is based on the ratio value between rectangular areas defined by the signal samples. The computational experiments show the method effectiveness for the accurate steady-states identification in the electrical input signals.

  7. Work extraction in an isolated quantum lattice system: Grand canonical and generalized Gibbs ensemble predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, Ranjan; Rigol, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    We study work extraction (defined as the difference between the initial and the final energy) in noninteracting and (effectively) weakly interacting isolated fermionic quantum lattice systems in one dimension, which undergo a sequence of quenches and equilibration. The systems are divided in two parts, which we identify as the subsystem of interest and the bath. We extract work by quenching the on-site potentials in the subsystem, letting the entire system equilibrate, and returning to the initial parameters in the subsystem using a quasistatic process (the bath is never acted upon). We select initial states that are direct products of thermal states of the subsystem and the bath, and consider equilibration to the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE, noninteracting case) and to the Gibbs ensemble (GE, weakly interacting case). We identify the class of quenches that, in the thermodynamic limit, results in GE and GGE entropies after the quench that are identical to the one in the initial state (quenches that do not produce entropy). Those quenches guarantee maximal work extraction when thermalization occurs. We show that the same remains true in the presence of integrable dynamics that results in equilibration to the GGE.

  8. Effect of protein content and denaturation on the extractability and stability of isoflavones in different soy systems.

    PubMed

    Malaypally, Sravanthi P; Ismail, Baraem

    2010-08-25

    The effect of protein on the thermal stability of isoflavones and the efficiency of their extraction from various soy matrixes was investigated. Isoflavones were extracted from soymilk, soybean. and soy protein isolate, varying in protein content and/or denaturation state, following nonenzyme-assisted solvent extraction or enzyme-assisted extraction. Selected samples were subjected to thermal treatment prior to and posthydrolysis of the protein. The extraction efficiency was a function of the enzyme used, sample to solvent ratio, protein content, and protein denaturation state. Proteolysis and reducing the sample to solvent ratio enhanced the isoflavone extractability, especially in samples with denatured protein. Results demonstrated clearly that the solvent extraction techniques currently used considerably underestimate isoflavone content in complex soy systems with high protein content. The stability of isoflavones was reduced upon protein hydrolysis, indicating that the protein moiety may have a protective effect against the thermal degradation of isoflavones.

  9. [Method for automated extraction and purification of nucleic acids and its implementation in microfluidic system].

    PubMed

    Mamaev, D D; Khodakov, D A; Dement'eva, E I; Filatov, I V; Iurasov, D A; Cherepanov, A I; Vasiliskov, V A; Smoldovskaia, O V; Zimenkov, D V; Griadunov, D A; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S

    2011-01-01

    A method and a microfluidic device for automated extraction and purification of nucleic acids from biological samples have been developed. The method involves disruption of bacterial cells and/or viral particles by combining enzymatic and chemical lysis procedures followed by solid-phase sorbent extraction and purification of nucleic acids. The procedure is carried out in an automated mode in a microfluidic module isolated from the outside environment, which minimizes contact of the researcher with potentially infectious samples and, consequently, decreases the risk of laboratory-acquired infections. The module includes reservoirs with lyophilized components for lysis and washing buffers; a microcolumn with a solid-phase sorbent; reservoirs containing water, ethanol, and water-ethanol buffer solutions for dissolving freeze-dried buffer components, rinsing the microcolumn, and eluting of nucleic acids; and microchannels and valves needed for directing fluids inside the module. The microfluidic module is placed into the control unit that delivers pressure, heats, mixes reagents, and flows solutions within the microfluidic module. The microfluidic system performs extraction and purification of nucleic acids with high efficiency in 40 min, and nucleic acids extracted can be directly used in PCR reaction and microarray assays.

  10. Extraction and isolation of triazine herbicides from water and vegetables by a double trap tandem system

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, M.; Di Corcia, A.; Marchetti, M.

    1989-05-01

    The ability of a two-trap tandem system, one containing a nonspecific adsorbing material, such as graphitized carbon black (Carbopack B), and the other one filled with a sulfonic acid type silica-based cation exchanger (SCX), in extracting and isolating basic compounds from real matrices was evaluated by applying this device to the determination of triazine residues in water and vegetables. After percolation through the Carbopack column (extraction cartridge) of water samples of suitably prepared vegetable extracts, the two traps were connected in series, a methylene chloride-methanol mixture was allowed to flow among them, and triazines displaced from the extraction cartridge were selectively readsorbed via salt formation on the strong acid exchanger column (isolation cartridge). After the column was washed, the analytes were removed from the isolation cartridge by 0.7 mL of aqueous methanol containing 70 mmol/L KCl. After the internal standard was added, the final solution was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatographic apparatus, which was operated isocratically in the reverse-phase mode with UV detection of 220 nm. The analytical recoveries of eight triazines from the two matrices considered ranged between 95% and 100%. The limits of sensitivity of this method for triazines were set at 10 ng/g of vegetable material and 10 ng/L of water by sampling 100 mL of it.

  11. Extraction of actinide and lanthanide complexonates in potassium carbonate-poly(ethylene glycol)-water two-phase aqueous system

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1988-09-01

    An extraction system based on poly(ethylene glycol) for preconcentrating, isolating and separating actinides, is proposed. The extraction of actinides and lanthanides in a potassium carbonate-poly(ethylene glycol)-water two-phase aqueous system in the presence of various complexones was studied. Trivalent actinides are quantitatively extracted by poly(ethylene glycol) from potassium carbonate solutions in a system with Xylenol Orange and alizarin complexone. Under these conditions, uranium (VI) and plutonium (IV) are extracted inappreciably into a phase enriched with poly(ethylene glycol), so that they can be separated from trivalent actinides with a separation factor of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 3/. To separate actinides and lanthanides, two complexones were introduced into the system, one of which served as an extractant, and the other as a masking reagent. The best results were obtained for a mixture of Xylenol Orange and hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid. The separation coefficients of americium and europium are 4.5-5.6.

  12. Radon-gas extraction and counting system for analyzing radon and radium in groundwater in seismically active areas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.

    1980-12-08

    A high concentration of radon in groundwater has attracted recent attention as a precursor of seismic activity. We have constructed a system that extracts and counts radon gas from solid, liquid, and gas samples. The radon is extracted in a closed system onto activated charcoal. The desorbed radon is then measured in a phosphored acrylic cell by scintillation counting of gross alpha radiation. The efficiency of the total system (extraction plus counting) is 90 +- 3% or better. Compact design and sturdy construction make the system completely portable and well suited to field operations in remote loations. Results are given for radon and radium in groundwaters in the Livermore area.

  13. Solid phase extraction in tandem with GC/MS for the determination of semi-volatile organic substances extracted from pharmaceutical packaging/delivery systems via aqueous solvent systems.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovic, Steven A

    2015-08-10

    An extractable survey is one of several studies performed on a pharmaceutical storage/delivery system as part of the process of demonstrating that the system is suitable for its intended use. In this paper, a solid phase extraction method for the preparation of aqueous extracts generated during an extractable survey is presented. The method offers a convenient means to isolate semi-volatile organic extractable compounds from aqueous extraction solvents for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Following the solid phase extraction procedure, derivatization is performed to convert problematic functionalities (such as amines and acids) into appropriate chromatographically friendly derivatives. Demonstration of method performance is achieved in three ways using a set of 31 commonly observed extractable substances as model compounds. First, a breakthrough experiment was performed with a 2 solvent system consisting of water and 10/90 isopropanol/water over a range of 6 mL to 100 mL. Results from this experiment show only caprolactam possessed a significant level of breakthrough in either solvent over the range of volumes evaluated. Second, a formal accuracy/precision study was conducted using a three solvent system consisting of water, 10/90 isopropanol/water and 1% polysorbate 80. This experiment demonstrates the quantitative ability of the method at levels ranging from 20 ng/mL to 50 μg/mL. Recovery values of 70% to 130% of the theoretical concentration, with relative standard deviation values of less than 15% for replicate preparations, are obtained for a majority of the compounds evaluated. Finally, a case study involving the extraction of an intravenous drug delivery bag with multiple aqueous solvent systems further demonstrates the viability of solid phase extraction for use in an extractables survey.

  14. Extractive biodegradation and bioavailability assessment of phenanthrene in the cloud point system by Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Deng, Tao; Zeng, Xinying; Dong, Wei; Yu, Shuijing

    2016-01-01

    The biological treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an important issue. Most microbes have limited practical applications because of the poor bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, the extractive biodegradation of phenanthrene by Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans was conducted by introducing the cloud point system. The cloud point system is composed of a mixture of (40 g/L) Brij 30 and Tergitol TMN-3, which are nonionic surfactants, in equal proportions. After phenanthrene degradation, a higher wet cell weight and lower phenanthrene residue were obtained in the cloud point system than that in the control system. According to the results of high-performance liquid chromatography, the residual phenanthrene preferred to partition from the dilute phase into the coacervate phase. The concentration of residual phenanthrene in the dilute phase (below 0.001 mg/L) is lower than its solubility in water (1.18 mg/L) after extractive biodegradation. Therefore, dilute phase detoxification was achieved, thus indicating that the dilute phase could be discharged without causing phenanthrene pollution. Bioavailability was assessed by introducing the apparent logP in the cloud point system. Apparent logP decreased significantly, thus indicating that the bioavailability of phenanthrene increased remarkably in the system. This study provides a potential application of biological treatment in water and soil contaminated by phenanthrene.

  15. Extraction platform evaluations: a comparison of AutoMate Express™, EZ1® Advanced XL, and Maxwell® 16 Bench-top DNA extraction systems.

    PubMed

    Davis, Carey P; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce; Eisenberg, Arthur J; Turnbough, Meredith A

    2012-01-01

    The DNA extraction performance of three low-throughput extraction systems was evaluated. The instruments and respective chemistries all use a similar extraction methodology that involves binding DNA to a coated magnetic resin in the presence of chaotropic salt, washing of the resin to remove undesirable compounds, and elution of DNA from the particles in a low-salt solution. The AutoMate Express™ (Life Technologies Corporation, Carlsbad, CA), EZ1® Advanced XL (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA), and Maxwell® 16 (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) were compared using a variety of samples including: blood on swabs, blood on denim, blood on cotton, blood mixed with inhibitors (a mixture of indigo, hematin, humic acid, and urban dust) on cotton, blood on FTA® paper, saliva residue on cigarette butt paper, epithelial cells on cotton swabs, neat semen on cotton, hair roots, bones, and teeth. Each instrument had a recommended pre-processing protocol for each sample type, and these protocols were followed strictly to reduce user bias. All extractions were performed in triplicate for each sample type. The three instruments were compared on the basis of quantity of DNA recovered (as determined by real-time PCR), relative level of inhibitors present in the extract (shown as shifts in the C(T) value for the internal PCR control in the real-time PCR assay), STR peak heights, use of consumables not included in the extraction kits, ease of use, and application flexibility. All three systems performed well; however extraction efficiency varied by sample type and with the preprocessing protocol applied to the various samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaccine adverse event text mining system for extracting features from vaccine safety reports.

    PubMed

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Buttolph, Thomas; Nguyen, Michael D; Winiecki, Scott; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a text mining system for extracting key clinical features from vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) narratives to aid in the automated review of adverse event reports. Based upon clinical significance to VAERS reviewing physicians, we defined the primary (diagnosis and cause of death) and secondary features (eg, symptoms) for extraction. We built a novel vaccine adverse event text mining (VaeTM) system based on a semantic text mining strategy. The performance of VaeTM was evaluated using a total of 300 VAERS reports in three sequential evaluations of 100 reports each. Moreover, we evaluated the VaeTM contribution to case classification; an information retrieval-based approach was used for the identification of anaphylaxis cases in a set of reports and was compared with two other methods: a dedicated text classifier and an online tool. The performance metrics of VaeTM were text mining metrics: recall, precision and F-measure. We also conducted a qualitative difference analysis and calculated sensitivity and specificity for classification of anaphylaxis cases based on the above three approaches. VaeTM performed best in extracting diagnosis, second level diagnosis, drug, vaccine, and lot number features (lenient F-measure in the third evaluation: 0.897, 0.817, 0.858, 0.874, and 0.914, respectively). In terms of case classification, high sensitivity was achieved (83.1%); this was equal and better compared to the text classifier (83.1%) and the online tool (40.7%), respectively. Our VaeTM implementation of a semantic text mining strategy shows promise in providing accurate and efficient extraction of key features from VAERS narratives.

  17. a System which Uses a Continuous Optimization Approach for the Design of AN Optimum Extractant Molecule for Use in Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naser, Samer Fahim

    The design of an extractant molecule for use in liquid-liquid extraction, traditionally a combinatorial optimization problem, has been solved using continuous optimization. UNIFAC, a thermodynamic group contribution method which allows the calculation of an activity coefficient of a component from its chemical structure, was used as the basis for all calculations. A computer system was developed which employs a three step procedure. First, the error in the liquid-liquid equilibrium relations resulting from the specification of a target separation criteria is minimized by continuously varying the functional groups in the design group pool. Second, the theoretical molecule obtained from the first step is used as a starting point to optimize up to seven separation criteria by variation of functional groups and mole fractions to obtain the optimum theoretical extractant molecule which satisfies the equilibrium relations. Third, the theoretical molecule is used to generate alternative extractant molecules which contain integer functional group values only. Numeric molecular structure constraints were developed which help maintain the feasibility of molecules in the first two steps, and allow the rejection of infeasible molecules in the third step. These constraints include limits on boiling point and molecular weight. The system developed was successfully tested on several separation problems and has suggested extractants as good or better than ones currently in use. This is the first reported use of continuous optimization in molecular design. For large design pools, this approach, as opposed to combinatorial optimization, is several orders of magnitude faster.

  18. Development of an Epidemiological Database Management, Extraction, and Analysis System (EPISYS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT, EXTRACTION, AND ANALYSIS a) SYSTEM (EPISYS) I M. R. White 94...31520 Technical Document 93-6F Appr-urd for pubbc tuIee dotribution rIhwated NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER P. 0. BOX 85122 SAN DIE(;O, CNLIFORNIA 92186...ANALYSIS SYSTEM (EPISYS) Prepared for: N AV AL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER P.O. BOX 85122 San Diego, CA 92186-5122 - . . U’ : t".3. i ______ 1 I - Lii Prepared

  19. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    DOE PAGES

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; ...

    2015-07-28

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called “Magnetic Cogging” was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called “RF Cogging” as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). [1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. Thus, the flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done.

  20. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A. M.

    2015-07-28

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called “Magnetic Cogging” was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called “RF Cogging” as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). [1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. Thus, the flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done.

  1. Lambertson magnet with shortened loop for nuclotron injection and extraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeev, A. V.; Butenko, A. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Goncharov, I. N.; Donets, D. E.; Kozlov, O. S.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Monchinsky, V. A.; Novikov, S. A.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. L.; Romanov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Systems of beam injection from the Booster and fast beam extraction for injection into the collider will be developed in order for the Nuclotron to operate in the framework of the NICA accelerator complex. All systems are based on the Lambertson magnets. The shortened superconducting loop is used for compensating scattered fields in the circulating beam chamber. The finite weld resistance (on an order of several nΩ) results in gradual current storage in the loop, which influences the beam upon injection. To eliminate this effect, a heater for converting the loop into the normal conducting state in the pause between cycles is applied.

  2. [A minicomputer system that extracts evoked responses from the E.E.G].

    PubMed

    Maraval, G; Pernier, J; Peronnet, F; Echallier, J F; Gerin, P; Maugiere, F

    1980-05-01

    EVøQ is a minicomputer system that enables one to extract average evoked responses from the E.E.G. from a large number of analog channels, and can, therefore, be oriented towards a topographic study of the responses. It allows high-frequency sampling of the signal, in order to make possible a study of the brain stem evoked responses. This system consists of three programs: a configuration-editor which allows a pre-configuration of several kinds of experiments; an acquisition program, of monitoring, calibration, signal processing and automatic control of the stimulators; finally, a management and processing program of the resulting files.

  3. Feature extraction from time domain acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Christine; Goldman, Geoffrey H.

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army is interested in developing algorithms to classify weapons systems fire based on their acoustic signatures. To support this effort, an algorithm was developed to extract features from acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire and applied to over 1300 signatures. The algorithm filtered the data using standard techniques then estimated the amplitude and time of the first five peaks and troughs and the location of the zero crossing in the waveform. The results were stored in Excel spreadsheets. The results are being used to develop and test acoustic classifier algorithms.

  4. GB-SAR Experiment On Deformation Extraction And System Error Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shibo; Wang, Yanping; Tan, Weixian; Hong, Wen

    2010-10-01

    Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR) provides a new method to monitoring deformation in relative small region. In this paper, we present the GB-SAR imaging geometry and analyze the interferometric phase for the purpose of deformation monitoring. Deformation monitoring error sources are also analyzed through sensitivity equations, including frequency instability and its influence on interferometric phase and deformation extraction, incident angle and monitoring distance. At last, a deformation monitoring experiment is carry out using ASTRO (Advanced Scannable Two-dimensional Rail Observation system), a GB-SAR system constructed by Institute of Electronics Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS). The deformation monitoring results show good consistent with metal objects' movement.

  5. A groundwater extraction system to control VOCs in a bedrock aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Wessley, D.J.; Weber, R.H.; Otzelberger, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater quality in the bedrock aquifer at a solid waste landfill has been evaluated since 1984. Since that time, several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in various bedrock monitoring wells at the site. Continued detection of VOCs in the bedrock aquifer led to an investigation and design of a remediation system to address the contaminated aquifer. This paper discusses the site background, geology, hydrogeology, and landfill characteristics; the methods and results of the landfill monitoring and investigations performed; and the groundwater extraction system which was designed and constructed to control further off-site migration of contaminants in the bedrock aquifer.

  6. The Inhibitory Effect of Ginger Extract on Ovarian Cancer Cell Line; Application of Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh; Pashaei-Asl, Fatima; Mostafa Gharabaghi, Parvin; Khodadadi, Khodadad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Ginger is a natural compound with anti-cancer properties. The effects of ginger and its mechanism on ovarian cancer and its cell line model, SKOV-3, are unclear. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of ginger extract on SKOV-3. Methods: SKOV-3 cells were incubated with ginger extract for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell toxicity assay was performed. Different data mining algorithms were applied to highlight the most important features contributing to ginger inhibition on the SKOV-3 cell proliferation. Moreover, Real-Time PCR was performed to assay p53, p21 and bcl-2 genes expression. For co-expression meta-analysis of p53, mutual ranking (MR) index and transformation to Z-values (Z distribution) were applied on available transcriptome data in NCBI GEO data repository. Results: The ginger extract significantly inhibited cancer growth in ovarian cancer cell line. The most important attribute was 60 µg/ml concentration which received weights higher than 0.50, 0.75 and 0.95 by 90%, 80% and 50% of feature selection models, respectively. The expression level of p53 was increased sharply in response to ginger treatment. Systems biology analysis and meta-analysis of deposited expression value in NCBI based on rank of correlation and Z-transformation approach unraveled the key co-expressed genes and co-expressed network of P53, as the key transcription factor induced by ginger extract. High co-expression between P53 and the other apoptosis-inducing proteins such as CASP2 and DEDD was noticeable, suggesting the molecular mechanism underpinning of ginger action. Conclusion: We found that the ginger extract has anticancer properties through p53 pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:28761826

  7. The Inhibitory Effect of Ginger Extract on Ovarian Cancer Cell Line; Application of Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh; Pashaei-Asl, Fatima; Mostafa Gharabaghi, Parvin; Khodadadi, Khodadad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Ginger is a natural compound with anti-cancer properties. The effects of ginger and its mechanism on ovarian cancer and its cell line model, SKOV-3, are unclear. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of ginger extract on SKOV-3. Methods: SKOV-3 cells were incubated with ginger extract for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell toxicity assay was performed. Different data mining algorithms were applied to highlight the most important features contributing to ginger inhibition on the SKOV-3 cell proliferation. Moreover, Real-Time PCR was performed to assay p53, p21 and bcl-2 genes expression. For co-expression meta-analysis of p53, mutual ranking (MR) index and transformation to Z-values (Z distribution) were applied on available transcriptome data in NCBI GEO data repository. Results: The ginger extract significantly inhibited cancer growth in ovarian cancer cell line. The most important attribute was 60 µg/ml concentration which received weights higher than 0.50, 0.75 and 0.95 by 90%, 80% and 50% of feature selection models, respectively. The expression level of p53 was increased sharply in response to ginger treatment. Systems biology analysis and meta-analysis of deposited expression value in NCBI based on rank of correlation and Z-transformation approach unraveled the key co-expressed genes and co-expressed network of P53, as the key transcription factor induced by ginger extract. High co-expression between P53 and the other apoptosis-inducing proteins such as CASP2 and DEDD was noticeable, suggesting the molecular mechanism underpinning of ginger action. Conclusion: We found that the ginger extract has anticancer properties through p53 pathway to induce apoptosis.

  8. Extractive biodecolorization of triphenylmethane dyes in cloud point system by Aeromonas hydrophila DN322p.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Ren, Suizhou; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The biological treatment of triphenylmethane dyes is an important issue. Most microbes have limited practical application because they cannot completely detoxicate these dyes. In this study, the extractive biodecolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila DN322p was carried out by introducing the cloud point system. The cloud point system is composed of a mixture of nonionic surfactants (20 g/L) Brij 30 and Tergitol TMN-3 in equal proportions. After the decolorization of crystal violet, a higher wet cell weight was obtained in the cloud point system than that of the control system. Based on the results of thin-layer chromatography, the residual crystal violet and its decolorized product, leuco crystal violet, preferred to partition into the coacervate phase. Therefore, the detoxification of the dilute phase was achieved, which indicated that the dilute phase could be discharged without causing dye pollution. The extractive biodecolorization of three other triphenylmethane dyes was also examined in this system. The decolorization of malachite green and brilliant green was similar to that of crystal violet. Only ethyl violet achieved a poor decolorization rate because DN322p decolorized it via adsorption but did not convert it into its leuco form. This study provides potential application of biological treatment in triphenylmethane dye wastewater.

  9. Central nervous system depressant activity of an ethyl acetate extract from Ipomoea stans roots.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, J; Tortoriello, Jaime; Mirón, Gumersindo; León, Ismael

    2007-06-13

    Ipomoea stans Cav., popularly known as "tumbavaqueros", is a plant widely used in Mexico for the treatment of epileptic seizures and nervous disorders. This work researched the action of the ethyl acetate extract from the root of I. stans (IS-EAE) on the central nervous system (CNS). The administration of IS-EAE (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an anxiolytic effect in mice. This extract (20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced spontaneous motor activity. 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg/kg of IS-EAE protected mice against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and increased the hypnotic effect induced by pentobarbital. The administration of IS-EAE was able to increase the release of GABA in brain cortex of mice. These results suggest that IS-EAE possess anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects, and could have potential sedative effect, probably through a GABAergic system. The extract did not show antidepressant effects on mice exposed to forced swimming test.

  10. In situ extraction of intracellular L-asparaginase using thermoseparating aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Hang; Yan, Xi-Luan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hui

    2007-04-13

    The feasibility and generic applicability of directly integrating conventional discrete operations of cell disruption by high pressure homogenizer and the product capture by aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) system have been demonstrated for the extraction of intracellular L-asparaginase from E. coli. In a side-by-side comparison with the conventional ATPE process, including cell disruption, centrifugal clarification and following ATPE, purification of L-asparaginase via this novel in situ ATPE process yielded a product of L-asparaginase with a higher specific activity of 94.8 U/(mg protein) and a higher yield of 73.3%, both of which in the conventional ATPE process were 78.6 U/(mg protein) and 52.1%, respectively. In the purification of L-asparaginase (pI=4.9), product-debris interactions commonly diminish its recovery. It was demonstrated that immediate extraction of L-asparaginase in ATPE systems when it is released at pH 5.0 during cell disruption effectively increased its recovery in the top phase due to the reduced interaction between L-asparaginase and cell debris and the reduced degradation by contaminated protease. In addition, no clarification step and/or disruptate storage are required in this in situ ATPE, which reduced the number of unit operations and thus shortened the overall process time. This novel process has a good potential for the separation of other intracellular biological products.

  11. GDRMS: a system for automatic extraction of the disease-centre relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ronggen; Zhang, Yue; Gong, Lejun

    2012-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing of biomedical literature, the deluge of new articles is leading to information overload. Extracting the available knowledge from the huge amount of biomedical literature has become a major challenge. GDRMS is developed as a tool that extracts the relationship between disease and gene, gene and gene from biomedical literatures using text mining technology. It is a ruled-based system which also provides disease-centre network visualization, constructs the disease-gene database, and represents a gene engine for understanding the function of the gene. The main focus of GDRMS is to provide a valuable opportunity to explore the relationship between disease and gene for the research community about etiology of disease.

  12. GDRMS: a system for automatic extraction of the disease-centre relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ronggen; Zhang, Yue; Gong, Lejun

    2011-12-01

    With the rapidly increasing of biomedical literature, the deluge of new articles is leading to information overload. Extracting the available knowledge from the huge amount of biomedical literature has become a major challenge. GDRMS is developed as a tool that extracts the relationship between disease and gene, gene and gene from biomedical literatures using text mining technology. It is a ruled-based system which also provides disease-centre network visualization, constructs the disease-gene database, and represents a gene engine for understanding the function of the gene. The main focus of GDRMS is to provide a valuable opportunity to explore the relationship between disease and gene for the research community about etiology of disease.

  13. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  14. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  15. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, A S M Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases.

  16. Protocol: A high-throughput DNA extraction system suitable for conifers

    PubMed Central

    Bashalkhanov, Stanislav; Rajora, Om P

    2008-01-01

    Background High throughput DNA isolation from plants is a major bottleneck for most studies requiring large sample sizes. A variety of protocols have been developed for DNA isolation from plants. However, many species, including conifers, have high contents of secondary metabolites that interfere with the extraction process or the subsequent analysis steps. Here, we describe a procedure for high-throughput DNA isolation from conifers. Results We have developed a high-throughput DNA extraction protocol for conifers using an automated liquid handler and modifying the Qiagen MagAttract Plant Kit protocol. The modifications involve change to the buffer system and improving the protocol so that it almost doubles the number of samples processed per kit, which significantly reduces the overall costs. We describe two versions of the protocol: one for medium-throughput (MTP) and another for high-throughput (HTP) DNA isolation. The HTP version works from start to end in the industry-standard 96-well format, while the MTP version provides higher DNA yields per sample processed. We have successfully used the protocol for DNA extraction and genotyping of thousands of individuals of several spruce and a pine species. Conclusion A high-throughput system for DNA extraction from conifer needles and seeds has been developed and validated. The quality of the isolated DNA was comparable with that obtained from two commonly used methods: the silica-spin column and the classic CTAB protocol. Our protocol provides a fully automatable and cost effective solution for processing large numbers of conifer samples. PMID:18673554

  17. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, A. S. M. Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases. PMID:27073839

  18. [Optimization of genomic DNA extraction with magnetic bead- based semi-automatic system].

    PubMed

    Ling, Jie; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Dan-dan; Lai, Mao-de; Zhu, Yi-min

    2012-05-01

    To develop a rapid and effective method for genomic DNA extraction with magnetic bead-based semi-automatic system. DNA was extracted from whole blood samples semi-automatically with nucleic acid automatic extraction system.The concentration and purity of samples was determined by UV-spectrophotometer. Orthogonal design was used to analyze the main effect of lysis time, blood volume, magnetic bead quantity and ethanol concentration on the DNA yield; also the 2-way interaction of these factors. Lysis time, blood volume, magnetic bead quantity and ethanol concentration were associated with DNA yield (P<0.05), but no interaction existed. DNA yield was higher under the condition with 15 min of lysis time, 100 μl of blood volume, 80 μl of magnetic beads and 80 % of ethanol. A significant association was found between the magnetic bead quantity and DNA purity OD260/OD280 (P=0.008). Interaction of blood volume and lysis time also existed (P=0.013). DNA purity was better when the extracting condition was 40 μl of magnetic beads, 15 min of lysis time and 100 μl of blood volume. Magnetic beads and ethanol concentration were associated with DNA purity OD260/OD230 (P=0.017 and P<0.05), the result was better when magnetic beads was 40 μl and ethanol concentration was 80 %. The results indicate that the optimized conditions with 40 μl magnetic beads will generate higher quality of genomic DNA from the whole blood samples.

  19. Miniaturized salting-out liquid-liquid extraction in a coupled-syringe system combined with HPLC-UV for extraction and determination of sulfanilamide.

    PubMed

    Sereshti, Hassan; Khosraviani, Marzieh; Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    In salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) technique, water-miscible organic solvents are used for extraction of polar analytes from saline solutions. In this study, for the first time, a coupled 1-mL syringes system was utilized to perform a miniaturized SALLE method. Sulfanilamide antibiotic was extracted and determined via the developed method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction process was carried out by rapid shooting of acetonitrile as extraction solvent (syringe B) into saline aqueous sample solution (syringe A), and then the shooting was repeated several times at a rate of 1 cycles(-1). Thereby, an extremely large contact surface area was created between phases and led to a rapid equilibrium and mass transfer. In order to improve the efficiency of the method, the effect of extraction solvent (type and volume), shooting times, salt concentration, and pH on the extraction efficiency was investigated. The best performance of the method was achieved with 250 µL of acetonitrile, salt concentration of 250 mg mL(-1), pH of 7, and shooting times of 5. The linear dynamic range was 0.001-10 µg mL(-1) with the determination coefficient of 0.9999. The relative standard deviation (RSD; n=3, C=5 µg mL(-1)), and the limit of detection (LOD) were 1.55% and 0.3 ng mL(-1), respectively. The developed technique was successfully applied to genuine samples of tea, water, milk, honey, human urine, plasma and blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  1. Multiple Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Automatic Features Extraction Algorithm for Cervical Cancer Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Subhi Al-batah, Mohammad; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Klaib, Mohammad Fadel; Al-Betar, Mohammed Azmi

    2014-01-01

    To date, cancer of uterine cervix is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The current methods (i.e., Pap smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC)) to screen for cervical cancer are time-consuming and dependent on the skill of the cytopathologist and thus are rather subjective. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent computer vision system to assist pathologists in overcoming these problems and, consequently, produce more accurate results. The developed system consists of two stages. In the first stage, the automatic features extraction (AFE) algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a neuro-fuzzy model called multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) is proposed for recognition process. The MANFIS contains a set of ANFIS models which are arranged in parallel combination to produce a model with multi-input-multioutput structure. The system is capable of classifying cervical cell image into three groups, namely, normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). The experimental results prove the capability of the AFE algorithm to be as effective as the manual extraction by human experts, while the proposed MANFIS produces a good classification performance with 94.2% accuracy. PMID:24707316

  2. An improvement of unsupervised hybrid biomedical signal classifiers by optimal feature extraction in system preliminary layer.

    PubMed

    Kostka, P; Tkacz, E J

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we try to place emphasis especially on the feature extraction stage of classification procedure, where new feature vectors obtained from a high-dimensional data space, which the best match the analysed classification task are proposed. Based on multilevel Mallat wavelet decomposition, parameters obtained directly from the wavelet component as well as feature resulting from energy and entropy analysis are tested. In classifier part of proposed hybrid systems, unsupervised learning systems with self organizing maps (SOM) and adaptive resonance networks (ART2) are verified. T-F methods and particularly wavelet analysis was chosen as feature extraction tool because of its ability to deal with non-stationary signals. It is important to take into consideration, that heart rate variability (HRV) signals, which were classified in elaborated systems are nonstationary and have important parameters included both in time and frequency domain. Proposed structures were tested using the set of clinically characterized heart rate variability (HRV) signals of 62 patients, as cases with a coronary artery disease of different level. Additionally similar control group of healthy patients was analyzed. Whole database was divided into learning and verifying set. Results showed, that the new HRV signal representation obtained in the space created by the feature vector based on Shannon entropy of Mallat component energy distribution gave the best classifier performance with ART2 neural structure used in classifier part of described hybrid system.

  3. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  4. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  5. Safety risk categorization of organic extractables associated with polymers used in packaging, delivery and manufacturing systems for parenteral drug products.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    To develop and justify a Risk Evaluation Matrix for estimating the safety risk associated with extractables from plastic materials used in pharmaceutical applications and to apply that matrix to approximately 510 extractables to assess the risk that they would accumulate in drug products at levels sufficiently high to affect patient safety. The Risk Evaluation Matrix considers toxicological, availability and solubility characteristics of extractables. Safety Risk categories were established based on certain scaled values for these characteristics, Total Risk Scores were calculated for each extractable and the extractables were categorized with respect to their safety risk based on these calculations. The Total Risk Scores were normally distributed around a value of 20 to 23, corresponding to safety risk categories of moderate and intermediate risk. The range in Risk Scores defined by the mean ± one standard deviation encompassed the entire region of moderate and intermediate risk. Approximately 15% of the extractables were categorized as lowest risk while 3% of the extractables were categorized as highest risk. Categorization of extractables could facilitate the selection of materials for use in pharmaceutical systems, the analytical testing of extracts and the selection of target extractables.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of extraction-based separation systems for acetone, butanol, and ethanol recovery and purification.

    PubMed

    Grisales Díaz, Víctor Hugo; Olivar Tost, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Dual extraction, high-temperature extraction, mixture extraction, and oleyl alcohol extraction have been proposed in the literature for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) production. However, energy and economic evaluation under similar assumptions of extraction-based separation systems are necessary. Hence, the new process proposed in this work, direct steam distillation (DSD), for regeneration of high-boiling extractants was compared with several extraction-based separation systems. The evaluation was performed under similar assumptions through simulation in Aspen Plus V7.3(®) software. Two end distillation systems (number of non-ideal stages between 70 and 80) were studied. Heat integration and vacuum operation of some units were proposed reducing the energy requirements. Energy requirement of hybrid processes, substrate concentration of 200 g/l, was between 6.4 and 8.3 MJ-fuel/kg-ABE. The minimum energy requirements of extraction-based separation systems, feeding a water concentration in the substrate equivalent to extractant selectivity, and ideal assumptions were between 2.6 and 3.5 MJ-fuel/kg-ABE, respectively. The efficiencies of recovery systems for baseline case and ideal evaluation were 0.53-0.57 and 0.81-0.84, respectively. The main advantages of DSD were the operation of the regeneration column at atmospheric pressure, the utilization of low-pressure steam, and the low energy requirements of preheating. The in situ recovery processes, DSD, and mixture extraction with conventional regeneration were the approaches with the lowest energy requirements and total annualized costs.

  7. Information Extraction for System-Software Safety Analysis: Calendar Year 2007 Year-End Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2008-01-01

    This annual report describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis on the models to identify possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations; 4) perform discrete-time-based simulation on the models to investigate scenarios where these paths may play a role in failures and mishaps; and 5) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. This paper describes new challenges in a NASA abort system case, and enhancements made to develop the integrated tool set.

  8. Development of Support System to Acquire Echocardiogram by Extracting Contour of Left Ventricular Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Taro; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Imai, Takao; Masuda, Kohji

    Echography (ultrasonography) is indispensable equipment in every medical field but examination with echography greatly depends on the expertise and experience of an operator. Recently a tele-echography system, where a medical doctor obtains echograms of a remote patient to diagnose, has been proposed as an application of telemedicine by connecting between them using high-speed network and introducing a portable echography. However, it is difficult to obtain standard cross sections of heart if a person who handles the probe beside the patient is not skilled in echography. Thus we have developed a support system to acquire suitable echocardiograms for diagnosis independently by extracting the shape of left ventricular wall into an ellipse in real-time and measuring the position of the probe. As the result of evaluation experiments, we have confirmed the possibility for an assistant system in tele-echography.

  9. Texture based feature extraction methods for content based medical image retrieval systems.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Burhan; Baykara, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    The developments of content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems used for image archiving are continued and one of the important research topics. Although some studies have been presented general image achieving, proposed CBIR systems for archiving of medical images are not very efficient. In presented study, it is examined the retrieval efficiency rate of spatial methods used for feature extraction for medical image retrieval systems. The investigated algorithms in this study depend on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray level run length matrix (GLRLM), and Gabor wavelet accepted as spatial methods. In the experiments, the database is built including hundreds of medical images such as brain, lung, sinus, and bone. The results obtained in this study shows that queries based on statistics obtained from GLCM are satisfied. However, it is observed that Gabor Wavelet has been the most effective and accurate method.

  10. Valx: A system for extracting and structuring numeric lab test comparison statements from text

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Tianyong; Liu, Hongfang; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To develop an automated method for extracting and structuring numeric lab test comparison statements from text and evaluate the method using clinical trial eligibility criteria text. Methods Leveraging semantic knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and domain knowledge acquired from the Internet, Valx takes 7 steps to extract and normalize numeric lab test expressions: 1) text preprocessing, 2) numeric, unit, and comparison operator extraction, 3) variable identification using hybrid knowledge, 4) variable - numeric association, 5) context-based association filtering, 6) measurement unit normalization, and 7) heuristic rule-based comparison statements verification. Our reference standard was the consensus-based annotation among three raters for all comparison statements for two variables, i.e., HbA1c and glucose, identified from all of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes trials in ClinicalTrials.gov. Results The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring HbA1c comparison statements were 99.6%, 98.1%, 98.8% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 98.8%, 96.9%, 97.8% for Type 2 Diabetes trials, respectively. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring glucose comparison statements were 97.3%, 94.8%, 96.1% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 92.3%, 92.3%, 92.3% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. Conclusions Valx is effective at extracting and structuring free-text lab test comparison statements in clinical trial summaries. Future studies are warranted to test its generalizability beyond eligibility criteria text. The open-source Valx enables its further evaluation and continued improvement among the collaborative scientific community. PMID:26940748

  11. Design, demonstration and evaluation of a thermal enhanced vapor extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.; Reavis, B.; Swanson, J.

    1997-08-01

    The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES), which combines powerline frequency heating (PLF) and radio frequency (RF) heating with vacuum soil vapor extraction, was used to effectively remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a pit in the chemical waste landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) within a two month heating period. Volume average temperatures of 83{degrees}C and 112{degrees}C were reached for the PLF and RF heating periods, respectively, within the 15 ft x 45 ft x 18.5 ft deep treated volume. This resulted in the removal of 243 lb of measured toxic organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), 55 gallons of oil, and 11,000 gallons of water from the site. Reductions of up to 99% in total chromatographic organics (TCO) was achieved in the heated zone. Energy balance calculations for the PLF heating period showed that 36.4% of the heat added went to heating the soil, 38.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 4.2% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.1% went to heating the extracted air, and 6.6% was lost. For the RF heating period went to heating the soil, 23.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 2.4% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.5% went to heating extracted air, and 9.7% went to losses. Energy balance closure was 92.8% for the PLF heating and 98% for the RF heating. The energy input requirement per unit soil volume heated per unit temperature increase was 1.63 kWH/yd{sup 3}-{degrees}C for PLF heating and 0.73 kWH/yd{sup 3}{degrees}C for RF heating.

  12. Ancillary tools in pacemaker and defibrillator lead extraction using a novel lead removal system.

    PubMed

    Manolis, A S; Maounis, T N; Vassilikos, V; Chiladakis, J; Melita-Manolis, H; Cokkinos, D V

    2001-03-01

    A previous report described our preliminary experience with a highly successful pacing lead removal system (VasoExtor). Extending this experience, we found it necessary to use additional tools to enhance the success of percutaneous lead extraction with this system. In the present series, we used the standard locking stylets (S and K), and recently, one newer type of stylet (Magic) over the last 3 years in 34 patients to extract 48 pacemaker leads in 31 patients and 3 defibrillator (ICD) leads in 3 patients. Lead extraction was carried out in 23 men and 11 women (aged 64 +/- 17 years) because of pacemaker infection (n = 21), pacemaker (n = 8) or ICD (n = 3) lead malfunction, or prior to ICD implant (n = 2). Leads were in place for 3.5 +/- 3.7 years. Infections, involving pocket and lead(s), were due to S. epidermidis (n = 13), S. aureus (n = 6), S. aureus plus E. coli (n = 1), for fungi (n = 1). Of the 48 pacing leads, 31 were ventricular, 15 atrial, and 2 were VDD leads. The ICD leads were two double-coil leads (CPI) and one single-coil lead (Telectronics). Using the S (n = 12), K (n = 8), or Magic (n = 3) stylets, all pacing leads in 23 patients and the ICD leads in 2 patients were successfully removed from a subclavian approach using the locking stylets. However, in nine (26.5%) patients ancillary tools were required. In four patients, lead fragments were captured with use of a noose catheter, a pigtail catheter, and a bioptome from a right femoral approach. In two patients, locking could not be effected and a noose catheter from the right femoral vein was used, aided by a pigtail and an Amplatz catheter and a bioptome to remove three leads. In a patient with an ICD lead, a combined subclavian (stylet S) and right femoral approach (noose catheter) was required. In a patient with a dysfunctional ventricular lead 12 years old, a motor drive unit was used to facilitate the exchange of locking stylets, but extraction failed. In another patient, a fragment of a

  13. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  14. Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability development in an extraction system of a negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Barminova, H. Y.; Chikhachev, A. S.

    2016-02-15

    Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability may occur in an extraction system of a negative ion source based on a volume-produced plasma. The reasons for instability development are discussed. Analytically the conditions of unstable beam propagation are determined. The instability threshold is shown to be increased compared with the pure Pierce instability. The influence of inclined perturbations on the instability behavior is investigated. The numerical calculations are performed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results confirm the existence of such a mixed instability appearance that develops due to both the electrons of the external circuit and the background positive ions.

  15. Automated concept and relationship extraction for the semi-automated ontology management (SEAM) system.

    PubMed

    Doing-Harris, Kristina; Livnat, Yarden; Meystre, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    We develop medical-specialty specific ontologies that contain the settled science and common term usage. We leverage current practices in information and relationship extraction to streamline the ontology development process. Our system combines different text types with information and relationship extraction techniques in a low overhead modifiable system. Our SEmi-Automated ontology Maintenance (SEAM) system features a natural language processing pipeline for information extraction. Synonym and hierarchical groups are identified using corpus-based semantics and lexico-syntactic patterns. The semantic vectors we use are term frequency by inverse document frequency and context vectors. Clinical documents contain the terms we want in an ontology. They also contain idiosyncratic usage and are unlikely to contain the linguistic constructs associated with synonym and hierarchy identification. By including both clinical and biomedical texts, SEAM can recommend terms from those appearing in both document types. The set of recommended terms is then used to filter the synonyms and hierarchical relationships extracted from the biomedical corpus. We demonstrate the generality of the system across three use cases: ontologies for acute changes in mental status, Medically Unexplained Syndromes, and echocardiogram summary statements. Across the three uses cases, we held the number of recommended terms relatively constant by changing SEAM's parameters. Experts seem to find more than 300 recommended terms to be overwhelming. The approval rate of recommended terms increased as the number and specificity of clinical documents in the corpus increased. It was 60% when there were 199 clinical documents that were not specific to the ontology domain and 90% when there were 2879 documents very specific to the target domain. We found that fewer than 100 recommended synonym groups were also preferred. Approval rates for synonym recommendations remained low varying from 43% to 25% as the

  16. Different types of aqueous two-phase systems for biomolecule and bioparticle extraction and purification.

    PubMed

    Molino, João Vitor Dutra; Viana Marques, Daniela de Araújo; Júnior, Adalberto Pessoa; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari

    2013-01-01

    Upstream improvements have led to significant advances in the productivity of biomolecules and bioparticles. Today, downstream processes are the bottleneck in the production of some biopharmaceuticals, a change from previous years. Current purification platforms will reach their physical limits at some point, indicating the need for new approaches. This article reviews an alternative method to extract and purify biomolecules/bioparticles named aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Biocompatibility and readiness to scale up are some of the ATPS characteristics. We also discuss some of ATPS applications in the biotechnology field.

  17. Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability development in an extraction system of a negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barminova, H. Y.; Chikhachev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability may occur in an extraction system of a negative ion source based on a volume-produced plasma. The reasons for instability development are discussed. Analytically the conditions of unstable beam propagation are determined. The instability threshold is shown to be increased compared with the pure Pierce instability. The influence of inclined perturbations on the instability behavior is investigated. The numerical calculations are performed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results confirm the existence of such a mixed instability appearance that develops due to both the electrons of the external circuit and the background positive ions.

  18. A modal parameter extraction procedure applicable to linear time-invariant dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdila, A. J.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Modal analysis has emerged as a valuable tool in many phases of the engineering design process. Complex vibration and acoustic problems in new designs can often be remedied through use of the method. Moreover, the technique has been used to enhance the conceptual understanding of structures by serving to verify analytical models. A new modal parameter estimation procedure is presented. The technique is applicable to linear, time-invariant systems and accommodates multiple input excitations. In order to provide a background for the derivation of the method, some modal parameter extraction procedures currently in use are described. Key features implemented in the new technique are elaborated upon.

  19. KneeTex: an ontology-driven system for information extraction from MRI reports.

    PubMed

    Spasić, Irena; Zhao, Bo; Jones, Christopher B; Button, Kate

    2015-01-01

    In the realm of knee pathology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the advantage of visualising all structures within the knee joint, which makes it a valuable tool for increasing diagnostic accuracy and planning surgical treatments. Therefore, clinical narratives found in MRI reports convey valuable diagnostic information. A range of studies have proven the feasibility of natural language processing for information extraction from clinical narratives. However, no study focused specifically on MRI reports in relation to knee pathology, possibly due to the complexity of knee anatomy and a wide range of conditions that may be associated with different anatomical entities. In this paper we describe KneeTex, an information extraction system that operates in this domain. As an ontology-driven information extraction system, KneeTex makes active use of an ontology to strongly guide and constrain text analysis. We used automatic term recognition to facilitate the development of a domain-specific ontology with sufficient detail and coverage for text mining applications. In combination with the ontology, high regularity of the sublanguage used in knee MRI reports allowed us to model its processing by a set of sophisticated lexico-semantic rules with minimal syntactic analysis. The main processing steps involve named entity recognition combined with coordination, enumeration, ambiguity and co-reference resolution, followed by text segmentation. Ontology-based semantic typing is then used to drive the template filling process. We adopted an existing ontology, TRAK (Taxonomy for RehAbilitation of Knee conditions), for use within KneeTex. The original TRAK ontology expanded from 1,292 concepts, 1,720 synonyms and 518 relationship instances to 1,621 concepts, 2,550 synonyms and 560 relationship instances. This provided KneeTex with a very fine-grained lexico-semantic knowledge base, which is highly attuned to the given sublanguage. Information extraction results were evaluated

  20. Enhanced extraction of bovine serum albumin with aqueous biphasic systems of phosphonium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Matheus M.; Pedro, Sónia N.; Quental, Maria V.; Lima, Álvaro S.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs), combined with a buffered aqueous solution of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH=7.0), were investigated for the extraction of proteins. For that purpose, the phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC, and the performance of these ABS for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then evaluated. The obtained results reveal that, with the exception of the more hydrophobic ILs, most of the systems investigated allow the complete extraction of BSA for the IL-rich phase in a single-step. These remarkable extraction efficiencies are far superior to those afforded by more conventional extraction systems previously reported. The composition of the biphasic systems, i.e., the amount of phase-forming components, was also investigated aiming at reducing the overall costs of the process without losing efficiency on the protein extraction. It is shown that the extraction efficiencies of BSA are maintained at 100% up to high protein concentrations (at least up to 10 g.L-1). The recovery of the BSA from the IL-rich phase by dialysis is also shown in addition to the demonstration of the IL recyclability and reusability, at least for 3 times. In the sequential three-step extractions (BSA recovery/IL reusability), the extraction efficiencies of BSA for the IL-rich phase were maintained at 100%. For the improved ABS, the preservation of the protein native conformation was confirmed by Size Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (used also as the quantification method) and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. According to the results herein reported, ABS composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ILs and a biodegradable organic salt represent an alternative and remarkable platform for the extraction of BSA and may be extended to other proteins of interest. PMID:25865275

  1. Enhanced extraction of bovine serum albumin with aqueous biphasic systems of phosphonium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Matheus M; Pedro, Sónia N; Quental, Maria V; Lima, Álvaro S; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-07-20

    Novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs), combined with a buffered aqueous solution of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH=7.0), were investigated for the extraction of proteins. For that purpose, the phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25 °C, and the performance of these ABS for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then evaluated. The obtained results reveal that, with the exception of the more hydrophobic ILs, most of the systems investigated allow the complete extraction of BSA for the IL-rich phase in a single-step. These remarkable extraction efficiencies are far superior to those afforded by more conventional extraction systems previously reported. The composition of the biphasic systems, i.e., the amount of phase-forming components, was also investigated aiming at reducing the overall costs of the process without losing efficiency on the protein extraction. It is shown that the extraction efficiencies of BSA are maintained at 100% up to high protein concentrations (at least up to 10 g L(-1)). The recovery of the BSA from the IL-rich phase by dialysis is also shown in addition to the demonstration of the IL recyclability and reusability, at least for 3 times. In the sequential three-step extractions (BSA recovery/IL reusability), the extraction efficiencies of BSA for the IL-rich phase were maintained at 100%. For the improved ABS, the preservation of the protein native conformation was confirmed by Size Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (used also as the quantification method) and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. According to the results herein reported, ABS composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ILs and a biodegradable organic salt represent an alternative and remarkable platform for the extraction of BSA and may be extended to other proteins of interest.

  2. Flow system for optical activity detection of vegetable extracts employing molecular exclusion continuous chromatographic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.; Rodríguez, C.; Naranjo, S.; Mesa, G.; Mora, W.; Arista, E.; Cepero, T.; Fernández, H.

    2006-02-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion chromatography and laser polarimetric detection has turned into a carbohydrate separation and quantification system for plant fluids of industrial value, making it possible the evaluation of the quality of sugarcane juices, agave juices and many other plant extracts. Some previous papers described a system where liquid chromatography separation and polarimetric detection using a LASERPOL 101M polarimeter with He-Ne light source allowed the collection and quantification of discrete samples for analytical purposes. In this paper, the authors are introducing a new improved system which accomplishes polarimetric measurements in a continuous flux. Chromatograms of several carbohydrates standard solutions were obtained as useful references to study juice quality of several sugarcane varieties under different physiological conditions. Results by either discrete or continuous flux systems were compared in order to test the validation of the new system. An application of the system to the diagnostics of scalded foliar is described. A computer program allowing the output of the chromatograms to a display on line and the possibility of digital storing, maxima detections, zone integration, and some other possibilities make this system very competitive and self-convincing.

  3. Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids.

    PubMed

    Ammon, H P T

    2010-09-01

    Extracts from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and some of is constituents including boswellic acids affect the immune system in different ways. Among the various boswellic acids 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid have been observed to be active. However, also other boswellic acids may exhibit actions in the immune system. In the humoral defence system a mixture of boswellic acis at higher doses reduced primary antibody titres; on the other hand lower doses enhanced secondary antibody titres following treatment with sheep erythrocytes. In the cellular defence boswellic acides appear to increase lymphocyte proliferation whereas higher concentrations are even inhibitory. Moreover, BAs increase phagocytosis of macrophages. BAs affect the cellular defence system by interaction with production/release of cytokines. Thus, BAs inhibit activation of NFkappaB which is a product of neutrophile granulocytes. Consequently a down regulation of TNF-alpha and decrease of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, which are proinflammatory cytokines by BEs and BAs has been reported. Suppressions of the classic way of the complement system was found to be due to inhibition of the conversion of C3 into C3a and C3b. However, which of these pharmacological actions contribute to the therapeutic effects and which is finally the best dosage of a standardized extract needs further examination. And it is also a question whether or not a single BA will have the same therapeutic effect as a standardized extract. Among the mediators of inflammatory reaction, mast cell stabilisation has been described by a BE. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis appears to play only a minor role as far as the anti-inflammatory effect is concerned. On the other hand the inhibitory action of BAs on 5-LO leading to a decreased production of leukotrienes has received high attention by the scientific community since a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases is associatied with

  4. Performance of multi-aperture grid extraction systems for an ITER-relevant RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, P.; Gutser, R.; Fantz, U.; Kraus, W.; Falter, H.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; McNeely, P.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Stäbler, A.; Wünderlich, D.

    2011-07-01

    The ITER neutral beam system requires a negative hydrogen ion beam of 48 A with an energy of 0.87 MeV, and a negative deuterium beam of 40 A with an energy of 1 MeV. The beam is extracted from a large ion source of dimension 1.9 × 0.9 m2 by an acceleration system consisting of seven grids with 1280 apertures each. Currently, apertures with a diameter of 14 mm in the first grid are foreseen. In 2007, the IPP RF source was chosen as the ITER reference source due to its reduced maintenance compared with arc-driven sources and the successful development at the BATMAN test facility of being equipped with the small IPP prototype RF source ( {\\sim}\\frac{1}{8} of the area of the ITER NBI source). These results, however, were obtained with an extraction system with 8 mm diameter apertures. This paper reports on the comparison of the source performance at BATMAN of an ITER-relevant extraction system equipped with chamfered apertures with a 14 mm diameter and 8 mm diameter aperture extraction system. The most important result is that there is almost no difference in the achieved current density—being consistent with ion trajectory calculations—and the amount of co-extracted electrons. Furthermore, some aspects of the beam optics of both extraction systems are discussed.

  5. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  6. Fetal ECG extraction via Type-2 adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems.

    PubMed

    Ahmadieh, Hajar; Asl, Babak Mohammadzadeh

    2017-04-01

    We proposed a noninvasive method for separating the fetal ECG (FECG) from maternal ECG (MECG) by using Type-2 adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems. The method can extract FECG components from abdominal signal by using one abdominal channel, including maternal and fetal cardiac signals and other environmental noise signals, and one chest channel. The proposed algorithm detects the nonlinear dynamics of the mother's body. So, the components of the MECG are estimated from the abdominal signal. By subtracting estimated mother cardiac signal from abdominal signal, fetal cardiac signal can be extracted. This algorithm was applied on synthetic ECG signals generated based on the models developed by McSharry et al. and Behar et al. and also on DaISy real database. In environments with high uncertainty, our method performs better than the Type-1 fuzzy method. Specifically, in evaluation of the algorithm with the synthetic data based on McSharry model, for input signals with SNR of -5dB, the SNR of the extracted FECG was improved by 38.38% in comparison with the Type-1 fuzzy method. Also, the results show that increasing the uncertainty or decreasing the input SNR leads to increasing the percentage of the improvement in SNR of the extracted FECG. For instance, when the SNR of the input signal decreases to -30dB, our proposed algorithm improves the SNR of the extracted FECG by 71.06% with respect to the Type-1 fuzzy method. The same results were obtained on synthetic data based on Behar model. Our results on real database reflect the success of the proposed method to separate the maternal and fetal heart signals even if their waves overlap in time. Moreover, the proposed algorithm was applied to the simulated fetal ECG with ectopic beats and achieved good results in separating FECG from MECG. The results show the superiority of the proposed Type-2 neuro-fuzzy inference method over the Type-1 neuro-fuzzy inference and the polynomial networks methods, which is due to its

  7. Maternal exposure to aqueous extract of Jacaranda decurrens: effects on reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arena, Arielle Cristina; Torraca, Jonathas Alves M; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea L; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; do Carmo Vieira, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae) is a species widely used for their medicinal properties. At least to our known, no study has been conducted concerning its toxicological profile after gestational and lactational exposure. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of J. decurrens on development of the reproductive system in male rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily (gavage) with 250 or 500 mg/kg/day of aqueous extract of J. decurrens or vehicle, from day 12 of pregnancy to day 21 of lactation. Both doses of J. decurrens significantly anticipated (p < 0.05) the age of testicular descent to the scrotum, a parameter indicative of puberty initiation. Furthermore, at puberty, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in testicular and epididymis weights in the offspring exposed to the higher dose of extract, without effect on sperm production and the histology of reproductive organs. On the other hand, at adulthood, the reproductive parameters analyzed did not differ among groups. J. decurrens, in this experimental model, interfered with the initial development of the reproductive system, but without lasting effects on sperm production in adulthood.

  8. Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system extraction of sulfonamides in milk.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingyuan; Zhang, Xuli; Li, Na; Shi, Jiayuan; Zhang, Huijie; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Yong

    2014-06-15

    A simple method for the determination of six sulfonamides (SAs) in milk samples was developed. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and trisodium citrate dihydrate were used to form aqueous two-phase system. The aqueous two phase system was applied to the extraction of the SAs and the determination of the analytes was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. To achieve optimum extraction performance, several experimental parameters, including the type and the amount of salt, the type and amount of ionic liquid, ultrasonic time and pH of sample solution, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 8.55-1036.36ngmL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 2.04-2.84 and 6.73-9.37ngmL(-1), respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs in milk samples, and the recoveries of analytes were in the range of 72.32-108.96% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.56 to 12.20%. The results showed that the present method was rapid, feasible and environmentally friendly.

  9. Fractal characterization of subsurface fracture network for geothermal energy extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe; Takahashi, H.

    1993-01-28

    As a new modeling procedure of geothermal energy extraction systems, the authors present two dimensional and three dimensional modeling techniques of subsurface fracture network, based on fractal geometry. Fluid flow in fractured rock occurs primarily through a connected network of discrete fractures. The fracture network approach, therefore, seeks to model fluid flow and heat transfer through such rocks directly. Recent geophysical investigations have revealed that subsurface fracture networks can be described by "fractal geometry". In this paper, a modeling procedure of subsurface fracture network is proposed based on fractal geometry. Models of fracture networks are generated by distributing fractures randomly, following the fractal relation between fracture length r and the number of fractures N expressed with fractal dimension D as N =C·r-D, where C is a constant to signify the fracture density of the rock mass. This procedure makes it possible to characterize geothermal reservoirs by the parameters measured from field data, such as core sampling. In this characterization, the fractal dimension D and the fracture density parameter C of a geothermal reservoir are used as parameters to model the subsurface fracture network. Using this model, the transmissivities between boreholes are also obtained as a function of the fracture density parameter C, and a parameter study of system performances, such as heat extraction, is performed. The results show the dependence of thermal recovery of geothermal reservoir on fracture density parameter C.

  10. [Application in methane extraction of fiber methane monitoring system based on spectral absorption].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-jie; Wang, Chang; Liu, Tong-yu; Wang, Zhe; Wei, Yu-bin; Li, Yan-fang; Shang, Ying; Wang, Qian

    2010-10-01

    An optical fiber distributed multi-point methane real-time monitoring system based on the methane spectral absorption characteristic is researched, and it's application in methane extraction is presented. An 1665 nm distributed feedback (DFB) laser is used as the light source by taking the triangular signal to modulate the light frequency of the DFB laser. Using the combination of single-chip computer C8051F410, A/D transform circuit, communication circuit, display circuit, etc, the concentration of methane can be monitored and displayed on the screen. And the function of sounding the alarm bell and communication are achieved. The laser wavelength shift is carried out with adaptive adjustment by the built-in gas calibration pond so as to realize the locking of a methane absorption line. Several field tests have been founded at home and abroad. The results show that the system has good performance in stability and sensitivity. The distributed multi-point methane concentration monitoring is realized in the range of 0%-100%. A sensitivity of ppm order of magnitude has been achieved. It possesses of wide application in methane extraction.

  11. Phase and extraction equilibria in water-polyethyleneglycol ethers of monoethanolamides of synthetic fatty acid-ammonium chloride systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnov, A. E.; Golovkina, A. V.; Kudryashova, O. S.; Denisova, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Phase equilibria in layering systems of water, polyethyleneglycol ethers of monoethanolamides of synthetic fatty acids (SFAs) (synthamide-5), and ammonium chloride are studied. The possibility of using such systems for the liquid extraction of metal ions is evaluated. The effect the nature of salting-out agents has on the processes of segregation of the systems has been considered.

  12. Source and Extraction for Simultaneous Four-hall Beam Delivery System at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimi, Reza; Wang, Haipeng; Spata, Mike F.; Hansknecht, John C.

    2013-06-01

    A new design for simultaneous delivery of the electron beam to all four 12 GeV CEBAF experimental halls* requires a new 750 MHz RF separator system in the 5th pass extraction region, a 250 MHz repetition rate for its beams, and addition of a fourth laser at the photo-cathode gun. The proposed system works in tandem with the existing 500 MHz RF separators and beam repetition rate on the lower passes. The new 5th pass RF separators will have the same basic design but modified to run at 750 MHz. The change to the beam repetition rate will be at the photo-cathode gun through an innovative upgrade of the seed laser driver system using electro-optic modulators. The new laser system also allows addition of the fourth laser. The new RF separators, the new laser system and other hardware changes required to implement the Four-Hall operation delivery system will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Relating Convective System Durability with Vertical Wind Profile extracted from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergès, Jean-Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Cacault, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Various theoretical models focus on the relationship between wind characteristic and convective system durability. Yet in 1988, Rotuno, Klemp and Weisman state that an optimal live length result from a balance between cold pool thickness and low level wind shear. However these models require a knowledge of local upper air environment and these data are scarcely available for climatological studies. Our presentation address the issue of relating the wind vertical profile extracted from reanalysis fields with a convective system type index. Whereas getting wind data from the NCEP/NCAR database is a straightforward task, assessing convective system extension from geostationary satellite data raise both methodological and practical issues. In a climatological view of convective systems, the initiating steps can be be neglected and a tropopause temperature threshold could be sufficient to delineate systems area. Thus the dynamic parameters between two consecutive would be obtained by a maximum recovery algorithm. But this simple method has to be enhanced to avoid two drawbacks: a rough system area overestimation due to the trailing cirrus and an over-segmentation of active systems. To mitigate the first bias a watershed image segmentation is carry out and the patches with a negative growing rate are eliminated. In order to properly join different parts of the same system, a 3D labeling algorithm has been implemented. Moreover, as motion retrieval methods are based on overlapping area, spatial and temporal resolution imports and full data processing require optimized computation procedures. Based on these methods, we have produced a base of convective systems trajectory based on MSG and Meteosat data. To avoid parallax effects only the central part of the acquisition disk has been considered. System extension and duration has been compared with wind shear in amplitude and direction. The preliminary results shows a global effect consistent with simulation models, but

  14. Irregular Wave Energy Extraction Analysis for a Slider Crank WEC Power Take-Off System

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-09-02

    Slider crank Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is a novel energy conversion device. It converts wave energy into electricity at a relatively high efficiency, and it features a simple structure. Past analysis on this WEC has been done under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, and a suboptimal energy could be achieved. This paper presents the analysis of the system under irregular wave conditions; a time-domain hydrodynamics model is adopted and the control methodology is modified to better serve the irregular wave conditions. Results from the simulations show that the performance of the system under irregular wave conditions is different from that under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, but still a reasonable amount of energy can be extracted.

  15. A Novel Feature Selection Strategy for Enhanced Biomedical Event Extraction Using the Turku System

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jingbo; Fang, Alex Chengyu; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES) is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE) algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion. PMID:24800214

  16. A novel feature selection strategy for enhanced biomedical event extraction using the Turku system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jingbo; Fang, Alex Chengyu; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES) is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE) algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion.

  17. Extraction and purification of anthraquinones derivatives from Aloe vera L. using alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-jian; Li, Fen-fang; Xu, Xue-lei

    2013-08-01

    An alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of 1-propanol and (NH4)2SO4 was employed to purify anthraquinones (AQs) extracted from Aloe vera L. The main influencing system parameters such as type of alcohol, type and concentration of salt, temperature and pH were investigated in detail. Under the optimal extraction conditions, AQs can be extracted into alcohol-rich phase with high extraction efficiency, meanwhile majority polysaccharides, proteins, mineral substances and other impurities were extracted into salt-rich phase. Partitioning of AQs is dependent on hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond interaction, and salting-out effect in ATPS. Temperature also played a great role in the partitioning. After ATPS extraction, alcohol can be recycled by evaporation; moreover, salt can be recycled by dilution crystallization method. Compared with other liquid-liquid extractions, this alcohol/salt system is much simpler, lower in cost with easier recovery of phase-forming components, which has the potential scale-up in down-processing of active ingredients in plant.

  18. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample.

  19. Analytical Methods Development in Support of the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.

    2001-07-17

    The goal of the project reported herein was to develop and apply methods for the analysis of the major components of the solvent system used in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process (CSSX). These include the calix(4)arene, the modifier, 1-(2,2,3,3- tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol and tri-n-octylamine. In addition, it was an objective to develop methods that would allow visualization of other components under process conditions. These analyses would include quantitative laboratory methods for each of the components, quantitative analysis of expected breakdown products (4-see-butylphenol and di-n-octylamine), and qualitative investigations of possible additional breakdown products under a variety of process extremes. These methods would also provide a framework for process analysis should a pilot facility be developed. Two methods were implemented for sample preparation of aqueous phases. The first involves solid-phase extraction and produces quantitative recovery of the solvent components and degradation products from the various aqueous streams. This method can be automated and is suitable for use in radiation shielded facilities. The second is a variation of an established EPA liquid-liquid extraction procedure. This method is also quantitative and results in a final extract amenable to virtually any instrumental analysis. Two HPLC methods were developed for quantitative analysis. The first is a reverse-phase system with variable wavelength W detection. This method is excellent from a quantitative point of view. The second method is a size-exclusion method coupled with dual UV and evaporative light scattering detectors. This method is much faster than the reverse-phase method and allows for qualitative analysis of other components of the waste. For tri-n-octylamine and other degradation products, a GC method was developed and subsequently extended to GUMS. All methods have precision better than 5%. The combination of these methods

  20. A simulation of wide area surveillance (WAS) systems and algorithm for digital elevation model (DEM) extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Beato T.

    2010-04-01

    With the advances in focal plane, electronics and memory storage technologies, wide area and persistence surveillance capabilities have become a reality in airborne ISR. A WAS system offers many benefits in comparison with the traditional airborne image capturing systems that provide little data overlap, both in terms of space and time. Unlike a fix-mount surveillance camera, a persistence WAS system can be deployed anywhere as desired, although the platform typically has to be in motion, say circling above an area of interest. Therefore, WAS is a perfect choice for surveillance that can provide near real time capabilities such as change detection and target tracking. However, the performance of a WAS system is still limited by the available technologies: the optics that control the field-of-view, the electronics and mechanical subsystems that control the scanning, the focal plane data throughput, and the dynamics of the platform all play key roles in the success of the system. It is therefore beneficial to develop a simulated version that can capture the essence of the system, in order to help provide insights into the design of an optimized system. We describe an approach to the simulation of a generic WAS system that allows focal plane layouts, scanning patterns, flight paths and platform dynamics to be defined by a user. The system generates simulated image data of the area ground coverage from reference databases (e.g. aerial imagery, and elevation data), based on the sensor model. The simulated data provides a basis for further algorithm development, such as image stitching/mosaic, registration, and geolocation. We also discuss an algorithm to extract the terrain elevation from the simulated data, and to compare that with the original DEM data.